A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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ASHURST, a parish, in the union of Tonbridge, hundred of Washlingstone, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 4¾ miles (W.) from Tonbridge. Wells; containing 224 inhabitants. It is bounded by the river Medway, and intersected by the road from East Grinstead to Tonbridge-Wells; and contains 891 acres, of which 64 are in wood. The surface is finely undulated, commanding from the higher grounds some extensive and interesting views: the soil varies from light sand to strong clay; there are some quarries of soft sandstone for building. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £5. 4. 7., and in the gift of the Earl De la Warr: the tithes have been commuted for £173, and the glebe consists of 28 acres. The church, an ancient building, was previously to the Reformation in high repute for the sanctity of its rood-loft.
ASHURST, a parish, in the union of Steyning, hundred of West Grinstead, rape of Bramber, W. division of Sussex, 3 miles (N.) from Steyning; containing 427 inhabitants. This parish, which comprises 2236a. 1r. 14p., is bounded on the north and east by the river Adur, which is navigable to Binesbridge; and the road from Horsham to Brighton, through Steyning, runs through it. The living is a rectory not in charge; net income, £268; patrons, the President and Fellows of Magdalene College, Oxford. The church is in the early English style, with later additions, and consists of a nave, chancel, and south aisle; at the west end is a low tower surmounted by an obtuse spire.
Ashwater (St. Peter)
ASHWATER (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Holsworthy, hundred of Black Torrington, Holsworthy and N. divisions of Devon, 7 miles (S. E. by S.) from Holsworthy; containing 1046 inhabitants. This parish, which is separated from the parishes of Bradwood-Widger and Virginstow by the river Cary, forms a square, and comprises 6877 acres, of which 3150 are common or waste; the soil is very inferior, the substratum clay, and the land generally hilly. Considerable quantities of freestone of excellent quality are obtained in the neighbourhood. Fairs for cattle are held on the first Tuesday in May, and the Monday next after the 1st of August. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £26. 6. 8.; net income, £437; patron and incumbent, the Rev. T. Melhuish. The glebe comprises 70 acres. The church, a handsome structure with a tower sixty feet in height, has been repewed and beautified, and contains some interesting monuments to the Carey family, and a curious ancient font.
Ashwell (St. Mary)
ASHWELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Royston, hundred of Odsey, county of Hertford, 4½ miles (N. N. E.) from Baldock; containing 1235 inhabitants. This place derives its name from a well or spring issuing from a rock at the southern extremity of the village, surrounded with ash trees, and forming the source of the small river Rhee. At the time of the Norman survey it was a borough and market-town, having four annual fairs; it was also a royal demesne, and a small manor within the parish was held by Walter Somoner, in petit serjeantry, by the service of providing spits and roasting meat in the king's kitchen, on the day of his coronation. The parish contains 3679 acres, of which 23 are common or waste; the surface is diversified, and the soil chalky. A considerable trade in malt is carried on, the barley produced in the neighbourhood being of a very superior quality. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £22. 3. 6½.; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of London: the tithes have been commuted for £690. 18., and there is a good glebehouse. The church is a spacious structure, with a tower and spire 175 feet high. A free school, now conducted on the national plan, was founded and endowed in the 17th century under the will of Henry Colborn or Colebron, who bequeathed £1000 in trust to the Merchant Tailors' Company, by whom the master is appointed. On Harborough Hill, in the parish, are the remains of a quadrangular encampment, probably an exploratory station of the Romans. The Rev. Ralph Cudworth, D.D., Master of Christ's College, Cambridge, and author of the Intellectual System, was vicar of the parish, and died here in 1688.
Ashwell (St. Mary)
ASHWELL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Oakham, hundred of Alstoe, county of Rutland, 3 miles (N. by W.) from Oakham; containing 223 inhabitants. It comprises 1800 acres by measurement; the soil is fertile, and a coarse kind of stone is quarried for inferior buildings, and for the roads. The MeltonMowbray and Oakham canal passes within a mile of the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £20. 16. 3., and in the gift of Viscount Downe: the tithes have been commuted for £412, and the glebe comprises 130 acres. The church is a neat substantial structure, in the later English style.
