A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Limington (St. Mary)
LIMINGTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Yeovil, hundred of Stone, W. division of Somerset, 1¼ mile (E. S. E.) from Ilchester; containing 342 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Yeo, and comprises by measurement 1560 acres. Several of the younger females are employed in glove-making. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £21. 6. 5½., and in the gift of Wadham College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £410, and the glebe comprises seven acres. The church is a handsome structure in the later English style, and contains the effigy of Sir Richard Gyverney, founder of a chantry here, which has a stone roof richly groined; on a pew in the chancel is the cipher of Cardinal Wolsey, whose first preferment was the incumbency of the parish, presented to him by the Marquess of Dorset. There are some remains of a camp.
Limpenhoe (St. Botolph)
LIMPENHOE (St. Botolph), a parish, in the union and hundred of Blofield, E. division of Norfolk, 5¼ miles (S.) from Acle; containing 186 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south by the navigable river Yare, and intersected by the Norwich and Yarmouth railway: it comprises 1080 acres. An act was passed in 1840, for inclosing certain portions of land. The living is a discharged vicarage, annexed to the rectory of Southwood, and valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; patron and impropriator, J. F. Leathes, Esq. The church is an ancient structure in the early English style, with a low tower, and an enriched Norman doorway. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists.
Limpley-Stoke.—See Stoke, Limpley.
Limpsfield (St. Peter)
LIMPSFIELD (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Godstone, First division of the hundred of Tandridge, E. division of Surrey, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from Godstone; containing 1344 inhabitants. It is situated on the eastern confines of the county, on the road from Croydon to Maidstone, and comprises 3819 acres. The soil in the northern part is sand and gravel, and in the southern part clay: there are some chalk-pits. In the parish are some very pleasant residences. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 0. 5., and in the gift of W. L. Gower, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £694. The tower of the church stands near the middle of the south aisle, and is surmounted by a wooden spire. On Limpsfield common is a place of worship for Baptists.
Linacre, with Bootle, in the county of Lancaster.—See Bootle.
LINBRIGGS, a township, in the parish of Allenton, union of Rothbury, W. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 11 miles (W. by N.) from Rothbury; containing 62 inhabitants. This is a large township, consisting for the most part of fine green hills, and divided into stock farms. Bygate Hall, Makendon, Loungesknow, and Birdhope are all good sheep lands. The river Coquet, near the spot where the Ridlee burn joins it, is crossed by a bridge; several clear brooks run through the glens in the neighbourhood, and join the river.
Linby, or Lyndby (St. Michael)
LINBY, or Lyndby (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Basford, N. division of the wapentake of Broxtow and of the county of Nottingham, 7¾ miles (N. N. W.) from Nottingham; containing 271 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1480 acres, of which 153 are common or waste. Limestone of good quality is quarried for building and for burning into lime. There are two ancient crosses, one at each extremity of the village. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4. 9. 9½., and in the gift of Andrew Montagu, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £280, and the glebe comprises 30 acres. The church is a structure of small dimensions, with a tower, and a very neat interior.
LINCH, a parish, in the union of Midhurst, hundred of Easebourne, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 6 miles (N. N. W.) from Midhurst; containing 70 inhabitants. The manor is described in the Domesday survey under the name of Lince, and at the time when that record was compiled, there were two ministers here, with a church. In the 16th century, the place was parcel of the estates of the dukes of Norfolk; it afterwards became the property of Viscount Montague, and eventually of the family of Poyntz. The parish may be divided into the two portions of Woodman's Green, a well-wooded district on the road from Midhurst to Liphook; and Linch Farm, occupying about 700 acres at the base of the downs, and consisting of a fertile soil of chalk marl. The church formerly stood at the latter place, but falling into a very dilapidated state, the present edifice was built at Woodman's Green, and there are now no remains of the old structure. Woodman's Green is within the limits of the borough of Midhurst, under the Reform act. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £3. 12. 8½.; net income, £57; patron, the Earl of Egmont.
Linchmere, or Lynchmere
LINCHMERE, or Lynchmere, a parish, in the union of Midhurst, hundred of Easebourne, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 2 miles (E.) from Liphook; containing 280 inhabitants. Linchmere was held as of the honour of Arundel, by William de Perci, at an early period, and afterwards became the property of the family of Fitzalan; Sir William Fitzwilliam subsequently owned the place, and it has since descended as part of the Cowdray estate. No mention of Linchmere occurs in the Domesday survey. It is situated on the confines of the county, bordering upon Hampshire and Surrey, and comprises by admeasurement 2096 acres, of which 905 are woodland, 715 arable, 182 meadow and pasture, 24 garden and orchard, and about 250 waste; the surface is varied. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £60; patron and impropriator, the Rev. R. H. Baker. The church is chiefly in the early English style, and occupies an elevated site commanding rich prospects. The priory of Shulbrede, about half a mile from the church, in a sequestered spot, was founded by Ralph de Arderne, about the beginning of the reign of Henry III., for five canons of the order of St. Augustine; at the Dissolution the revenue was valued at £79. 15. 6.: there are some remains, now converted into a farmhouse.
