A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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ARNE, a parochial chapelry, in the union of Wareham and Purbeck, hundred of Hasilor, Wareham division of Dorset, 4 miles (E. by N.) from Wareham; containing 168 inhabitants; and comprising 1068a. 2r. 21p., exclusive of 1754 acres of common or waste. The village is situated on the shore of Poole harbour, between Wareham and Brownsey Island. On the summit of an eminence connected with a bank of gravel or pebbles, extending north-eastward into the harbour, is a large barrow, which was formerly used as a beacon. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rector of Wareham. The chapel, dedicated to St. Nicholas, is a plain structure of ancient date.
Arnesby (St. Peter)
ARNESBY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Lutterworth, hundred of Guthlaxton, S. division of the county of Leicester, 8½ miles (S. by E.) from Leicester; containing 505 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Leicester to Welford, and comprises about 1250 acres of land, nearly all pasture; the soil is chiefly a clay of a strong quality. The population is principally employed in the stocking manufacture. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 16. 8.; patron, John Sherwin, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £60, and the glebe comprises 25 acres. The church is a substantial edifice in good repair, containing about 400 sittings. There is a place of worship for Baptists. Two allotments of land, comprising together 16½ acres, and producing £50. 13. per annum, are appropriated to the benefit of the poor. Robert Hall, the distinguished theological writer, was born here in 1764; the building in which he preached his first sermon is now a barn.
ARNFORD-cum-Newton, a hamlet, in the township of Hellifield, parish of Long Preston, union of Settle, W. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York. This place, of which mention is made in one of the oldest Craven charters, belonged to the monks of Fountains, with whom it continued till the Dissolution, when it became the property of the Greshams.
Arnold (St. Mary)
ARNOLD (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Basford, N. division of the wapentake of Broxtow and of the county of Nottingham, 4 miles (N. by E.) from Nottingham; containing, with part of the hamlet of Daybrook, 4509 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement 4349 acres, of which 2610 are arable, 1330 meadow and pasture, 294 wood and plantation, and the remainder roads, waste, &c.; the soil in the eastern part is clay, but elsewhere of a sandy nature. The village, which is remarkably healthy, and well supplied with water, is about three-quarters of a mile long, and a quarter broad, situated in the midst of the ancient forest of Sherwood, and surrounded by a beautifully undulated country. The inhabitants are principally employed in the manufacture of cotton hose, gloves, &c.; and the cotton stockings made here are as fine as those produced at any other place in England. A small fair is held on the first Wednesday after Sept. 19th. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 17. 8., and in the patronage of the Duke of Devonshire; impropriator, T. Holdsworth, Esq. The small tithes have been commuted for £210, and there are 90 acres of glebe. The church is a large handsome edifice in the later English style, with a tower; a tablet in the interior records various charitable bequests amounting to about £150 per annum. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Wesleyans of the New Connexion, Baptists, and Independents; and a Chartist meeting-house. On Cockliff hill, the highest ground in the county, are the remains of a Roman encampment.
ARNOLD, a township, partly in the parish of Long Riston, and partly in that of Swine, union of Skirlaugh, N. division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Beverley; containing 154 inhabitants. This place, in the 13th century, belonged to the family of de Roos; the Hildyards afterwards held the lands for a considerable period, and among other proprietors occurs the abbot of Meaux. The township belongs, in nearly equal parts, to the two parishes, and comprises by computation 2000 acres: the village, which is long and scattered, is situated to the north of the Lamwith stream. There are places of worship for Independents and Primitive Methodists.
ARNSIDE, a hamlet, in the township and parish of Beetham, union and ward of Kendal, county of Westmorland, 4 miles (S. W.) from Milnthorpe. It is situated in the southern part of the parish, near the border of Lancashire, and at the point where the river Kent expands into the bay of Morecambe. The scenery is beautiful; the house of Woodclose, here, surrounded by 50 acres of land, is the residence of Robert Preston Rodick, Esq.; and Morecambe Cottage, that of his brother, Thomas Rodick, Jun., Esq. A curious cave was discovered in 1844; it has a narrow entrance, but contains several large chambers. Here, also, are the ruins of the Tower of Arnside, which is supposed to have been erected to command the bay.
