A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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CROPTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Middleton, union and lythe of Pickering, N. riding of York, 4¼ miles (N. W. by N.) from Pickering; containing 335 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 3824 acres, of which about 2000 are open moorland: the village adjoins Cawthorn, on the eastern acclivities of the dale of the small river Seven. Excellent limestone is obtained, and burnt into lime for building and agricultural purposes. The tithes were commuted for land in 1765. Here is a chapel of ease; also a place of worship for Wesleyans; and an estate, producing about £23 per annum, is appropriated to the support of a school. There are various tumuli, thought to be British, and a high mount called Cropton Castle; and at Cawthorn, within two miles, are vestiges of a Roman camp.
Cropwell, Bishop (St. Giles)
CROPWELL, BISHOP (St. Giles), a parish, in the union, and S. division of the wapentake, of Bingham, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 4 miles (S. W.) from Bingham; containing 533 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 1550 acres. There are quarries of blue lias, which is used for building, and for burning into lime; and also several beds of gypsum, of which great quantities are sent into different parts of the country to be made into plaster for flooring. Facility of conveyance is afforded by the Nottingham and Grantham canal, which runs through the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £5. 3. 4.; net income, £172; patron, the Bishop of Lincoln. The church is a handsome edifice, with a lofty embattled tower. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The old Fosse-road intersects the parish.
CROPWELL-BUTLER, a chapelry, in the parish of Tithby, union, and S. division of the wapentake, of Bingham, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 8¼ miles (E. S. E.) from Nottingham; containing 678 inhabitants. This place was anciently called CrophillBotiller, from a circular hill situated between it and Bishop-Cropwell, and from its early possessors, the Botillers, or Butlers, of Warrington, in Lancashire. The chapelry comprises 1800 acres, of which 30 were allotted to the incumbent, at the inclosure in 1788, in commutation of tithes. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
CROSBY, a township, in the parish of Cross-Cannonby, union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of the county of Cumberland, 3 miles (N. W. by W.) from Maryport; containing 272 inhabitants. There is a school, endowed by John Nicholson with £10 per annum.
CROSBY, a township, in the union of GlandfordBrigg, partly in the parish of Flixborough, N. division, but chiefly in the parish of Bottesford, E. division, of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 8¼ miles (N. W. by W.) from Glandford-Brigg; containing 199 inhabitants.
CROSBY, a township, in the parish of Leake, union of Northallerton, wapentake of Allertonshire, N. riding of York, 5¾ miles (N. by W.) from Thirsk; containing 37 inhabitants. It comprises 1430 acres of land, of a generally fertile soil. The hamlet, consisting of only a few houses, is situated on the Cod beck, and on the road from Knayton to Northallerton.
Crosby-Garret (St. Andrew)
CROSBY-GARRET (St. Andrew), a parish, in East ward and union, county of Westmorland, 6½ miles (W. by S.) from Brough; containing 274 inhabitants, of whom 202 are in the township of Crosby-Garrett. This parish, which comprises the townships of CrosbyGarrett and Little Musgrave, separated by the intervening chapelry of Soulby, is bounded on the north-east by the river Eden, and on the south-west by a lofty verdant hill, called Crosby Fell. The village is situated at the foot of the Fell, in a deep and romantic valley. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 4. 4½.; net income, £122; patron, William Crawford, Esq., lord of the manor. The church, which occupies an eminence overlooking the village, is a spacious and venerable structure, containing portions of the Norman style.
CROSBY, GREAT, a chapelry, in the parish of Sefton, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 6 miles (N. by W.) from Liverpool; containing, in the year 1846, 2194 inhabitants. Among the families early connected with Great Crosby, were those of De Aynosdale, Molyneux, Ferrers, and De Walton, of whom Robert De Walton took the name of Blundell, and was ancestor of the Blundells of Little Crosby, and the Blundells of Ince-Blundell. William Blundell, Esq., is now lord of the manor and principal proprietor. The chapelry comprises 2066 acres, whereof 561 are common land or waste. The population has very considerably increased within the last thirty years. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rector of Sefton; income, £200. The chapel, dedicated to St. Luke, is a brick building with a tower, re-erected in 1774, and enlarged in 1847, at a cost of £250. The tithes have been commuted for £280. A Roman Catholic chapel dedicated to St. Peter was built in 1826: the Rev. William Brown was the first appointed priest, and still officiates. The grammar school here was founded in 1620, by John Harrison, merchant of London, a native of the township, and has an endowment of £50 a year, and a house and garden; the mastership is in the gift of the Merchant Taylors' Company, London, and the present head master is the Rev. Joseph Clark, appointed in 1829: the school is a good building of freestone. A school for girls, founded under the will of Catherine Halsall, is endowed with lands of the value annually of £40. Here is a spring, called St. Michael's.