LINCOLN, a city and county of itself, and the head of a union, locally in the county of Lincoln, of which it is the chief town, 132 miles (N. by W.) from London; containing within the city and ancient liberty 16,172 inhabitants, of whom 13,896 are in the city. This place was founded by the Britons, on the summit of a hill near the river Lindis (now the Witham), from which it derived its name; and has been distinguished, from a remote period of history, as a city of importance. On the invasion by the Romans, that people made it one of their principal stations in this part of the island, and established here a colony, which, in reference to the ancient British name of the place, they called Lindum Colonia; to which term, through all the variations and contractions in its orthography by the Saxons, Danes, and Normans, the present appellation Lincoln, may be distinctly traced. The Roman city was in the form of a parallelogram, defended by strong walls, and intersected at right angles by two streets, at the extremities of which were four gates. Of these gates, the northern, now called Newport gate, partly remaining, forms one of the most interesting relics of Roman architecture in the kingdom: it consisted of three archways; the central arch is formed of large rough stone apparently laid without mortar; one of the lateral arches is built up, and the other open. To the south-west of the gate is a considerable angular fragment of a Roman building, supposed to have been a mint; and there are various portions of the original fortifications, besides the remains of a bath and a sudatorium.
After the departure of the Romans from Britain, Lincoln was made the capital of the kingdom of Mercia by the Saxons, in opposing whom, Vortimer, who greatly signalized himself, had been slain and interred here. During the repeated encounters which had taken place, the city had suffered much injury; and for the security of its new inhabitants, it was substantially repaired: that part without the gate of Newport, originally occupied by the Britons, was entirely rebuilt, and fortified with walls and a moat. In 786, the Danes took the city by assault, but it was retaken by the Saxons; and in these conflicts, which were resumed with extreme obstinacy, the northern suburb was completely destroyed. At length, on the subjugation of the Danes by Alfred the Great, tranquillity was restored; but under his successors the invaders renewed their attacks, and ultimately, in the partition of the kingdom between the contending parties, Lincoln, with the rest of the kingdom of Mercia, came into the possession of Canute.
At the time of the Conquest, a castle was erected here by William, which occupied nearly one-fourth part of the Roman city, and to make room for the erection of which, not less than 240 houses were taken down. In Domesday book the city is stated to contain 52 parishes; and it afterwards became the occasional residence of several monarchs, who contributed to adorn it with a variety of splendid buildings, the numerous vestiges of which, in various parts of the town, convey but a faint idea of its former grandeur and importance. In 1140, the castle was surprised by the forces of a party in the interest of the Empress Matilda. It was subsequently besieged by Stephen, aided by the inhabitants; but the Earl of Gloucester coming to its assistance with a powerful army, Stephen was defeated in battle, and remained for a short time a prisoner, till an exchange could be effected with the earl, who had been subsequently captured. After his restoration to the throne, Stephen celebrated the festival of Christmas here, in 1144. Henry II. having been crowned king of England in London, underwent the ceremony of coronation a second time at Wigford, a little to the south of this city. John, in the third year of his reign, received here the homage of David, King of Scotland; and during his struggle with the barons, the inhabitants remained steadily attached to his cause, and withstood the attempts of the opposing army for a considerable time; but the city was at last captured by Gilbert de Gaunt, afterwards created Earl of Lincoln. The castle was retaken by a party of royalists, having been defended for nearly twelve months; it fell again, however, into the hands of the barons, and John, while marching to attack it with a powerful army, lost all his carriages in crossing the washes. After the death of this monarch, his son, Henry III., assisted by the inhabitants of Lincoln, who adhered firmly to the royal cause, continued the war with the barons, who, assisted by Louis, the Dauphin of France, laid siege to the city, but were vigorously repulsed by the inhabitants; many of the besiegers, endeavouring to escape, were drowned in the river Witham, and several others were taken prisoners. The castle, after remaining for a considerable length of time in the possession of the crown, came to the celebrated John of Gaunt, who made it his summer residence, and is said to have erected a palace here. Edward I. held parliaments in Lincoln in 1301 and 1305; Edward II., in 1316 and the year following; and Edward III., in the first of his reign: it was visited by Henry VI., who held his court in the bishop's palace; and Henry VII., after the battle of Bosworth-Field, spent three days at Lincoln, where he made a splendid procession, and offered up public thanksgiving for his victory over Richard III. During the parliamentary war, the inhabitants embraced the royal cause, and the city was alternately in the possession of the contending parties, from both of whom it sustained considerable injury, more especially in its ecclesiastical edifices, which were converted into barracks by the soldiers of Cromwell's army. Among the disastrous events which have befallen Lincoln may be recorded the great storm in 701, which occasioned the destruction of 120 houses and many public buildings. In 1110, an accidental fire nearly consumed the whole city; and in 1185 it was damaged by an earthquake. It may also be mentioned, that on the 27th of July, 1255, eighteen Jews were executed for the alleged crime of crucifying a child, and many more were murdered by the enraged mob.
The city is pleasantly situated on the summit and declivities of an eminence rising from the river Witham, the suburbs extending for a considerable distance along the vale to the north and south. In the upper part the streets are narrow, and the buildings, with the exception of those connected with the cathedral, are of rather mean appearance; the lower part consists principally of one spacious street, and under an act of parliament obtained some years ago, many judicious alterations and improvements have been effected. The city is paved, and lighted with gas, and has three public conduits, of which that near St. Mary's church, Wigford, is an elegant building in the later English style, decorated with a pierced parapet; and that near the High bridge is ornamented with an obelisk, erected in 1763. An act for a better supply of water was passed in 1846. The city library, established in 1814; the medical library, instituted in 1825; the mechanics' institute; and the topographical society, are well supported: there are two newsrooms, and several book societies. The theatre is opened in September, October, and November; and assemblies are held in the city and county assemblyrooms. The races take place in September; a handsome stand has been lately erected on the course. In various parts of the town are remains of the monastic and other establishments which flourished here; of these, the remains of John of Gaunt's palace are distinguished by a beautiful oriel window, and a building said to have been the stables belonging to the palace has a finely-enriched Norman arch, with some interesting details of early English architecture. Of the castle, which occupied the south-eastern angle of the Roman city, very little remains, except part of the outer walls, which were seven feet thick, and the gateway tower: the site was appropriated to the erection of the county gaol.
