A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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CROWFIELD, a chapelry, in the parish of Coddenham, union and hundred of Bosmere and Claydon, E. division of Suffolk, 6 miles (E. N. E.) from Needham-Market; containing 385 inhabitants. It is situated near the road from Ipswich to Debenham. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Coddenham; impropriator, Sir W. F. F. Middleton, Bart. The chapel is dedicated to All Saints.
Crowhurst (St. George)
CROWHURST (St. George), a parish, in the union of Godstone, First division of the hundred of Tandridge, E. division of Surrey, 4 miles (S. E.) from Godstone; containing 350 inhabitants. It is crossed by the Dovor railway, and comprises by computation 2000 acres, of which 1150 are arable, and 780 meadow and pasture. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £65; patron and impropriator, George Rush, Esq., whose tithes have been commuted for £261. 7., and who has a glebe of nearly 2 acres. The church is in the early style, with a tower and spire; in the interior are several brasses to the Gaynsfords and others, and the windows contain remains of stained glass. According to tradition, Henry VIII., on his way to Anna Boleyn at Hever Castle, visited Crowhurst Place, formerly the seat of the Gaynsfords, an old mansion surrounded by a moat.
Crowhurst (St. George)
CROWHURST (St. George), a parish, in the union of Battle, hundred of Baldslow, rape of Hastings, E. division of Sussex, 2¾ miles (S.) from Battle; containing 326 inhabitants. This parish is beautifully diversified with hill and dale: about 70 acres are planted with hops. The chief substrata are limestone, sandstone, and ironstone, which last is abundant, and was formerly wrought extensively, and smelted: there are some powder-mills in the parish. The village is in a picturesque valley, in which also the church forms a pleasing feature. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10, and in the gift of T. Papillon, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £253, and the glebe comprises 24 acres, with a glebe-house. The church, the nave of which was rebuilt in 1794, is a handsome structure in the early and decorated English styles, with a square embattled tower: in the churchyard is a fine yew-tree, measuring 27 feet in girth at a height of four feet from the ground. Near the church are some interesting remains of a religious house; the chapel is still in tolerable preservation.
Crowland, or Croyland (St. Bartholomew and St. Guthlac)
CROWLAND, or Croyland (St. Bartholomew and St. Guthlac), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Peterborough, wapentake of Elloe, parts of Holland, county of Lincoln, 8 miles (N. by E.) from Peterborough, and 89 (N.) from London; containing 2973 inhabitants. During the heptarchy this place was the retreat of St. Guthlac, who in the reign of Cenred, eighth king of Mercia, retired from the persecution of the pagan Britons into a hermitage, near which Ethelbald, in 716, founded a Benedictine monastery to the honour of St. Mary, St. Bartholomew, and St. Guthlac. He endowed it with a considerable sum of money; with "the whole island of Croyland, formed by the four waters of Shepishea on the east, Nena on the west, Southea on the south, and Asendyk on the north; with a portion of the adjoining marshes; and with the fishery of the Nene and Welland." This monastery, which, from the marshy nature of the soil, was built upon a foundation of piles, having been destroyed by the Danes in 870, was rebuilt by King Edred in the year 948. In 1091 it was by an accidental fire reduced to a heap of ruins, from which, under the influence of its abbot, who granted a plenary indulgence to such as should contribute to its restoration, it was again rebuilt, in 1112; but the whole was destroyed by a like cause about forty years afterwards. It was a third time restored, with increased splendour; and continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenue was £1217. 5. 11. The conventual buildings, which, from neglect, were gradually falling to decay, were almost entirely demolished during the parliamentary war, when the monastery was occupied as a garrison.