CROSBY, LITTLE, a township, in the parish of Sefton, union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 7¾ miles (N. by W.) from Liverpool; containing 394 inhabitants. Paganus de Villers was the first lord of Little Crosby, which, in the reign of Stephen, came by marriage to the family of De Molines. The daughter of Sir John, or Sir William, Molyneux was married to David Blundell (living in the reign of Edward I.), and thus conveyed the manor into that family. Nicholas Blundell died in 1737, leaving two daughters; the surviving one married Henry Pepard, Esq., of Drogheda, and upon her death in 1772, Nicholas, the then eldest son, took the name of Blundell. William Blundell, Esq., is now lord of the manor, and owner of the township, which comprises 1740 acres, and of which the surface is level, with a light sandy soil. His seat, Crosby Hall, was built by his ancestors in 1500, and has since been altered and improved at various times, a portion bearing the date 1647; the park is gracefully laid out, and well wooded, and among the trees the laurel is unique. Mr. Blundell served the office of high sheriff of Lancashire in 1838. The tithes have been commuted for £196. 10. The Roman Catholic chapel here, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, was rebuilt in 1847, at the sole cost of Mr. Blundell, amounting to £2500; it is a handsome structure of stone, in the early English style, with a tower surmounted by a spire. The interior is richly ornamented: the windows are of painted glass, with the arms of the benefactors; and the east window, of stained glass, by Barnett, of York, represents Our Lady and Child in the centre, with St. William and St. Catherine on the right and left. The roof contains the Litany of Loretto; and the chancel arch is a fresco painting, by Nicholas Blundell, Esq., of the Day of Judgment. The priest has a house, nine acres of land, and an annuity charged upon the estate. A school, built on land given by Mr. Blundell, is supported by subscription. At Harkirk, an ancient burial-ground, a number of Saxon and other ancient coins, of which a print is preserved in the British Museum, were found in April, 1611; and in 1847 were discovered the remains of an arched window.
Crosby-Ravensworth (St. Lawrence)
CROSBY-RAVENSWORTH (St. Lawrence), a parish, in West ward and union, county of Westmorland, 4 miles (N. by E.) from Orton; containing, with the townships of Mauld's-Meaburn, Reagill, and part of Birbeck-Fells, 909 inhabitants, of whom 323 are in the township of Crosby-Ravensworth. The parish comprises 8942a. 3r. 19p. of inclosed land, whereof 3399 acres are in Crosby-Ravensworth township. It is celebrated for its breed of hogs; the hams are noted for their peculiarly fine flavour. Limestone is quarried extensively. The village is situated in a fertile valley, watered by the rivers Birbeck and Lyvennet, which latter has its source at a place called Black Dub, where Charles II. halted with his Scottish army. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 13. 14.; net income, £150; patrons, the family of Howard; impropriator, the Earl of Lonsdale: the glebe consists of 28 acres, with a glebe-house. The church, a handsome structure with a tower, was built in 1814: near it stands the ancient manorial mansion, a towerbuilding embosomed in trees, and formerly moated. A school was founded and endowed by the Rev. William Willan, in 1630: the schoolroom was rebuilt in 1784, by William Dent, Esq., who, with others, raised the income to £30. Another school is partly supported by an endowment of £25 per annum, accruing from land; and a third, for females, is endowed with £6 per annum. On the eastern side of Black Dub is a heap of stones, called Penhurrock, probably a tumulus of the Britons.
Crosby-Upon-Eden (St. John)
CROSBY-UPON-EDEN (St. John), a parish, in the union of Carlisle, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Carlisle; containing 403 inhabitants, of whom 146 are in the township of High Crosby, and 133 in that of Low Crosby. This place is supposed to have derived its name from an ancient cross, to which, in the time of Henry I., the inhabitants resorted for prayer, previously to the erection of the present church on its site. The parish is finely situated on the river Eden, by which it is bounded for nearly three miles, and is intersected by the military road from Newcastle to Carlisle; the southern portion forms part of the fertile vale of Eden, and towards the north the surface rises to a considerable elevation, commanding extensive and richly varied prospects. Freestone of a reddish colour, and of a fine compact texture, is obtained in the neighbourhood. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £3. 11. 5½.; net income, £100; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Carlisle. The church, situated in the village of Low Crosby, is a small ancient edifice. An additional church has been erected; and a national school, built in 1806, is supported by subscription. In the northern part of the parish, the sites of the Roman wall built by Severus, and of the ditch by Adrian, are plainly discernible.
