A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Lewknor (St. Margaret)
LEWKNOR (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Wycombe, partly in the hundred of Desborough, county of Buckingham, but chiefly in that of Lewknor, county of Oxford, 3½ miles (S. S. E.) from Tetsworth; containing, with the tything of Postcombe, 847 inhabitants, of whom 221 are in Lewknor Uphill. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11. 17.; net income, £320; patrons, the Warden and Fellows of All Souls' College, Oxford. The great tithes of Lewknor Uphill have been commuted for £89, and the small for £188: the vicar has a glebe of 10 acres. The church is an ancient structure, partly in the Norman style, and contains some interesting monuments and a beautiful effigy in stone; it is the burial-place of the Scroop family, and also of the Fanes, whose estate of Wormesley is partly in the parish. There is a chapel of ease at Ashampstead.
Lewtrenchard (St. Peter)
LEWTRENCHARD (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Tavistock, hundred of Lifton, Lifton and S. divisions of Devon, 8½ miles (E. by N.) from Launceston; containing 527 inhabitants. It comprises 2500 acres, of which 244 are common or waste. Quarries of slate and limestone of good quality are worked. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 13. 9., and in the gift of W. Baring Gould, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £265, and the glebe consists of 56 acres. The Rev. William Romaine, author of the Life, Walk, and Triumph of Faith, was minister of the parish.
Lexden (St. Lawrence)
LEXDEN (St. Lawrence), a parish, in the union and liberties of Colchester, N. division of Essex, 1½ mile (W.) from Colchester; containing 1454 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Maldon to Colchester, and comprises 2312a. 10p., of which 1767 acres are arable, 443 pasture, and 37 woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12, and in the patronage of the family of Papillon: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £660, and the glebe comprises 29 acres of land. The church was rebuilt in 1820. A national school, erected in 1817, is supported by a bequest of £20 per annum from the late Mrs. Rawstorn, and by subscriptions. Roman antiquities of various kinds are frequently discovered; and before the inclosure of the heath, in 1820, evident traces of an encampment, supposed to be Danish, might be seen. The great rampart from the marshes to the river Stour passed obliquely through the parish, and considerable remains of it are still visible.
Lexham, East (St. Andrew)
LEXHAM, EAST (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Launditch, W. division of Norfolk, 8 miles (N. N. E.) from Swaffham; containing 236 inhabitants. It comprises 1190 acres, of which 866 are arable, 257 pasture and meadow, and 67 woodland. The Hall is a handsome mansion, situated in a small well-wooded park. The living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Litcham in the year 1742, and valued in the king's books at £8. 6.: the tithes have been commuted for £205. The church is an ancient structure, with a circular tower overspread with ivy, and contains a piscina of beautiful workmanship.
Lexham, West (St. Nicholas)
LEXHAM, WEST (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union of Mitford and Launditch, hundred of Launditch, W. division of Norfolk, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Rougham; containing 124 inhabitants. It comprises about 1200 acres, of which 1114 are arable, and 76 meadow and pasture, with some woodland. The living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Litcham, and valued in the king's books at £5. 11. 8.: the tithes have been commuted for £188, and the glebe comprises 58 acres. The church is an ancient structure, with a circular tower, and appears to have been originally larger than at present; in 1842 a double piscina was discovered, which had been long concealed under a coat of plaster.
Leybourne (St. Peter and St. Paul)
LEYBOURNE (St. Peter and St. Paul), a parish, in the union of Malling, hundred of Larkfield, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 5 miles (N. W. by W.) from Maidstone; containing 255 inhabitants. It comprises 1510 acres, of which 508 are in wood. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 13. 4., and in the patronage of Sir Joseph Henry Hawley, Bart., of Leybourne Grange: the tithes have been commuted for £275, and there are 180 acres of glebe. The Rev. James Holmes, in 1775, conveyed to trustees a schoolroom and a dwelling-house in the parish, with the interest of £1000 four per cent. consols., for the education of children. Here are considerable remains of a castle, consisting of a gateway flanked by circular towers, various arches, walls, &c., and traces of the moat by which it was surrounded; part of the ruin has long been converted into a dwelling-house.
