A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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Linton (St. Mary)
LINTON (St. Mary), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Chilford, county of Cambridge, 10½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Cambridge, and 48 (N. by E.) from London; containing 1838 inhabitants. This town, which is situated on the road from Cambridge to Colchester, has been much improved of late years: an act for inclosing waste lands was passed in 1838. The market, granted in 1245 to William de Lay, is on Thursday; and there is a fair on July 30th, for sheep. Courts leet are held occasionally by the lords of the manors. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10. 13. 4., and in the gift of the Bishop of Ely: the appropriate tithes, belonging to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, have been commuted for £780, and the vicarial for £260; the appropriate glebe comprises 84 acres, and the vicarial 9 acres. The church has a fine embattled tower, and a gallery has been lately built; in the interior are several monuments. There is a place of worship for Independents. The union of Linton comprises 22 parishes or places, 20 of which are in the county of Cambridge, and two in that of Essex, the whole containing a population of 12,958: the workhouse cost £6500, and is capable of accommodating 200 paupers. An alien priory, subordinate to the abbey of St. Jacutus de Tusula, in Brittany, was founded in the time of Henry III.; at the suppression, its revenue was valued at £23. 8. 10., and it was granted by Henry VI. to Pembroke Hall. At Barham, in the parish, a priory of Crouched friars, a cell to the monastery of Welnetham, in Suffolk, was established in the reign of Edward I. Several Roman coins have been dug up.
LINTON, a township, in the parish of ChurchGresley, union of Burton-upon-Trent, hundred of Repton and Gresley, S. division of the county of Derby, 5½ miles (S. S. E.) from Burton; containing 253 inhabitants. It is situated on the Bosworth and Burton, and Hartshorn road, and comprises 883a. 1r. 14p., arable and pasture in nearly equal portions; about 40 acres are uninclosed. The soil is fertile, and the pastures are extremely rich; the chief produce is corn, cheese, and fat-cattle. Each of the farms belongs to a different proprietor. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and other dissenters.
Linton, or Lynton (St. Mary)
LINTON, or Lynton (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Barnstaple, hundred of Sherwill, Braunton and N. divisions of Devon, 14 miles (E. by N.) from Ilfracombe; containing 1027 inhabitants. This parish, which is the most northern point of the Devonshire coast, comprises two manors, the lords of which, in the time of Edward I., had the power of inflicting capital punishment. The village is on an eminence westward of an opening towards the Bristol Channel, and is separated from the adjoining parish by the river Lyn, over which is a bridge of one arch. About a mile westward from Linton is the Valley of Rocks, the bed of which is about three-quarters of a mile in length, but not above 100 yards in width; the acclivities on each side exhibit huge masses of fixed and detached rock, and at the western extremity of the vale, which is terminated by a cove or inlet, is an isolated mass of considerable magnitude, in the form of a cone, partly intercepting the view of the Channel. Within a short distance to the east, by the sea-side, near the junction of the East and West Lyn rivers, is Linmouth, formerly a fishing-town of some consequence, but now possessing only about a dozen fishing-boats. Turbot, soles, cod, herrings, and oysters, are caught upon the coast, and shipped to Bristol and elsewhere: the river Lyn abounds in trout. Several sloops of from 50 to 100 tons are employed in the coasting-trade; limestone, coal, and culm are the principal articles of importation, and bark and grain the chief exports. There is a small pier, erected by the lord of the manor, at which the steamers from Bristol to Ilfracombe call in passing. Both at Linton and Linmouth are numerous lodging-houses for the accommodation of visiters; and in the neighbourhood are some elegant private residences: there is a plentiful supply of excellent water. The lord of the manor holds a court leet and baron at Linton soon after Easter, when a portreeve, tythingman, and ale-taster are appointed. The parish comprises by measurement 7160 acres, of which 3287 are arable and pasture, 310 woodland, and the remainder mountain and common. The living is a perpetual curacy, with that of Countisbury annexed; net income, £120; patron, the Archdeacon of Barnstaple. The tithes of Linton have been commuted for £270, and the glebe comprises 102 acres: attached to the curacy is a glebe of three acres. The church, an ancient structure in the early English style, with a tower, was enlarged in 1817 and 1833, and now contains 600 sittings. There is a place of worship for Independents.
LINTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Churcham, Lower division of the hundred of Dudstone and King's-Barton, union, and E. division of the county, of Gloucester, 1¾ mile (W. by N.) from the city of Gloucester; containing 31 inhabitants.
