A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.
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Keanlochbervie, a district, in the parish of Eddrachillis, county of Sutherland; containing 1028 inhabitants, of whom 105 are in the village, 14 miles (N. by E.) from Eddrachillis. This place is situated on the western shore of the county, on the north side of Loch Inchard, and near its mouth: the coast is much indented. In the interior are numerous lakes; and the district, generally, partakes of the mountainous character of the land in this quarter. The Duke of Sutherland is the sole proprietor; and under him, the aspect of the country, though still rugged, has been much improved within the last few years. Keanlochbervie was separated, for ecclesiastical purposes, from the rest of the parish, under an act of parliament passed in the 5th of George IV.; and as that arrangement was afterwards set aside, it is proposed by the Court of Session to again erect it into a quoad sacra district. It is under the presbytery of Tongue and synod of Sutherland and Caithness, and the patronage is vested in the Crown: the stipend of the minister is £120, paid from the exchequer; and there is a good manse, with a glebe of some acres. The church was erected in 1828-9, at the expense of government; it contains 350 sittings, and is of sufficient height to be enlarged by galleries. The members of the Free Church have also a place of worship. A school was built and endowed in 1845.
KEIG, a parish, in the district of Alford, county of Aberdeen, 4½ miles (N.E. by E.) from Alford; containing 662 inhabitants. This parish, which includes the north-eastern portion of the vale of Alford, is bounded on the north by the mountain range of Benachie, and on the east by the Menaway hills. It is about five miles and a half in length, of irregular form, and nearly two miles and a half in average breadth, comprising an area of 7900 acres, of which 3100 are arable, 2300 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moorland pasture and waste. The surface in the central part of the parish is generally flat; and even the acclivities of the hills are under tillage, to a height of 700 feet above the level of the sea. The river Don flows in a winding course through the parish, dividing it into two nearly equal portions, and, after receiving numerous tributary streams, falls into the German Ocean; it abounds with trout and salmon. The scenery is everywhere of pleasing character, being enriched with wood, and in many parts beautifully picturesque; and it derives much additional interest from the extensive and finely planted demesne of Castle-Forbes, which is within the parish.
The soil is mostly a gravelly sand combined with clay, with the exception of the grounds along the banks of the river, which have a rich alluvial mould; there are also some tracts of peat-moss, furnishing but very indifferent fuel. The chief crops are, oats and bear, with a small quantity of wheat occasionally, and potatoes and turnips, of which, however, not more is raised than is sufficient for home consumption. The system of husbandry is improved, and a due rotation of crops regularly observed; much of the waste has been drained and brought into cultivation, and the lands are well inclosed, chiefly with dykes of stone. The cattle are generally of the native Aberdeenshire breed, with a few crosses of the Galloway; but not more than 1100 or 1200 are reared, and of these a considerable number are fed for the market, and sent by steamers to London. The sheep, of which about 600 are reared in the pastures, are chiefly of the black-faced Highland breed, with some of the Leicestershire; they are kept principally for their wool, which is used for domestic purposes. The plantations, chiefly on the lands of Castle-Forbes, consist of oak, ash, white and black poplar, birch, weeping-birch, aspen, beech, laburnum, elm, lime, plane, cork, horse-chesnut, larch, maple, Weymouth pine, and silver, spruce, and Scotch firs. The prevailing rocks in the parish are granite, with gneiss, greenstone, and clay-slate; some masses of porphyry, also, are found, and fine specimens of rock-crystal. The rateable annual value of Keig is £2563. Castle-Forbes, the seat of Lord Forbes, premier baron of Scotland, is a spacious and elegant mansion in the castellated style, beautifully situated on the north bank of the Don, and on the acclivity of the mountain of Benachie, commanding a fine view of the river. The demesne, which is very extensive, is tastefully laid out in walks and rides, and richly embellished with full-grown timber and thriving plantations. There is no village; neither is there any important manufacture, except the knitting of worsted stockings for the Aberdeen houses, in which many of the poorer females are employed. At Whitehouse, on the borders of the parish, is a post-office, by which a mail-coach runs daily to Aberdeen; and facility of communication is maintained by the Aberdeen and Alford turnpike-road; by statute roads kept in good repair; and by a handsome bridge of one arch, 101 feet in span, erected over the Don, in 1817, at a cost of £2300, of which one-half was contributed by government.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Alford and synod of Aberdeen. The minister's stipend is £158. 13. 6., of which one-fourth is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1835, is a handsome structure in the later English style, crowned with pinnacles, and containing 500 sittings, all of which are free. The parochial school is conveniently situated; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and a portion of the Dick bequest; and the fees average £20 per annum. There are two Druidical circles in the parish, of which one, more entire than the other, is within the grounds of Castle-Forbes, about half a mile from the house, in a wood on the Cothiemuir hill. This circle, which appears to have consisted of eleven upright stones, is twenty-five yards in diameter; the other, situated near the farm of Old Keig, is about twentytwo yards in diameter, and within the area are two upright stones, nine feet high, between which is an immense slab, apparently used as an altar. On the summit of a hill on the north-west of the parish, is a circular wall of loose stones, inclosing an area nearly eighty yards in diameter, called the Barmekin; but nothing of its history is known. The place anciently gave the title of Baron to the Bishop of St. Andrew's, who sat in the Scottish parliament as Lord Keig and Monymusk.
KEIR, or Kier, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 2 miles (S. W.) from Thornhill; containing, with the village of Barjarg, 984 inhabitants. This parish is supposed to derive its name from the British word Caer, signifying "a fort," used in reference to some fortress of importance, of which all traces have now disappeared. It is thought to have anciently belonged to the abbey of Holywood, or, as some say, was a vicarage belonging to the parish of Caerlaverock, which latter was a parsonage connected with the abbey. After the Reformation, the feus which used to be paid to the church were given to the Earl of Morton; but that nobleman having disobliged the sovereign, they were afterwards granted to the Earl of Nithsdale, whose successors were the chief heritors of the parish till 1702, when James, Duke of Queensberry, purchased the barony of Keir. The property has since been increased by several purchases, and consists at present of three large portions, held by the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, and extending to nearly one-half of the whole parish. The other estates are, Capenoch, Waterside, Barjarg, and Blackwood, one of which is still in the possession of a very ancient family.
The parish is about seven miles and a half long, and two and a half in extreme breadth, and contains between 7000 and 8000 acres. It is bounded by Penpont on the north; by Dunscore on the south; by Closeburn on the east; and by Tynron and Glencairn on the west. The surface is diversified by numerous hills, which afford excellent sheep pasture. The rivers are, the Nith, and its tributary the Scar, the former of which washes the eastern boundary of the parish. The holm land on the banks of the rivers consists of a fine rich loam. In other parts, where the ground is level, there is a light, dry, and fertile earth, producing good crops in moist weather, but soon parched up with drought. The soil on the high grounds is deep and strong, but very stony, and generally covered with coarse, though nutritious grasses. About 3375 acres are cultivated for the usual white and green crops; 750 are meadow land, and nearly 2600 natural pasture: between 600 and 700 acres are under wood, natural and planted. The sheep are chiefly the black-faced, and the cattle the Galloway and Ayrshire. Many improvements have been introduced into the district, the chief of which is the extensive reclaiming of waste land, by drainage and other means, so as to increase, to a very great degree, the arable grounds. The rocks in the parish consist of greywacke, in many varieties, with sandstone and abundance of limestone, of the latter of which one quarry is worked, producing a good return. The rateable annual value of Keir is £4562. The mansions are, Barjarg, Capenoch, Waterside, and Blackwood Houses, all modern, with the exception of the first, which is partly an old edifice. There are two villages, named Keir-Mill and Barjarg. About eight miles and a half of turnpike-road run through the parish, on part of which public coaches travel; and five bridges connect Keir with the adjoining districts. One of these bridges, a suspension-bridge, of a new construction, was lately erected by the Duke of Buccleuch, over the Scar; the span is 110 feet. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Penpont and synod of Dumfries and Galloway; patron, the Duke of Buccleuch. The stipend is £220; and there is a good manse, with a glebe of ten acres, worth about £18 per annum. The church, which is situated inconveniently, at Keir-Mill, near the upper end of the parish, was built in 1814; it contains 430 sittings, and is in good repair. There are two parochial schools, in which Greek, Latin, mathematics, and all the usual branches of education are taught: each of the masters' salaries is £25. 13. 4., with, respectively, £16 and £15 fees. Dr. Hunter, professor of theology in the university of Edinburgh, resided at Barjarg.
KEISS, formerly a quoad sacra parish, partly in the parish of Wick, and partly in that of Canisbay, county of Caithness, 7¾ miles (N.) from Wick; containing, with the village of Keiss, 1009 inhabitants. The portion of this district which is within the parish of Wick is about five miles in length and three in breadth, containing 809 inhabitants, and after the erection and endowment of a church by government, in 1827, was, with a contiguous portion of Canisbay, formed into a quoad sacra parish by act of the General Assembly, in 1833. Whinstone and red sandstone prevail in the district; and the soil is principally composed of a strong clay. The herring-fishery, which is prosecuted in the months of July and August, is very considerable, and cod, ling, and haddock are also obtained: in 1840, a salmonfishery on a small scale was commenced, but was not attended with much success. A cattle-market is held in the month of June. Keiss House, a plain massive building, erected about 1760, is at present in a very dilapidated state, not having been for a number of years the residence of its owner. The village, situated at the head of Keiss harbour, in Sinclair bay, and on the great coast-road from Wick to Huna, is chiefly inhabited by persons engaged in the fisheries.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Caithness and synod of Caithness and Sutherland: the stipend of the minister is £120, paid by endowment of the government, with a manse, built near the church. The church, erected by government, in 1827, on a rising ground to the west of the harbour, at an expense of £1500, is a plain structure containing 350 sittings, and, by the addition of galleries, would contain 200 more. The Baptists have a place of worship. A school, also, has been erected, of which the master receives a salary of £15, one-half derived from the Rev. William Hallawall's endowment, and the other paid by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge: he has likewise the fees. On a rock overhanging the sea are remains of an old castle, called Keiss Castle; and there are some vestiges still to be seen of two ancient chapels, and a Pictish house.
KEITH, a parish, partly in the county of Elgin, but chiefly in that of Banff; containing, with the villages of Fife-Keith and Newmills, 4456 inhabitants, of whom 276 are in the county of Elgin, and 1804 are in the town of Keith, 10½ miles (N. W.) from Huntly, and 49 (N. W.) from Aberdeen. This place, of which the name is of uncertain derivation, is of very remote antiquity; and the old town was, for many years, the principal seat of jurisdiction for the surrounding district, and had precedence of Fordyce, Cullen, and Banff, at that time the only other towns within the county. The ancient courts of regality held their sittings in the church, for the determination of all pleas, including even those of the crown, and for the trial of capital offences; the tower of the church was used for a prison, and the hill on which the new town is built was the place of execution for malefactors. In 1645, a skirmish occurred here, between the forces under the Marquess of Montrose and a party of the Covenanters led by General Baillie; and in 1667, the peasantry, headed by the Gordons of Auchinachy and Glengarrick, defeated the banditti of Patrick Roy Mac Gregor, and took their leader prisoner. The New Town of Keith is pleasantly situated on the acclivity of a gentle eminence, to the south-east of the Old Town, and consists of several spacious and well-formed streets, parallel with each other, and intersected at right angles by smaller streets and lanes. The houses are well built, and attached to each of them is a spacious garden. In the centre of the town is an ample market-place, 700 feet in length and 150 feet wide. Fife-Keith, on the north bank of the river Isla, was commenced by the Earl of Fife, in 1816, and consists of regular streets of good houses, and a handsome square, &c. It is connected by two bridges with Old Keith; and as Old Keith communicates with New Keith by a street extending for 250 yards along the great north road, the three places may be considered as forming one town, about a mile in length. A public library, containing a good collection of volumes on history and general literature, is supported by subscription; and there are also a library connected with a literary association, and several congregational libraries.
The linen manufacture was formerly carried on here to a very considerable extent; but since the introduction of the cotton manufacture it has been discontinued. There are mills for carding and spinning wool, and home-grown flax; and also some corn and flour mills which supply the country for many miles round. A distillery producing about 20,000 gallons of whisky annually, and a tobacco and snuff manufactory, are in active operation. There are also a tannery and a bleachfield; and many of the inhabitants are employed in the extensive lime-works in the parish, from which 40,000 bolls of lime are sent every year. The numerous handsome shops are amply stored with merchandise of every description; and branches of the Aberdeen, the Town and County, and the North of Scotland banks, have been established in the town. A spacious and commodious inn and posting-house, at which the mail stops daily, was erected by the Earl of Seafield, in 1823. A weekly market, supplied with grain and provisions of all kinds, is held on Friday; and fairs, chiefly for cattle, horses, and sheep, occur annually, on the first Friday in January and March; the first Tuesday, O. S., in April and June, and the Friday before Huntly fair in July. Fairs, also, for hiring servants and general business, are held on the Wednesday after the first Tuesday in September and on the third Friday, O. S., in November. The September fair, called "Summer Eve fair," formerly continued for a fortnight, and was the great mart for the exchange of produce between the north and south parts of Scotland; it was resorted to by crowds who, for want of accommodation, took up their lodgings in barns and outhouses, and it is still numerously attended. The post-office has a good delivery; and facility of communication is maintained by the great north road and other turnpike roads which pass through the parish, and by bridges over the river Isla. Though not a burgh of barony, yet, being within the barony of Keith or Ogilvie, courts may be held by the baron-bailie of the Earl of Seafield. The sheriff's court for the recovery of small debts, and a justice-of-peace court, are also held inthe town, the former six times in the year, and the latter on the first Wednesday in every month. A gaol has been erected within the last few years; but, there being at present no town-hall in the burgh, the various courts are held in the inn erected by the Earl of Seafield.