LEYBURN, a market-town, and the head of a union, in the parish of Wensley, wapentake of HangWest, N. riding of York, 46 miles (N. W. by W.) from York, and 236 (N. N. W.) from London; containing 829 inhabitants. The town is pleasantly situated in a fertile district, and consists principally of one long, wellbuilt street, the houses of which are of a superior and durable stone, and of modern appearance, many of them having been erected in the present century. There are a circulating and a subscription library. A large elmtree formerly stood in the centre of the town, and served as a market-cross, but it was cut down in 1821. Leyburn attracts many visiters on their way to the lakes of Westmorland and Cumberland. The surface towards the north-west rises in bold undulations to the lofty moors of Wensleydale and Swaledale, and in the midst of beautiful scenery near the town is the celebrated walk called Leyburn Sparol, a magnificent natural terrace, commanding, among many others, fine views of the ruins of Middleham and Bolton Castles. Middleham is now connected with Leyburn by a suspension bridge across the Ure, on the site of the old ferry. The soil in the vicinity of the town comprises stiff clay and gravelly loam, but consists principally of a light limestone, having in some parts deposits of lead and coal. Petty-sessions are held on the last Friday in every month. The market is on Friday; and there are fairs on the second Fridays in February, May, October, and December, noted for large sales of cattle. The powers of the county debtcourt of Leyburn, established in 1847, extend over the registration-districts of Leyburn, Bedale, and Askrigg. A small chapel of ease was erected in 1836, at the cost of the Hon. T. O. Powlett; a national school is supported by subscription, and various benefactions have been made for apprenticing children, and other purposes. The poor-law union of Leyburn, comprises 41 parishes or places, containing, according to the census of 1841, a population of 9957.
Leyland (St. Andrew)
LEYLAND (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Chorley, hundred of Leyland, N. division of the county of Lancaster; consisting of the chapelries of Euxton, Heapey, and Hoghton, and the townships of Clayton-le-Woods, Cuerden, Leyland, Wheelton, Whittlele-Woods, and Withnell; and containing 14,032 inhabitants, of whom 3569 are in the township of Leyland, 4½ miles (N. W.) from Chorley. The name, originally "Leghland," indicates the early cultivation of the fields. Warin Bussel, one of the barons under Roger de Poictou, in the reign of William I., held, among his ample demesnes, the parish of Leyland: at a very early period, however, it was parcelled out into townships or manors; and in connexion with it are mentioned the families of Farington, Bracebrigge, Holand, Molyneux, Walton, and others. The parish comprises about 17,950 acres, whereof 3651 are in Leyland township; of the latter number, 371 are common or waste land: the soil in the parish is various, but stiff loam generally prevails. In the hilly townships are many valuable stone-quarries, and in Whittle-le-Woods no fewer than four quarries of millstones: in Heapey and Hoghton similar quarries are worked; and slate, flags, and ashlar are got in abundance. The river Yarrow flows to the south of Euxton and Leyland, dividing the parish from Chorley; the Drownsnip or Ransnap brook waters Euxton, and, with another rill, runs into the Lostock, as do all the streams in the township of Leyland, for which the river forms a little estuary. The Moulden water, a romantic mountain stream, springs from three brooks in the wild gullies south of Withnell and Wheelton, and descends into the Darwen or Darwent, which washes the north-east side of the parish in its course towards Hoghton Tower, and falls into the Ribble at Walton-le-Dale. The Leeds and Liverpool canal passes through the south-east extremity of the parish of Leyland; and at Golden Hill, a quarter of a mile from the village, is a station on the North-Union railway. Bleach-works, established in 1784, and now employing 100 hands, are carried on by Mr. James Fletcher. Petty-sessions for the division are held once in five weeks, on Monday. Worden Hall, the seat of James Nowell Ffarington, Esq., contains a choice museum of natural curiosities, and a collection of valuable paintings, some of which were found in the ruins of Herculaneum. Wellington Place is the seat of Robert Snell, Esq.
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11; patron, William Baldwin, Esq.; impropriators, Laurence Rawstorne, Esq., and J. N. Ffarington, Esq.: the great tithes of the township of Leyland have been commuted for £338, and the small tithes for £296; the vicar has a glebe of 44 acres. The church, originally erected without a single pillar, was rebuilt and enlarged in 1817, and contains several marble monuments: adjoining the chancel is an ancient chapel belonging to the Ffarington family. At Euxton, Heapey, Hoghton, Whittle-le-Woods, and Withnell are separate incumbencies. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Independents, and Roman Catholics. Near the churchyard is a free grammar school, founded by Queen Elizabeth, with an endowment of £3. 18. per annum, in aid of which the Rev. Thomas Armetriding, in 1718, bequeathed £250: the annual income, with subsequent benefactions, amounts to about £30. Another school is endowed with £13 per annum; and there is also a school, erected at Golden Hill in 1785 by Mr. Balshaw, and endowed by him with lands now producing an income of £230: it is in union with the National Society. An almshouse for six persons was founded in 1607 by William Ffarington, Esq.; and six more almshouses were built and endowed in 1665, by John Osbaldeston, Esq.