Croscombe (St. Mary)
CROSCOMBE (St. Mary), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Shepton-Mallet, hundred of Whitestone, E. division of Somerset, 3 miles (S. E.) from Wells; containing 804 inhabitants. The parish comprises by admeasurement 1436 acres, and is watered by a small river, which in its course turns several mills, whereof two are for grinding corn, one for winding silk, and another used as a stocking manufactory. A market was granted by Edward I.; it has been long discontinued, but there is a fair on Lady-day. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 6. 10½., and in the patronage of five Trustees: the tithes have been commuted for £200, and the glebe comprises 15 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is beautifully situated, and is a handsome edifice in the later English style, having a tower surmounted by a good spire; the pews are of carved oak. There is a place of worship for Particular Baptists, near which stands an ancient cross, fourteen feet high. In the vicinity are to be seen vestiges of a Roman encampment, called Masbury Castle.
Cross, St., Hampshire.—See Winchester.
CROSSENS, a hamlet, in the parish of North Meols, union of Ormskirk, hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 3½ miles (N. E.) from Southport; containing 582 inhabitants. The surface here is generally level; the soil is various, much of it of good quality, and chiefly arable. The village is prettily situated on slightly rising ground, at the mouth of the Ribble; the population principally consists of farmers, labourers, and hand-loom weavers. A church (St. John's) was erected in 1837, for the accommodation of the inhabitants, and those of the adjoining hamlet of Banks, which has a population of 840; it is a neat structure with a tower. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Trustees; there is a parsonage house. A good national school has been established; and at Banks is another national school, in which divine service is performed by the minister of Crossens.
Crossland, North and South
CROSSLAND, NORTH and SOUTH, in the parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 3 miles (S. W.) from Huddersfield; containing 2826 inhabitants. The scenery in this neighbourhood is beautifully varied, consisting to a great extent of hill and dale, and the soil is rich and fertile. The chapelry of South Crossland comprises by measurement 1840 acres, of which about 250 are arable, 1100 meadow and pasture, 290 woodland, and 192 common: stone of excellent quality is extensively quarried. The manufacture of woollen-cloth is carried on to a considerable extent. The chapel, lately made a district church, was erected in 1828, with lancet windows and a tower, at the expense of £2321, by the Commissioners for Building Additional Churches; it is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and contains 650 sittings, of which 300 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Vicar of Almondbury, with a net income of £150.
CROSSTONE, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Halifax, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York, 11½ miles (W.) from Halifax; containing 11,685 inhabitants. This place, which derives its name from an old cross, now fallen to decay, comprises the townships of Stansfield and Langfield, and is intersected by the Manchester and Leeds railway; the surface is mountainous, and the scenery romantic. The population is partly employed in the cotton and worsted manufactures. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Vicar of Halifax, with a net income of £150: the chapel, or district church, was rebuilt in the early English style in 1836, at a cost of £3000, defrayed by the Church Commissioners, and contains 1030 sittings, of which 430 are free, and 405 appropriated to different farms.
CROSS-WAY-HAND, an extra-parochial district, in the union of Oundle, hundred of Willybrook, N. division of the county of Northampton, 4 miles (N. W.) from Oundle; containing 8 inhabitants, and comprising 849 acres of land.
Crosthwaite (St. Kentigern)
CROSTHWAITE (St. Kentigern), a parish, in the union of Cockermouth, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland, ½ a mile (N. by W.) from Keswick; containing 4759 inhabitants, and comprising the townships of Borrowdale, Braithwaite, Coledale, Newlands, Thornthwaite, St. John's Castlerigg with Wythburn, Keswick, and Underskiddaw. This parish comprises 28,000 acres, of which 18,800 are common or waste; it produces copper and lead ores, with plumbago or black-lead, and abounds with interesting objects, noticed in the article on Keswick. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £50. 8. 11½.; net income, £312; patron, the Bishop of Carlisle; impropriators, Sir John B. Walsh, Bart., and others. The church, an ancient fabric, was roofed with slate in 1812, having been previously covered with lead: here lies buried the poet Southey, on whose monument is an inscription by the laureate Wordsworth. Adjoining the churchyard is a free school, founded and endowed prior to 1571, and having an income of about £100 per annum. There are separate incumbencies at Borrowdale, Newlands, Thornthwaite, St. John's Castlerigg, Wythburn, and Keswick. Two saline springs here were formerly in great repute among the inhabitants.