Ashwelthorpe (All Saints)
ASHWELTHORPE (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Depwade, E. division of Norfolk, 3½ miles (S. E. by S.) from Wymondham; containing 469 inhabitants. The road from New Buckenham to Norwich runs through the parish. The living is a discharged rectory, with that of Wreningham cum Nayland annexed, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; net income, £648; patron, Lord Berners. The incumbent resides in the Hall, an ancient residence of the Knyvett family, moated on three sides. The church, which is chiefly in the decorated style, consists of a nave and chancel, with a chapel on the north side, and a square embattled tower; in the chancel is an altartomb, on which are the effigies of Sir Edward and Lady de Thorpe.
Ashwick (St. James)
ASHWICK (St. James), a parish, in the union of Shepton-Mallet, hundred of Kilmersdon, E. division of Somerset, 3¾ miles (N. by E.) from SheptonMallet; comprising 1527a. 2r. 34p., and containing 945 inhabitants. There are many quarries, supplying a material for building and for making lime. At the village of Oakhill, which stands partly in this parish and partly in Stoke-Lane and Shepton-Mallet, are some good residences, and a public brewery; and the road from Bath to Exeter, and another from Bristol to Weymouth, run through the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £113; patron, the Vicar of Kilmersdon; impropriator, J. Twyford Jolliffe, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted for £28. 10., and those of the incumbent for £59. 15.; the glebe consists of 2½ acres. The curacy was separated from the vicarage of Kilmersdon in 1826, at which time also the church was rebuilt, with the exception of the tower; it is a neat structure, accommodating about 550 persons. There are places of worship for Independents, Unitarians, and Methodists. On the south-western side of the parish, near the Fosseway, is a Roman camp, with a double intrenchment, called Masbury Castle.
Ashwicken (All Saints)
ASHWICKEN (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Freebridge-Lynn, W. division of Norfolk, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Lynn; containing 78 inhabitants. It comprises 1178a. 2r., of which 638 acres are arable, 378 pasture and meadow, 150 heath, and 12 woodland; the surface is a good deal undulated. The living is a rectory, with that of Leziate annexed, valued in the king's books at £6. 13. 4.; patron and incumbent, the Rev. John Freeman. The tithes have been commuted for £238, and the glebe comprises 10 acres. The church is chiefly in the later English style, with a square tower.
ASHWORTH, a parochial chapelry, in the parish of Middleton, union of Bury, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 3½ miles (W.) from Rochdale; containing 325 inhabitants. A family named Ashworth was seated here as early as the 13th century, and appears to have been succeeded by the Holts: Richard Holt, an active supporter of the royal cause in the civil war, had his estate sequestrated in 1643; but it was afterwards restored. The manor came subsequently into the possession of the Wilbraham family. Ashworth comprises by measurement 1025 acres; the soil is fertile, the scenery romantic, and the lower part of the township is thickly studded with large oak-trees. The substratum abounds in coal, of which a mine is in operation; and stone of good quality for building is also obtained in great quantity: a fullingmill affords employment to some hands. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Wilbraham Egerton, Esq.; net income, £119. The rectorial tithes have been commuted for £15, and the glebe consists of 62 acres. The chapel, a plain stone fabric, dedicated to St. James, stands on the summit of a hill to the north of Ashworth Hall; it was for the most part rebuilt in 1789, and in 1837 the chancel, which was part of a former edifice, was taken down, and the east end of the chapel considerably enlarged. The burial-ground commands an extensive view of the adjacent hills and vales. A daily school, founded by Mr. Egerton in 1828, is partly supported by that gentleman, by whom, also, premises for a Sunday school were built in 1838.
ASKE, a township, in the parish of Easby, union of Richmond, wapentake of Gilling-West, N. riding of the county of York, 1¾ mile (N.) from Richmond; containing 92 inhabitants. The township comprises 1610 acres of well-cultivated land; the soil is productive, and the scenery embraces fine prospects of the surrounding country. Aske Hall, one of the seats of the Earl of Zetland, is a spacious and elegant castellated mansion, situated on rising ground in a large and beautiful park, and embosomed in noble woods of fine old timber, and pleasure-grounds of varied surface: many of the views from the residence are of striking beauty. The noble earl's inferior title is Baron Dundas of the manor of Aske, conferred in 1794.
