A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Down, East (St. John the Baptist)
DOWN, EAST (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Barnstaple, hundred of Braunton, Braunton and N. divisions of Devon, 6¾ miles (N. N. E.) from Barnstaple; containing 473 inhabitants. The parish comprises 3159 acres, of which 62 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 3. 9.; net income, £346; patron, Charles Chichester, Esq. At a place called Norcote are several stones, probably commemorative of British heroes slain in battle; or, according to some, a Druidical monument.
Down, West (Holy Trinity)
DOWN, WEST (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Barnstaple, hundred of Braunton, Braunton and N. divisions of Devon, 7 miles (N. W. by N.) from Barnstaple; containing 637 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 14. 9.; net income, £190; patron, the Bishop of Exeter; impropriators, G. Langdon, Esq., and others. The church contains a monument to the memory of Sir J. Stowford, a justice of the common pleas in 1343, for the welfare of whose soul the prior of Wells founded a chantry, and endowed it with a stipend for the maintenance of a priest.
Downall-Green county of Lancaster.—See Ashton-in-Makerfield.
Downham (St. Leonard)
DOWNHAM (St. Leonard), a parish, in the union, hundred, and Isle of Ely, county of Cambridge, 2½ miles (N. N. W.) from Ely; containing 2140 inhabitants. This was one of the principal residences of the bishops of the diocese, who had a palace here of considerable magnificence; but since the arrest of Bishop Wren by order of the parliament, in 1642, it has been deserted, and suffered to fall into decay. There are still considerable remains of the building, and the offices have been converted into a farmhouse. The parish is situated on the road to Wisbech, and comprises 10,145 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £17. 2. 1., and in the gift of the Bishop of Ely: the tithes have been com muted for £1280, and the glebe comprises 134 acres, with a glebe-house. There are places of worship for Baptists and Methodists.
Downham (St. Margaret)
DOWNHAM (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Billericay, hundred of Barstable, S. division of Essex, 4¼ miles (E. by N.) from Billericay; containing 254 inhabitants. It is bounded on the east by the hundred of Chelmsford, and on the west by the parish of Ramsdon-Bellhouse; and comprises 2234 acres, of which 71 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 2. 8½.; net income, £402; patron, R. B. Berens, Esq. The church is a small ancient edifice, with a handsome embattled tower, and contains some interesting monuments. There are the remains of a castle, occupying a quadrangular area near the church, and supposed to be Roman.
DOWNHAM, a chapelry, in the parish of Whalley, union of Clitheroe, Higher division of the hundred of Blackburn, N. division of the county of Lancaster, 3 miles (E. N. E.) from Clitheroe; containing 567 inhabitants, of whom 368 are in the township of Downham. The manor is carried up to a period before the Conquest, when it was possessed by Aufray, or Alfred, a Saxon. It was granted by the Lacys to Ralph de Rous, and afterwards to Peter de Cestria; and by Henry, Duke of Lancaster, to John de Dyneley, a member of the Cliviger family. After the dissolution of Whalley Abbey, in which the fee vested, it was sold to Richard Assheton; and Downham Hall, existing in 1308, but rebuilt in 1775, became the seat of the Asshetons. The chapelry comprises 2900 acres, nearly all tithe-free, and of which 1870 are in the township of Downham: fine limestone, containing a great variety of fossil remains, is abundant, and there are quarries of superior gritstone, used for building. About thirty persons are employed in the manufacture of druggets and counterpanes. The Roman road called Broad-street, extending from Ribchester to Ilkley, runs through the township. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £129, with a house; patrons, the Trustees of the Hulme Exhibition, Manchester. The chapel, with the exception of the tower, which is ancient, was rebuilt by Lady Assheton in 1800; it is in the later English style, and dedicated to St. Leonard. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a national school has been erected. Ralph Assheton, by will, gave £110 to be laid out in land for the support of a school; the income is £18.
Downham-Market (St. Edmund)
DOWNHAM-MARKET (St. Edmund), a markettown and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Clackclose, W. division of Norfolk, 42½ miles (W.) from Norwich, and 85 (N. by E.) from London; containing 2953 inhabitants. This place, called in ancient records, from its situation on a navigable river, Downham Port, derives its name from the Saxon Dune, a hill, and ham, a dwelling. In the reign of Edgar the town was bestowed upon the abbey of Ramsey, in the county of Huntingdon, the monks of which, in the time of Edward the Confessor, obtained for the inhabitants the grant of a weekly market, and subsequently, in the reign of John, permission to hold an annual fair. Near the bridge was a hermitage, and adjoining the church was in early times a Benedictine priory, subordinate to the abbey of Ramsey, to the abbots of which Henry III. granted very extensive privileges, including the power to execute felons on their gallows of Downham.
