A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Ackworth (St. Cuthbert)
ACKWORTH (St. Cuthbert), a parish, in the Upper division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 3¼ miles (S. S. W.) from Pontefract; containing 1828 inhabitants. This parish, which occupies an elevated situation, comprises 2537a. 3r. 27p. of profitable land, and 36 acres of roads and waste; the soil is fertile; the surface is boldly undulated, and richly embellished with wood. Freestone of excellent quality is abundant, and there are some extensive quarries of it at Moor Top, in the parish. The village, which is divided into High and Low Ackworth, is situated on rising ground near the source of the river Went, and contains numerous neat and well-built houses, with several pleasant villas in the immediate neighbourhood. Ackworth Park is a beautiful seat. Handloom weaving is carried on to a limited extent. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £22. 1. 0½., and in the patronage of the Crown, in right of the duchy of Lancaster; net income, £403. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, under an act of inclosure, in 1774; the glebe comprises 152 acres. The church, an ancient structure situated in Upper Ackworth, has at various times undergone much alteration and repair. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
The school here belonging to the Society of Friends was originally and for some years an appendage to the Foundling Hospital of London, for which purpose it was originally built, at an expense of £13,000, defrayed by subscription, aided by a grant from parliament. Upon its separation from that institution, the house, with 84 acres of land attached to it, was purchased in 1777 by Dr. Fothergill and two or three other gentlemen of the Society of Friends for £7000; and it was afterwards appropriated as a school for the education of the children of the less wealthy members of that community. The buildings are situated between High and Low Ackworth, and now comprise arrangements for the reception of 180 boys and 120 girls; the land has been extended to 274 acres. The hospital and school at High Ackworth were built by Mrs. Mary Lowther, who in 1741 endowed them with 17 acres of land, now producing £30 per annum, and with £700 invested at 5 per cent interest.
Acle (St. Edmund)
ACLE (St. Edmund), a parish, in the union of Blofield, hundred of Walsham, E. division of Norfolk, 11 miles (E.) from Norwich; containing 864 inhabitants. This place, at the time of the Norman Conquest, became a fief of the crown, and was granted by William to Roger Bigod, who obtained for it the privilege of a market and a fair; and in the reign of Richard II. the inhabitants were exempted from all tolls and suits of shire and hundred, and invested with several valuable immunities. The parish comprises 3164a. 2r. 8p., a large portion of which is grazing land reclaimed from marshy ground; the uplands consist of a fine loamy soil, and are exceedingly fertile. The village is situated on the road from Norwich to Yarmouth, and on a gentle eminence rising from the banks of the navigable river Bure, over which is a stone bridge of three arches, and of great elevation. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20, and in the gift of Lord Calthorpe: the tithes have been commuted for £720, and there are about twenty acres of glebe, and a good rectory-house. The church, which is chiefly in the decorated style, consists of a nave and chancel, with a circular tower the upper part of which is octagon; the edifice was thoroughly repaired and beautified in 1834. At Weybridge, a small priory for Augustine canons was founded in the reign of Edward I., by Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk; the revenue at the Dissolution was £7. 13. 4.
Acomb (St. Stephen)
ACOMB (St. Stephen), a parish, in the Ainsty wapentake, W. riding of York; containing 880 inhabitants, of whom 774 are in the township of Acomb, 2¼ miles (W.) from York, on the road to Leeds via Wetherby. This parish, anciently Ascham, comprises by measurement 1920 acres, and is bounded on the north by the river Ouse, on which is a small wharf for coal, lime, &c., adjacent to the Darlington railway; the soil is of a sandy and gravelly nature, and the air remarkably salubrious. Several mansions and villas here are occupied by families of the first respectability. The village has a neat appearance; the York and North-Midland railway passes near it, at Hob Moor. Part of Knapton, and also part of Dringhouses, are in the parish, and churchwardens are elected for these places along with those for Acomb. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £3. 9. 2.; net income, £109; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Isaac Spencer. The peculiar of Acomb formerly belonged to the Treasurer in the Cathedral of York, but was surrendered, with the rectory, to the Crown in 1547; and in 1609 was granted by James I. to Thomas Newark and his heir. The tithes of the townships of Acomb and Holgate were commuted for land and a money payment, by an inclosure act in 1774. The church, rebuilt in 1831-2 by subscription, is an elegant structure with a graceful spire, and, standing on the highest ground in the vicinity of York, has a very picturesque appearance; it contains 609 sittings, of which 212 are free. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists. Half a mile from the village is a hill, supposed to be the tumulus of Septimius Severus, who died at York.
