A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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CROFTON, a township, in the parish of Thursby, union of Wigton, Cumberland ward, and E. division of Cumberland, 3¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Wigton; containing 80 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Wampool, and near the road from Wigton to Carlisle, and the railway from Carlisle to Maryport.
CROFTON, a district incumbency, in the parish and hundred of Titchfield, union of Fareham, Fareham, and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Fareham; containing 809 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Titchfield: the chapel, dedicated to the Holy Rood, is a very ancient edifice, lately thoroughly repaired. A school, in connexion with the National Society, was built in 1839, at the expense of the Rev. David Haynes.
Crofton (All Saints)
CROFTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Preston (under Gilbert's act), Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 3¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Wakefield; containing 389 inhabitants. This parish is in the honour of Pontefract, and comprises about 970 acres of fertile land, including the hamlet of Birkwood: the roads from Doncaster and Pontefract to Wakefield form a junction here. Coalmines were extensively wrought for several years, but have been discontinued for some time, though much coal yet remains. The village is pleasant and well built, and has an ever-flowing fountain in the centre. At Oakenshaw, in the parish, the Midland railway is carried over the Barnsley canal by a viaduct of five segmental arches of 60 feet span each, and at the height of 60 feet above the level of the water; the whole is constructed of brickwork with stone quoins. Here, also, one of the most extensive cuttings in the whole line was made through rock, shale, and bind, the greatest depth being 50 feet, and the quantity of earth removed amounting to 600,000 cubic yards, most of which was used to form the Oakenshaw embankment. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 0. 2½., and in the patronage of the Crown, in right of the duchy of Lancaster; net income, £334. The church is a small cruciform structure in the later English style, with a low central tower. The original church stood on low swampy ground, nearly a mile from the present site: the only remains of it are the names of "Church Field" given to a field of the glebe land, and "Church Hill" to the particular spot where it stood. Dr. Richard Fleming, founder of Lincoln College, Oxford, was a native of this place; the remains of his arms, carved in stone, still appear over the porch of the present church.
Croglin (St. John the Baptist)
CROGLIN (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Penrith, Leath ward, E. division of Cumberland, 5 miles (N. N. E.) from Kirk-Oswald; containing 336 inhabitants. The parish derives its name from the river Croglin, by which it is bounded on the south; the surface is very uneven, and rises in some places into eminences of mountainous elevation, the highest being Croglin Fell. The substrata are chiefly limestone, and freestone of a reddish colour, which are both quarried, with some porphyry; and veins of coal are likewise found. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £223; patron, the Rev. John Jackson. A school, built by subscription in 1724, and conducted on the national plan, is endowed with the interest of £50 given in 1723 by the Rev. J. Hunter, rector, and an allotment of 24 acres appropriated on the inclosure, and yielding about £14 per annum.
Cromer (St. Peter and St. Paul)
CROMER (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Erpingham, hundred of North Erpingham, E. division of Norfolk, 21 miles (N.) from Norwich, and 130 (N. N. E.) from London: containing 1240 inhabitants. This place, originally of much greater extent, included the town of Shipden, which, with its church and a considerable number of houses, forming a parish, was destroyed by an inundation of the sea in the reign of Henry IV. Of the numerous ravages of the ocean the last occurred in 1837, when a large portion of the cliffs and houses of Cromer, with part of the jetty was washed away. In 1838, on the eastern side, a groin about 150 yards in length was laid down, running out from the cliff to the north, and which, aided by a sea-wall there erected, it is expected will prevent the recurrence of a similar catastrophe in that quarter; the security of the cliffs immediately below the town was provided for by a breast-work of stone and flint, with winding approaches to the beach and jetty. An act for the erection of other works, was passed in 1845.