LINTON, a township, in the parish and union of Bromyard, hundred of Broxash, county of Hereford, 3 miles (S. E.) from Bromyard; containing 610 inhabitants, including the inmates of the union workhouse here. The township is situated on the borders of Worcestershire, and comprises 2433 acres, of which 260 are common or waste.
Linton (St. Mary)
LINTON (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Newent, hundred of Greytree, county of Hereford, 5 miles (E. by N.) from Ross; containing 750 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2595 acres, and is situated on the borders of Gloucestershire, which bounds it on the east. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the rectorial tithes, valued in the king's books at £8. 10., and in the gift of St. John's College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £525, and the glebe consists of 68 acres. There is a place of worship for Baptists; also a school, endowed by Edward Goff, Esq., in 1813.
Linton (St. Nicholas)
LINTON (St. Nicholas), a parish, in the union and hundred of Maidstone, lathe of Aylesford, W. division of Kent, 4 miles (S.) from Maidstone; containing 900 inhabitants. This parish comprises by measurement 1383 acres, of which 633 are arable, 420 meadow and pasture, 170 in hop plantations, 100 garden and orchard, and 60 woodland; the surface is boldly undulated, and the scenery pleasing. The village is situated on the range of hills that bound the Weald on the north; and within half a mile of it is Coxheath, an extensive plain, on which 15,000 soldiers were encamped, and reviewed by George III., in 1778, but which has been inclosed and cultivated, now producing hops of excellent quality. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 13. 4.; patron and impropriator, Earl Cornwallis: the great tithes have been commuted for £220, and the vicarial for £325. The church contains some monuments worthy of notice, particularly one to the memory of Viscount Brome, only son of the present Earl Cornwallis. During a thunder-storm about the end of November, 1838, the spire was struck by the electric fluid, which destroyed a part of it. In 1813, John Bowles bequeathed £200, the interest to be applied to instruction. A schoolhouse for girls was lately erected by Lady Cornwallis; and some handsome almshouses have been built and endowed by his lordship, whose seat is in the parish. The poor-house for Maidstone union, a large brick building, calculated to hold 600 paupers, with a spacious chapel attached, is situated here.
Linton, county of Lincoln.—See Lavington.
LINTON, a township, in the parish of Spofforth, Upper division of the wapentake of Claro, W. riding of York, 1¾ mile (W. by S.) from Wetherby; containing 169 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 1030 acres. The village is situated on the north side of the vale of the Wharfe. A rent-charge of £257. 10. has been awarded as a commutation for the tithes. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
Linton (St. Michael)
LINTON (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York; containing, with the townships of Grassington, Hebden, and Threshfield, 2060 inhabitants, of whom 303 are in the township of Linton, 9 miles (N.) from Skipton. This parish, which is situated in the beautiful valley of the river Wharfe, comprises about 11,110 acres, divided into several manors. A considerable portion is hilly moor, affording in some parts tolerable pasture. The population is chiefly employed in the lead-mines of Grassington, and in the manufacture of cotton and worsted goods. The living is a rectory in medieties, each valued in the king's books at £16, and in the patronage of the Crown; net income of each, £185, exclusive of the glebes, which comprise 30 acres each. The church formerly contained two pulpits and two reading-desks: it was originally a Norman building, of which some parts remain, but it has undergone various repairs at different periods, especially in the reign of Henry VIII.; the west window is a good specimen of the decorated style. A free grammar school was founded in 1672, by the Rev. Matthew Hewitt, who endowed it with £20 per annum for the master, £10 for the usher, and £50 for four exhibitions to St. John's College, Cambridge. An hospital for six women was founded, and endowed with a house and 240 acres of land now producing £270 per annum, by Richard Fountain, Esq., in 1721; £16 per annum are paid to each of the inmates, and £20 to a chaplain; £12 are applied to the apprenticing of children, and £70 appropriated to relatives of the founder. There are some small bequests for distribution among the poor generally.
LINTON-upon-Ouse, a township, in the parish of Newton, union of Easingwould, wapentake of Bulmer, N. riding of York, 9 miles (S. S. W.) from Easingwould; containing 299 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 2030 acres of land, chiefly the property of University College, Oxford. The village is neat, and pleasantly situated on the north side of the river Ouse, about a mile west of the village of Newton. There is an ancient Roman Catholic chapel; also a school with a small endowment.
LINTZ-GREEN, a township, in the chapelry of Tanfield, parish of Chester-le-Street, union of Lanchester, Middle division of Chester ward, N. division of the county of Durham, 8 miles (S. W. by W.) from Gateshead; containing, with the township of Beamish, 2671 inhabitants. The ancient manor or vill of Lintz appears to have included the present estates of Lintz-Green, Lintz Hall, and Lintzford, and probably other separate freeholds. Lintz-Green lies on the extreme western verge of the chapelry of Tanfield; Lintz Hall is a little to the south, and Lintzford northward on the Derwent. At Low Friarside, to the west of Gibside, was a small chapel, of which some remains are still standing, in the middle of a large pasture field, near the river.