ACOMB, EAST, a township, in the parish of Bywell St. Peter, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 8 miles (E.) from Hexham; containing 37 inhabitants. It is situated about a mile north from Bywell, and consists of two farms; Peepee, a pleasant hamlet, lies at a little distance westward. This, and many other parts of the Bywell estate, are covered with trees of a remarkably fine growth, which impart to the landscape a rich and luxuriant aspect.
ACOMB, WEST, a township, in the parish of St. John Lee, union of Hexham, S. division of Tindale ward and of Northumberland, 1¾ mile (N.) from Hexham; containing 571 inhabitants. This place, anciently Hameshaly, belonged to the prior of Hexham, and is supposed to have been the favourite retreat of St. John of Beverley: on the dissolution of the priory it came to the crown; in 1724 it was the property of the Coatsworth family, and subsequently of the Jurins and Hunters. The township is bounded on the south by the river Tyne: coal is obtained within its limits; and the Newcastle and Carlisle railway passes through it. The great tithes have been commuted for £65.
Acrise (St. Martin)
ACRISE (St. Martin), a parish, in the union of Elham, partly in the hundred of Folkestone, but chiefly in that of Loningborough, lathe of Shepway, E. division of Kent, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Folkestone, near the road to Canterbury; containing 207 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1033 acres, of which 55 are common or waste land, and 126 in wood. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7, and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes have been commuted for £217, and there are nearly 44 acres of glebe.
ACTON, a township, in the parish of Weaverham, union of Northwich, Second division of the hundred of Eddisbury, S. division of Cheshire, 4½ miles (W. N. W.) from Northwich; containing 382 inhabitants. This place, sometimes called Acton-in-Delamere, was part of the ancient inheritance of the Duttons, from whom it passed by marriage to the Geralds and Fleetwoods: it subsequently came by purchase to the Ashton family. The township comprises 1102 acres of land, of a clayey and sandy soil: the Liverpool and Birmingham railway and the Grand Trunk canal pass through it, and on the former a station has been fixed here.
Acton (St. Mary)
ACTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union and hundred of Nantwich, S. division of Cheshire; comprising the townships of Acton, Aston-juxta-Mondrum, Austerson, Baddington, Brindley, Burland, Cholmondstone, Cool-Pilate, Edleston, Faddiley, Henhull, Hurleston, Poole, Stoke, Worleston, and part of Soond; and containing 4134 inhabitants, of whom 328 are in the township of Acton, 1¼ mile (N. W. by W.) from Nantwich. This place was the scene of some hostilities during the parliamentary war. In October 1643, the church and Dorford Hall were occupied by the royalists, on whose retreat both were garrisoned by the parliament. They were afterwards captured by the king's troops under Lord Byron; but, on the raising of the siege of Nantwich, Sir Thomas Fairfax compelled the garrisons to surrender, and among the prisoners were sixty officers, including Col. Monk, afterwards Duke of Albemarle. In the township of Acton are 674 acres; the soil is half clay and half sand. The Chester and Crewe railway crosses the Middlewich and Wardle canal at the Cholmondstone lock in this parish. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £19. 9. 7.; net income, £324; patron and impropriator, John Tollemache, Esq., of Tilston Lodge: the great tithes of Acton township have been commuted for £41. 6., and the vicarial tithes for £26. 14. The church exhibits some curiously ornamented windows; the tower is partly in the early style of English architecture. At Burley-Dam is a second church, the living of which is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of Viscount Combermere; net income, £100. A grammar school is endowed with £16 per annum, and a house; and there is a school in connexion with the National Society. Sir Roger Wilbraham founded and endowed two almshouses in 1613.