At the time of the Norman survey, Lincoln was distinguished for its commercial importance. Edward III. conferred a charter upon the weavers, prohibiting the exercise of the trade at any other place within twelve leagues of the city; but this decree, in 1351, was abolished by another, called "the statute of cloths," and in the following year, on the removal of the staple of wool from Flanders, it was established in this town, to which was also granted the staple of lead and of leather. From the time of Edward III., however, till the commencement of the eighteenth century, the trade of the town gradually declined, and there are now no manufactures, the business being principally in corn and wool. The Fosse-dyke, a Roman work of considerable benefit to the interests of Lincoln, which Henry I. deepened, having again become unnavigable, from the accumulation of sand in its channel, the corporation in 1741 granted a lease of two-thirds of it for 999 years, at a rent of £50 per annum, and of the remaining third, for 99 years, at £25 per annum, to Mr. Ellison, of Thorne, by whose spirited exertions it was cleared from its obstructions, and re-opened in 1745. It was widened and made deeper in 1826, and at present forms a line of communication, twelve miles in length, from the Witham to the Trent, completing the navigation from Boston and the eastern coast to the Humber and the Ouse, and to the several canals in the counties of Derby, Nottingham, Stafford, and York. An act was passed in 1845 for a railway to Gainsborough, and an act in 1846 for a railway-to Market-Rasen; in August 1846 a railway was opened to Newark and Nottingham, and a great station has since been completed here. The market, on Friday, is held for corn in a spacious square, called Corn Hill, in the parish of St. Mary; for butter and poultry, in a neat building near the church of St. Peter's at Arches, erected in 1736; for butcher's meat, in large shambles, erected by the corporation in 1774, adjoining Butcherylane, and divided into convenient compartments; for fish, at the High bridge; and for cattle, in the Beastsquare on the south of the city gaol. Fairs are held on the Thursday before the fifth Sunday in Lent, and every alternate Thursday till the April fair (which commences on the third Tuesday in that month, and continues four days); the Friday in Easter-week; July 5th; the Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday after September 12th; October 6th; and November 28th. A market for fatcattle is held every other Wednesday; and there are statutes for hiring servants, on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Fridays after Old May-day.
Lincoln has from an early period enjoyed many privileges by prescription. At what period it was originally constituted a corporation does not appear from any record. The oldest charter granted by the crown to the city, at this time in existence, is one by Henry II.; and numerous others were bestowed by various succeeding sovereigns prior to that of the 4th of Charles I., which until 1836, was the governing charter. In the reign of Edward IV., the city, with the parishes of Branston, Waddington, Canwick, and Bracebridge, was erected into a county, under the designation of the "City and County of the City of Lincoln;" but these four parishes, by the act 6th and 7th of William IV., cap. 103, "for making temporary provision for the boundaries of certain boroughs," ceased to be liberties of the city, and were assigned to the county at large; and the parishes of St. Mary Magdalene and St. Paul, and part of the parish of St. Margaret, formerly in the wapentake of Lawress, are now included in the municipal borough. The control is vested in a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 18 councillors, agreeably with the provisions of the Municipal Corporations' act; the borough is divided into two wards, called Minster and Bridge, and being a county of itself, a sheriff is appointed by the council: the number of magistrates is twelve. The freedom is inherited by all the sons of a freeman, or acquired by servitude; among the privileges is that of pasturing a greater number of cattle on the common lands than a non-freeman. The city first exercised the elective franchise in the 49th of Henry III., since which time it has continued to return two members to parliament: the right of election was once vested in the freemen generally, whether resident or not, but is now in accordance with the Reform act: the sheriff is returning officer. There is a court of quarter-sessions; and pettysessions are held weekly in apartments adjoining the city gaol. The powers of the county debt-court of Lincoln, established in 1847, extend over part of the registration-district of Lincoln. The city is the place of election for the parliamentary representatives of the parts of Lindsey.
The guildhall is an ancient embattled structure, rebuilt in the reign of Richard II. The south front consists of a fine arched gateway, flanked with two round towers: in a niche in the eastern tower is a statue of the angel Gabriel holding a scroll, and in a corresponding niche in front of the western tower is a statue of the Virgin Mary treading on a serpent; above the gateway, and in front of the towers, are the city arms and others. The sessions-house for the city is a neat brick edifice, erected in the New road, in 1809; and behind it is the city gaol and house of correction. The assizes for the county are held in the county-hall, an elegant structure, erected in 1823, after a design by Smirke, at a cost of £40,000. Petty-sessions for the parts of Kesteven are held on the first Friday in every month, at the Rein-Deer inn; those for the parts of Lindsey are held every Friday at the "Judges' Lodgings," a handsome mansion, on the Castle hill. The county gaol stands on the south side of the area inclosed within the castle walls; the buildings are constructed on the plan of Mr. Howard.