ASKERNE, a township, in the parish of Campsall, union of Doncaster, Upper division of the wapentake of Osgoldcross, W. riding of York, 7¼ miles (N.) from Doncaster; containing 468 inhabitants. Askerne, during the present century, has risen from an inconsiderable village into an elegant and fashionable watering-place. It is pleasantly situated near the road, on a rocky acclivity ascending gently from the foot of an extensive plain; and its hotels and bathing establishments, surrounded by gardens, orchards, and plantations, all agreeably harmonising together, give it an interesting and commanding appearance. Here is a sheet of water called Askerne pool, covering seven acres, a few yards from which rises a sulphureous spring, highly celebrated for more than a century as a powerful remedy in scrofulous, rheumatic, and gouty complaints: it is also reputed for its virtue in dyspepsia, palsy, and pulmonary consumption. Boarding-houses have been erected for the accommodation of visiters. The tithes were commuted for land in 1814.
Askerswell (St. Michael)
ASKERSWELL (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Bridport, hundred of Eggerton, Bridport division of Dorset, 4 miles (E.) from Bridport; containing 233 inhabitants. It contains about 1200 acres; the soil is chalky, and the surface hilly. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £9. 2. 6.; net income, £160; patron, the Rev. James Cox. The glebe contains 23 acres, with a house.
ASKERTON, a township, in the parish of Lanercost, union of Brampton, Eskdale ward, E. division of Cumberland, 6¼ miles (N. N. E.) from Brampton; containing 496 inhabitants. The castle here, a small building with lofty turrets, situated on a rocky knoll on the southern bank of the rivulet Cambeck, and commanding a most extensive view of the adjacent country, is partly ruinous and used as stables; but much of it has been recently modernised in the interior, and the building is now inhabited by a farmer. It was in ruins in Camden's time, but was repaired by the Dacres in the 16th century, and over a mantel-piece in what was once the dining-hall is an inscription, "Tho. Carleton, Jun., 1575," the date of the repair. Askerton comprises the ancient parish of Kirk Cambeck, the church of which was destroyed by the Scots in the reign of Edward II.; the tithes are held on lease from the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle.
ASKHAM, a parish, in the union of East Retford, South-Clay division of the wapentake of Bassetlaw, N. division of the county of Nottingham, 2¾ miles (N.) from Tuxford; containing, with Rockley hamlet, 288 inhabitants. The parish contains about 1440 acres: the surface is undulated, and the soil clayey; the village is skirted on the north by the stream called North Beck, which is subject to inundations after heavy rains. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed, with that of Stokeham, to the vicarage of East Drayton: two acres of land, and the tithes of hops, form the principal value of the curacy. There are almshouses for six widows.
Askham (St. Peter)
ASKHAM (St. Peter), a parish, in West ward and union, county of Westmorland, 4¾ miles (S.) from Penrith; containing 635 inhabitants. It comprises 4264 acres, of which 2049 are tithable, 2150 wood and common, and 65 tithe-free; the surface is partly undulated and partly hilly, and the soil rests principally on limestone and peat. The river Lowther bounds the parish on the east, and the Dale beck on the south. The living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at £6; net income, £156; patron, and impropriator of the remainder of the great tithes, the Earl of Lonsdale. The tithes have been commuted for £238. 17., of which £114. 5. are payable to the impropriator, and £124. 12. to the vicar: the glebe comprises 56 acres. A school was endowed in 1813, with subscriptions amounting to £420, part of which has been vested in the purchase of land.