Acton (St. Mary)
ACTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Brentford, Kensington division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex, 5 miles (W.) from London; containing, with the hamlets of East Acton and Steyne, 2665 inhabitants. The name is supposed to be derived from the Saxon word Ac, signifying oak, and tun, a town; the neighbourhood having, in former times, abounded with timber of that description, and some land in the parish, from time immemorial, having been called Old Oak common. Previously to the battle of Brentford, in 1642, the Earls of Essex and Warwick had their head-quarters here; and on Cromwell's return to London, after the battle of Worcester, the lord president and council of state, the members of the house of commons, and the lord mayor, aldermen, and citizens of London, met him at this place, when the recorder delivered a congratulatory address, after which they attended him to the metropolis, forming altogether a train of more than three hundred carriages. The parish comprises 2251 acres, of which 85 are common or waste: the village consists chiefly of one long street, and is plentifully supplied with water; the Paddington canal and the Great Western railway run through. A pleasurefair is held on Holy-Thursday. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14; net income, £968; patron, the Bishop of London. The church, which exhibits portions in the later style of English architecture, with modern insertions, was enlarged and repaired, at the expense of the inhabitants, in 1825. There is a place of worship for Independents, and the detached buildings of a private mansion have been fitted up as a Roman Catholic chapel. At East Acton are handsome almshouses, built and endowed by the Goldsmiths' Company, for twelve men and twelve women. In a garden on Old Oak common is a mineral spring, formerly held in general repute, but now disused.
Acton, with Old Felton
ACTON, with Old Felton, a township, in the parish of Felton, union of Alnwick, E. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 7½ miles (S.) from Alnwick, on the road to Morpeth; containing 111 inhabitants. This place extends between one and two miles north of the village of Felton. Acton House is a handsome mansion; and North Acton Hall is also a fine structure, beautifully situated: the adjoining lands are fertile and picturesque. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for £40.
Acton (All Saints)
ACTON (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Sudbury, hundred of Babergh, W. division of Suffolk, 3 miles (N. E. by N.) from Sudbury; containing 555 inhabitants. It comprises 2811a. 21p., whereof 69 acres are common or waste. There are several small hamlets, that which is called "The Village" being the principal. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £9. 6. 8.; patron and impropriator, Earl Howe: the great and small tithes have been each commuted for £375. The church is neat, and contains some ancient and very handsome brasses.
Acton-Beauchamp (St. Giles)
ACTON-BEAUCHAMP (St. Giles), a parish, in the union of Bromyard, Upper division of the hundred of Doddingtree, Worcester and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 4 miles (S. E.) from Bromyard; containing 217 inhabitants. The area is 1524 acres, of which 717 are arable, 570 pasture, 150 woodland, and 82 hop-ground, &c.; the surface is very hilly, and the soil mostly a strong clay, but in some parts sandy; the scenery is beautiful, and embraces extensive views. The parish is intersected by the roads from Worcester to Hereford, and from Bromyard to Malvern; and is surrounded on all sides except the east by the county of Hereford. There are quarries of stone for building. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £4, and in the patronage of Mrs. Cowpland: the tithes have been commuted for £270, and the glebe consists of 42 acres, with a house. A school is supported by the rector. Here are some mineral springs.
Acton-Burnell (St. Mary)
ACTON-BURNELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the unions of Atcham and Church-Stretton, hundred of Condover, S. division of Salop, 7 miles (S.) from Shrewsbury; containing, with Ruckley and Langley, 394 inhabitants. This place, which is of considerable antiquity, is on a branch of the Roman Watling-street. It takes the adjunct to its name from the family of Burnell, of whom Robert, Bishop of Bath and Wells, and Lord High Chancellor in the reign of Edward I., had a castle in the parish, of which there are still some remains. In 1283, a council or parliament was held here, at which was enacted the law of "Statute merchant;" the king and his court were accommodated in the castle, the lords assembled in a great hall erected for them in the park, and the commons met in a very large barn belonging to Shrewsbury Abbey, whose gable ends have been preserved to the present time. Besides the Watling-street, a causeway passes through the parish; and there are a Roman bridge, and an early specimen of Saxon antiquity called the Moat. The parish comprises by computation 2400 acres. The living is a rectory, with the chapelry of Langley, valued in the king's books at £6. 10., and in the gift of Sir E. J. Smythe, Bart.: it has a net income of £350; the glebe consists of about 70 acres, with a good house. The church, which is cruciform, was built in 1264, and is a splendid specimen of architecture; its internal decorations are of a highly ornamental character. There is a Roman Catholic chapel. Nicholas Burnell, a distinguished warrior in the reign of Edward III., was born and buried here.
ACTON-GRANGE, a township, in the parochial chapelry of Daresbury, parish and union of Runcorn, hundred of Bucklow, N. division of the county of Chester, 2¾ miles (S. W. by S.) from Warrington; containing 175 inhabitants. The manor was the property of the convent of Norton, and in the reign of Henry VIII., 1545, was purchased of the crown, with other estates of that monastery, by the ancestor of the present proprietor, Sir Richard Brooke, Bart. The township comprises 855 acres; it is separated from Lancashire by the river Mersey, and is intersected by the Liverpool and Birmingham railway, and the Bridgewater canal.