The parish, which is situated in the beautiful and fertile valley of the Isla, is of irregular form, about six miles in length and nearly of equal breadth, comprising an area of thirty-six square miles, of which one-half is arable, and the remainder pasture and waste. The surface rises gradually from the banks of the river, which runs through the vale from south to north, towards the confines of the parish, where there are hills of moderate elevation. The river has its source in the adjoining parish of Botriphnie, and, flowing through this parish, takes a south-eastern course, and, after receiving several smaller streams, falls into the Doveran; it abounds with trout of good quality, and, half a mile below Keith, forms a picturesque cascade. The soil is generally clay, alternated with loam, in some parts of great fertility, and in others poorer and of lighter quality. The chief crops are oats and barley, with potatoes and turnips; flax is also raised on some lands, but little or no wheat is sown. The system of husbandry is improved, and a regular rotation duly observed; but the lands are not inclosed, and much yet remains to be done. The cattle are of the native breed, with a cross of the Teeswater, and great numbers are sent to London; the dairy-farms are well managed, and the butter and cheese, which are much esteemed, find a ready sale in the southern markets. The plantations, formed chiefly by the Earl of Fife, on such parts of the land as were incapable of cultivation, are in a thriving state, and have been recently much extended by the Earl of Seafield and the other proprietors. The principal substrata are, limestone, freestone, and slate; the limestone is made into lime, for which there are several works in the parish, affording employment to a considerable number of persons. In the limeworks at Maisly, a vein of antimony has been found; and fluor spar has also been discovered in some places. The only seat of a landed proprietor is Edintore, a handsome mansion recently erected. The rateable annual value of the parish is returned at £8001.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Strathbogie and synod of Moray. The minister's stipend is £222, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £50 per annum; patron, the Earl of Fife. The church, which is situated in the centre of the parish, is a very handsome structure, in the later English style of architecture, with a square tower 120 feet high; it was built in 1816, and contains 1800 sittings. There are a Free Church, places of worship for members of the United Secession and Independents, and an Episcopal, and a fine Roman Catholic chapel. The parochial school, for which a spacious building was erected in 1833, capable of receiving 260 children, is well attended. The master, who keeps an assistant, has a salary of £34, with an allowance of £10 for a house and garden; the fees average £80, and he also receives a portion of Dick's bequest, and £16.13. 4., the residue of an endowment, from the lands of Edendrach, bequeathed for the support of the school. There are likewise schools at Newmills and in other parts in the parish. Chalybeate springs occur in several places; but they are not much used medicinally. About half a mile below the town are the ruins of an ancient castle, formerly the seat of the Oliphant family. Ferguson, the eminent astronomer, though not a native, was brought up from his infancy in the parish.
Keith and Humbie
KEITH and HUMBIE, a parish, in the county of Haddington, eight miles (S. W. by S.) from Haddington; containing 881 inhabitants. This parish was formed, subsequently to the Reformation, by the union of the two parishes of Keith-Symmars and Keith-Hundeley. It is about six miles in length, from east to west, and five in breadth, from north to south, comprising an irregular area which, towards the south-western extremity, is intersected by part of the parish of Fala. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Pencaitland; on the east by the parishes of Bolton and Salton; on the south by the Lammermoor hills; on the west and south-west by the parishes of Crichton and Fala; and on the north-west by those of Ormiston and Cranston. The surface is greatly diversified, rising gradually from the northern part of the parish, which is 350 feet above the level of the sea, till it attains a height of 600 feet at the base of the Lammermoor hills, of which Lammerlaw, the loftiest of the range, has an elevation of 1200 feet, and others vary from 800 to 1000 feet. The lands are watered by three rivulets, which have their source in the higher grounds, and in their way through the parish, acquire a sufficient strength to give impulse to several mills. Of these streams the Keith and the Humbie unite their waters a little below the church, and, after flowing in one channel for nearly two miles, receive the waters of the burn Birnswater, which, from its rise to its junction forms the eastern boundary of the parish; they all abound with trout of good quality. The scenery is enriched with timber of mature growth, and with young and thriving plantations. Humbie wood comprises an area of 400 acres of oak, birch, beech, and firs, of which many display luxuriancy of growth, and in combination with the adjoining woods in the parish of Salton, form a conspicuous and beautiful feature in the landscape, finely contrasting with the various aspects of the Lammermoor hills, of which some are covered with barren heath and others with lively verdure.
The soil is in some places a rich loam, in others a light sand, and in others again, clayey and mossy; the number of acres in the parish is estimated at 17,000, of which about 7000 are arable or capable of tillage. A considerable portion of the mossy bogs in the Lammermoor range has been reclaimed by open surface-draining, and converted into excellent pasturage; and from 200 to 300 more might be brought into profitable cultivation. In addition to the 400 acres forming Humbie wood, about one hundred are covered with plantations in the different demesne lands; and 2500 acres are hilly pasture and moor. The system of agriculture, which has always been good, is at present in a highly improved state; the crops are, wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, peas, and turnips. Rape-dust manure has been successfully employed in the cultivation of wheat, and bone-dust on the turnip grounds. The farm houses and offices are substantial and well arranged: the lands are inclosed partly with stone dykes, but chiefly with hedges of thorn, which have been made at considerable expense, even where the soil was not originally favourable to their growth. Great attention is paid to live stock. The sheep are generally of the Cheviot breed, or a cross between the Cheviot and the Leicestershire, with a few of the black-faced, which, however, are diminishing in number; about 3000 sheep are annually reared, and more than three hundred head of cattle are reared and fattened for the market. The rateable annual value of Keith and Humbie is £7603. Whitburgh, a handsome modern mansion; that of Johnstonburn; and Keith House, an ancient mansion, formerly the residence of the EarlsMarischal of Scotland, and the timber for the erection of which was a present from the King of Denmark, are the only houses of note in the parish. The hamlets are neatly built, and have facility of communication with the towns of Haddington and Dalkeith, which are the chief markets in this part of the country for the sale of agricultural produce. The roads throughout the parish are kept in repair by statute labour; and over each of the rivulets is a good stone bridge of one arch. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Haddington and Synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The stipend of the incumbent is £272; the manse was erected in 1790, and enlarged in 1822, and is a comfortable residence; the glebe is valued at £10 per annum. The church, situated nearly in the centre of the parish, was built in 1800; it is a plain substantial edifice adapted to a congregation of 400 persons, and all the sittings are free. A place of worship has been erected for members of the Free Church. There are two parochial schools, the masters of which have each a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and the fees.
Keith-Hall and Kinkell
KEITH-HALL and KINKELL, a parish, in the district of Garioch, county of Aberdeen, one mile (E. by S.) from Inverury; containing 913 inhabitants. Keith-Hall was anciently called Montkeggie, a word of uncertain derivation; it assumed the present appellation after the larger part of it had come into the possession of Keith, Earl-Marischal of Scotland. The Gaelic term Kinkell, signifying "the head or principal church," was applied to the ancient parish of that name, because the incumbent, who was of great importance in the chapter of Aberdeen, had also in his possession the six inferior parishes of Kintore, Kinnellar, Skene, Kemnay, Dyce, and Drumblade. This patronage, however, about the year 1662, was annexed, by the influence of Archbishop Sharpe, to the office of principal of St. Leonard's College, St. Andrew's. In 1754, one third of the parish of Kinkell was joined to Kintore, and the remaining portion to Keith-Hall. The parish is separated, on the west, from the parish of Inverury by the river Urie, and from that of Kintore, in the same quarter, by the river Don, which two streams unite about the centre of the western boundary. Its figure is very irregular: it stretches in length about five miles, and its breadth is exceedingly variable, measuring, however, in some parts, nearly as much as its length. It comprises between 7000 and 8000 acres, of which 2000 are arable, 400 plantations, and the remainder waste. The ground, though occasionally undulated and hilly, is marked by no particular elevations, and the principal features in the scenery are the two rivers, of which the Don, after the junction of the Urie, runs in a south-eastern course, with numerous picturesque windings, till it falls into the sea at Aberdeen. The canal from Inverury passes parallel to the Don, all the way, to the same city. Pike, eels, and trout are found in both the streams, and salmon are also taken in the Urie. In rainy seasons they overflow their banks, especially the Don, and occasion much damage to the neighbouring crops.
The best land is in the western district, near the rivers, where the soil is either loamy or alluvial, and very fertile; the eastern portion has a great variety of soil, mostly of inferior quality, and the usual subsoil is gravel or clay. The grain and green crops comprehend the usual kinds. The South-Down, Leicester, and Scotch breeds of sheep are kept; the cattle are in general excellent, and of the Old Aberdeenshire kind. Lord Kintore, who possesses about two-thirds of the parish, has cultivated, with great spirit and success, the Ayrshire and Teeswater breeds; and his beautiful stock is well known as having produced the celebrated Keith-Hall ox, which obtained the first premium at the Highland Society's show, in 1834, and was sold, at seven years of age, for £100. Portions of waste land have been recovered within these few years, though not to the same extent as in many other parishes, the proprietors not offering much encouragement for those improvements. The old farmhouses with turf roofs have gradually disappeared, and more convenient buildings have been raised, neatly thatched, and, in some instances, slated. Some of the farms are enclosed with hawthorn hedges; but the enclosures are in general of stone, many of them of a secure and substantial nature. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4067.
The plantations consist of beech, oak, elm, ash, plane, Scotch fir, and larch, all growing well except the larch and oak. In the grounds of Keith-Hall, the seat of the Earl of Kintore, the luxuriant plantations constitute a beautiful feature in the scenery, and increase the effect produced by the view of the noble mansion, a quadrangular structure of ancient and modern architecture, with an elegant front. The immediate vicinity of the house commands extensive and striking prospects over a rich valley, well wooded and watered, with a fine range of mountains in the distance. The burgh of Inverury is only about a quarter of a mile from the western boundary; and to it, therefore, the farmers convey their grain and other disposable produce, to be sent to Aberdeen by canal. The turnpike road from Aberdeen to Inverury runs past the western boundary of the parish, at a short distance; and that from the same place to Old Meldrum passes on the east; but neither intersects the parish. An annual fair is held at Kinkell on the Wednesday after the last Tuesday of September, O. S., and is much frequented. The parish is in the presbytery of Garioch and Synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Earl of Kintore: the minister's salary is £217, with a manse, and a glebe of 25 acres, valued at £30 per annum. The church was built in 1771, and accommodates 600 persons with sittings, all of which are free. The Society of Friends have a place of worship at Kinmuck, attached to which is a cemetery. The parochial school affords instruction in Latin and geography, with all the elementary branches; the master has a salary of £30, with a house, and £15 fees. Many illustrious persons who fell in the battle of Harlaw were interred in the churchyard, among whom was the high constable of Dundee.
KELLS, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 14 miles (N. W. by N.) from Castle-Douglas, and 19 (N. by W.) from Kirkcudbright; containing, with the burgh of New Galloway, 1121 inhabitants. This place is supposed by some to derive its name from its elevated situation, of which, in the Gaelic language, the word is descriptive; others deduce it from the British Cell, on account of the extensive woods formerly existing here, and of which considerable remains are still found imbedded in the various mosses. The parish, which is one of the largest in the county, is bounded on the west and south by the river Dee, which separates it from the parishes of Minnigaff, Girthon, and Balmaghie; and on the east by the river Ken, which divides it from Dalry, Balmaclellan, and Parton. It is about sixteen miles in length and eight miles in extreme breadth, comprising an area of 47,500 acres, of which by far the greater part is mountain pasture, and, with the exception of about 400 acres of woodland and plantations, the remainder is arable and in good cultivation. The surface is irregularly broken, rising towards the north into a range of lofty mountains, including the most conspicuous heights of Galloway, of which some have an elevation of 2700 feet above the sea. The arable lands, which are chiefly along the banks of the Ken, are tolerably level, and interspersed with copses of oak and birch. The lower grounds are watered by numerous rivulets, which intersect the parish in various directions, and form tributaries to the Dee and to the Ken. The Ken has its source on the confines of Dumfriesshire, and, after entering the parish on the north-east, receives the waters of the Deuch, and at the southern extremity unites with the Dee. There are also many lakes, of which those of Loch Dungeon and Loch Harrow, in the north, are of considerable extent, but both inferior to Loch Ken, on the eastern border of the parish, which is about five miles in length and three quarters of a mile in breadth, and by far the most eminent for the beauty of its scenery.
The soil of the lands along the Ken is a rich clay, producing good crops of oats, but not in larger quantity than is sufficient for home consumption. The district is chiefly pastoral, and, under the auspices of the Glenkens Society, established in 1830, with the patronage of Mr. Yorstoun, of Garroch, has been greatly improved: the cottages, especially, have in many instances been rendered much more comfortable and commodious. The progress of agricultural improvement, however, is retarded by the difficulty of obtaining lime at any moderate expense; and consequently, several farms which would otherwise be capable of tillage are thrown togegether as sheep-walks. The number of sheep pastured is 17,500; 1300 head of cattle, mostly of the Highland breed, are annually reared, and 300 horses of the Galloway kind. The sheep and cattle are sent to the markets in the south. The hills in the parish are chiefly of granite: there are neither mines nor quarries of any description. The remains of ancient wood are principally copses of oak and birch, both of which are indigenous, and appear well adapted to the soil; and the plantations, which are of recent formation, consist of oak, intermixed with Scotch fir and larch, and are well managed, and in a flourishing condition. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5246. Kenmure Castle, the seat of Lord Viscount Kenmure, the principal landed proprietor, is a very ancient structure, seated on a circular mount, at the head of Loch Ken, within a mile of the town of New Galloway, and is supposed to have been the residence of John Baliol. It suffered frequent assaults during the wars with England in the time of Edward I.; and was burnt in the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots, and again during the usurpation of Cromwell. The estate subsequently belonged to the Gordons, of Lochinvar, of whom Sir John was created Lord of Lochinvar and Viscount Kenmure, in 1633; but it became forfeited to the crown in the time of William, the sixth viscount, who was attainted for his participation in the rebellion of 1715, and beheaded on Tower Hill, London, in the following year. The property was, however, purchased from the crown by a member of his family; and the title was restored by act of parliament, in 1824, to his grandson, the late viscount and proprietor. The grounds are tastefully embellished with stately timber and thriving plantations, and the approach to the castle is by a noble avenue of lime trees. Glenlee is a handsome mansion, which has been greatly enlarged, and is finely situated on the banks of the Ken, in a park embellished with many oaks of majestic growth. Knocknalling and Ballingear are also good houses, recently erected.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and synod of Galloway. The minister's stipend is £300, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1822, is a handsome structure in the early English style of architecture, with a square embattled tower; it contains 560 sittings, and is capable of being made to hold a greater number. The parochial school is attended by about 100 children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £30 per annum. The Glenkens Society annually award prizes to the most deserving of the scholars. A school-house has recently been erected in the northern part of the parish, by Mr. Kennedy, of Knocknalling, who pays the salary of the master; and there is also a Sabbath school, to which is attached a good library. The poor are partly supported by the interest of £522 bequeathed by various individuals, in the hands of the Kirk Session. There are several chalybeate springs in the parish, of which one, on Cairn-Edward, about two miles from New Galloway, was formerly in great repute, and is still used by the inhabitants in its neighbourhood. Among the natives of the parish have been, Lowe, the author of Mary's Dream; Heron, author of a history of Scotland; Gordon, the translator of Tacitus; and the Rev. William Gillespie, author of the Progress of Refinement, of Consolation, and other works.