Linwood (St. Cornelius)
LINWOOD (St. Cornelius), a parish, in the union of Caistor, S. division of the wapentake of Walshcroft, parts of Lindsey, county of Lincoln, 2½ miles (S. by E.) from Market-Rasen; containing 226 inhabitants. This place was formerly the residence of the Lynwoods, of whom William, who died in 1446, was bishop of St. David's, and keeper of the privy seal under Henry VI. The parish is tolerably extensive, and includes a rabbit-warren of 250 acres, and a large wood; the farmhouse and cottages are of recent erection. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 4. 2., and in the patronage of the family of Gordon: the tithes have been commuted for £380, and the glebe comprises 95 acres. The church is a neat structure, profusely ornamented with stained glass: the church land consists of 6 acres, awarded at the inclosure.
LINWOOD, a hamlet, in the parish of Blankney, union of Sleaford, Second division of the wapentake of Langoe, parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln; containing 55 inhabitants. It comprises 700 acres, and is three miles to the east of the village of Blankney.
LIPHOOK, a post-town, in the parish of Bramshott, hundred of Alton, Petersfield and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 4½ miles (W.) from Haslemere; containing 242 inhabitants. It is near the Sussex border, and on the London and Petersfield road.
LIPWOOD, a township, in the chapelry of Haydon, parish of Warden, union of Hexham, N. W. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 7¾ miles (W.) from Hexham; containing 648 inhabitants. This place, which is an ancient member of the barony of Langley, occupies an elevated situation, and is bounded on the north by the Roman Prætentura. The surface is diversified, and the scenery of pleasing character. Grindon lake, a fine sheet of water in the township, is fed by the Knag burn (which rises to the north of the Roman wall), and in the winter greatly overflows its summer limits; it abounds with perch, and a boat is kept on it by the governors of Greenwich Hospital, to whom it belongs. Lipwood House is a handsome villa, erected about the year 1829, by the late Thomas Coates, Esq., whose family at that time held lands in the township.
LISCARD, a township, in the parish of Wallasey, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of Wirrall, S. division of the county of Chester, 3 miles (N. by W.) from Birkenhead; containing, in 1841, 2873 inhabitants. In the reign of Edward I., the manor was held under the barons of Halton by Richard de Aston; it afterwards passed to the family of Meolse, the last of whom of the male line, in 1739, bequeathed the property to the Houghs. In 1804, it was sold by the executors of that family to the late John Penketh, Esq.; and by the marriage of his daughter and heiress with John Dennil Maddock, Esq., the manor has become vested in that gentleman. Some years ago this township presented an almost barren waste, large heaps of sand lying in many parts, and there being only a village, with a few small hovels the abode of fishermen, and a range of low cottages used for a magazine. An extensive and rapid change has, however, been effected; several settlements have been made, and labour and enterprise have succeeded in fertilizing and enriching a district for which nature seemed to have done so little. The shore for a great distance is now studded with elegant houses, and even among the sand-hills many spots have been chosen for villas, which are the residences of opulent families from Liverpool.
New Brighton, in the township, has sprung up since 1830. In that year the late James Atherton, Esq., conceived the design of founding a watering-place at the north-east angle of the township, and in furtherance of his plan purchased 180 acres of ground in that quarter, where the convex form of the coast, presenting one front to the Mersey and another to the open sea, appeared well adapted to the purposes of a marine village. Here streets fifteen yards in width, and nearly a mile in extent, now ascend from both shores, and intersect each other at right angles; the whole being laid out on a regular and symmetrical plan, with a pier having the requisite landing-stages, an hotel and other accommodation for visiters, hot and cold baths, &c., and, in short, every convenience for either permanent or temporary residence. The erection of buildings continues on every side, many of them being highly ornamental and elegant; and the village promises to be, at no distant day, one of the most fashionable watering-places in this part of the kingdom. The hamlet of Egremont is also in the township, and on the Mersey, nearly opposite to Liverpool, from which it is distant one mile and a half; it contains several handsome dwellings, hotels, and lodging-houses, and is likewise a favourite and genteel bathing-place. Near this hamlet is the magazine where all ships entering the port of Liverpool deposit their gunpowder, prior to admission into the docks. Steam-boats ply every half hour from New Brighton and Egremont to Liverpool.