Acton, Iron.—See Iron-Acton.
ACTON, IRON.—See Iron-Acton.
ACTON-PIGOT, a hamlet, in the parish of ActonBurnell, union of Church-Stretton, hundred of Condover, S. division of Salop, 6¾ miles (W. N. W.) from Much-Wenlock; comprising 391 acres, and containing 40 persons. There was formerly a chapel, the remains of which still exist.
ACTON-REYNALD, a township, in the parish of Shawbury, union of Wem, liberty of the borough of Shrewsbury, N. division of Salop, 7½ miles (N. N. E.) from Shrewsbury; containing 159 inhabitants.
ACTON-ROUND, a parish, in the union of Bridgnorth, hundred of Stottesden, S. division of Salop, 3¾ miles (S. S. E.) from Much-Wenlock, and 6 (W. N. W.) from Bridgnorth; containing 180 inhabitants. This parish, which is intersected by the road from MuchWenlock to Bridgnorth, comprises by computation 2126a. 2r.; the soil is a red clay; the prospect embraces the Clee hills, the highest in the county. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £85; patron and impropriator, Sir John Acton, Bart. Certain tithes were commuted for land under an inclosure act in 1773: there are about 25 acres of glebe, of which 14 are near Bromsgrove, in Worcestershire, and 11 in the parish of Stottesden. The church is a neat edifice, the walls of which are ornamented with monuments to the memory of the Actons, by one of whom, Sir Richard, the chancel was built in 1761.
Acton-Scott (St. Margaret)
ACTON-SCOTT (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Church-Stretton, hundred of Munslow, S. division of Salop, 3 miles (S. by E.) from Church-Stretton; containing 204 inhabitants. It is situated on the new road from Wenlock to Bishop's Castle, and contains by measurement 1600 acres of land, all cultivated, excepting about 200 under plantation and coppice. The surface is hilly, abounding in bold, and in some parts romantic, scenery; the soil comprises several varieties; and stone is quarried for building and the repair of roads. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 10., and in the gift of E. W. W. Pendarves, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £230, and there are 61 acres of glebe.
ACTON-TRUSSELL, a parochial chapelry, in the parish of Baswick, union of Penkridge, E. division of the hundred of Cuttlestone, S. division of the county of Stafford, 3½ miles (N. N. E.) from Penkridge; containing, with Bednall, 574 inhabitants. The township of Acton and Bednall comprises 2551 acres, of which 1400 are arable, and the remainder grass, with a few acres of plantation; the soil is a good gravelly loam. Acton lies west of Bednall, adjoining the river Penk and the Staffordshire and Worcestershire canal. The living is a perpetual curacy, with that of Bednall united; net income, £234; patrons, the Trustees of William Hulme. The glebe-house was built in 1842 by the Rev. Matthew Davies, the incumbent; it commands extensive and beautiful views: the glebe consists of 32 acres. The chapel of Acton, dedicated to St. James, is an ancient edifice in the early English style, with a square tower: Bednall chapel, dedicated to All Saints, was rebuilt in 1844, and consecrated in July 1846; it is a neat structure with a bell-turret. There is a national school.
Acton-Turville (St. Mary)
ACTON-TURVILLE (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Chipping-Sodbury, Lower division of the hundred of Grumbald's Ash, W. division of the county of Gloucester, 5¾ miles (E.) from Chipping-Sodbury; containing 311 inhabitants. This place, which lies on the border of Wiltshire, is exceedingly well situated with respect to means of communication, roads branching off from the village to the towns of Malmesbury, Chippenham, Bath, and Chipping-Sodbury, respectively. The living is a vicarage not in charge, united to the rectory of Tormarton in 1344.
Adbaston (St. Margaret)
ADBASTON (St. Margaret), a parish, in the union of Newport, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Eccleshall; comprising the townships of Adbaston, Bishop's Offlow, Flashbrook, and Tunstall, and the hamlet of Knighton; and containing 610 inhabitants, of whom 39 are in the township of Adbaston. The parish consists of about 4000 acres, divided into nearly equal portions of arable and pasture, with a small quantity of woodland. The soil belongs to a number of proprietors, several of whom reside upon their estates here. In Adbaston are only a few scattered houses. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Dean of Lichfield; net income, £100: the tithes have been commuted for £562. 10. per annum, and the incumbent receives a rent-charge of £2. 10. The church stands near the Hall and the parsonage, and is an ancient structure.