Askham-Bryan, or Great Askham (St. Nicholas)
ASKHAM-BRYAN, or Great Askham (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the Ainsty wapentake, W. riding of York, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from York; containing 342 inhabitants. This place derives its name partly from Bryan Fitz-Alain, who held it of the honour of Richmond, paying 5s. per annum to the warden of the castle of that town: the families of Mowbray, Stapleton, and Grey have also owned the estate. The parish comprises by measurement 1808 acres, three-fourths of which are arable, and the rest meadow, with some few plantations; the surface is flat, and the soil composed chiefly of gravel and clay. Contiguous to the church passes the York and North-Midland railway. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £120; patron, Colonel Croft, of Stillington Park. The tithes were commuted for land, by an inclosure act, in 1811. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Askham-Richard, or Little Askham (St. Mary)
ASKHAM-RICHARD, or Little Askham (St. Mary), a parish, in the Ainsty wapentake, union and W. riding of York, 3½ miles (N. E.) from Tadcaster; containing 232 inhabitants. In the 9th of Edward II. the priory of Burlington held this manor; the patronage of the church was exercised by the nuns of Monkton till the Dissolution, when the privilege was granted to the Vavasour family. The parish comprises by measurement 929 acres, of which about three-fourths are arable, and the remainder meadow or pasture; the surface is generally level, and the soil of a gravelly and clayey quality. The road from Leeds to York, and the York and North-Midland railway, cross each other near this place; where also is Askham Hall. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 13. 4.; net income, £200: patron, Col. Croft. The tithes were commuted for land in 1813. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
ASKRIGG, a market-town and chapelry, in the parish of Aysgarth, wapentake of Hang-West, N. riding of York, 57 miles (W. N. W.) from York, and 247 (N. W. by N.) from London; containing 726 inhabitants. The town is situated on an eminence rising from the northern bank of the river Ure, and upon the road from Richmond to Lancaster; the lands near it are almost entirely occupied as pasture, and the surrounding country exhibits some fine waterfalls and picturesque scenery. It was formerly a place of considerable note, but has fallen into decay; there is a woolcarding mill, and in the neighbourhood are lead-mines, but they are not very productive. The market is on Thursday: fairs are held on May 11th, July 11th and 12th, and Oct. 28th; and there is also a fair for general traffic and recreation on the first Thursday in June. By the act of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV. cap. 64, Askrigg was made a polling-place for the North riding. The township comprises 4741 acres, of which 1948 are common or waste. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £100; patron, the Vicar of Aysgarth. The tithes have been commuted for £84, payable to Trinity College, Cambridge. The chapel is an ancient structure, dedicated to St. Oswald. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The Yorebridge free grammar school, in the chapelry, was founded for the sons of inhabitants, in 1601, by Anthony Besson, who endowed it with an inn named the Black Swan, in York, and a plot of about two acres and a half of ground called the Intack, producing upwards of £200 per annum, which is paid to the master, who has also a house and garden rent-free. Almshouses were founded, and endowed with £2000 three per cent. consols., in 1807, by Christopher Alderson, for six poor widows of the townships of Askrigg and Low Abbotside, each of whom has £10 per annum. —See Aysgarth, Bainbridge, &c.
Askwith, or Asquith
ASKWITH, or Asquith, a township, in the parish of Weston, Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 3 miles (N. W.) from Otley; containing, with Askwith-Moorside, 398 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 3180 acres, and includes the hamlets of Upper and Lower Snowden: the village, which is scattered, is pleasantly situated on the northern acclivities of Wharfdale, and the river Wharfe winds its devious course on the south and west. The tithes were commuted for land, in 1779. There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans.
Aslackby (St. James)
ASLACKBY (St. James), a parish, in the union of Bourne, wapentake of Aveland, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln, 2½ miles (S. S. E.) from Folkingham; containing, with the hamlets of Graby and Milthorpe, 507 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from London to Hull, and comprises by measurement 3420 acres; the soil is various, and the surface pleasingly diversified with hill and dale, and richly embellished with wood. The river Forty-foot, which is navigable from Bourne to Boston, skirts the eastern extremity of the parish. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 10. 7½.; net income, £453; patron and impropriator, R. F. Barstow, Esq. The tithes are compounded for the above sum, and the glebe comprises 39 acres. The church is a handsome edifice in the decorated and later English styles, with an embattled tower crowned with pinnacles. Here was a preceptory of Knight Templars, which, on the abolition of their order, became a commandery of the Hospitallers.
Aslacton (St. Michael)
ASLACTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union and hundred of Depwade, E. division of Norfolk, 3½ miles (W. by S.) from Long Stratton; containing 404 inhabitants, and comprising about 1130 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £58; patron and impropriator, John Cooper, Esq., whose tithes have been commuted for £340. The church, which is chiefly in the perpendicular style, consists of a nave, chancel, and south aisle, with a circular tower.
ASLACTON, a township, in the parish of Whatton, union of Bingham, N. division of the wapentake of Bingham, S. division of the county of Nottingham, 2¾ miles (E. by N.) from Bingham; containing 424 inhabitants. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment, in 1780. This was the birth-place of Cranmer.