Leysdown (St. Clement)
LEYSDOWN (St. Clement), a parish, in the union, and liberty of the Isle, of Sheppy, Upper division of the lathe of Scray, E. division of Kent, 9 miles (E. by S.) from Queenborough; containing 310 inhabitants. It comprises 2182a. 2r. 31p., of which 816 acres are arable, 1357 pasture, and 9 woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 10., and united to the perpetual curacy of Harty; appropriator, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The great tithes have been commuted for £394, and the vicarial for £265; the appropriate glebe contains 15 acres, and the vicarial 5. The church is a neat modern edifice, erected near the site of a more ancient and spacious one, the ruins of which are still visible.
Leyton, Low (St. Mary)
LEYTON, LOW (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of West Ham, hundred of Becontree, S. division of Essex, 6 miles (N. E.) from London; containing 3274 inhabitants. This place derives its name, which appears to be a contraction of Lee town, from its situation on the river Lea. It is supposed by Camden and others to be the site of the ancient Durolitum; and it is evident here was a Roman station; various pavements, foundations of buildings, consular and imperial coins, and other Roman antiquities, having been discovered, particularly near the manor-house. The rural district of the parish contains about 1700 acres, of which 150 are marsh, about 250 waste, and nearly the same number in the occupation of nursery-men and market-gardeners; the remainder is all profitable land in a high state of cultivation: the soil is gravelly, and the grounds abound with fine springs of water. The village, which consists of a single street, extending nearly from Epping Forest to Stratford, and lighted with gas, is situated on a gentle slope reaching to the western bank of the river Lea; the hamlet of Leytonstone now comprises nearly onehalf of the inhabitants of the parish. The Eastern Counties railway passes through the parish, and at the Lea-Bridge road is a station on the line; the bookingoffices form a handsome elevation in the Italian style.
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 12.; net income, £534; patron, and impropriator of one-third of the rectorial tithes, J. Pardoe, Esq.; impropriators of the remaining twothirds of the rectorial tithes, the Executors of R. James, Esq. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £369. 14. 6., and the vicarial for £399. 15. The church, a plain brick edifice with a tower at the west end, was repaired and enlarged in the seventeenth century, and again in 1822. The chancel contains some elegant monuments of the family of Hickes, and of that of Sir Robert Beachcroft, lord mayor of London in 1721; also a monument of Mr. John Wood, who travelled over several parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America; and one to the memory of the antiquary and biographer, John Strype, who was vicar of Leyton from 1669 till his death, which took place in 1737, at the age of 94: he rebuilt the vicarage-house, and was a liberal contributor to the church and parish. A chapel of ease erected at Leytonstone, in 1750, by subscription, has lately been made the church of the district parish of St. John the Baptist: the living is in the Vicar's gift. Within the parish are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. In 1697, Robert Ozler bequeathed £300 for the erection, and a rent-charge of £12 for the endowment, of a free school for a certain number of children of Leyton and Walthamstow; and there are national schools at Low Leyton and Leytonstone. Almshouses for eight widows were founded in 1653, by John Smith, who endowed them with £20 per annum, to which other benefactions have been added. Sir Thomas Rowe or Roe, an able statesman and ambassador, was born at Low Leyton about the year 1580; and Edward Rowe Mores, Esq., a distinguished antiquary, lived long in a house called Etloe Place, now occupied by Charles Morley Robison, Esq.
Lezant (St. Breock)
LEZANT (St. Breock), a parish, in the union of Launceston, N. division of the hundred of East, E. division of Cornwall, 4½ miles (S. by E.) from Launceston; containing, with the hamlet of Trewarlet, 905 inhabitants. This place formerly belonged to the Manaton family, of Trecarrell House, of whom Ambrose Manaton had the honour to entertain Charles I. on his entrance into Cornwall, on the 1st of August, 1644. The parish is bounded on the east by the river Tamar, and on the south by its tributary the Inney; and comprises 3892 acres, of which about 400 are woodland, 233 common or waste, and the remainder chiefly arable. The surface is varied, especially on the banks of the Inney, at Trecarrell and Carthamartha; the substratum abounds with mineral wealth, and near Landew is a lead-mine in operation. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £32; net income, £406; patron, the Bishop of Exeter. The church contains several ancient monuments. There were formerly chapels at Trecarrell and Landew; the former, of which there are some remains, was dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, and the latter to St. Bridget. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
LEZIATE, a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (E.) from Lynn; containing 172 inhabitants. It comprises 1469a. 2r. 29p., of which 670 acres are arable, 462 meadow and pasture, 67 woodland, and 104 common or waste. The living is a rectory not in charge, annexed to that of Ashwicken: the tithes have been commuted for £280, and the glebe contains two acres. There are some slight remains of the church.