The town is pleasantly situated on an acclivity, about a mile to the east of the river Ouse, commanding an extensive view of the Fens on the west, with which it is connected by an ancient bridge of wood; it consists mainly of two streets, well paved and lighted, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. Considerable improvements have been made under the provisions of an act procured in 1835, for paving, lighting, and watching; several houses have been removed, and a spacious area has been obtained, forming a commodious market-place. There was once an extensive foundry for casting church bells; and within a mile of the town is a considerable manufactory for mustard, and for the preparation of linseed-oil. The making of butter, for which this place has for ages been celebrated, was formerly carried on to a vast extent, and on the average not less than 90,000 firkins, annually purchased by factors, were sent by the Ouse to Cambridge, and thence by land carriage to London, where it was sold under the appellation of Cambridge butter. This trade was some years since transferred to Swaffham, and has been replaced by a gradual increase in the cultivation of corn, and the trade in cattle and wool. In 1847 a railway was completed from Lynn, by way of Downham, to Ely. The market, which is amply supplied with corn and provisions of all kinds, is on Saturday; and fairs are held on the 3rd of March, for horses, May 8th, for cattle, and Nov. 13th, for cattle and toys; the fair for horses being one of the largest in the kingdom, and attended by numerous dealers from London and other towns: statute-fairs are also held, in the week preceding and the week following Old Michaelmas-day. The powers of the county debt-court of Downham, established in 1847, extend over part of the registration-district of Downham. There are petty-sessions every Monday under the magistrates for the division, and a court baron held quarterly by the lord of the manor.
The parish comprises 2490a. 2r. 24p., of which 1600 acres are arable, 626 pasture, and 64 woodland; the soil near the town is light and sandy, in other parts a loamy clay, and in some places marsh and fen. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and in the gift of W. Franks, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £500, and the glebe comprises 29½ acres, with a glebe-house. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style, with a low embattled tower surmounted by a small spire: the interior is remarkable for the dissimilarity of the arches that support the roof; the font, which is octangular, has at each angle a shield bearing the arms of St. Edmund. The churchyard is approached by a flight of steps on the north-west, and by a fine avenue of lime-trees on the south. There are places of worship for Particular Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans. Dr. Buchcroft, in 1660, bequeathed £100, which have been vested in land producing a rent of £39, for distribution among the poor; and the parish is entitled to a portion of £60 per annum, rent of an allotment under the Downham Drainage act: there are also 30 acres of land worth £118. 10. per annum, for repairing the church. The union comprises 34 parishes or places, containing a population of 19,200 persons.
Downham, Santon.—See Santon-Downham.
DOWNHEAD, a chapelry, in the parish of Doulting, union of Shepton-Mallet, hundred of Whitestone, E. division of Somerset, 5½ miles (E. N. E.) from Shepton-Mallet; containing 207 inhabitants. It comprises 1525 acres, of which 25 are common or waste. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Doulting: the great tithes, belonging to Lord Portman, have been commuted for £85, and the vicarial for £114; there are 7 acres of glebe belonging to the impropriator, and 7 to the vicar. The chapel is dedicated to All Saints.
Downholme (St. Michael)
DOWNHOLME (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Richmond, wapentake of Hang-West, N. riding of York; consisting of the townships of Downholme, Ellerton-Abbey, Stainton, and Walburn; and containing 248 inhabitants, of whom 121 are in the township of Downholme, 4¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Richmond. The parish comprises by computation 6330 acres, of which about 1400 are in the township, extending northward to the Swale river. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at £5. 15. 10., and in the patronage of T. Hutton, Esq. (the impropriator), with a net income of £75. The church, which stands in the dale below the village, is an ancient edifice. There is a school endowed with £15 per annum by the Rev. E. Ellerton.
DOWNSIDE, a tything, in the parish of MidsomerNorton, union of Clutton, hundred of Chewton, E. division of Somerset; comprising 616 inhabitants. A district church dedicated to Christ has been erected, containing 272 sittings, of which 216 are free, the Incorporated Society having granted £250 towards the expense: the living is in the gift of the Vicar. Downside College, a Roman Catholic establishment in connexion with the University of London, in which young men are taught the different branches of literature and science, is a handsome building in the later English style, with a library and a chapel.
Downton (St. Giles)
DOWNTON (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Ludlow, hundred of Wigmore, county of Hereford, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Leintwardine; containing 104 inhabitants. It is situated on the banks of the Teame and comprises 1194 acres. The soil is light and shallow, resting upon solid rock; the surface is undulated, except in the immediate vicinity of the river, and ornamented with oak, elm, and ash. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, valued in the king's books at £4. 10., and in the patronage of the Crown, with a net income of £146: the glebe contains 28 acres, with a glebe-house. The church a small low edifice in a dilapidated state, has some ancient carved work which is much admired.