ASPALL, a parish, in the union and hundred of Hartismere, W. division of the county of Suffolk, 1 mile (N. by W.) from Debenham; containing 132 inhabitants. The river Deben rises in this parish, which comprises 834a. 3r. 26p. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £149; patron, impropriator, and incumbent, the Rev. John Chevallier, M.D., whose residence is the ancient moated mansion of Aspall Hall.
Aspatria (St. Kentigern)
ASPATRIA (St. Kentigern), a market-town and parish, in the union of Wigton, Allerdale ward below Derwent, W. division of Cumberland; comprising the townships of Aspatria with Brayton, Hayton with Medlo, and Oughterside with Allerby; and containing 1921 inhabitants, of whom 988 are in the townships of Aspatria with Brayton, 9 miles (N. by E.) from Cockermouth. This village, which derives its name from Gospatrick, father of the first lord of Allerdale, extends for a considerable distance along the side of a hill, and has recently assumed somewhat the character of a town, by the erection of several good and substantial dwelling-houses. A pitched market for corn is held on Thursday. The parish comprises by measurement 7064 acres, and is bounded on the west by the Solway Frith, and on the south-east and south by the river Ellen. It contains a vein of red freestone at Hayton, and coal at Oughterside. The Maryport and Carlisle railway passes through, and has a station here. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 4. 2.; net income, £249; patron and appropriator, the Bishop of Carlisle. The tithes were partially commuted in 1817 for land. The church was originally in the Norman style, but there are no remains of its ancient character except two arches. A place of worship for Independents was built in 1827. In 1790 a barrow was opened in the vicinity, when the skeleton of a man, with the corroded remains of some military weapons, &c., was discovered.
Aspeden (St. Mary)
ASPEDEN (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Buntingford, hundred of Edwinstree, county of Hertford, ¾ of a mile (S.) from Buntingford; containing 529 inhabitants. It comprises about 1340 acres of land, the soil of which is clayey; the rivulet Rib runs through the district, and falls into the Lea near Hertford. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 5. 2½.; patron, Lady Mexborough. The tithes have been commuted for £400, and the glebe consists of nearly 23 acres. W. and R. Freeman in 1668, and Mrs. Cater in 1704, gave land for the education of children, now producing £17. 5. per annum; and R. Freeman assigned an additional plot for clothing them. In 1684, Dr. Seth Ward, Bishop of Sarum, founded an almshouse for two men and two women, and endowed it with £41. 12. a year.
ASPLEY, a township, in the parish of Eccleshall, union of Stone, N. division of the hundred of Pirehill and of the county of Stafford, 3 miles (N. by W.) from Eccleshall; containing 34 inhabitants. It is situated on a lofty summit; and is the property of various persons. The tithes have been commuted for £86. 18. 6., payable to the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield.
Aspley-Guise (St. Botolph)
ASPLEY-GUISE (St. Botolph), a parish, in the union of Woburn, hundred of Manshead, county of Bedford, 2¼ miles (N. by W.) from Woburn; containing 1139 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 2033 acres, of which 1953 are arable, and the remainder woodland, plantations, and heath; the prevailing timber is elm, and the plantations chiefly fir. The inhabitants obtained in 1267 the grant of a market to be held on Friday, and a fair on June 17th; but both have been long discontinued. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £15. 16. 10½.; net income, £215; patron, the Duke of Bedford. The tithes were commuted for 85 acres of land, and an annual payment of £60, in 1760. The church contains several ancient and interesting monuments, among which are an altar-tomb with the effigy of Sir Edward Sadlier in chain armour, and another with an effigy in brass of one of the family of Guise. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
ASPULL, a township, in the ecclesiastical district of Haigh, parish and union of Wigan, hundred of Salford, S. division of the county of Lancaster, 3 miles (N. E. by E.) from Wigan; containing 2772 inhabitants. The families of de Lathom, Ince, and Gerrard had lands here, and the last named anciently held a manorial court. The manor was transferred by sale to the Earl of Balcarres by William Gerrard, Esq.; it now appertains to the manor of Haigh. The township comprises 1879 acres, of which 1145 are pasture, 377 arable, 40 woodland, and 100 common or waste; and abounds with Cannel coal and other seams of various quality, worked by the Earl of Balcarres and others. There is a cotton-mill of 80-horse power. Hindley Hall, in this township, is on the border of the township of Hindley, which see. There is a school with an endowment of £11 per annum. The tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £214.