Libberston, or Lebberston
LIBBERSTON, or Lebberston, a township, in the parish of Filey, union of Scarborough, Pickering lythe, N. riding of York, 4 miles (N.) from Hunmanby; containing 153 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 1480 acres, the property of various families: the village, which is small and straggling, is on the road from Filey to Cayton, and about two miles and a half westward of the former place.
LICHFIELD, a city and county of itself, and the head of a union, in the S. division of the county of Stafford, 16½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Stafford, and 118 (N. W. by N.) from London; containing 6761 inhabitants. This place, called by Bede Licidfeld, and by Ingulphus and Henry of Huntingdon Lichfeld, both implying "the field of the dead," is supposed to have derived its name from the martyrdom of more than 1000 Christians, who are said to have been massacred here in the reign of the Emperor Diocletian: an allusion to this event appears in the corporation seal of the city; and a spot within its precincts, in which they are said to have been interred, still retains the appellation of the Christian field. During the heptarchy, it appears to have been patronised by the kings of Mercia, of whom Peada, son-in-law of Osweo, King of Northumbria, having been converted by the preaching of Cedd, a hermit who had a cell near the site of St. Chad's church, is said to have erected the first Christian church here in honour of that recluse, who had been assiduous in his efforts to convert the Mercians to Christianity, and afterwards became their bishop. In the reign of Offa, this see not only obtained the precedence of all the Mercian bishoprics, but through the interest of Offa with Pope Adrian, was made the arcbiepiscopal see, and invested with the greater part of the jurisdiction of Canterbury. Eadwulph was appointed archbishop of Lichfield in 789, and had for his suffragans the Bishops of Worcester, Hereford, Leicester, Sidnacester, Elmham, and Dunwich; but in 803, Leo succeeding to the pontificate, restored the primacy to Canterbury, and Eadulph, stripped of his supremacy, died in 812.
At the time of the Conquest, Lichfield, notwithstanding the distinction it had enjoyed under the Saxon kings, was but an inconsiderable place; and in 1075, when the conncil decreed that sees should no longer remain in obscure towns, Peter, Bishop of Licidfeld, transferred his see to Chester. It continued there till it was removed by his successor, Robert de Limsey, to Coventry, whence it was restored to Lichfield in 1148 by Roger de Clinton, who began the church, and fortified the castle. At what time, or by whom, the castle was originally built, has not been clearly ascertained; it is asserted upon very good authority, that Richard II., after his deposition from the throne, was detained here as a prisoner, on his route to the Tower of London: no vestiges of the building remain. During the parliamentary war, Lichfield embraced the royal cause; and Charles I., after the battle of Naseby, slept for one night in the Cathedral Close. In 1643, Sir Richard Dyott, with some of the principal gentlemen of the county, under the command of the Earl of Chesterfield, fortified this part of the town against the republican forces under Lord Brooke and Sir John Gell, the former of whom, having stationed himself in the porch of an adjoining house, was shot by a member of the Dyott family, from the battlements of the cathedral. The attack being continued by Sir John Gell, the garrison surrendered on honourable terms, and the parliamentarians retired, leaving a body of troops, who, in the following month, were repulsed by Prince Rupert: the royalists kept possession of the town till its final surrender to the parliament. During these conflicts the cathedral suffered material injury; its rich sculptures were destroyed, it was converted into stables by the parliamentarian troops, and in 1651 it was set on fire, and, by order of parliament, left to neglect and decay.
The city is built in a pleasant and fertile vale, within two miles of the Roman station Etocetum, and about the same distance from Offlow Mount, another station at Swinfen. The houses in the principal thoroughfares are handsome and commodious; the streets in general are well paved, and the town is well lighted, and amply supplied with water. Certain property, called the Conduit lands, was granted in 1546 to trustees, by the brethren of the guild of the Blessed Mary, Lichfield, "for the common wealth of the city and town," and for keeping in repair the conduit pipes and pumps, providing fire-engines, and defraying other charges incidental to supplying the city with water from the springs at Aldershaw, which are about one mile and a half distant: the property consists of about 340 acres of land, and produces nearly £600 per annum. In the environs are numerous elegant seats and villas. A mechanics institute was established a few years since, and is held in a room of the guildhall; the Rev. J. T. Law, the president, has endowed it with books and natural curiosities, and also contributes liberally towards its support. A permanent library is maintained by subscription, and there is also a newsroom. A small theatre, in which Mrs. Siddons made her first appearance after her marriage, is open during the races, and occasionally at other times. The races take place in September, when a queen's plate of 100 guineas is run for on the first day; the course is on the road to Tamworth, about two miles from the city.