The Town, which is accessible only by artificial roads, consists chiefly of four streets, separated by watercourses, and communicating with each other by means of an ancient triangular stone bridge of singular construction, erected in the reign of Edward II. The bridge has one principal and finely groined arch, from which diverge three pointed arches over the streams Welland, Nene, and Catwater; it is in the decorated English style, and on one side is a mutilated figure of Ethelbald, in a sitting posture, holding a globe in the right hand. The market has been removed to Thorney, in the county of Cambridge; but a fair is held, commencing on the festival of St. Bartholomew, and continuing for twelve days. The parish comprises about 13,000 acres of arable and pasture land in nearly equal portions, a part of which is what is here called "wash land," on account of its liability to be flooded after continual rains: the parish includes part of Deeping-fen, and a large estate named Postland, comprehending 6000 acres, the property of the Marquess of Exeter. The soil, under the influence of an efficient system of irrigation, has been greatly improved, and much of the land, formerly unprofitable, from the morasses with which it was overspread, has been converted into rich pastures and fruitful corn-fields. A great number of geese and wild-fowl are sent to the neighbouring markets; and an extensive fishery is carried on, for the privilege of which £300 per annum, anciently paid to the abbot, are now received by the crown.
The Living is a rectory not in charge; net income, £115; patrons, alternately, T. O. Hunter and James Whitsed, Esqrs. The church, though consisting only of the north aisle of the abbey church, is a commodious and very handsome edifice, chiefly in the later English style, with a low massive tower. The west front, which is highly enriched, is ornamented with several statues of kings and abbots, including those of St. Guthlac and St. Bartholomew, and of King Ethelbald, the first of whom was interred in a small stone building near the abbey, probably his abode while leading the life of an anchorite, from which circumstance, perhaps, originated its modern names "Anchorage House," and "Anchor Church House." The church contains an ancient font divided into compartments, a cylindrical stoup, and some well executed screen-work; the roof is finely groined, and the windows are large, and decorated with elegant tracery. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Between the river Welland and the marshes is a causeway, on which, at the distance of two miles from the town, is St. Guthlac's Pyramid; and in the neighbourhood are many stone crosses.
Crowle (St. Oswald)
CROWLE (St. Oswald), a parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Thorne, W. division of the wapentake of Manley, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 35 miles (N. N. W.) from Lincoln, and 164 (N. by W.) from London; containing, with the chapelry of Eastoft and hamlet of Ealand, 2544 inhabitants. The town is situated at the north-western extremity of the Isle of Axholme, near the river Don, and within a mile of the Stainforth and Keadby canal, which passes on the north. The weekly market has been discontinued; but, from March till the end of May, a market for sheep and cattle is held on alternate Mondays, and there are fairs on the last Monday in May, and November 22nd, for cattle, flax, and hemp. The county magistrates hold a petty-session for the division; and constables are appointed at the court leet of the lord of the manor. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14.10.; net income, £777; patron, W. Duncombe, Esq.; impropriator, R. S. Johnson, Esq. The church is a very ancient structure, of which the original character is concealed by repeated alterations and repairs. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans; and a school with an endowment in land producing £42 per annum. In 1747, the body of a woman was found in an erect position in the peat moor near the town; it appeared to have been there for several centuries.
Crowle (St. John the Baptist)
CROWLE (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Droitwich, partly in the Upper division of the hundred of Halfshire, but chiefly in the Middle division of that of Oswaldslow, Worcester and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 5 miles (E.) from Worcester; containing 526 inhabitants. This place is situated in a district abounding with picturesque scenery; the approach from Worcester is by a beautiful range of hills, forming an amphitheatre, and commanding extensive prospects. The parish comprises 1690a. 2r. 25p., of which two-thirds are arable, and the remainder pasture, with 100 acres of woodland; the soil is a strong rich clay: on the south side are extensive quarries of blue lias, which burns into excellent lime. About 100 persons are employed in the manufacture of gloves. The rivulet Bow skirts the parish on the east, and falls into the Avon near Pershore; the Worcester and Birmingham canal passes within a mile, and the Spetchley station of the Gloucester and Birmingham railroad is within two miles. Crowle Court, the interior of which shows it to have been a religious house, is a very ancient edifice, surrounded by a deep moat. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £16; net income, £306; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Edwin Crane, M.A.; impropriator, George Farley, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land in 1806; the glebe consists of about 180 acres, with a glebe-house. The church is an ancient structure with a square tower, and contains a lectern of carved stone, of the reign of Rufus. A parochial school is supported by subscription.