The town commands a fine view of Cromer bay, which, from its dangerous navigation, is by seamen called the "Devil's Throat." It was formerly inhabited only by a few fishermen, but, from the excellence of its beach, the salubrity of its air, and the beauty of its scenery, it has become a bathing-place of some celebrity; many of the houses are badly built and of mean appearance, but those near the sea are commodious and pleasant, and there are several respectable lodging-houses and inns for visiters. The town has a circulating library and a subscription news-room; and a regatta is occasionally celebrated. Attempts have often been made to construct a pier, but the works have invariably been carried away by the sea: the jetty of wood, about 70 yards long, erected in 1822, forms an attractive promenade, as well as the fine beach at low water, which, on account of the firmness of the sand, and its smooth surface, affords also an excellent drive for several miles. Cromer is within the limits of the jurisdiction of the port of Cley: vessels of from 60 to 100 tons' burthen discharge their cargoes of coal and timber on the beach, and there are 18 large vessels and 20 herring-boats belonging to the place, besides about 40 boats employed in the taking of lobsters and crabs, which are abundant and of superior flavour. A fair, chiefly for toys, is held on WhitMonday. The county magistrates hold a meeting every alternate Monday. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 4. 9.; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Ely. The church was built in the reign of Henry IV., and was in ruins from the time of Cromwell till about 50 years ago, when it was newly roofed and repaired: it is a handsome structure of freestone and flint, in the later English style, with a lofty embattled tower; and the western entrance, the north porches, and the chancel, though much dilapidated, are fine specimens. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A free grammar school was endowed in 1505 by Sir Bartholomew Read, and further by the Goldsmiths' Company in 1821; but no application being made for classical instruction, it was remodelled by the company on the national plan. Roger Bacon, a mariner of Cromer, is said to have discovered Iceland in the reign of Henry IV.
CROMFORD, a chapelry, in the parish and hundred of Wirksworth, union of Bakewell, S. division of the county of Derby, 1 mile (N. by E.) from Matlock; containing 1407 inhabitants, and comprising 1308 acres, of which 125 are common or waste land. This place, which is pleasantly situated on the river Derwent, was an inconsiderable village prior to the year 1776, when Sir Richard Arkwright, having purchased the manor, erected mills, which were the first ever put in motion by water, and established a cotton-manufactory of large extent. Since this period it has greatly increased, and at present it is a flourishing place, consisting chiefly of neat and commodious dwellings for the persons engaged in the factories, many of them built round an open space where a small customary market is held on Saturday, and others chiefly in detached situations. The cotton manufacture affords employment to more than 1000 persons; there are a manufactory for hats, one for ginghams on a small scale, and a paper-manufactory. In the neighbourhood are extensive mines of lead and calamine, and quarries of marble and limestone: a great quantity of lapis calaminaris is exported annually. The Cromford canal communicates with the Erewash canal near Langley bridge, and commodious wharfs and warehouses have been constructed on its banks. The Cromford and High Peak railway, for the conveyance of minerals and merchandise, commences at this place, and pursues its course to the Peak-Forest canal, near Whaley bridge; the whole line is thirtythree miles, in which it attains a rise of 990 feet above the level of the Cromford canal: it was opened in 1830. The chapel, a small neat building in the Grecian style, begun by Sir Richard Arkwright, in 1794, and completed by his son, Richard Arkwright, Esq., who endowed it with £50 per annum, was consecrated in 1797. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £96; patrons, the family of Arkwright: the great tithes have been commuted for £90, and the vicarial for £11. The Wesleyans have a place of worship.
Cromhall (St. Andrew)
CROMHALL (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Thornbury, Upper division of the hundred of Berkeley, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 2½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Wickwar; containing, with the tything of Cromhall-Lygon, 732 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Wotton-under-Edge to Bristol; and derives the name Abbotts, affixed to one of its tythings, from its having belonged to the abbots of St. Augustine's in Bristol, to whom it was given by Lord Berkeley in 1148. The parish comprises 2579 acres, whereof 272 are common or waste. The high lands abound with excellent limestone, of which a great quantity is burnt into lime; and a coal-mine has been opened within the last few years, but being on the edge of the coal basin the veins are broken, and the produce is small and slaty. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 9. 2., and in the gift of Oriel College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £452, and the glebe comprises 85 acres with a glebehouse. The church, with the exception of the tower, which is of earlier date, and placed on the north side, is a handsome structure in the later English style. There are some remains of a cell on Abbotside Hill.