Lichfield is not a place of much trade; there are extensive coach and harness manufactories. The Wyrley and Essington canal runs within a quarter of a mile, and joins the Fazeley and Birmingham line about three miles distant. The Trent-Valley railway, opened in 1847, runs by the town: an act was passed in 1846, for a railway from Lichfield to Birmingham; and another act was obtained in the same year, for a railway to Walsall. The market is on Friday, and there are cattle-markets on the first Monday in every month, for cattle, sheep, bacon, and cheese; the charter fairs are on Shrove-Tuesday and Ash-Wednesday, and others are held on the 10th of January, and the first Tuesday in November. The market-house is a commodious building, occupying the site of the ancient market-cross; in the market-place is a colossal statue in stone of Dr. Johnson, erected in 1838, by the Rev. J. T. Law.
The city was anciently governed by a guild, at the head of which were a master and four wardens, assisted by a council of twenty-four brethren. This guild, established in 1387, was dissolved in the 2nd of Edward VI., who granted to the inhabitants a charter of incorporation, which was confirmed and enlarged by Mary and by Elizabeth, the former of whom erected the city into a county of itself. Subsequent charters were conferred by James I. in 1623, and Charles II., in the 16th of his reign, under the latter of which the corporation consisted of two bailiffs and twenty-one brethren, assisted by a recorder, steward, town-clerk and coroner, sheriff, and two serjeants-at-mace. The government is now vested in a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors, under the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76: the city is divided into two wards, the municipal and parliamentary boundaries being co-extensive; a sheriff is appointed by the council, and the number of magistrates is seven. Two chief constables are chosen by a jury of burgage tenants, at their court leet on St. George's day; and several petty constables at the great portmote court on the 22nd of July. The freedom is inherited by the eldest sons of freemen, and acquired by servitude in one of the seven trading companies of the Cordwainers, Smiths, Saddlers, Bakers, Weavers, Tailors, and Butchers. The city first exercised the elective franchise in the 33rd of Edward I., and continued to make regular returns till the 27th of Edward III., from which period it ceased till the time of its incorporation by Edward VI., who restored the privilege; two members are sent to parliament, and the sheriff is the returning officer. The recorder holds quarterly courts of session, and also a court of record weekly for the recovery of debts to any amount above 40s.; the justices preside at a petty-session weekly. The powers of the county debt-court of Lichfield, established in 1847, extend over part of the registration-district of Lichfield. The guildhall is a neat edifice of stone, ornamented with a pediment in front, in the tympanum of which are the city arms; the hall is spacious, and well adapted to the purposes of the several courts, and underneath is the common gaol for the city. Formerly an annual fête, called the Court of Array, took place on Whit-Monday in the guildhall, whence it was immediately adjourned to an eminence named Greenhill, where a temporary bower was erected; the expense was defrayed by the corporation. This ceremony is supposed by some to have been instituted by King Osweo, to commemorate a victory obtained by him over Penda; but others, with more probability, ascribe it to an act passed originally in the reign of Henry II., ordaining the high constable in each town frequently to inspect the arms of the inhabitants. It is still kept up with some difference, but the expense is now defrayed by subscription. The town is the place of election for the southern division of the county.