CROWLEY, a township, in the parish of Great Budworth, union of Runcorn, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 6¾ miles (N.) from Northwich; containing 175 inhabitants. It comprises 1375 acres, of which 22 are common or waste land. Crowley Lodge, a neat brick edifice, was formerly a seat of the Pickering family.
Crowmarsh-Gifford (St. Mary Magdalene)
CROWMARSH-GIFFORD (St. Mary Magdalene), a parish, in the union and parliamentary borough of Wallingford, hundred of Langtree, county of Oxford, ½ a mile (E.) from Wallingford; containing 330 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 6. 0½., and in the gift of the Trustees of Dr. Barrington, late Bishop of Durham: the tithes have been commuted for £247, and the glebe consists of one acre. The church is a small Norman edifice, with two circular windows at the west end. In the parish are some remains of fortifications, supposed to have been raised by Stephen, either in 1139, when he besieged the Empress Matilda in Wallingford Castle, or in 1153, when he laid siege to that town.
Crownthorpe (St. James)
CROWNTHORPE (St. James), a parish, in the incorporation and hundred of Forehoe, E. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (N. W. by W.) from Wymondham; containing 111 inhabitants. It comprises 685 acres, of which 462 are arable, 154 pasture, and 68 wood; the common land was inclosed in 1777. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 12. 6., and in the gift of Lord Wodehouse: the tithes have been commuted for £145, and the glebe contains 16 acres.
CROWTON, a township, in the parish of Weaverham, union of Northwich, Second division of the hundred of Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester, 5¼ miles (W. by N.) from Northwich; containing 454 inhabitants, and comprising 1250 acres. The soil is partly clay and partly sand. The river Weaver bounds the township on the north.
Croxall (St. John the Baptist)
CROXALL (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Tamworth, partly in the N. division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of Stafford, and partly in the hundred of Repton and Gresley, S. division of the county of Derby, 7½ miles (N.) from Tamworth; containing, with the township of Catton, in Derby, and that of Oakley, in Stafford, 258 inhabitants. It comprises 3219 acres, in about equal portions of arable and pasture, with hedge-row timber; the surface is undulated, the soil rich, and the scenery picturesque. The village lies on the east side of the Mease, a tributary to the Trent. The Birmingham and Derby railway crosses the Thame and Trent near their junction in the parish, by a viaduct a quarter of a mile in length, supported on piles driven fifteen feet below the bed of those rivers. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes of Oakley, valued in the king's books at £5, and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, £499; impropriators of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, the family of Princeps. The tithes of the township of Croxall have been commuted for £180 payable to the vicar, and £159 payable to the impropriators: the vicar has a glebe of one acre. The church is a very ancient edifice, and contains many monuments to the Curzon and Horton families. There is a school in union with the National Society.
Croxby (All Saints)
CROXBY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Caistor, S. division of the wapentake of Walshcroft, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 5¼ miles (E. S. E.) from Caistor; containing 106 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road between Caistor and Louth, and comprises about 1500 acres; the soil is heathy on the hills by which the surface is diversified, and there are some fine plantations. In the western portion of the parish is a large sheet of water, abounding with carp, tench, eels, and perch. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 4. 2., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for a yearly rent-charge of £310, and the glebe comprises 12 acres.
CROXDALE, a chapelry, partly in the parish of Merrington, and partly in the parish of St. Oswald, Durham, union of Durham, S. division of Easington ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 3½ miles (S. by W.) from Durham; containing, with the township of Hett, 494 inhabitants. The manor came into the possession of the Salvin family prior to 1474, and has ever since continued in their hands. Here flows a small rivulet called Croxdale beck, the channel of which is a romantic dell of great depth and narrowness. A cross erected at this place gave name to the adjoining lands. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with the rectorial tithes; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of Durham. The chapel, dedicated to the Holy Cross, is now a district church. There is a private Roman Catholic chapel at the Hall.