CROMPTON, a township, in the borough, parochial chapelry, and union of Oldham, parish of Prestwichcum-Oldham, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Oldham; containing, with the villages of Shaw, High Compton, and Cowlishaw, 6729 inhabitants. This, the most northern part of the chapelry, has the largest population of any of the townships connected with Oldham, and its growth in trade has fully kept pace with the other parts of this flourishing district. A bleak situation, and somewhat sterile soil, have produced a race of hardy and laborious men, and the close connexion with Saddleworth has given to the people much of the manners and character which prevail in that hilly country. The population is employed in the spinning and manufacture of cotton, the making of hats, and in collieries and stone-quarries. The ancient mansion of Crompton Hall, having fallen into decay, has lately been rebuilt by the owner, Henry Travis Milne, Esq., a descendant of the feudal family of Crompton. Shaw, which lies on the east side of the village of Crompton, has a parochial chapel. The former edifice was of great antiquity, and was twice enlarged and re-edified during the last century; the present structure was built in the latter part of it, by subscription, aided by a grant. The living is a perpetual curacy in the patronage of the Rector of Prestwich; net income, £250. In 1845 a district or parish was formed under the 6th and 7th of Victoria, cap. 37, called East Crompton; and a church, dedicated to St. James, was built in 1847: the edifice is in the pointed style, with a tower, and contains 586 sittings. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £150; patrons, the Crown and the Bishop of Chester, alternately. The tithes of the township have been commuted for £93. There are various places of worship for dissenters; and several schools.
Cromwell (St. Giles)
CROMWELL (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Southwell, N. division of the wapentake of Thurgarton, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 5¼ miles (N.) from Newark; containing 203 inhabitants, and comprising about 1400 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £13. 2. 3½.; net income, £430; patron, the Duke of Newcastle. The tithes were commuted for land in 1773; the glebe consists of 248 acres, with a good glebe-house. The tower and chancel of the church, which are ancient, are in the early English style, and a window in the chancel is a beautiful specimen of the decorated. A boys' and girls' school is held in a room belonging to the rector, and is chiefly supported by him.
Crondall (All Saints)
CRONDALL (All Saints), anciently CrundeHalle, a parish, in the union of Hartley-Wintney, hundred of Crondall, Odiham and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3½ miles (W. N. W.) from Farnham; containing, with the tythings of Crookham, Dippenhall, Ewshott, and Swanthorpe, 2199 inhabitants, of whom 423 are in the township of Crondall. The parish comprises by computation nearly 10,000 acres, of which 4612 are arable, 740 pasture and meadow, 904 woodland, and 3650 common. Almost every variety of soil is to be found, from barren shingly gravel and sand, to rich alluvial mould, productive marls, and dry clays on a chalk substratum, yielding abundant crops of corn, clover, turnips, &c., and hops almost rivalling the produce of the celebrated "Hart-ground" at Farnham. In some spots chalk or marl stones are dug, adapted for rough buildings; and a stratum of fine chalk runs diagonally through the southern end of the parish. A rivulet has its source in the village, and flowing through the parish, forms a tributary to the river Loddon; the London and South-Western railway and the Basingstoke canal cross the parish. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £22. 5. 7½.; net income, £441; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Brethren of the Hospital of St. Cross, Winchester, who have leased the great tithes to the Marquess of Winchester. The church is of great antiquity, the nave being of early and the chancel of later Norman, with zig-zag mouldings; it contains several monuments, some with Saxon inscriptions, and others with figures in brass, and is said to have suffered much during the wars of the Commonwealth. A district church in the early English style, built by subscription, has been consecrated; and there are places of worship for Independents, Ranters, and Bryanites. The late Henry Maxwell, Esq., of Ewshott House (the principal residence in the parish), presented a building for a school in connexion with the Establishment, and bequeathed £1250 for the maintenance of a master. At the north-eastern extremity of the parish is Cæsar's camp, a spot of singular and commanding position; the earthworks are of considerable extent, with deep ditches, and in the centre is a spring.
CRONTON, a township, in the parish and union of Prescot, hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 3¾ miles (S. S. E.) from Prescot; containing 402 inhabitants. In the 4th year of Elizabeth, this place appears as a manor in the possession of Thomas Holte; and in the reign of James I., it was the property of James Lawton. The Hall belonged to the Wrights for several generations, and was sold by their heirs in 1821. The township comprises 1108 acres, of which 21 are common land or waste: the surface is principally flat; but on the east side is Pex Hill, the residence of Thomas Brancker, Esq., from which a most extensive view is obtained, embracing the Cheshire hills and the Welsh mountains. There is an excellent redstone quarry. The road from Liverpool to Warrington passes through; and the place has the advantage of railway communication by a branch from Huyton on the Liverpool and Manchester line. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £105, payable to King's College, Cambridge, and the vicarial for £52. 10. The Wesleyans have a place of worship.