Lincoln was erected into a see in the reign of William Rufus, when, in pursuance of the decree of a synod held at London, for the removal of all sees to fortified places, Remigius, Bishop of Dorchester, fixed upon this city as the seat of his diocese, and purchased lands for the erection of a church, an episcopal palace, and other requisite buildings. Having built the church, Remigius died previously to its consecration; and his successor, Robert Bloet, completed his design, beautified the cathedral, and increased the number of prebends. The diocese, which was originally very extensive, was in the reign of Henry II. curtailed by the separation of a part, to form the diocese of Ely; and in the reign of Henry VIII. it was further diminished by the separation of districts for the sees of Oxford and Peterborough; but it is still one of the largest in the kingdom, its jurisdiction extending over the counties of Lincoln and Nottingham. The ecclesiastical establishment consists of a bishop, dean, precentor, chancellor, sub-dean, three archdeacons, four canons residentiary, a number of non-resident and of honorary canons, four minor canons, an organist, seven poor clerks, eight choristers, seven Burghurst chanters, &c. The bishop has the patronage of the archdeaconries, the chancellorships of the church and diocese, and the canonries, with an income of £4000: on the next avoidance the income will be £5000. The Dean and Chapter have the patronage of the minor canonries.
The cathedral, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is situated on the summit of the hill, near the castle. The original buildings, soon after their completion by Bishop Bloet, were greatly injured by an accidental fire, and were repaired by his successor, Bishop Alexander, who, to prevent the recurrence of a similar calamity, covered the aisles with a vaulted roof of stone; the pressure of this being too great for the strength of the walls, St. Hugh, a subsequent bishop, rebuilt the church in the reign of Henry II., and it has been since embellished and enlarged by various succeeding bishops. The prevailing character of this noble building is the early English style, intermixed occasionally with the decorated and later styles; the form is that of a double cross. The west front is partly Norman, intermixed with the richest character of the early English: the doorways are moulded and decorated with sculpture and statuary; over the central entrance are statues of several of the kings of England, and above is a fine window, highly enriched with tracery: the western towers are of Norman character in the lower stages, and of early English in the upper. A lofty and magnificent tower rises from the intersection of the nave and the principal transepts, and was formerly surmounted by a spire, which, in 1547, fell down and greatly damaged the roof: there were also spires on the western towers, which were taken down in 1807. The nave is spacious, and lighted by clerestory windows; the roof, as well as the roofs of the aisles, is vaulted, and supported on piers of peculiar richness, and arches of graceful form. At the end of the north transept is a circular window of early English character; and at the extremity of the south transept is one of the most beautiful specimens of a decorated circular window extant. The choir, which is separated from the nave by an elaborately carved stone screen, is remarkably rich in its embellishments: the window, of eight lights, is a fine composition of flowing tracery, of decorated character, and over the altar is a good painting of the Annunciation, by the Rev. W. Peters, R.A.; the piers and arches which support the roof are in the richest character of the early English style, and the bishop's throne and the prebendal stalls are beautiful specimens of tabernacle-work, highly ornamented. The Lady chapel, and some smaller chapels adjoining it, are peculiarly elegant. Among the numerous monuments are some of exquisite design; under an arch, to the south of the Lady chapel, and in the south aisle, are those of Bishops Russell and Longland, whose effigies are finely sculptured. In the north-west tower is the celebrated bell called Tom of Lincoln, of which the weight is above five tons, and the tone peculiarly excellent.
Three sides of the cloisters are yet remaining in their original state, and exhibit a specimen of the decorated style; on the fourth side is the library, of later erection, containing an extensive collection of books, and some curious Roman antiquities. In the centre of the quadrangle, and at some depth from the surface, a tessellated pavement was discovered a few years since, over which a covering has been placed to protect it from injury. On the east side of the cloisters is a passage leading to the chapter-house, an elegant building in the form of a decagon, whose finely-vaulted roof is supported on a single pillar in the centre. There are some remains of the episcopal palace, and of the conventual buildings connected with this extensive establishment, which, in grandeur, beauty, and antiquity, holds a prominent rank among the ecclesiastical edifices in the kingdom.
Lincoln formerly contained 52 parochial churches, of which 34 were destroyed prior to the time of Edward VI. It comprises at present the parishes of St. Benedict, with 693 inhabitants; St. Botolph, 727; St. John Newport, 205; St. Margaret-in-the-Close, 330; St. Mark, 445; St. Martin, 2283; St. Mary-le-Wigford, 912; St. Mary Magdalene-in-the-Bail, 613; St. Michael-on-the Mount, 1135; St. Nicholas Newport, 1053; St. Paulin-the-Bail, 492; St. Peter-at-Arches, 548; St. Peterin-Eastgate, 658; St. Peter-at-Gowts, 875; and St. Swithin, 2634. The living of St. Benedict's is a perpetual curacy; net income, £90; patron, the Prebendary of North Kelsey in the Cathedral. The church is an ancient building, retaining some portions of Norman architecture. The living of St. Botolph's is a perpetual curacy; net income, £116; patron, the Bishop. St. John's Newport is a vicarage not in charge, united to that of St. Nicholas' Newport: the church has long been demolished. The living of St. Margaret's-in-the-Close is a perpetual curacy, united to that of St. Peter's-in-Eastgate: the church was taken down in 1778, and soon afterwards rebuilt. St. Mark's is a perpetual curacy; net income, £80; patron, the Precentor of the Cathedral. St. Martin's is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 13. 4.; net income, £138; patron, the Prebendary of St. Martin's in the Cathedral. St. Mary's Wigford is a discharged vicarage, valued at £5. 3. 9.; net income, £115; patron, the Bishop. The church retains considerable portions of its ancient Norman character. St. Mary Magdalene's-in-the-Bail is a discharged rectory, valued at £5; net income, £120; patrons, the Dean and Chapter. St. Michael's-on-theMount is a perpetual curacy; net income, £116; patron, the Precentor of the Cathedral. The church is of comparatively modern erection. St. Nicholas' Newport is a vicarage not in charge; net income, £89; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter. The church was consecrated in Nov. 1840, and is in the early English style, with a tower and spire rising to the height of 93 feet. St. Paul's-in-the-Bail is a discharged rectory, valued at £2. 5. 10.; net income, £68; patron, the Archdeacon of Lincoln. St. Peter's-at-Arches is a discharged rectory, valued at £5. 12. 8½., and in the gift of the Crown; net income, £59. The church has been elegantly rebuilt as the corporation church, and is fitted up in an appropriate style. St. Peter's-in-Eastgate is a perpetual curacy, with that of St. Margaret's-in-the-Close, united in 1778; net income, £147; patrons, the Precentor and the Bishop, alternately. The church has been rebuilt. St. Peter's-at-Gowts is a perpetual curacy; net income, £64; patron, the Precentor. The church is an old edifice, and has considerable vestiges of its ancient Norman character. St. Swithin's is a perpetual curacy; patron, the Precentor; appropriators, the Dean and Chapter; net income, £150. The church is of modern erection. There are places of worship in the city for General and Particular Baptists, the Society of Friends, the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, Independents, Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, Unitarians, and Roman Catholics.