Croxden (St. Giles)
CROXDEN (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Uttoxeter, S. division of the hundred of Totmonslow, N. division of the county of Stafford, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Cheadle; containing, with part of Calton chapelry, 293 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement 2588 acres, of which 1638 are grass land, 480 arable, 270 wood and plantations, and 200 common; and has a number of scattered farmhouses and cottages. The village lies in a narrow but fertile vale, watered by the Peake rivulet. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £92; patron, the Earl of Macclesfield. The church is a small decayed building, with a wooden belfry. Bertram de Verdun, in 1176, gave the monks of Aulney, in Normandy, a piece of land at Chotes or Chotene (probably Cotton) to build a Cistercian abbey, which three years afterwards was removed to Croxden, where he and his family were buried. It was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, and at the general dissolution had an abbot and twelve religious, whose revenue was valued at £103. 6. 7. The remains of this once stately and sumptuous edifice exhibit good specimens of the early English style.
CROXTETH-PARK, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union and hundred of West Derby, S. division of Lancashire, 4 miles (W. N. W.) from Prescot. This place anciently belonged to Robert Fitz-Henry, ancestor of the family of Lathom. It came subsequently into the possession of Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, son of Henry III., and remained in the crown until 1446, when Henry VI. by letters-patent granted Croxteth to Sir Richard Molyneux, whose descendants, now represented by the Earl of Sefton, have ever since held the property. There are few dwellings in the liberty; the area of which is 953 acres. A tributary of the little river Alt bounds it, and flows through the park attached to Croxteth Hall: the road from Liverpool to St. Helen's passes on the south. The Hall, erected in 1702, and situated in the adjoining district parish of West Derby, is of brick, with stone dressings, and has a terrace in front, ascended by a broad flight of steps: the back part, formerly of wood and plaster, was rebuilt in 1805 of brick. There is a stone-quarry. The tithes of the liberty have been commuted for £152.
Croxton (St. James)
CROXTON (St. James), a parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Longstow, county of Cambridge, 3½ miles (W. N. W.) from Caxton; containing 264 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Cambridge to Oxford, and its general appearance is flat; it comprises by computation 2000 acres of land, the soil of which is clayey and cold, but produces good crops of wheat. Croxton Park contains 150 acres of land, with a handsome residence. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 8. 6½.; net income, £185; patron, Samuel Newton, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land in 1811; the glebe comprises 347 acres, including 310 given at the allotment, and there is a glebe-house. The church, which is elegantly fitted up, has been extensively repaired by the patron. Edward Leeds, founder of the celebrated Leeds family, was buried here; he was vice-chancellor of Cambridge university, and master of Clare Hall, about the year 1540.
CROXTON, a township, in the parish of Middlewich, union and hundred of Northwich, S. division of the county of Chester, 1 mile (N. N. W.) from Middlewich; containing 48 inhabitants. It comprises 523 acres, of which the soil is sand and clay. The Grand Trunk canal passes in the vicinity.
Croxton (St. John The Evangelist)
CROXTON (St. John The Evangelist), a parish, in the union of Glandford-Brigg, E. division of the wapentake of Yarborough, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from GlandfordBrigg; containing 105 inhabitants. It comprises 1476a. 1r. 1p., of which about 1194 acres are arable, 179 meadow and pasture, and 103 woodland. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 14. 2., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £358: the tithes were commuted for land in 1809. Upon a lofty eminence about half a mile westward of the village, are the remains of a large intrenchment called Yarborough Camp, supposed, from the discovery of coins, to be a Roman work.
CROXTON, a chapelry, in the parish of Fulmodeston, union of Walsingham, hundred of Gallow, W. division of Norfolk, 4 miles (E. by N.) from Fakenham; containing 68 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to St. John the Baptist.