KELSO, a burgh of barony, market-town, and parish, in the district of Kelso, county of Roxburgh, 23 miles (S. W.) from Berwick, and 41 (S. E.) from Edinburgh, containing, with the village of Maxwellheugh, 5328 inhabitants, of whom 4594 are in the burgh. This place is said to have derived its name, anciently written Calchow, or Calkow, from the chalky cliff on which the original village was situated. The district now occupied by the town and parish appears to have formerly included the parishes of Kelso on the north, and of Maxwell and St. James on the south, side of the river Tweed: of these the two first had separate churches, and the last was part of the ancient burgh of Roxburgh. The churches of Kelso and Maxwell were both destroyed during the earlier period of the border warfare; that of St. James seems to have been burnt down at a later date. These several parishes were all granted to the abbey of Kelso by David I., the founder of that institution, which he endowed for brethren of the order of Benedictines, of the class called Tyronenses, whom he placed in the abbey on its completion, about the year 1130. Under the munificent endowment of that monarch's successors, the establishment became one of the most wealthy in the kingdom. The monastery, however, from its situation so near the border, was frequently exposed to violence and plunder; and after suffering repeated injuries, from which, in process of time, it always recovered, it was, finally, almost destroyed in 1523, by a party of the English under Lord Dacre. Having plundered the town, and laid waste the adjacent country, they burnt the conventual buildings, and removed the roof from the church, which they otherwise defaced; compelling the monks to retire to a village in the neighbourhood, to celebrate the offices of religion. In 1545, the town again sustained devastation from the English forces, who also destroyed the greater portion of what was left of the abbey, which never afterwards recovered; the north and south aisles and the choir were battered down by artillery, and the venerable and stately structure was reduced to a mere ruin. The monks, however, still maintained a religious establishment here, and inhabited the remains of the conventual buildings till the Reformation, after which the site and revenues were granted, in 1587, to Sir John Maitland, lord high chancellor, and subsequently to the Earl of Bothwell, on whose attainder, reverting to the crown, they were bestowed on Sir Robert Ker, of Cessford, warden of the East marches, and ancestor of the Duke of Roxburghe, the present proprietor.
The foundation of the abbey naturally led to the increase and importance of the town, which previously was only an inconsiderable village, and a comparatively insignificant appendage to the burgh of Roxburgh, at that time a place of great note. In the reign of Robert I., the town had so greatly augmented in extent as to be divided into the two portions of Easter and Wester Kelso; and on the demolition of Roxburgh, it became the residence of many of the inhabitants of that burgh. Its increase was now still more rapid, and it had attained a high degree of prosperity in 1545, when, participating in the disastrous fate of its abbey, it was so reduced by the English under the Earl of Hertford, that the markets could no longer be held in it, and were consequently transferred to the neighbouring village of Hume. On the accession of the Ker family to the revenues and jurisdiction of the abbots, the town recovered; and the abbey was erected into a temporal lordship in 1607, by charter of James VI. to the Earl of Roxburghe, who subsequently granted to the inhabitants all the privileges of a free burgh of barony. But it was arrested in its career of prosperity by a destructive fire, which, in 1686, burnt down more than one half of the houses; it was again partly destroyed by fire in 1738, and subsequently sustained considerable damage by similar calamities till within a comparatively recent period. These losses, however, did not impede the progress of the place so much as might have been expected; and it is now in a prosperous state.
The town is finely situated on the north bank of the river Tweed, near its confluence with the Teviot, and consists chiefly of a principal street, irregularly built, several smaller streets, and a handsome square of considerable extent, comprising ranges of buildings in a very pleasing style. The houses are generally of lightcoloured stone, roofed with slate; and the whole has a cheerful and prepossessing appearance. The streets are paved and lighted; the inhabitants are amply supplied with water, and a good approach from the opposite shore is formed by a well-built bridge over the river. The surrounding scenery, remarkable for many peculiarities of feature, is agreeably varied, and, when viewed in combination with the ruins of the ancient abbey, is deeply interesting. The bridge is an elegant structure of stone, erected in 1803, to replace a bridge which had been swept away by an inundation of the river in 1797. It consists of five elliptical arches, seventy-two feet in span, and about fifty feet in height above the surface of the stream; it is nearly 500 feet in length, and was completed by the late Mr. Rennie, at an expense of £18,000. The bridge forms a conspicuous feature in the landscape of the town, and derives additional interest from the beauty of the scenery on both banks of the river. The Kelso library, supported by a proprietary of shareholders, contains a well assorted collection of rather more than 5000 volumes in all departments of literature, and is held in a commodious building. The "New Library" and the "Modern Library" are also well supported, in a similar manner; the former has 2000, and the latter 1500 volumes, chiefly modern works. There is likewise a book club, maintained by subscribers, for the purchase and circulation amongst its members of standard and periodical publications; and a reading-room has been established. The Kelso Physical and Antiquarian Society has collected a valuable museum of natural history and antiquities.
The chief trade here is in corn, and in the various articles of merchandise that are requisite for the supply of the neighbouring district. There are no manufactures carried on to any considerable extent; the principal are those of leather and tobacco, and the weaving of linen and stockings, all of which together scarcely afford employment to 150 persons. Close to the town, there are some very valuable salmon-fisheries on the river Tweed, one of which, of but inconsiderable extent, was recently let to some gentlemen, at the extremely high rent of £210 per annum; the season commences in February, and terminates in November. The chief market is on Friday, and is amply supplied with corn, and well attended; and there is a daily market for butchers' meat, fish, and vegetables. Markets, also, for cattle are held on the second Friday in every month. Fairs occur on the four Fridays in March, for horses, and on the second Friday for cattle also; and a very ancient fair is held on the 5th of August, on St. James' Green, the site of the ancient church of that name. This fair is numerously attended; and the magistrates of the town attend, and divide the tolls with the lord of the barony.
The lands belonging to the abbey of Kelso, after the dissolution of monasteries, were, as is already stated, granted, under the title of the lordship and barony of Hallydean, to the Kers, of Cessford, ancestors of the Dukes of Roxburghe, in 1607; and in 1634, that portion of the lands which constitutes the town and parish of Kelso was separated and erected into a burgh of barony by James VI., who conferred upon the superior, Robert, Earl of Roxburghe, the right of holding a weekly market and fairs, and of creating burgesses, a baron-bailie, and other officers. The government is now vested in a bailie, appointed by the superior; a body of sixteen commissioners, appointed under the act of the 3rd and 4th of William IV., for establishing a general system of police in Scotland; a town clerk; procurator-fiscal; and others. The bailie holds his office during pleasure. There are seven incorporated trades, the merchants, shoemakers, tailors, hammermen, skinners, weavers, and fleshers; and no person is authorized to carry on trade in the burgh who is not a member of one of these companies. The bailie holds a weekly court for the trial and determination of civil and criminal cases, of which, on an average, about forty of the latter may be said to take place annually. The town-house, situated on the east side of the public square, is a handsome edifice of stone, two stories in height, with a portico of four Ionic columns supporting a triangular pediment surmounted by a neat turret. There is likewise a small prison, employed chiefly as a place of temporary confinement for vagrants.
The parish, which is of triangular form, is about five miles in length and three in extreme breadth, and is divided into two nearly equal parts by the Tweed; it comprises 4400 acres, of which 3800 are arable, 300 meadow and pasture, and 215 woodland and plantations. The surface is boldly diversified with broad vales and undulating heights, and abounds with much variety and beauty of scenery. The rivers Tweed and Teviot, especially, present some pleasingly picturesque views in their devious courses through the parish, flowing between richly wooded banks, and receiving numerous tributary streams from the higher lands. The soil is various, but generally fertile, and of light dry quality; the crops are, oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is improved, and the four and five shift courses of husbandry are prevalent: lime and bone-dust form the principal manures. The lands have been well drained, and enclosed, partly with stone dykes, but chiefly with hedges of thorn; the farmhouses are substantially built, and some, of more recent erection, are elegant; threshing mills have been erected on most of the farms, some of them driven by steam; and all the improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been adopted. The sheep reared and fed in the parish are chiefly of the Leicestershire breed, and much attention is paid to them; the cattle are all the short-horned, or Teeswater. The Union Agricultural Society hold meetings in the town, for awarding prizes to successful competitors at the monthly show of cattle, and for improvements in agriculture. The woods consist of oak, beech, ash, and other forest-trees, of which many fine specimens are found in the park of Floors and Springwood; the plantations are chiefly firs, intermixed with hard-woods. There are several mansions in the parish, of which Floors, the property of the Duke of Roxburghe, is a stately edifice, erected in 1718, after a design by Sir John Vanbrugh, and situated in an extensive park embellished with stately timber and rich plantations. In the park is a holly bush of venerable growth, which marks out the spot where James II. was killed by the bursting of a cannon, while employed in the siege of Roxburgh Castle, in 1460. Ednam House is also an elegant residence, in tastefully-disposed grounds. The mansion of Springwood Park, to which is an approach by a Grecian archway; Hendersyde; Wooden; Pinnacle Hill; and Woodside, are all handsome; and in the vicinity of the town are numerous pleasing villas. Facility of intercourse with the neighbouring places is afforded by excellent roads in every direction, and by bridges kept in good repair. The rateable annual value of the parish is £19,755.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Kelso and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and the patronage in the Duke of Roxburghe. The stipend is £320. 13. 6, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £54. 15, per annum. The church, erected in 1773, and repaired and reseated in 1833, is an octagonal edifice, conveniently situated, and is adapted for a congregation of 1314 persons. An additional church was erected in 1837, on a site to the north of the town, at an expense of more than £3500, towards which £1500 were contributed by Mr. James Nisbet, of London; it is a handsome edifice in the later English style of architecture, with a lofty square tower, and contains 877 sittings, of which 144 are free. A certain portion of the parish was allotted to it for a short time, as a district, and called the North quoad sacra parish, with a population of 2383. Adjoining it is a building for an infant and a juvenile school. The parish also contains an Episcopal chapel, and places of worship for members of the Free Church, Reformed Presbyterians, Original Seceders, Relief, United Secession, the Society of Friends, and Wesleyans: some of these are of very recent erection.
There are two parochial schools, one of which is a grammar school, and the other a school for reading, writing, and arithmetic. The master of the former has a salary of £34, with £80 fees, and a house and garden; and the master of the latter a salary of £5 11. with £50 fees, and the interest of a bequest of £240 for teaching gratuitously a number of poor children. Another school is maintained partly at the expense of two of the heritors, who give the masters a school-room and dwelling-house rent free, in addition to the fees, for teaching children of the south division of the parish. A school for boys and girls, also, is supported by the Duke of Roxburghe and others, who pay the mistress £15 per annum, including fees, and give the master as much as will raise the amount of his fees to £60. The poor have the interest of funded bequests, producing £35. 10. a year. A savings' bank, under good management, has contributed to prevent the increase of applications for parochial relief; and there are several charitable institutions, which have also been highly beneficial to the poorer inhabitants. The dispensary, established in 1777, and supported by subscription, contains wards for the reception of patients whose cases require residence in the institution, and has hot, cold, and vapour baths, which are accessible to the public. The majority of the patients, however, are visited at their own dwellings; the establishment is under the direction of a physician and surgeons, and, on an average, affords relief annually to about 500 patients. The principal relics of antiquity are the interesting ruins of the ancient abbey, which, within the last fifty years, have been cleared from the barbarous incrustations of masonry by which they had been long concealed, and have been prevented, by judicious repairs, from sinking into entire dilapidation. Of this once magnificent cruciform structure, of the Norman style of architecture, combined with details of the early English and later styles, the principal parts remaining are, a portion of the choir, and the central tower, with part of the nave and transepts, all exhibiting rich details of the various styles embraced in this truly beautiful ruin. A portion of the building was, in 1649, fitted up as a parish church, which was in use till 1771; and the masonry employed for that purpose, which concealed some of the finest parts of the abbey, and disfigured the whole, was removed partly in 1805, and completely in 1816. By this means, the ruins were restored to their original beauty; and in 1823, their further dilapidation was prevented, by replacing much that was decayed, and thoroughly repairing what remained. There were till lately vestiges of the ancient residence of the Earl of Morton, who resided in the village of Maxwellheugh in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Kelso gives the title of Earl to the Duke of Roxburghe.
KELTON, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright; including the villages of Rhonehouse and Gelston, and containing 2875 inhabitants, of whom 1848 are in the town of Castle-Douglas, 10 miles (N. E. by E.) from Kirkcudbright. This parish derives its name, of Celtic origin, from the extensive woods formerly in its vicinity; and is bounded on the west by the river Dee, which separates it from the parishes of Balmaghie and Tongland. It extends nearly six miles in length, and is about three miles in average breadth, comprising an area of almost 11,400 acres, of which 3000 are arable, 560 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moorland pasture and waste. The surface rises gradually from the river into a ridge of hills of conical form, most of which are arable to the summit, and which, towards the south, increase in loftiness till they attain, in some parts, an elevation of 1200 feet above the level of the sea. The highest of these hills are, Bengairn, the Skreel, and Dungyle: from the two former is obtained an extensive view embracing the whole vale of the Dee, the hill of Cairnsmuir, the mountain range that separates the county of Kirkcudbright from Ayrshire, St. Bees Head, and the Cumberland hills. The river Dee, which here attains its greatest breadth, divides into two streams above and below the bridge, inclosing two large and beautifully wooded islands; and several rivulets, descending from the hills, intersect the parish in different directions. The Slack burn and the Auchlane burn, which have their rise in Bengairn, after flowing for some distance towards the north, take a western direction, and fall into the Dee. Three other burns descend from the Skreel, of which one, taking a northern course, flows past the village of Gelston, into Loch Carlinwark, and the other two run south-easterly into the Solway Frith. The loch of Carlinwark, situated in the north angle of the parish, was originally 180 acres in extent; but in 1765 it was partly drained by the construction of a canal, one mile and a half in length, which, conveying its water to the Dee, reduced its height to the same level, and diminished its surface to 100 acres. By the draining of the lake, great quantities of rich marl were obtained, and, being carried by the canal to the Dee in boats, was shipped to many of the surrounding parishes for the improvement of the lands.