Crook, with Billy-Row
CROOK, with Billy-Row, a township, in the parish of Brancepeth, union of Auckland, N. W. division of Darlington ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 5½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Bishop-Auckland; containing 538 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 4310 acres. Crook is a scattered village, situated on the road between Willington and Wolsingham, and partly extending into the adjoining township of Helmington-Row. Coal is worked. A branch of the Clarence railroad, from Ferry-Hill upwards, affords an easy communication with the coast; and the Bishop-Auckland and Weardale railway terminates here, after a course of eight miles, from the Stockton and Darlington line. The Incorporated Society, in 1841, granted £50 in aid of the expense of building a district chapel, containing 306 free sittings: it is dedicated to St. Catherine, and the living is in the gift of the Rector of Brancepeth. The tithes have been commuted for £68. 16. 8. An eminence in the township, called Billy Hill, is seen by mariners in very clear weather, though so distant from the sea.
CROOK, a chapelry, in the parish, union, and ward of Kendal, county of Westmorland, 4¾ miles (W. N. W.) from Kendal; containing 257 inhabitants. It lies on the road from Kendal to Bowness, and comprises 2067 acres, of which the surface and scenery are mountainous and rugged, and the soil mostly a light gravel. The population is agricultural, with the exception of about 40 hands employed in the woollen manufacture, established about fifty years since in the hamlet of Crook-Mill, where, also, the turning of bobbins is carried on. In the mountainous part of the district is a small vein of lead, containing barytes, similar to that used in the manufacture of Wedgwood's jasper vases. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £77; patron, the Vicar of Kendal: there is a glebe-house. The tithes belong to Trinity College, Cambridge, and amount to £64. 14. The chapel, an ancient building with a tower, stands in the centre of the chapelry. The Society of Friends had formerly a meeting-house here, which was taken down about seven years ago, and they have still a burial-ground near How. The village school has a small endowment.
CROOKDEAN, a township, in the parish of KirkWhelpington, union of Bellingham, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 22 miles (N. W. by N.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne; containing 9 inhabitants. It belonged to the families of Umfreville, Strother, Swinburne, Fenwick, and Harle, of whom the first-named had, in 1324, a messuage and two carucates of land in "Crockden," which were held by one-eighth of a knight's fee. The township is situated on the south side of the river Wansbeck, and comprises 355 acres, now the property of the Duke of Northumberland. The river runs against a bed of coal, from four to eight inches thick, remarkable for its brilliant lustre and the regular cubical arrangement of its parts: a search has been made for lead, but without success.
Crookham, or Crecum
CROOKHAM, or Crecum, a township, in the parish of Ford, union, and W. division of the ward, of Glendale, N. division of Northumberland, 4½ miles (E. by S.) from Coldstream. It is on the road from Wooler to Coldstream, and comprises about 1800 acres, mostly arable land, and the soil of which is extremely fertile. Pallinburn House is a handsome mansion, commanding very extensive views. The village consists principally of one street. A chapel was built in 1841, at a cost of about £400, on a site given by Sir Henry Askew, Knt.; and there is a place of worship for Presbyterians.
CROOKHAM, a tything, in the parish and hundred of Crondall, union of Hartley-Wintney, Odiham and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Odiham; containing 728 inhabitants. A district church in the early English style has been erected, containing 412 sittings, of which 220 are free, the Incorporated Society having granted £190 in aid of the expense. It is dedicated to Christ; and the living is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the Vicar, with a net income of £100.
CROOKHOUSE, a township, in the parish of KirkNewton, union of Glendale, W. division of Glendale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from Wooler; containing 18 inhabitants. It is situated east of the river Beaumont, on the road between Wooler and Jedburgh; and is the property of Sir Francis Blake, Bart., of Twizell House. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £10. 10.
Croome-D'Abitot (St. Mary Magdalene)
CROOME-D'ABITOT (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union of Upton-on-Severn, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Upton and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Pershore; containing 119 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1148 acres, about half of which is attached to Croome Park. The splendid mansion of Croome, the seat of the Earl of Coventry, is substantial and spacious, with numerous elegant apartments furnished with great magnificence, and decorated with paintings of peculiar excellence; one of the drawingrooms is hung with some of the finest tapestry in England. The park, now beautiful and fruitful, was a worthless morass about 100 years ago; the grounds are laid out with elaborate taste, and contain many walks and drives with delightful prospects, and a serpentine lake a mile long. The living is a rectory, with that of Pirton united, valued in the king's books at £7; net income, £488; patron, the Earl. The church, rebuilt in 1763, is a neat edifice in the later English style, with a tower to the west and a chancel to the east, in which last are splendid monuments to the Coventry family, removed from the former church.