Lichfield was at an early period a see jointly with Coventry, and, after the demolition of the abbey buildings at Coventry, became in reality, though not in name, the sole seat of the diocese. Within the last few years, Coventry has been transferred to the diocese of Worcester; the jurisdiction now extends over the counties of Derby and Stafford, and a considerable part of the county of Salop. The ecclesiastical establishment consists of a bishop, dean, precentor, chancellor, the archdeacons of Salop, Stafford, and Derby, a number of canons residentiary and non-residentiary, five minor canons, and other officers. The bishop is now styled Bishop of Lichfield, and has the patronage of the archdeaconries, the chancellorship, and the canonries; the Dean and Chapter have the patronage of the minor canonries. The minor canons form a corporation of twelve members, including an organist and six choristers. The Cathedral, which had been reduced during the parliamentary war to a state of extreme dilapidation, was restored by Dr. Hacket, on his preferment to the see of Lichfield and Coventry in 1661, to its original state of splendour and magnificence: various improvements have subsequently been made; and the choir has been greatly enlarged, under the superintendence of Mr. Wyatt, by the removal of the screen in front of the Lady chapel. The prevailing character of the edifice is the early English, approaching very nearly to the decorated style. The west front is magnificently rich, and the spires of the western towers are in beautiful combination with the lofty central spire; the east end is hexagonal, and the whole exterior is highly ornamented in various parts with statuary and sculpture of exquisite design and elaborate execution. The interior presents various styles, with several later insertions. The transepts display considerable portions in the Norman character, and the choir, which deviates from the line of the nave, is in the decorated English style: it is richly ornamented, and lighted by windows of beautiful tracery; the bishop's throne, and the prebendal stalls, are fine specimens of tabernacle-work. St. Mary's chapel, built by Bishop Langton, is an edifice of elegant design, with nine lofty windows, of which the three at the east end are more rich in their tracery, and are ornamented with stained glass brought by Sir Brooke Boothby from the dissolved abbey of Herckenrode, in the bishopric of Liege; in the central window on one side is a painting of the Resurrection, by Egginton, from a design by Sir Joshua Reynolds. In this chapel was the shrine of St. Chad, which was demolished at the Dissolution. Among the monuments in the cathedral that escaped the ravages of the parliamentary troops are those of Bishops Langton and Pattishull. There are, also, a monument to Dr. Johnson; a bust of Garrick; a mutilated statue of Captain Stanley; and a monument by Chantrey, to the memory of the infant children of Mrs. Robinson, which is unrivalled for beauty of design, intensity of feeling, and force of expression. A passage from the north aisle leads to the chapter-house, a decagonal building of great elegance, whose finely-vaulted roof is supported on a clustered central column. Above it is the library, instituted by Dean Heywood, in which are the Gospels of St. Chad, a Koran taken at the siege of Buda, and a folio edition of Chaucer, richly illuminated. The bishop's palace, on the north-east side of the Close, is a spacious edifice.
The city comprises the parish of St. Mary, containing 2634 inhabitants; part of that of St. Chad, containing 2036; and part of that of St. Michael, containing 1887; also the liberty of the Cathedral Close, which is extraparochial, with 190 inhabitants. The living of St. Mary's is a discharged vicarage, with the living of Statfold annexed, valued in the king's books at £10; net income, £458; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter. The church is a modern edifice, erected on the site of an ancient structure described by Leland as "right beautiful." The whole parish of St. Chad, including the villages of Elmhurst and Curborough, comprises by measurement 2488 acres; the rural portion of it is in general land of good quality, and in profitable cultivation. The living is a perpetual curacy; patron, the Vicar of St. Mary's; net income, £179. The church, by far the oldest in Lichfield, was rebuilt on the site of an ancient one erected by Bishop Headda, in honour of St. Chad, and near his hermitage. The parish of St. Michael comprises by computation 10,400 acres, of which by far the greater portion is arable; about 2000 acres are common, a part of which has been recently inclosed, and the remainder, with the exception of a little woodland, is meadow and pasture. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of St. Mary's, with a net income of £154; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter. The church is situated on an eminence called Greenhill; the nave and aisles were admirably restored in 1842-3, and now afford exquisite specimens of the decorated and later styles of architecture: it contains a tablet with an inscription by Dr. Johnson, to the memory of his parents. The churchyard comprises upwards of seven acres, and is the principal cemetery of the city. At Burntwood and Wall, in this parish, are chapels, both erected by subscription; and a district chapel has just been built at Leamonsley, also in St. Michael's parish. There are places of worship in Lichfield for Independents, Wesleyans, and Kilhamites, and Roman Catholics. The free grammar school appears, from a small endowment payable out of the exchequer, to have been founded by Edward VI.; the school-house was erected in 1692, at the joint expense of the corporation and the feoffees of the Conduit Lands. The master receives from the feoffees £35 per annum, and the usher £10 from funds devised by Henry Beane, in 1546, for this and other purposes; the premises are also kept in repair by the feoffees. An English free school was founded in 1677, by Thomas Minors, who endowed it with a messuage for the school-house, and rents amounting to about £30 per annum; Andrew Newton, Esq., in 1801 bequeathed in aid of this charity the reversion of the dividends on £3333. 6. 8. three per cent. consols., and the annual income is now upwards of £135. A diocesan training establishment for schoolmasters was founded in 1838.