The soil is mostly a thin hazel loam, or brown mould, mixed in some places with sand, and in others incumbent on gravel and a stiff retentive clay, but generally fertile, producing abundant crops of grain, with potatoes and turnips, and the various grasses. The system of agriculture has been greatly improved under the encouragement of an agricultural society comprising Kelton and the adjacent parishes, in each of which ploughing matches take place by turns; and a general shew of stock is held annually, at Castle-Douglas, on the first Tuesday in October, when prizes are awarded. The farm-houses are substantially built, and roofed with slate; the lands have been much enriched by the marl from Carlinwark loch, and are inclosed partly with stone dykes, and partly with hedges of thorn; bonedust is used as manure for turnips; and all the more recent improvements in the implements of husbandry have been adopted. The moorlands afford good pasture for black-cattle, of which considerable numbers are reared; and though none of the farms are exclusively appropriated to the purpose, numbers of sheep, chiefly of the black-faced, with a few of the Leicestershire and Cheviot breeds, are fed on the several lands. There is no established fishery; but salmon are taken in the Dee, and trout, pike, and perch in the loch, which is also frequented by almost every variety of water-fowl. The substrata are chiefly greywacke and slate, with veins of porphyry; and granite is found in the hills. The plantations, most of which are of modern growth, consist of oak, ash, elm, larch, and Scotch and spruce firs, and are in a very thriving state. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9170. Gelston Castle was built by the late Sir William Douglas, and is conspicuous for the elegance of its architecture, and the romantic beauty of its situation. Carlinwark, erected by the late Mr. Mc Culloch, and Daldawn, built by the late proprietor, Captain Mc Dougall, are also handsome mansions. The village of Rhonehouse, on Kelton hill, was long celebrated for its annual fairs for cattle and horses, all of which have been removed to Castle-Douglas, except the June fair, which is still held at Rhonehouse, chiefly for horses and for hiring servants. There are no manufactures of importance; but a few of the inhabitants are employed in hand-loom weaving for the houses at Carlisle. Facility of communication is afforded by good roads, of which the military road from Carlisle to Portpatrick passes through the northern part of the parish for about four miles, and others intersect it in various directions.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and synod of Galloway; and the parish includes the ancient parishes of Gelston and Kilcormack, which, after the decay of their churches, were annexed to it about the year 1689. The minister's stipend is £246. 18., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Crown. The present church, a plain substantial structure with a campanile turret, was erected on a more eligible site than that of the old edifice, in 1806, and has since been enlarged by the addition of galleries; it now contains 1000 sittings, but from the rapid increase of Castle-Douglas, it is quite inadequate to the wants of the parish. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, Reformed Presbyterians, and the Relief. Three parochial schools are supported, of which the original is at Rhonehouse, and the two others respectively at Gelston and Castle-Douglas: about 440 children are instructed. The master in Rhonehouse has a dwelling-house, and one-third of £51. 6., paid by the heritors, with £2 from a bequest by Sir William Douglas, and £7. 10. from the seat-rents of the galleries in the church. The master of Gelston receives nearly the same income, but has no dwelling-house; and the fees in each of the two schools average £32. The master at Castle-Douglas has one-third of £51. 6., £7. 10. from Sir William Douglas's fund, and £15 from seat-rents, in addition to the fees, which average £120 per annum. There are three other schools, for females, unendowed, but of which the teachers, besides their fees, receive a small sum from the Douglas fund. Miss Harriet Douglas bequeathed £100, of which the interest is distributed in coal among the poor. The parish contains numerous remains of antiquity, among which is part of a Druidical circle on the farm of Torrs. There are several British forts, of which two are in good preservation, on the hill of Dungyle, and both defended by three ramparts of stones and earth; the one has a circular area of 117, and the other of 68, paces in diameter. In a tumulus near Gelston, have been found a stone coffin containing human bones of gigantic size, a copper helmet, and some military weapons greatly corroded. At Mid Kelton, a Roman tripod has been discovered by the plough; and on an island in Carlinwark loch, has been found a large iron hammer, supposed to have been used by the Druids. Several canoes; a Roman dagger, plated with gold, and twenty-two inches long; the remains of an iron forge said to have been employed by the troops of Edward I. for shoeing their horses; and various other relics, have also been discovered in the loch.
KELTON, a village, chiefly in the parish of Caerlaverock, but partly in that of Dumfries, 3½ miles (S. by E.) from Dumfries; containing 154 inhabitants. This village lies on the eastern bank of the river Nith, and on the high road from Glencaple-Quay to Dumfries. It has a small harbour, in which the water rises fifteen feet at spring-tides, and which affords anchorage for vessels of ninety tons' burthen at all times. A considerable trade was formerly carried on in the exportation of grain and potatoes; but the prosperity of the place has latterly been checked by the more central position and increasing traffic of neighbouring towns, and it is likely to decay.
KELTY, a village, in the parish of Beath, district of Dunfermline, county of Fife, 6 miles (N. E. by E.) from Dunfermline; containing 257 inhabitants. The population consists chiefly of colliers employed in the mines of the parish. There is a place of worship here for members of the Free Church.
KELTY, a village, in the parish of Cleish, county of Kinross, 5 miles (S. by W.) from Kinross; containing 164 inhabitants. It is situated in the southeastern part of the parish, and a short distance west of the road from Burntisland to Kinross. In the vicinity is Blair-Adam inn, where is a post-office.
KEMBACK, a parish, in the district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 3 miles (E. by N.) from Cupar; containing, with the village of Blebo-Craigs, 778 inhabitants. This place is supposed to derive its name from the rivulet called the Kem, or Kam, which rises in the hills of the parish of Scoonie, and, flowing through this parish, falls into the river Eden. The parish, which is bounded on the north by the river Eden, is about three miles in length and a mile and a half in breadth, and comprises 2200 acres, of which 1700 are arable, with a due proportion of meadow and pasture, and 320 are woodland and plantations. The surface is varied with hills, of which a ridge traverses the parish from east to west, sloping gently towards the south, and more abruptly towards the north; the highest eminence is Clatto hill, which has an elevation of 548 feet above the level of the sea. The whole of this range, formerly a wild barren heath, is now covered with thriving plantations, adding greatly to the beauty of the scenery, for which this district is distinguished. The river Eden flows in a winding course, along the boundary of the parish, between banks which in some places are level with its stream, and in others rise into precipitous elevation; and the Kem brook, frequently called the Ceres burn, runs through a thickly-wooded ravine called Dura Den, nearly a mile in length, abounding with romantic scenery, and enlivened by a picturesque cascade. The Eden contains plenty of trout in the spring and autumn, and is a favourite resort for anglers.
The soil displays every possible variety; along the banks of the river, a rich alluvial clay of great fertility; in other parts, black and brown loam, alternated with peat-moss, sand, and gravel. The system of agriculture is in an improved state; the farm-buildings are substantial, and on many of the farms are threshing-mills, driven by horses, water, or steam. The substratum is chiefly sandstone of a bright yellow colour, occurring in beds of great thickness, and abounding with organic remains; there are some quarries of whinstone, and coal and ironstone have been discovered, but are not wrought. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3515. Blebo House, the seat of General Alexander Bethune, the principal landed proprietor, is a handsome modern mansion; there are also good houses at Dura and Kemback, belonging to other proprietors, and of which the latter is an ancient building. The village is small, and consists chiefly of scattered cottages, on the road to St. Andrew's. The inhabitants are partly employed in the spinning of yarn, for which there are two mills belonging to Mr. David Yool, both situated on the Ceres burn. Of these, Yoolfield mill was built in 1839, and the machinery is impelled by a water-wheel of thirty-nine feet diameter, and, when water is scarce, by steam; Blebo mill, farther up the stream, is driven by a water-wheel, and a steam-engine of ten-horse power; and in the two about 195 persons are employed, of whom 125 are females. Connected with the Blebo mill are, a meal-mill, a barley-mill, and a mill for scutching flax; and lower down the stream, at Kemback, is a mill, also belonging to Mr. Yool, driven by a waterwheel of sixteen-horse power, for grinding meal, sawing timber, and crushing bones. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife. The minister's stipend is £159. 7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £24 per annum; patrons, the University of St. Andrew's. The church, erected in 1814, is a neat plain building. The parochial school is attended by about forty children; the master has a salary of £34, with a good house and garden, and the fees average £16 per annum. There are three other schools, partly supported by subscription and the fees. The poor have bequests producing about £10 per annum. There are several tumuli in the parish; and some relics of Roman antiquity have been occasionally discovered.
KEMNAY, a parish, in the district of Garioch, county of Aberdeen, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Kintore; containing 637 inhabitants. This place is situated on the banks of the river Don, which, by its circuitous course in this part, forms the boundary on two sides, separating Kemnay on the north from the parish of Inverury, and on the west from Chapel of Garioch and Monymusk. The parish is irregular in figure, and measures between four and five miles in length, and about three in breadth; it comprises 6000 acres, of which about half is pasture and in tillage, and the remainder in plantations and uncultivated. The surface in general is uneven, and diversified with a picturesque range of small hills called kems, running nearly parallel with the river. The scenery is beautiful, combining well cultivated arable grounds, rich and verdant pastures, and numerous thriving plantations, ornamented by the serpentine course of the Don; and the burn of Ton, one of the tributaries of that river, contributes in no small degree to heighten the interesting appearance of this pleasing locality. The soil is a light mould resting on sand, on most of the lands; but in the vicinity of the rivers are some tracts of fine deep loamy earth; and the higher grounds, which are cultivated to the summit, are for the most part clayey. The crops consist chiefly of oats, bear, potatoes, and turnips, peas and wheat being very scantily sown: the rotation system is followed. Much of the mossy land has been brought into cultivation, and now produces good corn; but considerable tracts still remain, supplying the inhabitants with their ordinary fuel. The whole of the lands, till lately, were held by Lord Kintore and another proprietor; but the former has alienated part of his property. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2340.
The rocks are of the granite formation, quartz and mica prevailing in their composition: the stone admits of a fine polish, and is raised from two or three quarries, as well as found in detached masses on the hills. Kemnay House, a modern structure, is surrounded with thick and thriving plantations, and is approached from the public road by an ornamental avenue of very fine beech-trees. The road from Aberdeen to Monymusk passes through the parish, and the basin of the Aberdeenshire canal, at Inverury, is only five miles distant: the marketable produce is sent for sale to Aberdeen, Inverury, and Kintore. The parish is in the presbytery of Garioch and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Earl of Kintore: the minister's stipend is £159, of which about two-fifths are received from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum. The present church is a handsome edifice, erected in 1844: the old building was very ancient, and last repaired in 1794. The parochial school, which, for some years, has been admirably conducted, and has excited much interest, affords instruction in all the branches of a sound education; the master has a salary of £25. 13., with a house, and £2, the interest of various bequests, and £50 fees: he also largely participates in the Dick bequest. There is a parish library, containing works on divinity, history, and general literature. The only relics of antiquity are several tumuli and cairns.
KENMORE, a parish, in the county of Perth; containing, with the villages of Acharn, Blairmore, Bridgend, and Stronfernan, 2539 inhabitants, of whom 106 are in the village of Kenmore, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) from Aberfeldy. This place derives its name, in the Gaelic language signifying "a great headland," from the situation of its church on a headland forming the south bank of the river Tay, near its source, and stretching far into the lake of that name. The parish comprises an area of nearly sixty-two square miles, of extremely irregular form, and in several parts separated into detached portions by the intervening lands of other parishes; it is bounded on the north and south by the hills that rise from the shores of Loch Tay, and comprises about 40,000 acres of land, of which 5400 are arable, 8600 meadow and pasture, 5000 woods and plantations, and the remainder moorland and waste. The surface, with the exception of that part of it covered with the water of the several lakes situated in the parish, is mountainous and hilly, with small portions of level ground, the chief of these being a part of the valley of the Tay, a fine open plain about a mile in width, through which that river flows with a full and rapid stream. Loch Tay, a magnificent expanse of water, nearly sixteen miles in length, and averaging about a mile in breadth, is of a serpentine form, extending from the north-east to the south-west, and is in many parts not less than 600 feet in depth. From the margin of the lake, on both sides, the surface rises gradually to a great height, forming two almost parallel ranges of mountains, of which Ben-Lawers, the highest, has an elevation of more than 4000 feet above the level of the sea. The lower acclivities of these mountains are in some parts in a high state of cultivation, and in others afford luxuriant pasture, interspersed with woods of ancient growth, and plantations of recent formation, giving to the scenery of the lake a rich variety, which renders it pre-eminent in beauty. The lake, at its southwestern extremity, receives the waters of the rivers Dochart and Lochay, and on both sides is fed by numerous torrents, which descend from the mountains, and in their progress form picturesque cascades. Loch Fraochy, of which part is within the limits of the parish, is a fine sheet of water, about two miles and a half in length and nearly one mile in average breadth; it is situated in Glenquaich, a sequestered dell to which the Quaich, a mountain torrent in this parish, gives its name. The scenery in this part is, however, destitute of beauty, the dell possessing no features of interest, and the shores of the lake being little more than a dead swamp. The river Tay issues from the north-eastern extremity of the loch of that name, and, flowing through the parks of Taymouth, the vale of Tay, part of Strathmore, and along the Carse of Gowrie, falls into the North Sea below Dundee. Of the numerous cascades formed by the various mountain streams, the principal is the fall of Acharn, or the Hermitage, about two miles from the village of Kenmore, and which is strikingly grand. Salmon are found in Loch Tay, and for a short distance up the Dochart and Lochay; and pike, perch, eels, char, and trout are abundant in both the lakes: the trout in Loch Fraochy, though small, are of excellent quality, and in great request.