Croxton (All Saints)
CROXTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Thetford, hundred of Grimshoe, W. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (N.) from Thetford; containing 330 inhabitants. There is an extensive rabbit-warren. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; net income, £98; patrons and impropriators, the Master and Fellows of Christ's College, Cambridge. The tithes were commuted for land in 1813; the glebe consists of 32 acres. The church is in the decorated style; the lower part of the tower is circular, and the upper part octagonal: the south aisle was removed more than half a century since. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
CROXTON, a township, in the parish of Eccleshall, union of Stone, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 3¾ miles (N. W. by W.) from Eccleshall; containing 887 inhabitants. The village, which is large, lies on the road from Eccleshall to Nantwich. Tithe rent-charges have been awarded amounting to £371. 16.
Croxton-Keyrial (St. John)
CROXTON-KEYRIAL (St. John), a parish, in the union of Grantham, hundred of Framland, N. division of the county of Leicester, 7 miles (S. W.) from Grantham; containing 650 inhabitants. It is the property of the dukes of Rutland, of whose ancient mansion there are some remains, situated in a park in which races are celebrated at Easter. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 14. 7.; net income, £206; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Rutland: the tithes were commuted for land in 1766. The church is a very handsome structure in the later English style, with a tower rising from the centre. William Smith in 1711 bequeathed land, producing a rent of £11. 8., for which children are taught. W. Rymington left an estate, now worth £120 per annum, to the poor of this and three other parishes; G. Ashburne, a rentcharge of £15 to poor parishioners; and Anna Parnham, £300 for the poor, and £200 for the free school. Croxton Abbey was founded in 1162, by William Porcarius de Linus, for Præmonstratensian canons, whose revenue at the Dissolution was valued at £458. 19. 11.: one of the abbots was physician to King John, whose bowels were interred in the church.
Croxton, South (St. John The Baptist)
CROXTON, SOUTH (St. John The Baptist), a parish, in the union of Barrow-upon-Soar, hundred of East Goscote, N. division of the county of Leicester, 9¼ miles (N. E. by E.) from Leicester; containing 297 inhabitants. It comprises 1400 acres, of which about 400 are arable, and 10 woodland. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £8. 3. 4.; net income, £130; patron, the Duke of Rutland.
Croydon (All Saints)
CROYDON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Caxton and Arrington, hundred of Armingford, county of Cambridge, 6 miles (S. by E.) from Caxton; including the ancient parish of Clapton, and containing 441 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Royston to Huntingdon, and comprises by measurement 2711 acres. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with part of the rectorial tithes, with the rectory of Clapton consolidated, and valued in the king's books at £7. 9. 7.; patron and impropriator of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, J. F. Gape, Esq. The rectory of Clapton is valued in the king's books at £4. 9. 7. The incumbent's tithes have been commuted for £531, and there is a glebe-house, with 10 acres of land. Some remains are visible of a mansion of the Downing family, many members of which were buried in a vault under the church. Sir George Downing, Bart., of Gamlingay, was the founder of Downing College, Cambridge, for which he left nearly 1800 acres of land in this parish.
Croydon (St. John the Baptist)
CROYDON (St. John the Baptist), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the First division of the hundred of Wallington, E. division of Surrey, 9½ miles (S.) from London; containing, with part of Norwood, 16,712 inhabitants. This place, called by Camden Cradeden, and in ancient records Croindene and Croiden, derives its present name from Croie, chalk, and Dune, a hill, denoting its situation on the summit of an extensive basin of chalk. By some antiquaries it has been identified with the Noviomagus of Antonine; and the Roman road, from Arundel to London, which passed through that station, may still be traced on Broad Green, near the town. At the time of the Conquest it was given to Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, whose successors had for several centuries a residence here, which is said to have been originally a royal palace. During the war between Henry III. and the barons, in 1264, the citizens of London, who had taken up arms against their sovereign, after being driven from the field at Lewes, retreated to this town, where they endeavoured to make a stand; but part of the royal army, then stationed at Tonbridge, marched hither, and attacked and defeated them with great slaughter. The archiepiscopal palace, which in 1278 was in its original state, built chiefly of timber, was enlarged by Archbishop Stafford, and improved by his successors in the see, of whom Archbishop Parker, in 1573, had the honour of entertaining Queen Elizabeth and her court for several days here. The palace having afterwards fallen into a state of dilapidation, was alienated from the see by act of parliament, and sold in 1780: the gardens have been converted into bleaching-grounds, the proprietor of which occupies the remains of the palace. With the produce of the sale, and other funds, was purchased in 1807 Addington Park, three miles and a half from Croydon.