CROSTHWAITE, a parochial chapelry, in the parish of Heversham, union and ward of Kendal, county of Westmorland, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Kendal; containing, with the constablewick of Lyth, 717 inhabitants. This extensive chapelry is bounded on the southwest by the mountainous ridge called Lyth Fell, or Whitbarrow Scar. The village of Churchton, near the chapel, is small, but neatly built, and is situated in a picturesque and fertile vale. The manufacture of paper is carried on to a moderate extent, and there are a malting establishment and a corn-mill: in the hamlet of Raw are several limekilns; and at Pool-bank is a manufactory of wooden-hoops. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £113. The chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and rebuilt in 1813, at the expense of the landholders, is beautifully situated. George Cocke, in 1665, bequeathed £60 for a school; and the endowment arising from the bequest, augmented by the interest of £300 bequeathed by Tobias Atkinson in 1817, and £13 out of a general fund, now amounts to £37 per annum. In Lyth Moss several large trees have been discovered beneath the surface.
Croston (St. Michael)
CROSTON (St. Michael), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the unions of Chorley and Wigan, hundred of Leyland, N. division of the county of Lancaster; containing, with the townships of Bispham, Bretherton, Mawdesley, and Ulnes-Walton, 3939 inhabitants, of whom 1456 are in the township of Croston, 6½ miles (W.) from Chorley. In the third year of King John, 1201, Nicholas Pincerna, or Butler, is recorded as rendering "an account of 100s. in the town of Croston, for three parts of the year," probably the chief rent of his possessions; and at a very early date several other considerable families held lands here, among whom were the Fittons, Heskeths, and Ashtons. In a recent year the manor became the property, in moieties, of the Traffords, and of Thomas Norris, Esq., the latter by purchase of the Hesketh moiety about 1825. Croston anciently formed one of the most extensive and valuable benefices in the county; and for many ages the limits of the parish remained unaltered; but, at various periods since, it has been divided, by authority of parliament, into six independent parishes, viz.: Croston; Hoole, separated in 1642; Chorley, and Rufford, detached in 1793; and Tarleton, and Hesketh with Becconsall, detached in 1821.
The length of the parish is about eight miles, and its breadth four; the township of Croston comprises 2273 acres. The river Douglas forms the western boundary of the parish, discharging its stream into the estuary of the Ribble at Hesketh Bank, on the north; the Yarrow bounds the village of Croston on the south and southwest, and is joined by the Lostock half a mile below it. From the point of confluence of the Douglas and the Yarrow to the estuary of the Ribble, these waters are sometimes known by the name of the Asland, and are navigable, though they are not navigated. The market has fallen into disuse; but there is a cattle-fair on the Monday before Shrove-Tuesday. The living consists of a rectory and a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £31. 11. 10½.; patron, the Rev. Robert Mosley Master. The tithes have been commuted for £250; and the glebe contains 232 acres, with a glebe-house. The church stands upon the margin of the river Yarrow, and consists of a nave, aisles, chancel, and two chapels, with a strong tower, castellated, and adorned with pinnacles; the chancel, the roof of which is arched, is divided from the nave by a tall screen of ornamented oak: the font has the date 1663. This edifice was restored in 1743, at an expense of £1834, defrayed by a brief. At Bretherton and Mawdesley are separate incumbencies. The Rev. James Hiet, in 1660, built a school in the churchyard (rebuilt in 1827), and endowed it with £400; and a school of industry was established in 1802, to which Elizabeth Master in 1809 bequeathed £200.
Crostwick (St. Peter)
CROSTWICK (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of St. Faith's, hundred of Taverham, E. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (N. N. E.) from Norwich; containing 147 inhabitants. It comprises 690a. 3r. 7p., of which 600 acres are arable, 52 pasture and home-stalls, 8 plantation, and 30 common. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £2. 17. 6., and in the gift of the Bishop of Norwich: the tithes have been commuted for £190, and the glebe comprises 4 acres.
Crostwight (All Saints)
CROSTWIGHT (All Saints), a parish, in the Tunstead and Happing incorporation, hundred of Tunstead, E. division of Norfolk, 3½ miles (E. by S.) from North Walsham; containing 69 inhabitants. It comprises 777 acres, of which 481 are arable, and 66 common or waste. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 6. 8., and in the gift of M. Shephard, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £150, and the glebe comprises 12 acres. Near the Hall, considerable remains are to be seen of the ancient manor-house, occupied by a branch of the Walpole family, the heiress of which married an ancestor of Lord Cholmondeley, by whom the estate was sold.
CROUCH-END, a hamlet, in the parish of Hornsey, union of Edmonton, Finsbury division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 5 miles (N. by W.) from London. This agreeable hamlet is situated on the road from London to the village of Hornsey, in a neighbourhood embellished with beautiful scenery, and consisting of the rich pasture and meadow for which the northern environs of the metropolis are remarkable.