ARNWOOD, a tything, in the parish of Hordle, union of Lymington, hundred of Christchurch, Lymington and S. divisions of Hampshire; containing 543 inhabitants. It stands in the northern part of the parish, on the borders of the New Forest.
ARRAM, a township, in the parish of Leckonfield, union of Beverley, Hunsley-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Beverley; containing 117 inhabitants. This is a long scattered village, situated to the east of Leckonfield, and near the right bank of the river Hull.
ARRAM, a district, in the parish of Atwick, union of Skirlaugh, N. division of the wapentake of Holderness, E. riding of York, 11½ miles (N. E.) from Beverley; containing 50 inhabitants. This place, in Domesday book styled Argun, and in other records Ergham, came at an early period into the possession of Meaux Abbey, to which institution Sir Steven Ergham gave some land here about 1190: the canons of Bridlington also had some interest in the property. The manor comprises about 500 acres: the manor-house, a neat residence, was built about the time of James I., but has been much modernised.
ARRAS, a hamlet, in the parish of Market-Weighton, union of Pocklington, Holme-Beacon division of the wapentake of Harthill, E. riding of York, 3 miles (E.) from Market-Weighton. The hamlet is situated on the Wolds, and on the road from MarketWeighton to Beverley. It is supposed there was a village here during the conflicts of the Saxons and Danes, if not at the time of the Romans, as the foundations of buildings have been discovered in a field, as have also fragments of chariot wheels, and the heads of arrows.
Arreton (St. George)
ARRETON (St. George), a parish, in the liberty of East Medina, Isle of Wight and S. divisions of the county of Southampton, 3 miles (S. E.) from Newport; comprising by computation 9000 acres, and containing 1964 inhabitants. It abounds with limestone, which is extensively quarried for building purposes, and for burning into lime. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £21; net income, £220; patron and impropriator, J. Fleming, Esq.: the small tithes have been commuted for £245, and there are 20 acres of glebe. The church, an ancient building with a heavy embattled tower, contains a brass effigy of a Knight Templar.
Arrington (St. Nicholas)
ARRINGTON (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Wetherley, county of Cambridge, 5¼ miles (S. S. E.) from Caxton; containing 317 inhabitants, and comprising about 1300 acres. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 6. 3.; net income, £69; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, who have commuted the tithes for £390. There are 22 acres of glebe.
Arrow (Holy Trinity)
ARROW (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Alcester, partly in the Alcester, and partly in the Stratford, division of the hundred of Barlichway, S. division of the county of Warwick, 1 mile (S. W.) from Alcester; containing, with Ragley and the hamlet of Oversley, 543 inhabitants. The parish is situated in the western part of the county, on the border of Worcestershire; and consists of 3983 acres, a considerable portion of which is attached to the beautiful demesne and interesting grounds of Ragley Park. The surface is agreeable, the river Arrow flowing through from north to south, with other streams in different directions, and the whole is thickly interspersed with wood, the rateable annual value of which in the parish is returned at £600. The roads from Alcester to Stratford and Evesham intersect the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 10. 7½.; net income, £248; patron, the Marquess of Hertford. The church is an ancient structure, the tower of which was rebuilt in 1760.
Arrowe, or Arrow
ARROWE, or Arrow, a township, in the parish of Woodchurch, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester, 4½ miles (W. S. W.) from Birkenhead; containing 122 inhabitants. It lies on the Claughton and Hinderton road, and comprises 752 acres, whereof 97 are in wood, 17 roads, 266 park, and the rest arable and pasture; the soil is a stiff clay, and the surface elevated, commanding very extensive views. A moiety of the manor was in the Thornton family in the reign of Edward II., and passed by successive female heirs to the Duttons and Gerards; the other moiety was in the family of Tildesley in the reign of Henry VII. The manor has of late years been frequently alienated: one-half of it was left in 1527 to the free grammar school at Warrington, and was purchased in 1840 by John Ralph Shaw, Esq., who now owns the whole township, and who in 1835 built the Hall, a mansion of stone, in the Elizabethan style. From the tower of Arrowe Hall can be seen Black Comb, in the county of Cumberland, and the Snowdon range of hills in North Wales.