The parish is pleasantly situated on the border of Banstead Downs, and within its limits are two of the three sources of the river Wandle, a stream abounding with excellent trout. The town consists principally of one long street, and is paved, lighted with gas, and watched, under the direction of commissioners appointed by an act passed in the 10th of George IV. 1829 for its general improvement: the inhabitants are plentifully supplied with water. The houses are mostly substantial and well built, and many of them are handsome and of modern erection. In the vicinity are several mansions, with parks and pleasure-grounds, numerous detached residences, and ranges of neat dwellings inhabited by highly respectable families; the salubrity of the air, and the convenient distance from the metropolis, rendering this place a chosen retreat for merchants and retired tradesmen. A literary and scientific institution was established in 1838. The barracks, erected in 1794, contain accommodation for three troops of cavalry, with an hospital, infirmary, and all the requisite stables, shops, &c. Within a mile east of the town is Addiscombe House, formerly the residence of the first lord Liverpool, which, in 1809, was purchased by the East India Company, for the establishment of their military college, previously formed at Woolwich Common, for the education of cadets for the engineers and artillery, but since 1825 open to the reception of cadets for the whole military service of the company, with the exception of the cavalry. There are generally from 120 to 150 students, and under the auspices of the court of directors, the establishment has obtained a rank equal to that of any military institution in the kingdom. The buildings which have been at various times added to the original mansion, for the completion of the college, have cost more than £40,000.
The trade is principally in corn: the calico-printing and bleaching businesses, which were formerly carried on extensively, have materially declined. A large brewery has been established more than a century; and there are others of more recent date. The London and Croydon railway, which was opened on June 5th, 1839, has its first station contiguous to that of the Greenwich railway, near London Bridge, and pursues the line of that railway for nearly a mile and a half: it then diverges from it by a viaduct, and pursues its course to New Cross, Sydenham, Penge, and Norwood, and thence to this town. The Croydon station and depôt, formerly the premises of the canal company, whose property was purchased for the formation of the railway along the bed of the canal, is a spacious establishment, covering nearly five acres of ground. The whole course of the line amounted, in 1840, to £615, 160, averaging, for the expense of its construction, about £70,000 per mile. The Brighton line turns off from the terminus at Croydon, and passes on the east side of the town, in a southerly direction towards Sussex. The Croydon Company and the Brighton Company were amalgamated in 1846. A railway was opened from near Croydon to Epsom in May, 1847; it is eight miles in length. An act was passed in 1846 for a railway to Wandsworth. The market is on Saturday: fairs are held on July 6th for cattle, and Oct. 2nd for horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs; at the latter, which is also a large pleasure-fair, a great quantity of walnuts is sold. The town is within the jurisdiction of the county magistrates, of whom those acting for the division hold a petty-session every Saturday; and a head constable, two petty constables, and two headboroughs, are appointed at the court leet of the Archbishop of Canterbury, who is lord of the manor. The powers of the county debt-court of Croydon, established in 1847, extend over the registrationdistrict of Croydon. The summer assizes for the county are held here and at Guildford, alternately; and Croydon is the principal place of election for the eastern division of the county. The town-hall, a neat stone edifice surmounted by a cupola, was erected in 1807, at an expense of £10,000, defrayed by the sale of waste lands belonging to the parish. The prison was erected by subscription among the inhabitants, on the site of the old townhall, and is a large and substantial building, of which the lower part, containing several rooms, is used as the town gaol, and for the confinement of prisoners during the assizes, and the upper part let for warehouses. Near the town-hall is a convenient market-house for butter and poultry.