St. John's hospital was founded in the reign of Henry III., by one of the bishops of the diocese; and in 1252, Randulph de Lacock, canon of Lichfield, endowed it with lands at Elmhurst and Stichbrook, for the maintenance of a priest, and the support of the poor and infirm. It was visited by the bishops of Lichfield for many years, but fell into neglect and decay, from which it was retrieved by Bishop Smyth, who was translated to the see in the reign of Henry VII.; that prelate rebuilt the premises in 1495, and formed the statutes by which it is at present governed. There are thirteen almshouses, apartments for the master and other officers, and a chapel: the last was enlarged in 1829, by the erection of a gallery and north wing, at the expense of the master of the hospital, and an organ was purchased by subscription; there is now a numerous and respectable congregation. An hospital for women was founded in 1424, by Bishop Hayworth, and endowed in 1504 by Thomas Milley, one of the canons residentiary, with lands now producing, with subsequent benefactions, an income of about £380, for the maintenance of fifteen aged women and a few out-pensioners. An institution for the benefit of widows or unmarried daughters of clergymen of the Church of England in the diocese, was founded by the above-named Mr. Newton, who endowed it with £43,333 consols., the dividends on which, amounting to £1238. 13., are chiefly distributed in pensions of £50 each, among 20 individuals, who must be upwards of 50 years of age: the buildings of the institution, situated in the Close, contain apartments for that number of persons. There are also donations and bequests, amounting to £1000 per annum, for distribution among the poor generally. The union of Lichfield comprises 29 parishes or places, with a population of 24,127.
Among the monastic establishments was a convent of Grey friars, founded in 1229, by Alexander, Bishop of Lichfield; it was burnt down in 1291, and, being rebuilt, subsisted till the Dissolution: the remains are now let on lease, and the rents appropriated to charitable uses. Several relics of antiquity are preserved in Mr. Green's museum, among which is a wooden lintel or doorway, pierced by the ball which killed Lord Brooke, the parliamentary officer, during the siege of the cathedral. There is a chalybeate spring; and some good specimens of agate, in a state of decomposition, are found in the vicinity, where a fine sort of clay for pottery is also met with. Elias Ashmole, the antiquary, and founder of the Ashmolean museum at Oxford; Dr. George Smalridge, and Dr. Thomas Newton, both distinguished as theological writers; and the celebrated Dr. Samuel Johnson, were natives of this place: among the residents were Garrick, Dr. Darwin, author of The Botanic Garden, and his ingenious biographer, Miss Seward. Lichfield gives the title of Earl to the family of Anson, created in 1831.
LIDBROOK, a hamlet, in the parish of Newland, union of Monmouth, hundred of St. Briavell's, W. division of the county of Gloucester; containing 42 inhabitants. Iron and tin works, said to have been the first established in the kingdom, furnish employment to a part of the population. Coal and timber are brought from the Forest of Dean, by means of a railroad constructed from the Wye to the Severn. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
Liddiard-Millicent (All Saints)
LIDDIARD-MILLICENT (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Cricklade and Wootton-Bassett, hundred of Highworth, Cricklade, and Staple, Swindon and N. divisions of Wilts, 3 miles (N. N. E.) from Wootton-Bassett; containing 564 inhabitants. The road from Cricklade to Wootton-Bassett passes through. The land is pasture, with the exception of a small portion of arable and wood; the surface is in general flat, and the soil rich. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 4. 4½.; net income, £495; patrons, the Master and Fellows of Pembroke College, Oxford. The church is in the later English style.
Liddiard-Tregooze (All Saints,)
LIDDIARD-TREGOOZE (All Saints,) a parish, in the union of Cricklade and Wootton-Bassett, hundred of Kingsbridge, Swindon and N. divisions of Wilts, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Swindon; containing 960 inhabitants. This place has from the time of the Conquest been the property of the family of St. John, whose mansion and park are near the church. The parish is on the road from Oxford to Bath, and comprises by admeasurement 5400 acres, of which 300 are arable, 350 woodland, and the remainder pasture. The Wilts and Berks canal and the Great Western railway pass through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 5. 5., and in the gift of Mrs. Collins: the tithes have been commuted for £603. 18. 5., and the glebe comprises 90 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the later English style, partly rebuilt in 1653, by the St. John family, to whom it contains several splendid monuments.