ARROWTHORNE, a township, partly in the parish of Hornby, but chiefly in that of Brompton-Patrick, union of Leyburn, wapentake of Hang-East, N. riding of York, 5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Catterick; containing 81 inhabitants. It is situated to the west of the demesne of Hornby Castle, and comprises about 850 acres of land.
ARTHINGTON, a township, in the parish of Addle, Upper division of the wapentake of Skyrack, W. riding of York, 4½ miles (E.) from Otley; containing 336 inhabitants. This place is situated in Wharfdale, and abounds with interesting scenery; Arthington Hall is in the township. A convent of Cluniac nuns founded here in the twelfth century, by Piers de Ardington, was valued at the Dissolution at £19: the site is occupied by a farmhouse called the "Nunnery."
Arthingworth (St. Andrew)
ARTHINGWORTH (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Market-Harborough, hundred of Rothwell, N. division of the county of Northampton, 4½ miles (S. by E.) from Harborough; containing 242 inhabitants. It comprises 1593 acres, of which 1293 are pasture, 245 arable, and 55 woodland; the soil is of various qualities, a great part being a strong clay; the grazing grounds are very fine. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 2. 8½.; net income, £323; patron, the Rev. Henry Ralph Rokeby. The tithes were commuted for land, under an inclosure act, in 1767; the glebe consists of 215 acres of land, and a house. The church is an ancient structure, with a handsome well-proportioned square tower of later date. A school is endowed with about 24 acres of land at Ashley, producing £40 per annum.
Arthuret (St. Michael)
ARTHURET (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Longtown, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, ¾ of a mile (S.) from Longtown; comprising the townships of Breconhill, Lyneside, Longtown, and Netherby, and containing 2859 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the border of Scotland, where in 1337 a Scottish army crossed, which, marching eastward, destroyed about twenty villages; and at the chapel of Solom, a small oratory which anciently stood near the spot called the Chapel Flosh, commissioners from England and Scotland met in 1343, to settle the boundaries of the respective countries. On Solom Moss, in 1542, the Scots, 10,000 in number, but discontented with their commander, Oliver Sinclair, a favourite of the Scottish monarch, allowed themselves to be defeated by a small body of about 500 English troops, under the command of Dacres and Musgrave, and it is said that 1000 of them were made prisoners, amongst whom were 200 noblemen, esquires, and gentlemen. The parish comprises about 11,000 acres, and there are quarries of white and red freestone within its limits. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £3. 2. 1.; net income, £687; patron, Sir J. R. G. Graham, Bart. The church was rebuilt in 1609, with the exception of the tower, which was not erected till 1690: in the churchyard is a rude cross with a pierced capital, near which were interred the remains of Archibald Armstrong, court jester to James I. and Charles I., and a native of the parish. An artificial tumulus, in the form of a prostrate human figure, near the church, is said to have been raised over the body of a chieftain slain in the above-mentioned battle.
ARTILLERY-GROUND, OLD, a liberty, in the union of Whitechapel, locally in the Finsbury division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex; containing 1558 inhabitants. It forms one of five divisions of the liberty of the Tower, and is detached.
ARTINGTON, a tything, in the parish of St. Nicholas, Guildford, union of Guildford, First division of the hundred of Godalming, W. division of Surrey, 1 mile (S. by W.) from Guildford; containing 687 inhabitants. Artington lies on the west side of the river Wey, and, according to tradition, was once the principal part of the town of Guildford. Some lands here were given in the reign of Henry III. to the nuns of Wherwell, in Hampshire, who continued in the possession of them until the dissolution of their nunnery in the time of Henry VIII. The rents of "Ertindon" belonging to the establishment then amounted to £1. 1. 2. per annum.