The free grammar school was founded in 1583: a school formerly maintained by the Dean and Chapter, in the Cathedral Close, has been united to it, and the present school is supported partly by the Dean and Chapter, who appoint the master, and partly by the corporation. The premises form a portion of the old Franciscan priory, which was fitted up for use in 1583, by the founder of the school. A Blue-coat school was established in 1602, by Richard Smith, M.D., who granted lands at Potter-Hanworth for its support; and among the other schools, is a diocesan school, a large brick building in the Elizabethan style, completed in July, 1841, at a cost of about £5000. The county hospital, a handsome building, was erected in 1769; and the lunatic asylum, a spacious edifice with a portico of the Ionic order, in 1820, at an expense of £15,000. There are numerous benefactions for the relief of the poor, among which may be noticed a bequest by John Smith, Esq., of lands now producing £600 per annum; a legacy by Lady Margaret Thorold, of Marlston, in the year 1731, of £1500 South Sea annuities, for the purchase of land now yielding £60 per annum; and the great tithes of Glemham, bequeathed by Sutton, founder of the Charter-House, London. The union of Lincoln comprises 87 parishes or places, with a population of 36,110.
Among the many monastic institutions that existed here, were, a nunnery founded prior to the erection of the cathedral, and the site of which is occupied by the dean's house; an hospital for lepers, near the city, founded by Remigius, first bishop of Lincoln, or, according to other authorities, by Henry I., and of which the revenue in the reign of Edward III. was £30; a priory of Gilbertine canons, founded by Robert, second bishop of Lincoln, and dedicated to St. Catherine, of which the revenue at the Dissolution was £270. 1. 3.; a priory of Benedictine monks, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, and a cell to the abbey at York, founded prior to the reign of Henry II., and of which the remains, now called Monks' house, about half a mile to the east of the city, consist of the walls of several apartments and a small chapel; a house of Franciscan friars, of uncertain date; and houses of Carmelite and Augustine friars, the former founded in 1269, and the latter in 1291. Within the close, a college of priests to officiate at the altar of St. Nicholas in the cathedral, was founded in 1355 by Sir Nicholas de Cantelupe; and there were various other establishments, of several of which traces may be distinctly perceived in the city and its environs. The Jew's house is an ancient edifice of curious design, and belonged to Belaset de Wallingford, a Jewess, who was hanged in the reign of Edward I. for clipping the coin. Near Brayford water are some vestiges of a fort called Lucy Tower, between which and the castle was a subterraneous communication. In the city is a chalybeate spring of considerable strength. Lincoln gives the inferior title of Earl to the Duke of Newcastle.
LINCOLNSHIRE, a maritime county, bounded on the north by the broad estuary of the Humber; on the east, by the North Sea, and by the wide arm of it called the Wash; on the south, by the counties of Cambridge, Northampton, and Rutland; and on the west, by those of Leicester, Nottingham, and York. It extends from 52° 40' to 53° 43' (N. Lat.), and from 0°. 21' (E. Lon.) to 0° 57' (W. Lon.); and contains 2748 square miles, or 1,758,720 statute acres. Within its limits are 72,964 houses inhabited, 2246 uninhabited, and 454 in progress of erection; and the population amounts to 362,602, of which number 181,758 are males.
The county was included in the territory of the Coritani, and, subsequently, in the Roman division of Britain called Britannia Prima. From the remains of the Romans still in existence, it is evident that those conquerors not only considered the district of importance, in the state in which they found it, but also made considerable efforts towards removing the natural disadvantages, which have in a great degree disappeared before the more successful exertions of later ages. During the Anglo-Saxon era it formed a part of the kingdom of Mercia; its northern portion, the division of Lindsey, being wrested from that kingdom by Edwin of Northumbria. Christianity seems to have been introduced here soon after the conversion of that sovereign, by the Romish missionary, Paulinus, who, according to Bede, after completing the great work of conversion in Northumbria, came into the northern part of Mercia; converted Blecca, then governor of Lincoln; and baptized many people of this district in the river Trent. The see of Sidnacester, which is known to have comprised the province of Lindsey (although the site of Sidnacester itself is a subject of dispute among antiquaries) was established in 678, and continued until the eleventh century. The territory forming this county, owing to its locality, was particularly exposed to the incursions and ravages of the Danes, who wreaked their sanguinary fury upon it with especial frequency and violence.