The soil in general is a light brown loam, with a mixture of clay, and in the hills a light moss; the crops are, oats, bear, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is improving, and considerable progress has been made in draining and inclosing the lands; some of the farmhouses and offices are inferior to others in the country, but those of more recent erection are of very superior character. Considerable attention is paid to the breeding of cattle, which are chiefly of the West Highland kind, with a mixture of the Ayrshire; the average number reared in the parish every year is more than 3000. The sheep, for which the hills afford excellent pasturage, are mostly the black-faced, and about 1200 are generally reared annually: on the lands of Taymouth are some of the Leicestershire and South-Down breeds. Horses, chiefly for agricultural purposes, are bred by the farmers, but not in very great numbers, the average scarcely exceeding 500: about the same number of pigs are also bred. The woods of natural growth, for which the soil is well adapted, are oak, birch, common and mountain ash, alder, hazel, cherry, hawthorn, and holly. The plantations are larch and Scotch fir, interspersed with numerous fine specimens of beech, elm, sycamore, lime, and chesnut, and with various other ornamental trees of luxuriant growth, among which are some remarkable cedars, abundance of common and Portugal laurels, cypress, yew, pines, and laburnums. The substrata are chiefly mica and clayslate, of which the rocks are mostly composed, hornblende, primitive limestone, and talc-slate. The limestone, and other stone of peculiarly fine quality, and well adapted for building, are extensively quarried; and a stone of harder grain is obtained from the quarry near Kenmore, and is susceptible of a very high polish. Quartz is also found in large masses in several places, and is wrought for building and other purposes; it is of remarkably white colour, and has been used in the construction of the dairy in Taymouth Park. The rateable annual value of Kenmore is £8266.
The whole of the parish, with the exception of part of Glenquaich, the property of the Misses Campbell, of Shian, belongs to the Marquess of Breadalbane, who has greatly contributed to the improvement of the soil and the embellishment of the district, by the liberal encouragement he has given to his tenantry in draining the lands, and extending the plantations. Under his lordship's patronage, also, the Breadalbane Agricultural Society has effected considerable benefit, by the distribution of premiums annually. Taymouth Castle, the seat of the marquess, and formerly the Castle of Balloch, of which some remains are incorporated with the present mansion, is a spacious and elegant edifice, beautifully situated on the southern bank of the Tay, and embosomed in woods of almost interminable extent. It is a quadrangular building, with a lofty square tower in the centre of the principal range, rising to a considerable height above the roof of the mansion, and containing a magnificent staircase, which leads to the principal apartments, and is lighted from the roof of the tower, and by windows in the walls, of elegant design, and embellished with stained glass. The great hall, the dining-room, and drawing-room, are noble apartments, splendidly fitted up; and the library, which is in a part of the old castle, is an extensive and valuable collection. The mansion contains also a gallery of paintings by the first masters of the Flemish and Italian schools. The grounds are laid out with exquisite taste; and the scenery of the spacious demesne is richly diversified with wood and water, and with every variety of hill and dale in striking combination, the castle forming an object of imposing grandeur in every point of view from which it can be seen. Taymouth Castle was visited by Her Majesty during her tour in Scotland, in September 1842. She arrived here on the afternoon of the 7th of that month; and in the evening a singularly magnificent scene presented itself, from the simultaneous kindling of numerous bonfires in the neighbourhood, and the variety of the illuminations on the demesne. On the evening of the 9th, a grand ball was given; and on the following morning Her Majesty took her departure for the town of Crieff, amid the cheers of the assembled people. Shian, the residence of the Misses Campbell, stands on the north bank of the Quaich, about a mile from its influx into Loch Fraochy, and in the glen to which that stream gives name. The village of Kenmore is pleasantly situated, and the houses neatly built: a post-office has been established, which has a daily delivery of letters from Dunkeld; and a small library has been opened, promising, in due time, to be well supported. The nearest market-town is Crieff, distant as many as twenty-two miles; but facility of intercourse with the neighbouring district is maintained by good roads, which branch off from the village in various directions. In the immediate vicinity of the village is a small establishment for the dyeing, spinning, and weaving of wool, which affords employment to twelve or fourteen persons. There was once also a distillery in the parish, in which 7000 gallons of whisky were annually manufactured. Fairs are held on the first Tuesday in March, O. S., for horses and general merchandise; 28th of June, for wares of all kinds; 26th of July, for horses and wool; the 17th September, for cattle and agricultural produce; the Friday in November before the festival of St. Donat; and the 22nd of December.
The parish is in the presbytery of Weem and synod of Perth and Stirling, and patronage of the Marquess of Breadalbane; the minister's stipend is £253. 14. 9., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church, erected in 1761-2, is a spacious cruciform structure, with a tower at the west end, and is beautifully situated, but at an inconvenient distance from many parts of this very extensive parish; it is adapted for a congregation of 636 persons. There are two chapels of ease, one at Ardeonaig, and the other at Lawers, both erected by the Marquess of Breadalbane, at his own expense, for the accommodation of the more distant parishioners; they are under the patronage of the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, by whom, conjointly with the Marquess, the salaries of the ministers are paid. That of the minister of Ardeonaig is £60 per annum, with seventeen and a half acres of glebe land, and a comfortable residence built by the Marquess; the minister of Lawers has £50, with a dwellinghouse, and six and a quarter acres of glebe. There is also a place of worship for members of the Free Church; and at Lawers is one for a small congregation of Baptists. The parochial school affords a useful education to the children of the parish; the master has a salary of £34, with £20 fees, and a house and garden. There are three schools endowed by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, situated respectively at Moreinsh, Ardtallanaig, and Shian; the masters have each a salary of £15, paid by the society, with a house and garden given by the Marquess of Breadalbane, in addition to the fees. A school is also carried on at Kiltrie, the teacher of which is paid £10 per annum by the Marchioness. The poor have the interest of charitable bequests, producing £56 annually; and the Breadalbane family, by private hospitality, provide for the wants of their poorer tenantry by various distributions of provisions and clothing, and by other donations. On an island in Loch Tay, near the source of the river, and separated from the main land only by a narrow creek, are the ruins of a priory founded by Alexander I., as a cell to the monastery of Scone: the remains are, however, scarcely perceptible among the wood by which they are overgrown. Sibilla, daughter of Henry I. of England, and consort of the founder, was interred in the chapel of this priory. Coins of the reigns of Edward I. of England, and Alexander III. of Scotland, have been found in a field near Loch Fraochy; they are of silver, in good preservation, and some of them are in the possession of the Marquess of Breadalbane. In making a road from Taymouth to Glenquaich, in 1775, were found some Roman coins of the Antonines, imbedded in a substance resembling charcoal; they were also of silver, with the legends in a perfect state.
KENNET, a village, in the parish and county of Clackmannan, ¾ of a mile (S. E.) from Clackmannan; containing 238 inhabitants. This is a neat village, lying to the west of the high road from Clackmannan to Kincardine, and is one of several in the parish, the late increase of whose population is ascribable to the extension of mining operations in their respective neighbourhoods, particularly the working of coal. The mansion of Kennet is beautifully situated on ascending ground which overlooks the Forth, and is about a mile distant from the river; it is more remarkable, however, for its internal elegance, than exterior appearance. In the village is a very handsome school-house, with a master's dwelling, and a garden attached, built by the Bruce family, by whom the school is endowed. On the shore of the Forth, is the hamlet of KennetPans, where is a distillery, and where, formerly, were salt-works.
KENNOWAY, a parish, in the district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife; containing, with the village of Baynton, and part of Star, 2044 inhabitants, of whom 1101 are in the village of Kennoway, 3½ miles (E.) from Markinch. This parish, which derives its name from the situation of the village at the head of a small, but beautifully-romantic, glen, is about three miles in length, from east to west, and two in breadth from north to south; and comprises 3750 acres, of which 3470 are arable, 250 woodland and plantations, and the remainder pasture and waste. The surface, which is gently but irregularly undulating, is diversified with hills and valleys; and the higher grounds command extensive and richly-varied prospects over the adjacent country, comprehending a fine view of the Frith of Forth, with the shipping, the island of May, the Bass Rock, and Inchkeith, the southern coast from Dunbar to Edinburgh, the Lammermoor, and part of the Pentland hills. From the highest eminence in the northern part of the parish, is a more extended prospect, including nearly the whole of the county, with large portions of the counties of Perth, Angus, and Stirling, and the range of the Grampians. The scenery is enlivened by numerous small rivulets that intersect the parish in various directions, and by others flowing along its boundaries. Of these, one, entering the parish near Balnkirk, in the north, meanders through a deep dell, darkened by the foliage that crowns its banks, and, quitting the southern boundary of Kennoway, shortly falls into the river Leven, after a circuitous course through lands which every where abound with richly-diversified scenery.
The soil is fertile, though varying in quality; in some parts light, in others a dry loam, in others a rich loam intermixed with clay, and towards the western extremity of the parish, a peat-moss. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, turnips, and a few acres of beans. The rotation system of husbandry is generally practised; and through the improvement of the lands by draining, and the abundant use of lime and other manures, the crops are greatly superior, both in quantity and quality, to what they formerly were. The cattle reared are of the Old Fifeshire black breed, with occasionally a cross of the Teeswater, which produces a stock nearly as forward at three years old as the Fifeshire at four, and which is more easily fattened; the cows on the dairy-farms are all of the Fifeshire breed. The plantations consist chiefly of larch and Scotch fir, which thrive well, and attain to a considerable growth; and many hard-wood trees have been interspersed, and appear to be adapted to the soil. Great improvements have been made on their respective lands by the various proprietors; the farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, and some have been recently built in a very superior style. On most of the farms threshing-mills have been constructed, some of which are set in motion by steam; the lands are well inclosed with hedges, and the fences are kept in good repair. The substrata are freestone and whinstone. The former, of very soft quality, and coarse in its texture, is quarried only on a very limited scale; the whinstone, which is good, is quarried in various parts for building, and for mending the roads. Coal is found in several places, and is worked at Balgrie, by J. B. Fernie, Esq., of Kilmux, who, in consequence of the exhaustion of the former mines, which had been in operation for more than sixty years, lately opened a new mine in that part of the parish. The coal lies at a depth of above fifty fathoms; the vein is nearly six feet in thickness, and of very good quality, affording an ample supply of fuel for the neighbourhood. About fifty persons are employed in these pits, from which the water is drawn off by a steamengine of forty-eight horse-power. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4654. The seats are, Auchtermairnie, a fine old house, pleasantly situated in a tastefully-embellished demesne; and Kingsdale and Newton Hall, both handsome modern mansions, in grounds ornamented with flourishing plantations, which are a very considerable improvement to the scenery.
The village of Kennoway, where the church stands, is neatly built on the banks of the principal stream, which are richly clothed with plantations. The chief employment of the inhabitants is the weaving of linen, in which more than 300 persons are engaged; and several are occupied in spinning and winding yarn. Exclusive of two mills for grinding oats and barley, there are a mill used for sawing wood and a mill for spinning tow, both driven by water. The principal articles manufactured are, dowlas, sheetings, twills, diapers, and Darlingtons, employing nearly 70,000 spindles. For the greater facility of procuring reeds for the use of the weavers, a society has been established in the village, called the Kennoway Reed Society, consisting of 120 persons, who form a proprietary of 200 shares. Fairs are held in April and October; but they are not very numerously attended, and little business is transacted. Intercourse with the neighbouring market-towns of Cupar and Kirkcaldy is maintained by good turnpike-roads, and easy communication between the several parts of the parish is afforded by convenient roads in every direction. Kennoway is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife, and patronage of the Crown: the minister's stipend is £242. 17., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church is an ancient structure, displaying some interesting architectural details; it was substantially repaired in 1832, at an expense of £200, and is adapted for a congregation of nearly 500 persons. There are places of worship in the village for members of the United Secession and Original Burghers. The parochial school affords instruction to about 120 scholars; the master has a salary of £34, with £30 fees, and a house and garden. There are also Sabbath schools, in connexion with which is a juvenile library, consisting of 400 volumes. An annual distribution of coal and meal is made among the poor, about the commencement of the year, for which an extraordinary collection is raised at the church. A savings' bank has been established for upwards of ten years, and still continues in full operation.
KEPP, a village, in the parish of Kippen, county of Perth, two miles (W.) from Kippen; containing fortythree inhabitants. It is about a mile south of the river Forth, and on the high road from Kippen to Bucklyvie.
KEPPOCK-HILL, a suburban village, in the late ecclesiastical parish of Camlachie, parish of Barony, and within the jurisdiction of the city of Glasgow, county of Lanark. This place is contiguous to Glasgow, and is a precinct of that city, chiefly occupied by hand-loom weavers and labourers. There are five schools, attended by about 300 children.
KERERA, an island, in the parish of Kilbride, district of Lorn, county of Argyll; containing 187 inhabitants. This isle is situated in the sound of Mull, about eight miles eastward of that island, and one mile from the main land of the district of Lorn, in which direction it contributes to form the excellent and romantic harbour of Lorn. It is four miles in length and two in breadth, and is very mountainous: many of the rocks have a volcanic appearance. It possesses two good harbours, called the Ardintrive and the Horse-Shoe bay. In the latter, Alexander II. anchored a large fleet of 160 galleys, when upon an expedition against the Danes; and here he caught a fever, which obliged him to be removed on shore, where he died on the eighth of July, 1249. The place where his pavilion was erected still bears the name of Dalrigh from this circumstance, signifying "the King's field." On the south point of the island are the ruins of the old Danish fort of Gylen.
KERRYCROY, a village, in the parish of Kingarth, Isle and county of Bute, 2¼ miles (S. E. by S.) from Rothesay; containing 97 inhabitants. It lies on the east side of the island, and on the western shore of the Frith of Clyde; and consists of several neatly-built houses at the bay of Scoulag: the coast road from Kilchattan bay to Rothesay passes through it. South of the village, in the demesne of Mountstuart, is a neat church, still in tolerable repair, and at one time used as the parish church.
KETTINS, a parish, in the county of Forfar; containing, with the villages of Campmuir, Ford of Pitcur, Ley of Hallyburton, and Peatie, 1109 inhabitants, of whom 171 are in the village of Kettins, 1 mile (S. E. by E.) from Cupar-Angus. This parish is situated principally on the south side of the valley of Strathmore, and on the northern declivity of the Sidlaw hills, and measures in length four miles from east to west, and three from north to south, exclusive of the detached portion called Bandirran, in Perthshire, six miles distant to the south-west. It comprises 8238 acres, of which 6130 are arable, 1579 plantations, 180 uncultivated pasture, and chiefly hilly, and the remainder roads, gardens, &c. The scenery is delightfully picturesque. The whole parish, with slight exceptions, is richly adorned with larch and pine, interspersed with many other trees: and the village of Kettins is pleasantly situated on the banks of a rivulet which, after passing through Cupar-Angus, falls into the Isla, and, being embosomed in wood, forms a striking and beautiful feature of this interesting locality. The soil is generally light and thin, consisting of a dryish black mould, or silicious loam, tolerably fertile, and resting on a loose red tilly or gravelly subsoil; but in many parts the land is wet and spongy; and in others there is a considerable portion of strong red clay. Much has been done in the way of draining; and waste land to some extent, on the hills of Baldowrie, has been reclaimed and brought under cultivation. Great improvements have also taken place in the breed of live stock, promoted by the encouragement of several local agricultural associations. The cattle are of the Angus or polled breed, and the Teeswater, with a few of the Ayrshire, and several crosses. The rocks in the parish are of the old red or grey sandstone, except in the southern quarter, towards the Sidlaw hills, where the substrata are much intermixed with trap; several quarries are in operation, supplying an excellent and durable material for building. The rateable annual value of Kettins is £8524.