Arundel (Holy Trinity)
ARUNDEL (Holy Trinity), a borough, markettown, and parish, having exclusive jurisdiction, locally in the hundred and rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex, 10 miles (E. by N.) from Chichester, and 55 (S. by W.) from London; containing 2624 inhabitants. This place, which derives its name from its situation in a dale watered by the river Arun, is first noticed in the will of Alfred, who bequeathed the castle and a few adjacent residences to his nephew Athelm. The castle, which was rebuilt by Roger de Montgomery at the time of the Conquest, was, in the reign of Henry I., besieged and taken from Montgomery's son, Robert de Belesme, who had rebelled against his sovereign, and settled by that monarch on his second wife Adeliza, who by a subsequent marriage conveyed it to William D'Albini, Lord of Buckenham, in the county of Norfolk. Matilda, daughter of Henry I., asserting her claim to the throne in opposition to Stephen, landed at Littlehampton in 1139, and was received and protected for several days in this castle against the forces of her opponent; in recompense for which service, her son Henry II., on his accession, granted the castle and honour of Arundel to William D'Albini and his heirs for ever. William, the fourth earl, dying without heirs male, the property was divided among his four sisters, and the castle and manor of Arundel descended to John Fitzalan, son of the second sister, in whose family they continued till 1580, when they passed to Philip Howard, Earl of Surrey, descendant of another of the sisters, who had married Thomas, Duke of Norfolk. On the earl's attainder in 1589, the castle and manor of Arundel reverted to the crown; and they continued to form part of the royal possessions till the death of Queen Elizabeth. The property was restored by James I. to Thomas, son of Philip, from whom, in uninterrupted succession, it has descended to the present proprietor, Henry Charles, Earl of Arundel and Duke of Norfolk. During the civil wars the castle was garrisoned for the parliament, but in 1643 was taken by the royalists under the command of Lord Hopton, who placed in it a garrison of 200 men, and appointed Col. Ford, high sheriff of the county, governor. Being, however, afterwards besieged by Sir William Waller, it finally surrendered after a defence of seventeen days, was dismantled as a place of defence, and so far destroyed as to unfit it for a baronial residence.
The castle is situated on the summit of a high hill, and defended on two sides by the precipitous acclivity of the ground, and on the other by deep fosses. The walls originally inclosed an area 950 feet in length, and 250 feet in width, in the centre of which was the keep, a circular tower of great strength 100 feet in height, built on an artificial mound, and evidently of Norman origin. After remaining in a ruinous state till 1720, Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, restored part of the buildings, and erected others of modern style, making Arundel his occasional residence. Charles, the 11th duke, in 1791 made considerable additions; the north-west front was built in 1795, and the wing that contains the library and other apartments was completed in 1801. The entrance, which is by a deeply recessed Norman arched doorway, leads to the grand staircase and gallery, the latter of which, 195 feet in length, opens into the Barons' hall, erected in commemoration of the triumph of the barons in obtaining Magna Charta. The library is a strikingly magnificent apartment, 117 feet in length and 35 feet wide, panelled throughout with mahogany and cedar exquisitely carved, with a richly ornamented roof. The chapel is an elegant structure in the decorated English style, the walls of which are strengthened with slender enriched buttresses, terminating in crocketed pinnacles; the interior is lighted by windows of excellent design. The banqueting-room, formerly the ancient chapel, the saloon, and all the other state apartments of this magnificent structure, are of corresponding splendour. The entire range of building occupies three sides of a quadrangle, and the expense of restoration and the erection of new portions has already amounted to £400,000. The pleasure-grounds and gardens are tastefully laid out, and the park, which abounds with stately timber, comprises 1200 acres; the surrounding country presents richly varied scenery, and from the higher grounds within the park, and especially from the towers of the castle, are obtained extensive prospects. The castle is the head of the honour of Arundel, and confers on its possessor the title of Earl without creation, a feudal right which was adjudged by parliament, in the 11th of Henry VI., to an ancestor of the present Duke of Norfolk.