DOWNTON, a township, in the parish of LaceyStanton, union of Ludlow, hundred of Munslow, S. division of Salop, 3 miles (N.) from Ludlow; containing 90 inhabitants. This place lies on the east side of the river Corve; it comprises 550 acres of rich pastureland, with a small portion of arable, and is well wooded. Good stone is obtained for building purposes. Downton Hall, the seat of Sir William Rouse Boughton, Bart., to whom the whole property belongs, is a handsome mansion, approached by a beautiful avenue two miles in length, on a gradual ascent, from which the scenery is extensive, romantic, and mountainous, embracing the Titterstone and the Clee hills. The wooded grounds are particularly fine around the Hall, and the air of the township is very salubrious.
Downton (St. Lawrence)
DOWNTON (St. Lawrence), a parish, and formerly a borough, in the union of Alderbury, hundred of Downton, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of Wilts, 6 miles (S. S. E.) from Salisbury, and 88 (S. W.) from London; comprising the tythings of Charlton, Church, Downton, East Downton, Hamptworth, Wick with Walton, and Witherington; and containing 3648 inhabitants, of whom 743 are in Downton, and 1785 in East Downton. It appears to have been anciently of importance, and gave name to the hundred. Here was a castle, whose intrenchments may still, be traced at the south-east extremity of the town; and in the centre of them is a large conical mount, upon which the keep is supposed to have stood. King John is said to have had a palace at this place; and in taking down part of an old building called the Court House, or King John's Stable, were found two wooden busts, probably of that monarch and his consort. The town consists principally of one long irregular street, extending from east to west, and having three bridges over the Upper Avon, which is here divided into three channels. On the river are some paper and grist mills; there is also a large tan-yard; malting is carried on, and several persons are engaged in a branch of the silk manufacture, and in making straw-plat. A market was held on Friday, which has been discontinued; there is a fair on April 23rd, for cattle, and another on October 2nd, for sheep and horses. Downton was a borough by prescription: it first sent members to parliament in the 23rd of Edward I., and continued to exercise that privilege down to the 38th of Edward III., after which there was only one return (in the 1st of Henry V.) till the 20th of Henry VI., from which period it continued regularly to send representatives until its disfranchisement in the 2nd of William IV. The right of election was vested in persons having a freehold interest in burgage tenements, holden by a certain rent, fealty and suit of court to the Bishop of Winchester, who is lord of the borough, and paying reliefs on descent and fines on alienation.
The parish comprises by admeasurement 12,023 acres, of which 3230 are common or waste land. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £20; patrons and impropriators, the Warden and Fellows of Winchester College. The great tithes have been commuted for £1612, and the vicarial for £929. 5.; there are 126½ acres of glebe belonging to the impropriators, and 5¾ to the vicar. The church is a spacious edifice, consisting of a nave, aisle, transept, and chancel, with a central tower, which in 1791 was raised 30 feet higher, at the expense of the Earl of Radnor, who also largely contributed to the cost of some subsequent repairs in the body of the church; more recently, a neat organ and gallery have been erected by subscription. At Nunton is a chapel of ease; and a district church has been erected at Redlynch, by subscription, aided by a grant of £275 from the Incorporated Society; it is a neat edifice, containing 400 sittings, of which 350 are free, and was consecrated on July 24th, 1837. The living is in the gift of the Vicar. There are places of worship for General and Particular Baptists, and Wesleyans. A free school was founded in 1679, by Sir Joseph Ashe, Bart., and endowed with rents, &c., producing £40 per annum. In 1784, Mrs. Emma Noyes left by will £200, to be placed in the funds, and the interest applied in teaching children. In 1627, William Stockman gave Chadwell farm, in Whiteparish, now producing between £40 and £50 per annum, for the benefit of poor persons of Downton "surcharged with children." Here is an ancient cross, called the borough cross, on account of its having been the place for elections, except when a poll was demanded: in 1797, it was repaired at the expense of the burgesses. About two miles from Downton is Standlinch or Trafalgar House, bestowed by the nation, as a token of gratitude for distinguished services, on Admiral Lord Nelson.
Dowsby (St. Andrew)
DOWSBY (St. Andrew), a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Aveland, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 6 miles (N. by E.) from Bourne; containing 232 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have been the scene of a sanguinary battle between the Saxons and the Danes in the year 869; and near the north boundary of the parish are eight tumuli, thought to have been raised over the bodies of the slain. The parish is situated on the road from Bourne to Boston, and bounded on the east by the South Forty-foot drain, which is navigable to the latter town. It comprises by measurement 1810 acres, whereof 1005 are upland and undulated, and well planted with ash and other timber, and 805 are fen, drained, inclosed, and planted; the soil is a dark loamy earth, resting on clay, and very fertile. Stone of good quality for the roads is quarried. There are some remains of an ancient decoy, which, in the winter of 1735-6, from October to April, produced 13,180 ducks, realizing to the proprietor £385. 18., at the rate of 7s. per dozen. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £11. 19. 2., and in the gift of the Rev. K. Foster: the tithes have been commuted for £279. 12., and the glebe comprises 18¼ acres, and a glebe-house. The church is an ancient massive structure, with an embattled tower in the early English style.