The chief mansions are, Hallyburton House, Lintrose, Bandirran, Newhall, and Baldowrie, some of which have grounds handsomely laid out, and are ornamented with fine clusters of wood. The village of Kettins is generally much admired as a picture of neatness, seclusion, and rural simplicity. The cottages, furnished with pleasing gardens, are clustered round a green, the site of rustic sports and pastimes; and in the immediate vicinity are the mansions of Newhall, Beechwood, and Hallyburton, the whole being shrouded among shady and verdant trees, and enlivened by the course of the silvery rivulet. About fifty persons are employed in the weaving of brown linen, and at Borlands is a small bleachfield. The turnpike road from Dundee to Cupar-Angus passes through the parish: the former place and Perth are the markets for the sale of the grain raised here; and potatoes are sent in considerable quantities to London. The Newtyle and Cupar-Angus railway, which is an extension of that between Dundee and Newtyle, also passes through a part of the locality. The parish is in the presbytery of Meigle and Synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £226, with a manse, and a glebe of four acres, valued at £12 per annum. The church was built in 1768. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £30, with £32 from other sources, of which £13 are the produce of different bequests for teaching children. Besides several considerable bequests for the benefit of the poor, there is one by the Rev. James Paton, amounting now to £500, for educating one or two girls at the public schools of Dundee. The parish contains the castle of Pitcur, now in ruins, but which once gave the title of baron to the ancient family of Hallyburton, great promoters of the Reformation. At Campmuir are the remains of a camp supposed to be Roman; and at Baldowrie is a Danish monument, six feet high, marked with figures now almost defaced. Prior to the Reformation, the church of Kettins belonged to the Red Friars at Peebles, and had six chapels dependent on it, most of them with small enclosures for burial-places, none of which, however, now remain.
KETTLE, a parish, in the district of Cupar, county of Fife; including the villages of Balmalcolm, BanktonPark, Coalton, and Holekettle-Bridge, and the hamlets of Muirhead and Myreside; and containing 2312 inhabitants, of whom 480 are in the village of Kettle, 6 miles (S. W. ) from Cupar. This place derives its name, which, in ancient documents, is written Catril and Katel, from its having belonged to the kings of Scotland, by whom it was appropriated to the pasture of the cattle of the royal household; and towards the close of the last century there were, on the lands of Blackdikes, the remains of an ancient building, said to have been the residence of the king's herdsman. The greater portion of the lands is still the property of the crown, and the rents are duly paid into the exchequer. The parish is situated on the river Eden, and is bounded on the north by the parishes of Auchtermuchty and Collessie; on the south by Markinch, Kennoway, and Leven, on the east by the parishes of Ceres and Cults; and on the west by the parish of Falkland. It is about eight miles in length, and three miles at its greatest breadth, forming an irregular area of nine square miles. The surface, in some parts, is level, and in others rises to a considerable elevation: the lower parts are watered by the Eden, which abounds with red and white trout, pike, and eels; and though in summer its stream is very shallow, yet, from its winding course, and the sluggishness of its current, it sometimes inundates the adjacent lands. To remedy this evil, frequent attempts were long ago made to open a canal of considerable depth, to receive and carry off the superfluous waters; and Mr. Johnstone, in 1783, cut a spacious canal through the extent of his own lands, which materially improved his property; but the neighbouring proprietors not continuing the line through their estates, the evil is but partially removed, and many of the low grounds are still subject to occasional floods.
The soil is very various, even in the level lands, part of which are extremely rich and fertile, and others sandy, with moss resting on beds of stiff clay. On the rising grounds are light friable moulds, with a strong clayey soil, which, under proper management, produces good crops; the more hilly parts of the parish afford excellent pasture, and even to their summits are covered with verdure. The whole number of acres is 6375, the principal portion of which is arable; very little land is in pasture, and the chief plantations comprise not more than 200 acres. A moderate extent of common has been divided, and partly brought into cultivation, and partly planted, by which the appearance of the parish is greatly improved. The crops are, barley, wheat, oats, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual green crops; the system of husbandry is of a highly advanced kind, and much greater quantities of grain, and of finer quality, than formerly, have been lately raised, a very considerable portion being now sent to the neighbouring markets. The farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, generally roofed with slate; and all the improvements in agricultural implements have been adopted. Considerable progress has also been made in draining and inclosing the lands; the fences, partly of stone and partly of thorn, are kept in good order. The substratum is mostly limestone, freestone, and fine trap whinstone. The limestone is of excellent quality, containing, according to an analysis, ninety-eight parts of fine lime in every hundred, and is worked at Forthar, belonging to General Balfour, from whose pits at Balbirnie the kilns are supplied with coal. This quarry affords employment to a considerable number of men; and the produce, after supplying the neighbourhood, is sent to Newburgh, whence it is shipped to Dundee and other places. Coal was formerly wrought at Burnturk, in the parish; but, with the exception of a little which is employed in burning lime, it is not now worked. Ironstone is also found, but in small quantities. One of the beds of trap whinstone rises perpendicularly in pentagonal columns from five to seven feet in height; and these, when detached from the quarry, are, without further preparation, used for gate pillars. There is also a quarry of trap tuffa, which, from the durability of the stone, and its capability of resisting the action of fire, is admirably adapted for ovens and other purposes subjecting it to intense heat. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8675.
The lands are divided among numerous proprietors; the late Mr. Johnstone, of Lathrisk, built an elegant mansion upon that estate, and there are several other handsome houses, belonging to resident proprietors, which, with the plantations on their demesnes, greatly enliven the scenery. The village of Kettle is pleasantly situated on the south side of the river Eden, and is well inhabited; it is plentifully supplied with provisions of every kind at a moderate price. Many of the inhabitants are employed in weaving linen, in which, upon an average, 400 hand-looms are engaged; the principal article is dowlas, and about forty looms are occupied in weaving windowblinds. There is also a mill for the manufacture of linen yarn. Facility of intercourse with the neighbouring district is greatly promoted by the line of road forming the thoroughfare from the Frith of Forth to the Frith of Tay, which is continued for four miles through the parish. A general post-office has been established in the village. The ecclesiastical concerns are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife; and the patronage is in the Crown. The stipend of the incumbent is £223: the manse, built in 1792, is a substantial and comfortable residence in good repair; and the glebe is valued, with £2. 3. 4. in lieu of pasturage, at £5. 3. 4. per annum. The church, a handsome cruciform edifice in the later English style, with a square tower, was erected in 1834–5, at an expense of £3000, and is adapted for 1200 persons. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church and Relief. The parochial school is under good regulation; the master has a salary of £34, with an excellent house and garden, and the fees, which are very moderate. On the hills of Bowden and Downfield are some reremains of ancient encampments; and there are several barrows in the parish, of which two, called respectively Pundlers Know and Lowries Know, are in the grounds of Forthar, and a third, called Lackerstone, in the grounds of Kettle. In the eastern extremity of the parish are some lands called Clatto, which were formerly the residence of the Seatons, whose predatory excursions are still remembered.
Kilarrow and Kilmeny
KILARROW and KILMENY, a parish, in the district of Islay, county of Argyll, 10½ miles (S. S. W.) from Portaskaig; containing, with the villages of Bowmore and Bridgend, 5782 inhabitants, of whom 4026 are in the district of Kilarrow. These two ancient parishes, now united, are said by some to derive their names from the original founders of their respective churches; and are frequently designated as the parish of Bowmore, from the erection of the new church of Kilarrow in that village. The feuds which had so long subsisted in this quarter between the Macdonalds, lords of the Isles, and the Macleans, of the Mull, terminated about the commencement of the seventeenth century, in the succession of the Campbells of Argyll, whose descendant, W. F. Campbell, Esq., of Islay, is the sole proprietor of the lands. The parish, which is situated on the eastern shore of Loch Indal, is about seventeen miles in length and eight in extreme breadth, comprising 49,920 acres, of which 15,000 are arable, 1000 woodland and plantations, and the remainder rough pasture and waste. The surface, though generally level, is diversified with hills of moderate elevation, covered with heath and fern. The rivers are, the Laggan, which, taking a south-western course, falls into the bay of that name; and the Kilarrow, which empties itself into Loch Indal. There is a salmon-fishery on the Laggan. The soil is various, and on some of the farms rich and fertile. The system of agriculture has been much advanced by the spirited and liberal efforts of the proprietor; the pasture lands have been improved by surface draining, and large tracts of moor have been reclaimed and brought into cultivation. Furrow draining is growing into extensive use; a tile-work has been recently established for that purpose, and the drains have been partly formed by Mr. Campbell at his own expense. Great attention is paid to the rearing of sheep and black-cattle, and prizes for the improvement of the breed are awarded by an agricultural society, which has been established here for some years. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8888.
The plantations are well attended to, and are in a tolerable state; the soil appears best adapted to the growth of hard-wood trees. Islay House, the seat of Mr. Campbell, is a handsome mansion, beautifully situated on the north shore of Loch Indal, in grounds tastefully laid out, and embellished with plantations. The villages of Bowmore and Bridgend are described under their own heads. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish, which originally formed part of the parish of Kildalton, from which it was separated in 1767, when Kilmeny was annexed to it, are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Islay and Jura and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., of which two-thirds are paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum; patron, the Crown. The parish church is an elegant structure of circular form, with a handsome spire, erected in 1767, enlarged by the addition of galleries in 1828, and containing 830 sittings. A church, also, has long existed at Kilmeny (which see), about seven miles distant; the minister has a stipend of £120. The parochial school, situated in Bowmore, is a commodious building, erected by Mr. Campbell; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £25 per annum. Prizes for the most promising scholars were formerly awarded at the public examinations, at the cost of Lady Ellinor Campbell. A parliamentary school has been established at Ballygrant, in Kilmeny, of which the master has a salary of £35; two schools are supported by the Gaelic Society; and near Bridgend is a female school, supported by Mrs. Campbell, who allows the teacher a house and garden, and a salary of £12. There are in several places various remains of forts, the ancient strongholds of the Macdonalds.
KILBARCHAN, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Renfrew; containing, with the village of Linwood, 5595 inhabitants, of whom 2382 are in the village of Kilbarchan, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Paisley. This place, which is of considerable antiquity, derives its name, either from the founder of its ancient church, or from the situation of the church in a vale bounded by hills, of which the Celtic terms Kil, Bar, Chan, are said to be descriptive. The parish, which is unconnected with any event of historical importance, is situated nearly in the centre of the county, and is rather more than seven miles in length, from east to west, and about two miles in average breadth. It is bounded on the north by the river Gryfe, separating it from the parish of Houston and Kilallan; on the east, by the parish of Renfrew; on the north-east, by Inchinnan; on the south-east, by the Abbey parish of Paisley; on the north-west, by the parish of Kilmalcolm; and on the south-west, by the parish of Lochwinnoch. The surface is agreeably varied; in the eastern portion, between the rivers Gryfe and Black Cart, generally level; and towards the west and north-west, rising into considerable eminences, most of which are richly wooded. The scenery is enriched with thriving plantations, and enlivened with numerous gentlemen's seats and pleasing villas. The Barr hill, extending for nearly a mile to the east of the church, commands some beautiful prospects, which suddenly burst upon the view after an extensive ride through an avenue obscured by the thick foliage in which it is embosomed. The river Locher, a tributary of the Gryfe, forms various cascades in its progress through the lands, flowing, in several parts of its course, between rocky banks of precipitous elevation, crowned with overhanging plantations of hazel, birch, and mountain-ash.
The entire number of acres has been estimated at 9216; the soil in the lower portions of the parish is a peat-moss, alternated with a rich loam, and in the upper lands of a gravelly nature. The system of agriculture, though the population is chiefly manufacturing, has been considerably improved, and large portions of unproductive land have been brought into cultivation, by clearing the surface from moss. The cattle are mostly of the Ayrshire breed; the dairy-farms are well managed, and the produce finds a ready market in the neighbouring towns. The horses are principally of the Clydesdale breed. The farm-buildings are substantial, and in general roofed with slate; the lands are inclosed with fences of stone in the upper, and with hedges of thorn in the lower, parts. Coal is abundant; and ironstone has been searched for, but unsuccessfully: the former has long been wrought, and the produce of the mines is considerable. Limestone of tolerable quality is quarried both for building, and for burning into lime, for which latter purpose part of the coal found here is used. Freestone and greenstone are also quarried; the former is of excellent quality, and the latter is used for the roads. The rateable annual value of the parish is £17,394. There are numerous handsome houses belonging to resident proprietors, of which one of the principal is Milliken House, a modern mansion, finely seated in an ample demesne, tastefully disposed in pleasure-grounds, and embellished with thriving plantations. Glentyan House is a spacious mansion of modern style, situated above the village of Kilbarchan, in grounds commanding some pleasing views: this house, which was built at the commencement of the present century, contains a valuable collection of paintings. Blackstone House is a substantial and well-built mansion, erected about the middle of the last century, on the site of a country seat of the abbots of Paisley. Craigends is of ancient foundation, with modern additions and improvements, and is beautifully situated on the right bank of the river Gryfe. Clippens House is a handsome villa, erected about twenty years since, by the late Peter Cochrane, Esq., M.D.