Croome, Earl's (St. Nicholas)
CROOME, EARL'S (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Upton-on-Severn, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Upton and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 2 miles (N. E. by E.) from Upton; containing 194 inhabitants. This parish is partly bounded on the north-west by the river Severn, and is intersected from north to south by the road from Worcester to Gloucester. It comprises by measurement 1138 acres, in equal portions of arable and pasture; the surface is undulated, the soil a rather stiff clay, and the scenery picturesque and beautiful: excellent limestone is obtained for building and for manure. There are several respectable houses: Earl's-Croome Court, an ancient halftimbered mansion in the Elizabethan style, is the seat and property of the Hon. William Coventry. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 8. 1½.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Charles Dunne, M.A., whose tithes have been commuted for £235, and whose glebe comprises 5 acres, with a glebehouse. The church stands on the road from Upton to Pershore, and is an ancient building in the Norman style, with a noble arch. The tower was rebuilt in 1832, when the edifice was repaired and enlarged by subscription and a rate; the east window, of stained glass, representing the Crucifixion, was inserted at the expense of the rector, in 1844. Margaret, daughter and heir of Jeffries, of Earl's-Croome, in 1570 was married to Sir Thomas Coventry, father of Lord-Keeper Coventry; Dr. Butler, author of Hudibras, was clerk to a subsequent Mr. Jeffries, and is supposed to have written most of his works under the roof of Earl's-Croome Court.
Croome, Hill (St. Mary)
CROOME, HILL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Upton-on-Severn, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Upton and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 3¼ miles (E.) from Upton; containing 201 inhabitants. The parish lies on the east of the river Severn, and consists of 977 acres; the surface is elevated, and the soil of full average productiveness. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 10. 5. and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £115; the glebe contains nearly 61 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is a mile south of the village, of Boughton, and is a stone edifice with a tower.
Cropredy (St. Mary)
CROPREDY (St. Mary), a parish, in the union, and chiefly in the hundred, of Banbury, but partly in the hundred of Bloxham, county of Oxford, and partly in the Burton-Dasset division of the hundred of Kington, S. division of the county of Warwick, 4 miles (N. by E.) from Banbury; comprising the chapelries of Claydon, Wardington, and Mollington, and the township of Bourton; and containing 2727 inhabitants. This place is memorable as the scene of an engagement that occurred in 1644, between the forces of the royal army and those of the parliament, near Cropredy bridge, of which structure some portions still remain, consisting of a projecting pier, a pointed arch, and a round arch, the last built in 1697. The parish is situated on the river Cherwell, and comprises by computation 7000 acres; the soil is chiefly a rich loam, producing abundant crops, and there is a considerable portion of meadow and pasture land. The Oxford canal passes through the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £26. 10. 10.; net income, £592; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Oxford. The tithes for the greater portion have been commuted for land, under various acts of inclosure; a rent-charge of £121 is paid to the bishop, and one of £123 to the vicar. The church is mostly in the decorated English style, and contains monuments to the families of Danvers, Loveday, Gostelow, and Taylor. There are chapels of ease at Claydon, Mollington, and Wardington; and places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. Walter Calcott, in 1575, endowed a free school at Williamscott, which see.
CROPSTON, a township, in the parish of Thurcaston, union of Barrow-upon-Soar, hundred of West Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 3¼ miles (S. W. by S.) from Mountsorrel; containing 111 inhabitants.
Cropthorne (St. Michael)
CROPTHORNE (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Pershore, Middle division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Pershore and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Evesham; containing, with the hamlets of Charlton and Netherton, 732 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the river Avon, and intersected by the road from Evesham to Pershore; and comprises by measurement 3735 acres, of which 1479a. 1r. 7p. are in the portion exclusively of Netherton and Charlton. There are quarries of blue limestone, which is used for paving floors and for burning into lime. From Court House is a beautiful view of the river and the adjacent country. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 17. 3½., and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Worcester. The tithes of Cropthorne and Charlton were commuted for land and money payments, under inclosure acts, in 1776 and 1779; and those of Netherton were commuted in 1844, for a rent-charge of £84. 8. 2. The glebe comprises about 300 acres. The church, with the exception of the tower, was rebuilt in the reign of Henry VIII.; it contains several interesting monuments to the Dineley family. Mrs. Mary Holland, in 1735, bequeathed £50 for the erection, and £200 for the endowment of a school.