DOXFORD, a township, in the parish of Ellingham, union of Alnwick, S. division of Bambrough ward, N. division of Northumberland, 7½ miles (N.) from Alnwick; containing 56 inhabitants. It is situated one mile south from Preston, and east of the road between Alnwick and Belford; not far distant is a stream which runs into the North Sea. There is a good quarry of freestone, from which Doxford House, a commodious and well-built mansion, formerly the residence of the Taylor family, was erected.
Doynton (Holy Trinity)
DOYNTON (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of Chipping-Sodbury, Upper division of the hundred of Langley and Swinehead, though locally in the hundred of Pucklechurch, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 6¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Bath; containing 529 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded by the river Boyd, comprises 1700 acres by computation, whereof two-thirds are pasture, and the rest arable and wood; the soil is partly a stiffish clay, resting on white lias, and in some places a good gravelly soil. The village is situated in a plain of about one square mile, entirely surrounded by hills. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 11. 3., and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £340, and there is a glebe-house. The body of the church is ancient, but the chancel was rebuilt about 1767. There is a place of worship for Independents. The Rev. William Langton, about 1668, gave money for the purchase of lands, now producing £30. 6. a year, for teaching and apprenticing children. On the summit of some lofty rocks between which runs the river Boyd, are intrenchments, supposed to be Roman.
DRAKEHOLES, a hamlet, partly in the parish of Clayworth, and partly in that of Everton, union of East Retford, North Clay division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham; containing 71 inhabitants.
DRAKELOW, a township, in the parish of Church-Gresley, union of Burton-upon-Trent, hundred of Repton and Gresley, S. division of the county of Derby, 3 miles (S. S. W.) from Burton; containing 62 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by the river Trent, and comprises by measurement 1400 acres, of which 100 are woodland and plantations, and of the remainder about one-third arable and two-thirds meadow and pasture; the soil is generally of a sandy quality. Here is one of the depôts on the line of the Chesterfield and Trent canal, which at this place passes through a tunnel 250 yards long.
Draughton (St. Catherine)
DRAUGHTON (St. Catherine), a parish, in the union of Brixworth, hundred of Rothwell, N. division of the county of Northampton, 11 miles (N.) from Northampton; containing 208 inhabitants. It comprises about 1420 acres, in about equal portions of arable and pasture: freestone of good quality is quarried for building and other purposes. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 2. 11., and in the gift of H. H. H. Hungerford, Esq., sole proprietor of the parish: the tithes have been commuted for £367. 10., and the glebe comprises nearly 5 acres. The church is an ancient edifice, with a tower, and neatly arranged interior. A school was built in 1841, and is supported by subscription.
DRAUGHTON, a township, in the parish and union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 3½ miles (E. by N.) from Skipton; containing 211 inhabitants. It is situated to the west of the river Wharfe, on the road from Skipton to Addingham, and comprises by computation 2660 acres, partly uninclosed. Far Berwick and Near Berwick farms are in the township.
Drax (St. Peter)
DRAX (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Selby, Lower division of the wapentake of Barkstone-Ash, W. riding of York; including the townships of Camblesforth and Newland; and containing 1161 inhabitants, of whom 364 are in the township of Drax, 7 miles (S. E.) from Selby, and 171 in that of Long Drax. The parish is bounded on the east and north-east by the river Ouse, and on the south-east by the Aire, which empties itself into the former a little above Booth Great Ferry-House. It comprises by computation 6474a. 3r. 38p., of which 4823 acres are arable, 1093 pasture, and 166 wood; the surface is level, and the situation is not very wholesome, though it has been much improved of late by drainage. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4, with a net income of £81; the patronage and impropriation belong to the Crown, and the impropriate tithes have been commuted for £1446. The church is a very ancient edifice. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A free grammar school was built in 1669, by Charles Reed, and endowed by him with £2000; he also erected six almshouses, to be kept in repair from the same fund, for three aged persons of each sex. The whole endowment is now £924 per annum. This benefactor, when an infant, is said to have been discovered lying among some reeds, and to have been, from that circumstance, named Reed; having been brought up by the parish, he was put to the sea service at the age of sixteen, and, after fifty years' absence, returned opulent, and testified his gratitude to his preservers by the above benevolent acts. The story of his having been a foundling, is, however, by most persons deemed fabulous, and is disproved by his will, in which he bequeaths legacies to several relations. A priory of Black canons was founded in the time of Henry I., by William Paynell, to the honour of St. Nicholas; the revenue, at the Dissolution, was valued at £121. 18. 3.