The town is pleasantly situated on rising ground within four miles of the sea, and chiefly on the north bank of the river Arun, over which is a neat stone bridge of three arches. The houses are in general well built, and many of them modern and of handsome appearance; the streets, which are lighted with gas, are paved under an act of the 25th of George III., and the inhabitants plentifully supplied with excellent water. A considerable coasting-trade is carried on. The imports are chiefly butter, bacon, pork, lard, grain, and starch, from Ireland; grain and cheese from Holland; grain, oilcake, wine, fruit, and eggs, from France; timber, mostly from the Baltic; and coal from Newcastle and Scotland. The exports are principally oak-timber, corn, flour, and bark, to the west of England and Liverpool, and to Ireland. The port has a custom-house with the usual officers, and also affords a facility of intercourse between London and the Mediterranean, enabling the fruit ships from the latter to perform two voyages in the season: ships drawing sixteen feet of water can enter. The Brighton and Portsmouth railway passes to the south of the town, and has a station near Leominster, where the Arun is crossed by a bridge of peculiar construction. A canal also, connecting the Arun with the Thames and with Portsmouth, affords a medium of conveyance to various parts. There are two breweries on a large scale for the supply of the neighbourhood. The market is on Tuesday, chiefly for corn, the sale of which is considerable; and on every alternate Tuesday there is a large cattle-market: a few years since, a building was erected by subscription on the quay, for the purpose of a corn-market. The fairs are held on May 14th, Sept. 25th, and Dec. 17th, chiefly for cattle and pedlery; but, since the cattle-markets were established, they have been but little attended. Arundel is a Borough by prescription, and has had a corporation from the time of the Conquest: the government is vested in a mayor, three aldermen, and twelve councillors, and the mayor and late mayor are justices of the peace; the municipal and parliamentary boundaries of the borough are the same, and are co-extensive with those of the parish. Petty-sessions are held by the county magistrates every alternate Tuesday, in an elegant town-hall erected by the late Duke of Norfolk, at an expense of £4000. The powers of the county debtcourt of Arundel, established in 1847, extend over part of the registration-district of Worthing. The borough returned two members to parliament from the time of Edward I. to the 2nd of William IV., when it was destined thenceforward to send only one: the mayor is the returning officer.
The parish comprises 1834 acres, of which 30 are common or waste land. The Living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 0. 10.; net income, £199; patron, the Earl of Albemarle. The church, situated at the upper end of the town, was greatly damaged by the forces of Sir William Waller, who occupied it during the siege of the castle; but the whole was restored by the late duke. It is a large and ancient cruciform structure, with a low well-built central tower, surmounted by an obtuse leaden spire painted white; the style is chiefly later English, and the interior is very neatly fitted up. At the east end is the Norfolk chapel, consisting of a nave and north aisle divided by three fine arches, and lighted by windows of elegant design: this is the burial place of the noble family of Howard, and it contains some interesting monuments. There is a place of worship for Independents. The Benedictine monastery of St. Nicholas, to which William D'Albini, the second earl, annexed the then vacant rectory of Arundel, was founded by Robert de Montgomery; the establishment flourished for two centuries, but was so greatly impoverished by Edward III., that it was neglected till the reign of Richard II., when the Earl of Arundel dissolved it, and founded in its place the College of the Holy Trinity, for a master, twelve chaplains, two deacons, two sub-deacons, and four choristers. This college continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenues were estimated at £168. 0. 7.: part of the original building was converted by Charles, Duke of Norfolk, into a Roman Catholic chapel and a residence for his chaplain. The earl founded also the hospital of the Holy Trinity for a master and poor brethren, the revenue of which at the Dissolution was valued at £93. 18. 6¾.: on the rebuilding of the bridge over the Arun, in 1724, a considerable portion of the edifice was removed to furnish materials for that structure. The learned Chillingworth, who had joined the royal army, was taken prisoner during the siege of the castle by the parliamentarians, and confined in the episcopal palace of Chichester, where he died.