CROUGHTON, a township, in the parish of St. Oswald, Chester, union of Great Boughton, Higher division of the hundred of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester, 4½ miles (N. by E.) from Chester; containing 27 inhabitants. It comprises 271 acres, of a clayey soil. The Ellesmere canal passes through the township.
Croughton (All Saints)
CROUGHTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Brackley, hundred of King's-Sutton, S. division of the county of Northampton, 4 miles (S. W.) from Brackley; containing 472 inhabitants. This place, which forms the most southern parish in the county, and is bounded on the south by a part of Oxfordshire, comprises by admeasurement 2200 acres, whereof about 100 are pasture, and the rest arable, with 30 acres of plantation. It is crossed from east to west by the road between Buckingham and Deddington. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 3. 6½.; net income, £324; patron, Viscount Ashbrook. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1807. Dr. John Friend, the learned author of the History of Physic, was born here in 1675.
Crowan (St. Crewenne)
CROWAN (St. Crewenne), a parish, in the union of Helston, E. division of the hundred of Penwith, W. division of Cornwall, 6 miles (N. by W.) from Helston; containing 4638 inhabitants. The parish contains several copper-mines, of which the principal, called Binner-Downs, affords employment to 780 persons. Clowance, the seat of the family of St. Aubyn, is in the parish. A fair for cattle is held at the village of Penge. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 9. 2.; patron and impropriator, the Rev. H. M. St. Aubyn: the great tithes have been commuted for £490, and the vicarial for £470; the glebe contains 40 acres, with a glebe-house. The church was beautified in 1832, when 190 additional sittings were provided; it has several handsome monuments of the St. Aubyn family. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Bryanites; and a spacious schoolroom erected at an expense of £1000, by the late Sir John St. Aubyn. From Crowan Beacon, a heap of stones of a conical form, and probably a cairn, are fine views of the surrounding country. Near the farms of Tregear and Drym are slight remains of an encampment; at Burneston are vestiges of an ancient chapel; and on the Barton of Boletto is a singular spot called Hangman's Barrow.
Crowcombe (Holy Trinity)
CROWCOMBE (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Williton, hundred of Williton and Freemanners, W. division of Somerset, 10 miles (N. W. by N.) from Taunton; containing, with the hamlet of Flaxpool, 673 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road from Taunton to Minehead, and comprises 3177 acres, of which 683 are common or waste land: the surface is finely varied, and the hills command an extensive view of the greater part of Somersetshire, the Bristol Channel, and the Welsh coast. Some veins of copper have been found in the sides of the Quantock hills, and in the churchyard; and coal is supposed to exist in the western portion of the parish. Stone is quarried for building, and for burning into lime. The place was formerly of greater importance than it is at present; it was a borough, and the inhabitants enjoyed various privileges: a portreeve is still annually chosen at the court leet of the lord of the manor. At the entrance of the village is an ancient cross, in good preservation. A weekly market was granted in the reign of Henry III., and three annual fairs were once held; but the market has been long discontinued, and of the fairs, only one is held, on the 31st of October. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £32. 14. 4½.; patron, Robert Harvey, Esq. The church is an ancient edifice, built of hewn stone, and having a tower surmounted by an octagonal spire, which was struck down by lightning in 1723, and repaired at a cost of £231: the interior was neatly fitted up in 1534, with well carved oak; and the north aisle, a handsome addition to the original structure, was built by the Carews, to whom there are several fine monuments. Fragments of a cross are visible in the churchyard, and opposite to the church are the remains of another. Thomas Carew, in 1733, founded and endowed a school, of which the income amounts to £41; and there is another, supported by a bequest by the Rev. Dr. James, with which land was purchased, now yielding about £12 annually: they are on the national system. In the vicinity of the courthouse is a spring which ebbs and flows with the tide. Near the village is some land called the Field of Battle, where an engagement is said to have taken place during Monmouth's rebellion.
Crowell (St. Mary)
CROWELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Thame, hundred of Lewknor, county of Oxford, 5 miles (E. S. E.) from Tetsworth; containing 169 inhabitants. It is situated at the foot of the Chiltern hills, and comprises 987 acres, of which three-fourths are arable, and the remainder woodland, with 62 acres of common or waste: the soil on the hill is chalky, and on the low lands light. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7. 9. 9½., and in the patronage of Baroness Wenman: the tithes have been commuted for £240, and the glebe consists of 9½ acres, with a glebehouse. The Roman Ikeneld-street passes through the parish.