Lincolnshire is included in the diocese of Lincoln, and province of Canterbury, and comprehends the archdeaconries of Lincoln and Stow, each containing several deaneries, and together comprising 609 parishes. It is divided into three grand "Parts;" namely, Lindsey, which is by much the largest, including nearly one-half of the county; Kesteven, which forms the south-western part; and Holland, the south-eastern; and each of these districts is subdivided into several hundreds or wapentakes. The county contains the city of Lincoln; the borough and market towns of Boston, Grantham, Grimsby, and Stamford; and the market-towns of Alford, Barton-upon-Humber, Bolingbroke, Bourne, Caistor, Donington, Epworth, Falkingham, Gainsborough, Glandford-Brigg, Holbeach, Horncastle, Kirton, Louth, Market-Deeping, Market-Rasen, Sleaford, Spalding, Spilsby, Long Sutton, Swineshead, Tattershall, Wainfleet, and Wragby. Under the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, four knights are returned for the shire, two being for the Parts of Lindsey, and two for the Parts of Kesteven and of Holland; two citizens are returned for the city of Lincoln, and two burgesses for each of the boroughs, except Grimsby, which sends only one. Lincolnshire is within the Midland circuit, and the assizes are held at Lincoln, where stands the county gaol.
The surface of Lincolnshire may be divided into the lowland tracts, comprising about 776,960 acres; the heaths, about 118,400; the Wolds, about 234,880; and a fourth portion having no distinguishing feature. The soils, besides other varieties in different situations, comprise clay, sand, loam, chalk, and peat, which are all found in extensive districts. The extreme flatness of the Lincolnshire coast, together with the slight fall of the rivers in the lower part of their course, and the consequent sluggishness of their waters, which terminate in estuaries at the two extremities of the county, occasioned the formation, in remote ages, of very large marshes, occupying the whole eastern side of the county, and being upwards of a third of its area. The improvement of the marshes attracted even the attention of the Romans, by whom works were constructed to carry off the superabundant waters; and since that period numerous undertakings have been accomplished under commissions and legislative enactments, made in different reigns, from the Anglo-Saxon era to the present time. The effect of these, by cleansing the channels and improving the outfalls of rivers, by constructing canals, sluices, and drains, and by raising embankments, has been to convert about 180,000 acres of unprofitable fen into firm arable and grazing land, a vast portion of which may be classed amongst the richest and most productive in the kingdom. Rape is very extensively cultivated, more especially in the fens and lowlands; it is chiefly applied to the feeding of sheep. The woad grown is upon the deep rich loams, and frequently on the saline maritime levels; and as the plant thrives best on soil that has been under grass, pasture land is commonly broken up for its cultivation. The common artificial grasses are red and white clover, trefoil, lucerne, and sainfoin, with various kinds of hayseeds. Onions are cultivated in the Isle of Axholme. But the rich grazing-lands of Lincolnshire are its distinguishing feature, in an agricultural point of view; they are to be found on a loamy clay, sometimes very stiff, but of uncommon fertility, and occupy a considerable portion of the county. The circumstance of the tides which come up the Trent, Ouse, Don, and other rivers that fall into the Humber, being exceedingly muddy, has given rise to the peculiar practice of warping, which is performed by letting in the water over the level lands at high tide, whereby the muddy particles, provincially called warp, are deposited, and then permitting the water to run off again at the ebb, by means of canals and sluices.
The two principal breeds of cattle are the Lincolnshire short-horned and the Leicestershire long-horned, the former of which is generally preferred. In the vicinity of Falkingham is a dun-coloured breed, said to have been originally brought from the Isle of Alderney; and in different parts are a few cattle of other breeds and crosses. The chief objects of the farmer being breeding and fattening, there are no dairies except for private use and the supply of the neighbouring markets with butter. The two prevailing kinds of sheep are the native Lincoln and the Leicester, the latter of which has become very general: it is computed that not less than 2,400,000 sheep are usually kept in the county. A considerable number of horses is bred, especially in Holland Fen; about Normanby, Barton, &c., many saddle and coach horses are reared, and on the Wolds some of the finest blood horses in the kingdom, greater attention being paid to them here than even in Yorkshire or Durham. Many thousand acres are occupied as rabbitwarrens in the county; and numerous flocks of geese are kept in the low fenny tracts, though not to the same extent as formerly. Few branches of manufacture are carried on. A good deal of flax is spun and woven into linen in the neighbourhood of Normanby and Barton; and in Holland Fen the female population spin flax, and, about Falkingham, flax and hemp. At the port of Gainsborough, besides ship-building, which is an important branch of business, a considerable quantity of rope and coarse hemp sacking is made.
The principal rivers are, the Trent, the Welland, the Witham, and the Ancholme. The Trent, after having separated the tract called the Isle of Axholme from the great body of the county, unites with the Ouse in forming the large estuary of the Humber; it is navigable up to Gainsborough for merchant vessels of considerable burthen, and for barges in all the rest of its course along the border of Lincolnshire. The Welland enters the county on the south, and divides into two branches, one of which proceeds south-by-east to Wisbech, in the county of Cambridge, apparently in the natural channel of the stream; while the other continues a sluggish course through an artificial bed to Spalding, below which town, after being enlarged by the waters of the Glen, it empties itself into Foss-dyke Wash, to the south of Boston. The Witham rises near South Witham, about ten miles north of Stamford, and falls into the ocean at Boston Deeps. The Ancholme rises in the Wolds near Market-Rasen, and empties itself into the Humber, from which it has been rendered navigable as high as Bishopbridge. The large bay, or estuary, called the Wash, into which the rivers passing through the immense tracts of fen land in the south-eastern parts of the county are disembogued, is for the most part extremely shallow, and full of shifting sands. An artificial navigation was cut in 1788, along the course of the Witham, from Boston to Lincoln, whence the line is continued by the Fossdyke canal to the Trent; and a canal from the river Witham, at Sleaford, to Boston, was finished in 1796. The Grantham canal, completed also in 1796, at an expense of about £100,000, extends from Grantham, through the north-easternmost part of Leicestershire, to the Trent, near Holme-Pierrepoint, being 33 miles in length. A navigable canal has been formed from Horncastle to the river Witham, at Dog-dyke, near Tattershall; and another from Louth to the sea at Tetney.