Liscard comprises 896a. 2r. 33p., of which the soil is sand and clay: 131 acres are the property of Mr. Maddock. A church, dedicated to St. John, and in the Grecian style of architecture, was erected at Egremont in 1833, at a cost of £10,000: the living is a perpetual curacy, with an income of £200, and in the patronage of Trustees. The tithes of the township have been commuted for £115, equally divided between the rector of Wallasey and the lessee of the Bishop of Chester. There are places of worship for Independents and Primitive Methodists; and a Roman Catholic chapel (St. Alban's), built in 1842: the Rev. Ambrose Lennon is the priest.—See Brighton, New.
Liskeard (St. Martin)
LISKEARD (St. Martin), a borough, markettown, and parish, and the head of a union, locally in the hundred of West, E. division of Cornwall; containing 4287 inhabitants, of whom 3001 are in the borough, 18 miles (S. S. W.) from Launceston, and 225 (W. S. W.) from London. The ancient name was Liskerrett, derived probably from two Cornish words signifying "a fortified place." The town was formerly amongst the possessions of the earls of Cornwall, and was, by act of parliament, annexed to the duchy in the reign of Edward III. The castle, of which there are still some vestiges, was occasionally the residence of Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans. In 1643, during the civil war, a battle was fought near this place, between the royalists, under Sir Ralph Hopton, and the parliamentary forces; the latter were defeated, and the royalist army marched into Liskeard the same night. The king, on his entrance into Cornwall, in 1646, halted here on August 2nd, and remained until the 7th. The town is one of the most ancient and considerable in the county: it is irregularly built, chiefly on steep hills at the upper extremity of a valley; the streets are well paved and lighted, the inhabitants are supplied with excellent water, and the air is very salubrious. The tanning of leather is carried on to a considerable extent. Facility of conveyance is afforded by the canal from Liskeard towards Looe, which commences about one mile west of the town, where are coal-wharfs and limekilns. This is one of the four coinage or stannary towns; but no coinage has taken place for some time, the practice having been abandoned. A handsome market-house for poultry, fish, and vegetables, was erected in 1822; and there are butchers' shambles beneath the town-hall. The market, on Saturday, is abundantly supplied with provisions of all kinds, and great annual markets or fairs for the sale of cattle are likewise held. The town-hall is a good structure on granite arches and columns, erected in 1707, and surmounted with a clock.
Liskeard was made a free borough in 1240, by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, who conferred on the burgesses similar privileges to those enjoyed by the towns of Launceston and Helston; and several charters were afterwards bestowed, under the last of which, granted by Elizabeth, and dated the 26th of July, 1587, the corporation consisted of a mayor, nine capital, and an indefinite number of inferior, burgesses, a recorder, and a town-clerk. The government is now vested in a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, elected under the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76; and the magistrates, four in number, assemble on alternate Mondays for the despatch of business. The powers of the county debt-court of Liskeard, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Liskeard. The borough first sent representatives to parliament in the 23rd of Edward I.: it formerly returned two members, but was deprived of one by the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, when an enlarged district was substituted for the borough, for elective purposes. The limits, previously comprising 2387 acres, now extend over an area of 8115 acres, embracing the old borough and parish of Liskeard, with part of the parish of St. Clear. The mayor is returning officer. There is a small prison.
The parish is intersected by the river Looe, and comprises by measurement 7126 acres: the soil is various, but generally fertile, and in some parts a deep rich loam; the surface is very hilly, and the surrounding country strikingly diversified. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £18. 13. 11½.; net income, £303; patron, the Rev. F. J. Todd. The church stands on an eminence at the eastern entrance of the town, and is a spacious and handsome edifice of fine large slate-stone, with a low embattled tower, which was erected in 1627; it contains several monuments, among which is one raised by Captain Martyn and his brother officers, to Lieut. James Huntley, who fell in a gallant attack on a squadron of Russian gun-boats in the Gulf of Finland. An episcopal chapel was opened at Dubwalls, in 1839. Amongst other lands of smaller value, a tenement called Lanseaton, now let for £50 per annum, is vested in the wardens for the repairs of the church. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, Wesleyans, and Association Methodists. A school was founded by the trustees of the Rev. St. John Eliot, who died in 1760, and was endowed by them with £5 per annum. A British and Foreign school was erected in 1835; and a diocesan classical and commercial school has been established. The union of Liskeard comprises 26 parishes or places, with a population of 26,484: a workhouse has been built near the town for 350 persons. A great part yet remains of the buildings of the nunnery of Poor Clares, founded here, and endowed by Richard, Earl of Cornwall; it is called "The Great Place," and has been converted into dwelling-houses.