The parish comprises about 2000 acres, the larger portion of which is arable land. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £21. 18. 9., and in the patronage of the Archbishop; net income, £587; impropriator, A. Caldcleugh, Esq. The church, begun by Archbishop Courteney, and completed by Archbishop Chichely, is a spacious and elegant structure of freestone and flint, in the later English style, having a lofty embattled tower with crocketed pinnacles. In it are deposited the remains of Archbishops Grindall, Sheldon, Potter, and Herring, and there are some very fine monuments, of which that of Archbishop Sheldon, bearing his effigy in episcopal robes, exceeds all in beauty of workmanship; there are likewise some ancient brasses. Its finely-painted windows were wantonly destroyed during the Commonwealth. Two new churches were, in 1827-9, erected partly by a grant of £300 from Queen Anne's Bounty, and partly by aid from the Parliamentary Commissioners: one, on Croydon common, dedicated to St. James, is a handsome edifice in the later English style, with a small campanile tower, and contains 1200 sittings, of which 400 are free; the other is at Beulah Hill, Norwood. The livings are perpetual curacies, in the patronage of the Vicar; net income of St. James', £300. A district chapel, dedicated to St. John, was erected at Shirley, in 1836, at a cost of £1300: the living is in the gift of the Archbishop. There are places of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, and Wesleyans. The free school was founded and endowed in 1714, by Archbishop Tenison, and has an income of £130 per annum; schoolrooms were erected in 1792, at an expense of nearly £1000, on a piece of land adjoining the old school-house, which, having become unfit for the purpose, was let. The Society of Friends have a large establishment, removed to this place, in 1825, from Clerkenwell, where it had existed for more than a century, for the maintenance and education of 150 boys and girls. A free school originally founded and endowed by Archbishop Whitgift, in conjunction with the hospital of the Holy Trinity, is now a national school; and a school of industry for girls is kept in the chapel belonging to the old archiepiscopal palace.
The hospital of the Holy Trinity was founded and endowed by Archbishop Whitgift, in 1596, for a warden, schoolmaster, chaplain, and any number above 30, and not exceeding 40, of poor brothers and sisters, not less than 60 years of age, of the parishes of Croydon and Lambeth, who were to be a body corporate and have a common seal. It is under the inspection of the Archbishop of Canterbury; the income, originally not more than £200, has increased to £2000 per annum, and there are 34 brothers and sisters now in the hospital. The building, occupying three sides of a quadrangle, in which is a small chapel, is a handsome specimen of the domestic style prevailing at the time of its erection. Davy's almshouses, for seven aged men and women, were founded in 1447, by Elias Davy, citizen of London, who endowed them with land, now producing about £180 per annum: the premises were rebuilt about 80 years since. The Little Almshouses, containing originally nine rooms, were erected principally with money given by the Earl of Bristol, in consideration of land inclosed on Norwood common; they have been enlarged by the addition of fifteen apartments, at the expense of the parish, for the poor. In 1656, Archbishop Laud gave £300, which sum, having been invested in the purchase of a farm and in the funds, produces £62 per annum, applied to the apprenticing of children. Henry Smith, of London, in 1627 left lands and houses yielding an income of £213, of which about £150 are distributed among the inmates of the Little Almshouses; and there are various other charitable bequests for the relief of the poor. The union of Croydon contains 11 parishes or places, and contains a population of 27,721.
On a hill towards Addington is a cluster of 25 tumuli, one of which is 40 feet in diameter; they appear to have been opened, and, according to Salmon, to have contained urns. On Thunderfield common is a circular encampment, including an area of two acres, surrounded by a double moat. At Duppas Hill, it is said, a tournament took place in 1186, when William, only son of John, the 7th earl Warren, lost his life. In 1719, a gold coin of the Emperor Domitian was found at Whitehorse farm, in the parish, where also, some years ago, a gold coin of Lælius Cæsar, in good preservation, and several others, were discovered; and in digging for a foundation in the town, in 1791, two gold coins of Valentinian, and a brass coin of Trajan, were found.