The Roman stations were, Ad Abum, supposed to have been at Winterton; Aquis, at Aukborough; Bannovallium, at Horncastle, or Ludford; Causennæ, at Ancaster, or Great Ponton; Crococolana, at Brough; Lindum, at Lincoln; and Vainona, at Wainfleet. Remains of Roman buildings, and various miscellaneous relics, have been found on the sites of these different stations; and some remains of minor importance have been discovered at Scampton, Torksey, Stow, Gainsborough, Caistor, Well, Gedney-Hill, Whaplode, Pinchbeck, Sleaford, Little Ponton, and Denton. The British Ermin-street, which was afterwards used by the Romans, enters the county to the west of Stamford, and about five miles to the north of Lincoln has a branch diverging from it in a north-western direction to Doncaster: another branch from the Ermin-street, about six miles north of Stamford, proceeded towards Ad Pontem, in its way to Southwell and Bawtry. The Fosse-way, beginning on the coast, not far from Ludborough, is visible from Ludford to Lincoln, also forward to Brough, and beyond that place in its course towards Newark. The British road called the Salt-way branched from the Ermin-street near Ponton, and ran by Denton into Leicestershire. There are remains of other British trackways, particularly of one running from Horncastle towards Caistor and the Humber. The Old Sea Bank is supposed to have been constructed by the Romans, to protect the district of South Holland from inundation; and the large drain called the Car-dyke, signifying the "fen dyke," is ascribed to the same people; it extends from the river Welland, on the south side of the county, to the Witham, near Lincoln, and is sixty feet wide, with a broad flat bank on each side.
Prior to the Reformation, there were 108 religious houses, including five alien priories, five houses of the Knights Templars, five colleges, and fourteen hospitals; the principal remains are those of the abbeys of Bardney, Barlings, Crowland, and Swineshead, of Semperingham Priory, and of Thornton College. The most remarkable ancient castellated buildings remaining, either wholly or in part, are the castles of Tattershall, Torksey, Lincoln, and Falkingham; and there are similar remains at Horncastle, Caistor, Somerton, Stamford, Scrivelsby, Bolingbroke, Pinchbeck, and Pilham; to which may be added Moor, Kyme, and Hussey towers. Of the castles of Bourne and Sleaford, only the earthworks now exist. There are ancient encampments near Brocklesby, Hibalston, Broughton, Roxby, Winterton Cliffs, Aukborough, Yarborough, South Ormsby, Burwell, Stamford, Gainsborough, Winteringham, Humington, Ingoldsby, Castle-Charlton, Burgh, Brough, and Barrow. In the parishes of Tetney, Fulstow, and the vicinity, are some blow-wells, or flowing pits of clear water, about thirty feet in depth; the discharge of which is very powerful. The division of Lindsey gives the title of Earl to the family of Bertie; and that of Holland confers the dignity of Baron upon the family of Fox.
LINDALE, a chapelry, in the township of Upper Allithwaite, parish of Cartmel, union of Ulverston, hundred of Lonsdale north of the Sands, N. division of Lancashire, 10 miles (W. by S.) from Milnthorpe. This place, the scenery of which is wild and rocky, lies on the road between Ulverston and Lancaster, with an arm of Morecambe bay running up to it. In the inlet is a beautiful island, about twelve acres in extent, on which is a handsome house, the property of John Thomson, Esq., who has embellished the island with a small but elegant Chinese temple. In Lindale is the residence of George Webster, Esq., whose grounds contain an extensive and curious collection of shrubs and evergreens, laid out with great taste; above the mansion is a tower, placed upon a lofty eminence. A neat house, called Blawith Cottage, belongs to Thomas Holme Maude, Esq.: it has a southern aspect, commanding an extensive view over the Lancaster sands. The living is a perpetual curacy, net income, £71; patron, the Earl of Burlington: there is a glebe of 26 acres of arable and pasture land, with a glebe-house. The church was rebuilt in 1828, and is a neat structure containing 115 free sittings, the Incorporated Society having granted £125 in aid of the expense. There is a national school for boys.—See the article on Allithwaite, Upper.
Lindeth, or Lindreth.—See Warton.
Lindfield (St. John the Baptist)
LINDFIELD (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Cuckfield, hundred of Burleigh-Arches, or Burarches, rape of Pevensey, E. division of Sussex, 3¾ miles (E. by N.) from Cuckfield; containing 1939 inhabitants. The parish is on the river Ouse, and comprises 5826a. 3r. 22p. The village, in which is a post-office, is pleasantly situated on the road from London to Brighton; and the London and Brighton railway passes within a mile to the west of it. A corn-market is held on Monday; and there are fairs for sheep and cattle on the 1st of April and 12th of May, and for lambs on the 5th of August. The living is held by an impropriator, who pays a curate a small stipend, which is augmented by subscription. About two-fifths of the parish are tithe-free; the impropriator receives about £500 per annum. The church is in the decorated and later English styles. There is a place of worship for Independents; also a school of industry, founded by William Allen, Esq., of London, for the instruction of children in the art of agriculture, and in various trades. Here are several chalybeate springs.