Liddington (St. Andrew)
LIDDINGTON (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Uppingham, hundred of Wrandike, county of Rutland, 2½ miles (S. by E.) from Uppingham; containing 589 inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 2240 acres: the soil is various, but the greater portion a dark stiff clay, and tolerably fertile; the surface is diversified with hills. The village is pleasantly situated in a valley watered by the river Welland, near which are some rich meadows. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 2., and in the patronage of the Bishop of Lincoln: the great tithes have been commuted for £216. 11., and the vicarial for £221. At Caldecott is a chapel of ease. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A palace formerly belonging to the bishops of Lincoln, a fine structure in the early English style, with a large hall, having painted windows, has been converted into an hospital for a warden, twelve brethren, and two nurses; the charity was founded in 1600, by Sir Thomas Cecil, Lord Burghley, and is called Jesus' Hospital.
Liddington (All Saints)
LIDDINGTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Highworth and Swindon, hundred of Kingsbridge, Swindon and N. divisions of Wilts, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Swindon; containing, with the tything of Coate, 454 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 2736 acres, and is traversed by the road from London to Newbury and Hungerford: there are several chalk-quarries. The living is a discharged vicarage, with a sinecure rectory, the former valued in the king's books at £14, and the latter at £17; the Duke of Marlborough presents to the rectory, and the Rector to the vicarage. The tithes were partly commuted for land under an act of inclosure, in 1776; and a commutation has taken place under the recent Tithe act, for a rent-charge of £221: the glebe contains 60 acres, and there is an excellent house, built by the vicar in 1833. The church is very ancient, with a tower, and has a roof of timber-frame work. The Wesleyans have a place of worship. In this parish, romantically situated in a dell, and encompassed by a moat, is an old mansion forming an interesting specimen of the Elizabethan style; on Beacon Hill was a large circular work, called Liddington Castle.
Lidgate (St. Mary)
LIDGATE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Newmarket, hundred of Risbridge, W. division of Suffolk, 6¾ miles (S. E. by E.) from Newmarket; containing 450 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 10. 5.; net income, £473; patron, the Rev. James Jackson. Near the church is a spacious and lofty mount with some remains of extensive intrenchments, probably the site of a strong castle. Lydgate, the poet, was born at this place, from which he took his name.
Lidlington, or Litlington (All Saints)
LIDLINGTON, or Litlington (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Ampthill, hundred of Redbornestoke, county of Bedford, 3½ miles (W. by N.) from Ampthill; containing 926 inhabitants. Here is a station of the Bedford branch of the London and Birmingham railway. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £11.; net income, £88; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Bedford. The church contains an ancient tomb with a brass effigy, in armour, of one of the Goldingtons, who possessed the manor of Goldington, in the parish, in the 15th century. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Lidney, or Lydney (St. Mary)
LIDNEY, or Lydney (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, in the union of Chepstow, hundred of Bledisloe, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 20 miles (S. W. by W.) from Gloucester, and 123 (W. by N.) from London; containing, with the chapelry of Aylburton, 1885 inhabitants, of whom 1146 are in the town. This place, which is situated on the road from Gloucester to Swansea, is by some writers supposed to have been the Roman station Abona; and though it may not be satisfactorily identified with that particular station, there are positive evidences of its occupation by the Romans. In Lydney Park are the remains of a Roman villa, and of two camps; near the western border of the larger camp is a Roman bath, still tolerably perfect; and fragments of tessellated pavement, urns, statues, coins of Adrian and Antoninus, and a silver coin of Galba, have been found. An ancient mansion called Whitecross, erected by Sir William Winter, viceadmiral of England in the reign of Elizabeth, was fortified and garrisoned in the civil war of the 17th century by Sir John Winter, a distinguished royalist, who defended it against repeated attacks by detachments from Gloucester, but at last set fire to and deserted it, having first despoiled the forest. The trade of the town is principally in the export of coal, and is facilitated by the river Severn, which forms the eastern boundary of the parish; the Severn and Wye railroad terminates here, and a canal with a basin connects it by means of locks with the river. The line of the South Wales railway passes through the parish. The manufacture of tin plates is carried on to a great extent, and in connexion with it are iron-works. Limestone is quarried. The market is on Wednesday; and fairs are held on May 4th and November 8th. The living is a vicarage, with the livings of St. Briavell's and Hewelsfield annexed, valued in the king's books at £24. 6. 8.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Hereford. The great tithes of the parish have been commuted for £420, and the vicarial for £680; the glebe comprises 2 acres. The church is a spacious plain structure, with a beautiful spire. At Aylburton is a chapel of ease; and the Baptists have a place of worship. There are some chalybeate springs.
LIDSEY, a hamlet, in the parish of Aldingbourn, union of West Hampnett, hundred of Box and Stockbridge, rape of Chichester, W. division of the county of Sussex, 5¼ miles (E. S. E.) from Chichester; containing 772 inhabitants. It is situated on the Portsmouth and Arundel canal.