The village is built of freestone from the quarries of Barr hill, and consists of several well-formed streets. There are two public libraries, supported by subscription, and a masonic lodge; and the Kilbarchan Agricultural Society hold their annual meetings here, for the distribution of premiums for the most approved specimens of live stock, and for the general improvement of agriculture. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the weaving of silk and cotton for the manufacturers of Paisley and Glasgow, in which more than 600 looms are sometimes engaged; and a very considerable number of the female population are occupied in tambourwork, and embroidering the finer muslins. The cottonmill lately belonging to Findlay and Co., is an extensive structure, 120 feet in length, thirty-two in breadth, and six stories in height, and contains 7000 spindles: in the mill at Barbush, belonging to Messrs. Napier, there are 13,000 spindles at work. In the village of Linwood, of which an account is given under its own head, the cotton manufacture is also carried on to a very considerable extent. On the river Locher, a print and bleachfield had been established for more than half a century; but, the water of that stream not being sufficient for the purpose, the works lately passed into different hands. Part of the village of Bridge of Weir is within this parish, and the remainder in the parish of Houston and Kilallan, on the opposite bank of the river Gryfe, over which is a substantial bridge of stone, connecting the two portions of that village, which, together with the village of Linwood, is indebted chiefly for its origin to the establishment of cotton factories. The agricultural produce of the parish is mostly sent to Paisley; and communication is maintained by good turnpike-roads; by the Glasgow, Paisley, and Greenock railway, which intersects the eastern portion of the parish; and the Glasgow and Ayr railway, which passes within a mile of it. The canal from Johnstone to Glasgow, on which boats ply daily, also affords great facility of intercourse. A fair is held on the second Tuesday in December, which is a great market for horses; and a cattleshow takes place in the last week in July.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Paisley and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the minister's stipend is £294. 10. 8., with a manse, and a glebe worth £32 per annum; patron, Sir William Milliken Napier, Bart. The church was built in 1724, and has been recently repaired; it is a neat structure containing 620 sittings. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the Relief, Original Burghers, and Scottish Baptists. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with an allowance of £10 in lieu of house and garden, and the fees average £15. 10. per annum. A school is also supported in the village of Linwood, by the proprietors of the cotton factories, for the accommodation of the children of their workmen. About half a mile from Bridge of Weir are some remains of the castle of Ranfurley, the ancient seat of the Knox family, from whom descended the celebrated reformer, John Knox. There are also remains of several chapels; and on the farm of Clochoderick, or Clach-na-Druid, is a large stone twenty-two feet in length, seventeen feet in breadth, and twelve feet high, from which, supposed to be a Druidical relic, the farm appears to have derived its name. On the Barr hill are the remains of a camp thought to be of Danish origin; and near it are some rocks of greenstone, among which is a recess called Wallace's Seat. Ranfurly Castle gives the title of Earl to the family of Knox, a dignity created in the year 1831.
KILBIRNIE, a parish, in the district of Cunninghame, county of Ayr, 3 miles (W. by N.) from Beith; containing 2631 inhabitants. This place derives its name from the term Kil, signifying a church, chapel, or monastic cell, and Birnie, or Birinus, the tutelar saint of the parish, the church of which, with the rectorial tithes and revenues, belonged in ancient times to the monastery of Kilwinning, the monks providing a vicar to serve the cure. The parish is situated in the northern extremity of the county, bordering on Renfrewshire, and is of an oblong form, measuring in length, from south-east to north-west, between seven and eight miles, and about two and a half miles in average breadth. It consists of the three nominal baronies of Kilbirnie, Glengarnock, and Ladyland, and comprises 8576 Scottish acres, of which 1280 are arable, 2209 in cultivated grass lands and meadows, 1009 greenhill pasture, 59 in plantations, and the remainder heath, moss-land, and water. The surface is much diversified in appearance, and is naturally formed into two distinct tracts. Of these, one is wholly arable, and ornamented by the beautiful water of Kilbirnie loch on its eastern limit, and the winding stream of the Garnock, running from north to south. The other is marked by hill pastures, bog, and moorland, and has a very irregular surface: it rises first into lofty uplands, and these are succeeded by dreary tracts of moss and heath, and ranges of barren and uninviting hills, of which the highest, called the hill of Staik, is 1691 feet above the level of the sea, and commands prospects the most extensive, varied, and beautiful. The loch contains trout, perch, roach, pike, and abundance of eels. The Garnock and the Maich, also, are good trouting-streams; the former has its source in the hill of Staik, flows near the northern boundary, displaying a beautiful cascade called the Spout of Garnock, and, running in a south-eastern direction through well-wooded ravines, passes the village, and hastens through the parishes of Dalry and Kilwinning to the sea at Irvine. The Maich runs along the northern boundary of the parish, nearly parallel with the Garnock; and, after a course of about five miles in a deep channel, through lonely moorlands, with very little interesting scenery about its banks, except when, like the Garnock, passing one or two favoured spots, it falls into the loch of Kilbirnie.
The soil comprises several varieties, with numerous modifications and admixtures. That in the lower, or south, part of the parish is a very fertile alluvial loam, which, higher up the Garnock, assumes the character of a rich clayey loam: towards the east, near Kilbirnie loch, and along part of the Maich, the soil is a light red clay, incumbent on a stiff clayey subsoil. West of the Garnock, clayey loam is again found, and also a tenacious clay mixed with sand, crossed with stripes of meadow land. The soil of the higher ground is a light, dry, and fertile earth, resting on trap and lime stone, and well suited to pasture; the moorish uplands consist of mossy tracts lying on clay, much interspersed by pools of stagnant water. The produce comprehends all the usual white and green crops; but wheat is now cultivated only to a very limited extent, the returns for several years having been unsatisfactory, in consequence, principally, of the humidity and coldness of the climate, and the moist retentive nature of the subsoil. The farms vary much in size; those under the plough are from 50 to 180 acres, and all are under the rotation system of husbandry. There is one corn-mill in the parish, to which all the lands are thirled; and fifteen of the farms have threshing-mills. The inclosures on the lower grounds are chiefly ditches and thorn hedges; those on the higher grounds and pastures are stone walls; and in addition to the great improvements effected during the present century by liming and draining, some superior farm-houses have been built, with good offices, although the old, ill-constructed, thatched tenements are still numerous. The sheep, of which upwards of 2000 are kept, are principally the black-faced, and fed on the moorlands; but a few crosses of various English breeds are to be seen on the arable farms. There are about 550 milch-cows, with 600 or 700 head of cattle, mostly of the Cunninghame breed, to the selection of which, and the management of the dairy, much attention is paid: the horses used for husbandry are of the Clydesdale kind. The strata of the parish comprise coal of several descriptions, freestone, limestone, and ironstone; the coal is generally found in moderate-sized basins, and has long been worked, though to no great extent. Both freestone and limestone are wrought in abundance; as is the ironstone, several furnaces having been just erected. The rateable annual value of Kilbirnie is £7678.
The plantations were chiefly formed in the early part of the present century; but they are of little interest, with the exception of a few fine old trees in the vicinity of Kilbirnie House and the mansion of Ladyland. The first of these residences, sometimes called the Place of Kilbirnie, is situated a mile west of the village, and embraces fine views of the vale of Kilbirnie loch and the Garnock, with the country beyond. It consists of an ancient quadrilateral tower, and a modern addition built about 1627, extending at right angles from its eastern side, the whole forming a large commanding edifice. The structure was accidentally destroyed by fire in the year 1757, leaving a ruin which time has since been gradually desolating; and all the beautiful wood that once surrounded it, with the ornamental grounds and approaches, have nearly disappeared. The old house of Ladyland, with the exception of a small portion, was demolished in 1815; but in the following year, an elegant and spacious mansion was built on the estate, which is situated on a gentle eminence, and adorned with some thriving plantations, intermixed with fine old trees. The village consists principally of a long street lying along the right bank of the river Garnock, and a shorter one extending westward from its upper end. Its general appearance is neat, clean, and interesting: many of the houses, which are of a light-coloured freestone, have been recently built; and the population, amounting to 1500 or 1600, has been doubled within the last twenty years, through the progress of manufactures in the locality. The houses are mostly lighted with gas, procured partly from a power-loom manufactory, and partly from the works of Mr. John Allan, erected at his own expense, and capable of supplying half the village.
In the beginning of the present century, a small cotton factory was established, which, being burnt down in 1831, was rebuilt on an enlarged scale. This establishment, in 1834, was sold to a Glasgow merchant, who converted it into a spinning power-loom manufactory, on an extensive footing; the machinery is driven by two steam-engines, and the works employ altogether 350 persons. In 1834, also, a mill was erected for the spinning of flax; the machinery is impelled by steampower, and the works employ 150 hands. On the opposite side of the river is a bleachfield, in full operation, where about 140,000lb. of linen thread-yarn are annually bleached for the manufacturers of Beith, besides which, 90,000lb. of coloured thread are finished, the whole engaging from 90 to 100 hands. The proprietors have recently erected, near these works, a mill for spinning flax. About 160 hand-loom weavers, also, reside here, who are engaged in the usual kinds of work given by the Glasgow and Paisley manufacturers, and 150 females are occupied in ornamental work on muslin. A ropework is likewise in operation, employing twenty men and boys; the produce is sold chiefly at Paisley. A subpost office, situated in the village, communicates with Beith twice a day; the turnpike-road from Dalry to Lochwinnoch runs in a north-eastern direction across the lower part of the parish, and another, to Largs, intersects it on the west. There are also two good parish roads, and several bridges, opening easy communication in every direction. The Glasgow and Ayr railway proceeds to the south, on the eastern verge of Kilbirnie loch, where the line attains its summit level, which is seventy feet above the Glasgow terminus, and nineteen miles from that station; it then continues its course on the east of the Garnock river. The agricultural produce of the parish is disposed of at Paisley, Glasgow, and several neighbouring places. A fair called Brinnan's, a term corrupted from the name of St. Brandane, the apostle of the Orkneys, is held on the third Wednesday in May, O. S., and being the largest horsemarket in the west of Scotland, is attended by a great concourse of people. Coopers' work and culinary utensils are also sold at it in great quantities, and general business is transacted extensively. A fair held on the first Tuesday in July, and one on the last Tuesday in October, have dwindled away.
The parish is in the presbytery of Irvine and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Earl of Eglinton: the minister's stipend is £193, with a manse, and a glebe of nearly nine acres, valued at £18 per annum. The church, situated about half a mile south of the village, is one of the most ancient in the west of Scotland, the body of it having been built a considerable time before the Reformation. An aisle, called the Glengarnock aisle, bears the date of 1597; but it is considered to be a much more recent addition. The most modern part of the structure is the Craufurd gallery, erected opposite to the aisle, in 1654, by Sir John Craufurd, according to an inscription, in relief, over one of the windows. The church has long been an object of interest to the antiquary and others, on account of the rich carvings in oak, profusely displayed on this gallery and on the pulpit, the former of which also exhibits the armorial bearings of twelve of the ancestors of John, first viscount Garnock, by whose order the edifice was repaired, and the ornamental work executed, about the year 1700. In the churchyard is the tomb of captain Thomas Craufurd, of Jordanhill, who performed the remarkable exploit of storming the castle of Dumbarton in 1571: the monument, built of sandstone, is nine feet long and six wide, and through an aperture in the east end are faintly seen the recumbent statues of the captain in a military garb, and of his lady in the costume of the times. There is a place of worship in the village for the Reformed Presbytery, and the members of the Free Church, also, have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction in Latin, Greek, practical mathematics, and book-keeping, in addition to the usual branches; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 4., with a school-house and dwelling, erected in 1823, two acres of land, and about £42 fees. A subscription library was established in 1820, and now contains upwards of 500 volumes. A society was instituted a few years since for granting relief in sickness, called "the Kilbirnie Gardeners' Society;" it has above 100 members, and £100 stock. The chief relic of antiquity is the ruin of Glengarnock Castle, situated on a precipitous ridge overhanging the river Garnock, about two miles north of Kilbirnie. The date of the erection of this extensive fortification is uncertain; but it is conjectured to have existed in the time of the de Morevilles.
KILBRANDON, with Kilchattan, a parish, in the district of Lorn, county of Argyll, 14 miles (S. by W.) from Oban; containing 2602 inhabitants. There were in ancient times four churches or chapels within the boundaries of this parish, dedicated respectively to saints called Brenan or Brandon, Cattan, Bride or Bridget, and Coan. The two first names have been retained, and are now, with the common prefix Kil, the proper designation of the parish, though the natives usually adopt the term Cuan, on account of the proximity of the church to the sound of Cuan, a small channel so called, perhaps, from the Gaelic Cumhan, signifying "narrow." The parish is situated in that part of the county styled Nether Lorn, and consists of a portion of the main land, and of a group of islands, of which those of Seil, Luing, Easdale, Torsay, and Shuna are inhabited. The whole measures between ten and eleven miles in length, from north to south; and the extreme breadth, from east to west, is six miles, including the sound of Kilbrandon. The main land portion is four miles long and two broad, and is washed on its south-eastern boundary by Loch Melfort, and on the west by the sound of Kilbrandon, at the northern extremity of which is the spacious bay of Ardmaddy, formed by the recession of the shore. The island of Seil, also four miles long and two broad, is separated from the parish of Kilninver and Kilmelfort, on the north-east, by the sound of Clachan, a shallow and very narrow channel, in some places nearly dry at low water, and over which a bridge was built at the end of the last century. South of Seil, and divided from it only by the sound of Cuan, is the island of Luing, extending six miles from north to south, and two from east to west; and on the east of Luing is the island of Shuna, measuring two miles and a half by one and a half, and separated by a narrow strait of its own name. Each of the other islands is less than a square mile in extent: Torsay lies on the east of the northern division of Luing, and Easdale, celebrated for its fine slate-quarries, a little to the west of Seil. The sound of Jura runs on the south and south-west of the parish, and the sound of Mull on the north-west, exposing it to the impetuosity of the Atlantic. The coast on the east side of the islands of Seil and Luing, which constitute the chief portion of the parish, is low, and marked by numerous bays, affording a secure retreat and good anchorage in stormy weather: those of Blackmill, Toberonchy in Luing, and Balvicar in Seil, are the most considerable. On the west, however, are bold and lofty rocks, especially in the direction of Easdale; they form a striking feature, and supply an important barrier against the fury of the ocean.
The surface of the main land is chiefly hilly, and covered with pasture; some of the ridges rise from 600 to 800 feet above the level of the sea. The island of Luing is mostly level; but Seil consists, to a great extent, of a series of undulations, interspersed with fertile slopes and pleasant valleys. The soil in both the isles is tolerably good, and suited to all kinds of crops, which, however, are frequently spoiled through the moisture and variableness of the climate. The agricultural character of the parish has been much improved within the last few years, by draining, the reclaiming of waste land, and the introduction of a superior method of cultivation. The rotation system is in operation; the six-shift course is preferred for the larger farms, a five-shift for farms of moderate extent, and a four-shift for crofts. The Marquess of Breadalbane, to whom about three-fourths of the parish belong, has adopted regulations for the protection, comfort, and independence of the cottars, and affords his patronage to an agricultural society established on his property about the year 1838. Premiums are awarded for the best black-cattle and sheep, to the rearing of which considerable attention is paid; the former are of the West Highland breed, and in general of excellent quality, and the latter, the native black-faced, but not so fine as the cattle. Prizes are also given to the most expert ploughmen, and for the best-kept horses and harness, as well as to those cottars who manage their gardens in a superior manner; and the cultivation of turnips, especially, has been much improved under the same auspices. The strata of the parish are chiefly of the schistose formation; and the fine durable slate quarried here for nearly two centuries, has conferred great and well-deserved celebrity on the district. Though this material is procured at Balvicar, in Seil, and at two places in Luing, yet the principal seat of operations is Easdale, where one of the quarries is 120 feet below the level of the sea; the number of men employed at the different works averages 200, and they raise between four and five millions of slates yearly. Indications of lead-ore and zinc have been observed in Luing and Seil; and there is a marble-quarry near Ardmaddy, which was formerly worked. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4928.
Ardmaddy Castle, the chief mansion, and the property and occasional residence of the Marquess of Breadalbane, is situated on the main land, at the head of the bay of the same name, and commands extensive prospects of sea and land. It is an ancient structure, and was once the residence of a branch of the Mc Dougalls. In the reign of Charles II., and of his successor, James, it was occupied by Lord Niel Campbell, brother of the Earl of Argyll, who made additions to the edifice, and whose initials, with those of his lady, may be seen, cut in stone, with the date 1676. The only other mansion, situated at Ardincaple, was built at the close of the last century. The parish contains five villages, namely, Easdale, which is the largest; Balvicar, in Seil; and Toberonchy, Millbay, and Colipool, in Luing; all built in the neighbourhood of slate-quarries. The village of Easdale, standing on each side of the sound of that name, contains several hundred persons; most of the houses are neatly constructed, one story high, and covered with slate. A few persons in the parish are engaged in the herring-fishery: in May and June, considerable numbers are caught with the fly, and usually fetch a high price. Attempts have been recently made, under the patronage of the principal proprietor, to introduce cod and ling fishing. Easdale contains a postoffice, which communicates daily with Oban. The steam-vessels plying between Glasgow and the ports in the north pass along the sound of Easdale, and touch at its harbour; and the coal used by the quarrymen is obtained from the former place, but the farmers mostly burn peat. The means of communication with the interior are also easy, on account of the number of ferries and roads, of which latter that from Oban enters the parish from the north-east, at Clachan bridge, and passes through the centre of Seil and Luing.
The parish is in the presbytery of Lorn and synod of Argyll, and in the alternate patronage of the Duke of Argyll and the Marquess of Breadalbane. The stipend is £173, of which £14 are annually paid out of the exchequer; there is a manse, with a glebe valued at £15 per annum. The church, which is more than a hundred years old, was repaired and enlarged in 1816, and accommodates about 600 persons; it is situated at the south end of the island of Seil, which renders it necessary for all the parishioners who attend, except those dwelling in the island, to cross one or more ferries on their journey. The members of the Free Church and the Reformed Presbyterians have places of worship. A parochial school is established at Kilbrandon, and another at Luing; the ordinary branches of education are taught, with Latin, mathematics, and navigation, if required. The master of the Kilbrandon school, who resides at Seil, receives the maximum salary, with a house and garden, and £26 fees; and the other master, £25 per annum, with the same amount in fees, and a garden. A school is supported at Easdale by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, the master receiving a salary of £15; and there are several schools, partially supported by the proprietors of estates in the respective localities, and others entirely dependent on fees. The scholars of all are eligible to join in a public competition held annually, at which prizes are awarded by the liberality of the Marquess of Breadalbane.
KILBRIDE, a parish, in the island of Arran, county of Bute, 20 miles (S. W. by W.) from Saltcoats; containing, with the villages of Brodick and Corrie, 2786 inhabitants, of whom 271 are in the village, or kirktown, of Kilbride, called also Lamlash from its situation on the bay of that name. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its ancient church to St. Bridget or St. Bride, was the scene of some interesting events during the wars with England which originated in the disputed succession to the Scottish throne, after the death of Alexander III. In 1306, Robert Bruce, who, during his reverses of fortune, had remained for some time in concealment in Ireland, landed on the Isle of Arran, with a small fleet, and, being joined by Sir James Douglas and others of his adherents, assaulted and reduced the castle of Brodick, which was then held by Sir John Hastings, for Edward I. of England. Upon this occasion, Bruce, in recompense of their important services, conferred upon his friends many of the lands of Arran, which, however, long since passed from their descendants, and are now the property of the Duke of Hamilton. The island, which at that time was thickly wooded, became a favourite resort of the Scottish kings, for pursuing the diversion of the chase; and the castle of Loch Ranza, of which the remains denote its former magnificence, was erected as a hunting-seat by one of the Stuarts, prior to the year 1380.
In 1544, the castle of Brodick was demolished by the Earl of Lennox, whom Henry VIII. of England had sent with an army to punish the Scots for their refusal to concur in the proposed alliance of the Princess Mary, afterwards Queen of Scots, with Prince Edward, afterwards King of England. A few years subsequently, the Earl of Sussex, lord lieutenant of Ireland, who had landed with a considerable force in Cantyre, then in the possession of the Macdonalds, to retaliate the frequent incursions of the islanders into the north of Ireland, sailed to the bay of Brodick, and laid waste the adjacent country. In 1651, the castle of Brodick was garrisoned by Cromwell, who also repaired the fortifications, and erected an additional bastion; but the garrison, who had rendered themselves obnoxious to the inhabitants, were surprised while on a foraging party, and put to the sword. The remains of this fortress are considerable, though, from its frequent demolition, but little of its ancient character is preserved. The Duchess of Hamilton, more than a century since, made a large addition to the buildings; and it is still the occasional residence of the Hamilton family. The principal tower fell down in February, 1845, but has been rebuilt.
The parish, which occupies nearly one-half of the Isle of Arran, is bounded on the east by the Frith of Clyde, and on the west by a range of mountains separating it from the parish of Kilmorie, which forms the remainder of the island. It is about twenty-two miles in extreme length, from north to south, varying from two miles to four and a half in breadth; and comprises an area of 42,000 acres, of which nearly 6000 are arable, 900 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill pasture, moorland, and waste. The surface is strikingly varied with hills and mountains, interspersed with deep and narrow glens of picturesque character; and the scenery abounds with features, either of wild magnificence, majestic grandeur, or romantic beauty. The hills, from the southern boundary of the parish to the bay of Brodick, rise gradually in gentle undulations to a height of 800 feet, and are covered to their summits with grass and heath. Towards Loch Ranza, near the northern boundary, however, they rise precipitously in rugged masses of barren rock, of which the highest, Goatfell, has an elevation of nearly 3000 feet above the level of the sea. The glens, of which the principal are Glen-Rosa, Glen-Sannox, Glencloy, and Ashdale, are watered by their respective rivers, flowing between narrow banks of mountainous acclivity which darken their stream. The river of Ashdale, obstructed in its course by masses of rock, forms two romantic cascades, falling respectively 100 and 50 feet from ledges of columnar basalt. These rivers, which, in their progress through the glens, receive numerous tributary streams, abound with trout and eels of small size; and when swollen with rains in summer, salmon and sea-trout ascend in considerable numbers. The only inland lake belonging to the parish is Loch Urie, on the hill of that name, but it is of small extent. Springs of the purest water, issuing from the rocks, occur in many parts; and some are impregnated with iron and other minerals.
The whole extent of sea-coast, except where it is indented with bays, is guarded by a ledge of rude cliffs and rugged precipices, between which and the sea is a narrow tract of level land. These rocks are in many places clothed with ivy, and interspersed with birch ash, oak, and brushwood. On the eastern shore are the bays of Lamlash and Brodick, the former a fine circular haven, about three miles in length, of sufficient depth to afford safe anchorage to a large fleet of vessels of any burthen, and surrounded with a fine sandy beach. The entrance to this bay is by two inlets at the extremities of the island of Lamlash, or the Holy Isle, which lies in front of it, a picturesque island of conical form, rising to a height of 900 feet above the level of the sea. A quay was formed here by the Duchess of Hamilton, at a cost of nearly £3000; but the materials were, from time to time, removed for building the village at the head of the bay, and the loss is now severely felt. The bay of Brodick, to the north of Lamlash, is about two miles in length, and of considerable depth; and at the northern extremity are the remains of the ancient castle, now Arran House, the occasional residence of the Duke of Hamilton. To the south of Lamlash is Whiting bay, of smaller dimensions, but of which the shores abound with interesting scenery; and to the north of Brodick is the bay of Corrie, where is a small harbour. There is also a good harbour at Loch Ranza, on the north-west. The sea, off the coast, abounds with various kinds of fish; the most numerous are whiting and haddock, but cod, ling, mackerel, conger-eels, skate, flounders, soles, and turbot are likewise taken in considerable quantities. Lobsters, crabs, and great varieties of shell-fish are also to be obtained on every part of the coast; oysters are found only at Loch Ranza. Herrings occasionally visit the coast, but in greater numbers on the north and west sides of the island.
The soil of the cultivated lands is generally light. In the valleys it is extremely various; in some places, little more than sand; and in others, a fine alluvial loam, and moss and marsh converted by draining and manure into rich black loam, more or less interspersed with gravel. The crops raised are, oats, barley, beans, peas, potatoes, and turnips, with a few acres of flax. The system of husbandry has been greatly improved under the encouragement of the principal proprietor, and the stimulus of a farming association which awards prizes for the best specimens of stock and rural management. The lands have been well drained and inclosed; the farm houses and offices are generally substantial and commodious; and the various recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been introduced. The hills afford good pasturage for numerous flocks of sheep, which are of the black-faced breed, with a few of the Cheviot and Merino on the lower grounds. The cattle are mostly of the Argyllshire Highland breed, to the improvement of which much attention is paid. Ayrshire cows are kept on the dairy-farms, which are well managed; and the butter and cheese produced here are equal to what is made in the best districts of Ayrshire. There are some remains of the ancient woods, which were very extensive. The plantations round the castle of Brodick, near the bay of Lamlash, and at Kilmichael, which last are of very recent date, consist of larch, Scotch, spruce, and silver firs, oak, ash, elm, sycamore, and birch, and are in a very thriving state. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4548.
The rocks are chiefly composed of granite, trap, porphyry, and porphyritic clay-stone; and rock crystals of almost every variety are found. The substrata comprise sandstone, clay-slate, limestone, ironstone, and coal, which last is found near the Cock of Arran. There are quarries of limestone and freestone near Corrie. An attempt was once made to work the coal, but was for some reason abandoned; and a slate-quarry in the neighbourhood was for a time in operation, but has been discontinued. At Sannox is a quarry of barytes, the proprietor of which has erected a large mill for pulverizing the mineral, and extracting the sulphate, which obtains a high price in the market. The ironstone, though abundant, is not wrought. The whole of the parish, with the exception only of the farm of Kilmichael, belonging to John Fullarton, Esq., who resides on his estate, is the property of the Duke of Hamilton. The village of Lamlash consists chiefly of a few rural cottages and some shops, and, during the summer, is the resort of visiters for sea-bathing, for whose accommodation there are three good inns. A small fair is held at Lamlash, about the commencement of winter, principally for horses, but it is not much frequented; and there is also a fair at Brodick, for cattle, horses, and wool, held in the last week of June, and numerously attended. There are two branch offices in the parish, under the post-office of Saltcoats, which have daily deliveries. Facility of communication is afforded by good roads in various directions, and by steamers which frequent the bay, plying in summer daily, and in winter twice in the week, between Arran and Ardrossan, and also twice in the week between Arran and Glasgow, from the beginning of June till the end of September.
The Ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Cantyre and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £259, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Duke of Hamilton. The church, situated on the shore of the bay of Lamlash, was erected in 1773; it is a plain structure, without either tower or spire, and contains 560 sittings, all of which are free. A chapel in connexion with the Established Church was erected at Loch Ranza, about the year 1782, by the Duke of Hamilton, for the accommodation of both the parishes of Arran; it contains 400 sittings. The minister has a stipend of £41, arising from an endowment by the Duchess of Hamilton. A church was erected at Brodick in 1839, at an expense of £850, of which £100 were given by the duke, £167. 15. by the extension committee of the General Assembly, and the remainder raised by subscription; the service is now performed by a Free Church minister, who derives his income from the seat-rents and collections. The salary of the parochial school is divided among four teachers, of whom one, at Lamlash, has £19; one at Brodick £16; one at Corrie £4; and the fourth, at Loch Ranza, £6, with nearly an equal sum from the parish of Kilmorie, to which that school is open. The masters have each a house and garden, rent-free, from the Duke of Hamilton, in addition to their fees, which vary from £14 to £5 per annum. There is also a school at Whiting bay, to the master of which a salary of £25 is paid by the General Assembly. A parochial library, which was established in 1824, and has now a collection of more than 300 volumes, is supported by subscription.
There are some remains of Druidical circles; and several have been destroyed at different times, to furnish materials for building. Near the manse are two sepulchral cairns; and at the head of Moniemore glen, is one more than 200 feet in circumference at the base, on the removal of part of which stone coffins were found. Similar coffins have been found in various places, containing human bones; and in one of them was a piece of gold, supposed to have been part of the guard of an ancient sword. The Holy Isle, at the entrance of Lamlash bay, was the solitary retreat of St. Molios, a disciple of St. Columba, who, for greater seclusion, is said to have removed from Iona to this place, whence he diffused the light of Christianity among the pagan inhabitants of Arran. The cave which was his residence was hewn in a sandstone rock; and in the roof is a Runic inscription, setting forth his name and office. A monastery was afterwards founded on the island, of which the ruins were visible in 1594: the cause of its abandonment was the loss of a vessel, conveying a number of people attending a corpse for interment in its cemetery, which was distinguished by various rude tombstones till within the last five years, when they were removed. There were in Glencloy, till lately, the remains of the ancient chapel of Kilmichael; and at Sannox was a church, of which the only vestige now remaining is a rude figure of its patron saint, built up in the wall of the cemetery, which is still used.