LINDHURST, an extra-parochial place, in the union of Mansfield, Southwell division of the wapentake of Thurgarton, S. division of the county of Nottingham; comprising 716 acres, and containing 10 inhabitants.
LINDLEY, a hamlet, in the parish of Higham-onthe-Hill, hundred of Sparkenhoe, S. division of the county of Leicester, 5¼ miles (W. by N.) from Hinckley; containing 76 inhabitants. Here are the ruins of a chapel. William Burton, the antiquary, and his brother Robert, author of the Anatomy of Melancholy, were natives of this place, the former born in 1575, and the latter in 1576.
Lindley cum Quarmby
LINDLEY cum Quarmby, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 2 miles (N. W.) from Huddersfield; containing 2881 inhabitants. The chapelry comprises 1403a. 1r. 28p., of which about 30 acres are woodland, and the remainder, with a trifling exception, pasture; the surface is elevated, commanding views of Huddersfield and the surrounding country. The substratum abounds with good buildingstone, which is extensively quarried. The village is large and well built, and the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the woollen manufacture, for which there are four large establishments. A district church, dedicated to St. Stephen, was erected in 1830, at an expense of £2700, by the Parliamentary Commissioners; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, and contains 800 sittings, of which one-half are free. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £164, with an excellent glebe-house in the Elizabethan style, erected in 1838, at an expense of £1200; patron, the Vicar of Huddersfield. The site for the church and cemetery was given by John Thornhill, Esq., lord of the manor. There are places of worship for Baptists, Kilhamites, and Wesleyans.
LINDLEY, a township, in the parish of Otley, Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 3¾ miles (N. E. by N.) from Otley; containing 140 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 1760 acres. The village consists of a few scattered houses, in the vale of the Washburn rivulet, on the banks of which are some corn-mills. Here are considerable remains of an ancient hall, the seat of the Palmes family, who are interred in Otley church.
LINDRICK, an extra-parochial liberty, in the Lower division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 2¾ miles (W. by S.) from Ripon; containing 17 inhabitants. It comprises 800 acres, divided into two wellcultivated farms. The tithes have been commuted for £8. 10., payable to the Dean and Chapter of Ripon.
Lindridge (All Saints)
LINDRIDGE (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Tenbury, Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, though locally in the Upper division of that of Doddingtree, Tenbury and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 5½ miles (E.) from Tenbury; containing, with the chapelries of Knighton-upon-Teame and Pensax, 1815 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the west by Shropshire, and on the south by the river Teame, comprises 6168 acres, of which 2486 are in the township: the soil is fertile; the land of uneven surface. The road from Worcester to Tenbury and Ludlow passes through for seven miles; that from Kidderminster for about four; and the Leominster canal for about two miles. 1408 acres of the parish are the property of Sir William Smith, Bart. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £26. 12. 11.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Worcester. The great tithes have been commuted for £479, and the vicarial for £600, out of which £100 are paid to the incumbent of Knighton, and a like sum to the incumbent of Pensax: the glebe comprises 107 acres, with a house. The church is an ancient structure with a tower and spire; it stands conspicuously on the side of a hill, and has a picturesque appearance: the interior and the churchyard contain many monuments of early date.
LINDSELL, a parish, in the union and hundred of Dunmow, N. division of Essex, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) from Thaxted; containing 393 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8; net income, £134; patrons and impropriators, the Executors of the late S. Algar, Esq. The church, a small ancient edifice, consists of a nave and chancel, with a steeple on the south side.
Lindsey (St. Peter)
LINDSEY (St. Peter), a parish, in the union and hundred of Cosford, W. division of Suffolk, 4 miles (W. N. W.) from Hadleigh; containing 290 inhabitants, and comprising 1246a. 1r. 9p. The woollen manufacture was formerly carried on; and an article made here, was, for its peculiar quality, distinguished by the name of "Linsey Woolsey." The living is a perpetual curacy, with that of Kersey annexed; net income, £112; patrons and impropriators, the Provost and Fellows of King's College, Cambridge, whose tithes have been commuted for £320. On a farm called the Chapel Farm, are the remains of an old chapel dedicated to St. James, now used as a barn; and on the same estate is an ancient encampment.
Lineham (St. Michael)
LINEHAM (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Cricklade and Wootton-Bassett, hundred of Kingsbridge, Swindon and N. divisions of Wilts, 4¼ miles (S. W.) from Wootton-Bassett; containing 1317 inhabitants. The parish is situated near the river Avon, on the road from Bristol and Bath to London; and comprises 4000 acres, of which one-half is arable, and the other pasture. There are some quarries of stone, for inferior building purposes, and for the roads. The Wilts and Berks canal passes within less than half a mile, and the Great Western railway in the immediate vicinity. Fairs, chiefly for cattle, are held at Click, at Michaelmas and Lady-day. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £58; patron and impropriator, G. W. Heneage, Esq.: the glebe comprises 3 acres. The church is an ancient structure. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Lady Huntingdon's Connexion; and a school endowed with 24 acres of land, producing £32 per annum. In the neighbourhood is a farmhouse which occupies the site of Bradenstoke Priory, founded about 1142, by Walter d'Eureux or de Saresbiria, for Augustine monks, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin.