A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.
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LEVEN, a sea-port and ancient burgh of barony, and a bathing-place, in the parish of Scoonie, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 3 miles (W. S. W) from Largo, and 9 (N. E.) from Kirkcaldy; containing 1827 inhabitants. This place, which is agreeably situated on the sea-shore at the mouth of the river whence it takes its name, was erected into a burgh of barony by charter of the proprietor of the lands of Durie, now belonging to the Christies, but once in the possession of the family of Gibson, whose descendants, the lords Durie, are distinguished in Scottish history. The town consists chiefly of two parallel streets, connected with each other by several smaller streets crossing them in various directions; the houses are neatly built, and the inhabitants are supplied with water, and the town cleansed and lighted, by a board of police established for some years under act of parliament. A handsome suspension-bridge has been constructed over the river, near its mouth, connecting the town with the village of Dubbieside, on the opposite bank; but it is adapted exclusively for foot-passengers, and there was till lately no bridge for carriages nearer than Cameron bridge, about three miles further up the stream. The want was severely felt; and consequently, in the spring of 1841, a carriage-bridge was opened on the line of the new road to Kirkcaldy. A subscription library, containing a well-chosen collection of nearly 700 volumes, has been for some time established; and there is also a mechanics' institution, to which is attached a library of useful works.
The weaving of linen is one of the chief branches of the trade of Leven, and affords employment to about 170 persons, who work at handlooms in their own dwellings; there are also five mills for the spinning of flax and tow, in which 250 persons are engaged, of whom upwards of 150 are females. An extensive iron-foundry has been for many years in operation, and gives constant occupation to about fifty men; and thirty are employed in a saw-mill. A considerable manufactory of bricks and tiles is carried on; the town also derives a degree of traffic from its proximity to the markettowns of Kirkcaldy and Cupar, and the post-office has two deliveries daily. Fairs are held in the spring annually, and likewise in July and October. The former for linseed, and the latter for white linen, were numerously attended by merchants from distant parts of the country; but they have now become little more than pleasure-fairs. The trade of the port, which appears to have been once chiefly confined to the shipping of the coal procured on the Durie estate, consists at present likewise in the exportation of linen-cloth and yarn, bone-dust for manure, grain, potatoes, whisky, cast and pig iron, ochre, and bricks and tiles; and in the importation of flax, hemp, malt, coal, stone for building, timber, slates, herrings, and bones to grind for manure. There are belonging to the port two brigs, of 374 tons' aggregate burthen, chiefly in the American trade; and five sloops, of 188 tons' aggregate burthen, employed in the coasting trade. In a recent year, fifteen foreign ships, and 222 coasters, entered inwards; and the amount of the exports was £60,483, and of imports, £43,190. The harbour, naturally formed by a creek of the river, is accessible at spring-tides to vessels of 300 tons, which can unload and take in their cargoes at the quay; but from the banks of sand near its mouth, which after storms or floods frequently shift their position, the entrance is rather difficult. The quay, also, is not sufficiently extensive for the increasing trade, which, however, if it should continue to make the same progress it has made for the last few years, will ultimately lead to the improvement of the harbour and the enlargement of the quay. Facility of intercourse with the neighbouring market-towns is afforded by turnpike-roads that pass through the parish; and there is communication with Edinburgh by steam-boats, which leave the port during the summer twice, and in winter once, every day. The parochial church is in the vicinity of the town; and there are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the Relief, and Independents.
LEVERN, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Renfrew; comprising the villages of Crossmill, Dovehill, Hurlet, and Nitshill; and containing 2490 inhabitants. This parish consisted of a southeastern portion of the Abbey parish of Paisley, an eastern part of Neilston, and a western part of Eastwood parish; and the district was so called from the river Levern, by which the lands are intersected. It measured three miles in its greatest length, and two miles and a half in its greatest breadth, and comprised about 2275 acres. The parish was formed by an act of the General Assembly in 1834, and, as to ecclesiastical affairs, was placed under the presbytery of Paisley and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the patronage being vested in the communicants. The stipend of the minister is £84, derived from seatrents and collections, with a manse and garden valued at £20. The church was built in 1834, and opened for divine service in 1835; and a session-house and two porches have since been added; the whole completed at a cost of £890: there are 660 sittings. The Roman Catholics have also a place of worship.
LEWIS, an island in the Atlantic Ocean, partly in the county of Inverness, but chiefly in that of Ross and Cromarty; containing 21,466 inhabitants, of whom 4429 are in the portion in the county of Inverness. This island, which forms part of the series called Long Island, and is the largest of the Hebrides, or Western Isles, is separated from the main land of Ross and Cromarty by the channel of the Minch, and is about eightytwo miles in length, and from eleven to twelve miles in average breadth. It contains the parishes of Barvas, Lochs, Stornoway, and Uig in the north, and the parish of Harris in the south, the last being in the county of Inverness; and the whole comprises an area of nearly 700,000 acres. The surface is deeply indented with bays and inlets from the sea. Of these, the principal are, Seaforth on the east, and Loch Reasort on the west, which respectively bound the parish of Harris on the north-east and north-west; and East and West Tarbert, which, by still deeper indentations, almost divide that parish into two detached portions. The island is generally hilly, though the Harris district is more mountainous than the rest of Lewis, from which it is separated by a chain of very considerable height; towards the coast are some tracts of fertile land, but the aspect of the interior is for the most part frightfully dreary and barren. Numerous small streams, issuing from inland lakes, flow through the lower grounds into the sea. Several of them abound with trout and salmon; and the numerous lochs that indent the shores afford lucrative fisheries for herrings and for white-fish of all kinds. The eastern portion of the isle is in general appropriated to the grazing of sheep and black-cattle, of which considerable numbers are reared; in the western district are some small tracts of arable land, of which the soil is among the most fertile of the Hebrides. The system of agriculture, though slowly improving, is still in a very backward state; and the cottages are built chiefly of mud, and roofed with thatch, timber of every kind being extremely scarce. The coast in some parts is low and sandy, and in others abruptly steep and rocky; the bay of Stornoway affords convenient and safe anchorage, being well sheltered from all winds, and there are numerous other harbours. The principal inhabited islands off the coast are, Bernera, Pabbay, Scarp, Tarrinsay, Anabich, Ensay, Hermitray, Killigray, and Scalpa. At the Buffs of Lewis, or northern headland, is a colony of Danish origin, which has preserved its ancient character without the slightest assimilation to that of the other inhabitants, with whom they scarcely hold any intercourse, though speaking the Gaelic language in all its purity; they are engaged in the fisheries off the coast. There are some remains of forts, Druidical circles, cairns, upright stones, and other monuments of antiquity.—See the articles on the various parishes and islands.
Lewistown, East and West
LEWISTOWN, EAST and WEST, a village, in the parish of Urquhart and Glenmorriston, county of Inverness; containing 183 inhabitants. These places are merely small clusters of cottages, and the population chiefly agricultural labourers.
Ley of Halliburton
LEY of HALLIBURTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Kettins, county of Forfar, 3 miles (S. E.) from Cupar-Angus; containing 48 inhabitants. It lies nearly in the centre of the parish, on the road from Collace to Meigle.
LEYSMILL, a village, in that part of the parish of Inverkeillor which formed part of the late quoad sacra district of Friockheim, county of Forfar, 4 miles (E.) from Dunnichen; containing 173 inhabitants. It is situated in the western part of the parish; and in its vicinity is a considerable pavement quarry, where the stone is dressed by machinery driven by a steamengine, affording employment to about fifty of the population.
LIBBERTON, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the village of Quothquan, and containing 796 inhabitants, of whom 117 are in the village of Libberton, 2½ miles (S. by E.) from Carnwath. This place, of which the name is of uncertain derivation, is situated on the banks of the river Clyde, and comprehends the ancient parishes of Libberton and Quothquan, the latter having been annexed to the former in 1669. The present parish is about seven miles in length, from north to south, and four miles and a half in average breadth, forming a peninsula bounded on the south and west by the Clyde, and on the north by the river Medwin; it comprises 8703 acres, of which about half are arable, 500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill pasture and waste. The surface is generally elevated, and along the banks of the rivers level, but in other parts varied with hills, of which Quothquan Law, the highest, is 600 feet above the sea, and covered with verdure to its very summit. The Clyde frequently overflows its banks, adding great fertility to the meadows on both sides; it is of very various depth, being fordable in many places during the summer, though in other parts of the parish its banks have a height of fifty or sixty feet. The Medwin, which rises in the parish of West Linton, has a course of several miles, receives the waters of the North Medwin, and then flows into the Clyde: a branch of it, taking an easterly direction, at Dolphington, forms a boundary between the counties of Peebles and Lanark, and afterwards falls into the Tweed. The scenery is pleasing, and in some parts embellished with thriving plantations.
The soil is various; near the Clyde, extremely fertile; in other parts, comparatively poor. The crops are, oats, barley, bear, potatoes, and turnips: the system of husbandry is advanced; and draining has been practised to a considerable extent, embankments constructed, and much unprofitable land reclaimed and brought into cultivation. The farm-buildings have been also improved, though still inferior to many in other districts of the county; the lands have been inclosed, partly with stone dykes and partly with hedges of thorn, which are kept in good order; and the plantations have been extended. Attention is paid to the management of dairy-farms, and large quantities of butter and cheese are produced for the supply of the neighbouring markets; the cows are all of the Ayrshire breed. The sheep fed in the pastures are a cross between the Cheviot and the Leicestershire. The plantations, made chiefly on the lands of Cormiston, Shieldhill, Huntfield, and Whitecastle, are larch, and spruce and Scotch firs, intermixed with various kinds of forest-trees, and are in a very thriving state. The landed proprietors' residences and tastefully-embellished demesnes add greatly to the beauty of the scenery. The village, which is pleasantly situated, has facility of intercourse with Carnwath, the nearest market-town, by tolerably good roads; and the turnpike-road from Peebles to Glasgow passes for nearly a mile through the parish. Quothquan is also pleasantly situated. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4730. It is in the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and in the patronage of Sir Macdonald Lockhart, Bart.; the minister's stipend is £226, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 per annum. The church, erected in 1812, is a neat edifice adapted for a congregation of 350 persons. The parochial school, situated in the village of Libberton, is well attended; the master has a salary of £30, with £20 fees, and a house and garden. There is also a school at Quothquan, the master of which has £2. 10. annually, being the interest of a bequest, and £6 from house-rents, in addition to the school fees. A friendly society, established in 1811, has contributed to reduce the number of applications to the parish for relief. Near the village are the remains of a circular camp, situated on the extreme edge of a barren moor, about half a mile from the Clyde; it comprises an area of about an acre and a half, and is surrounded by a double intrenchment with a deep fosse.
LIBERTON, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the village of Morton, part of New Craighall, and the late quoad sacra parish of Gilmerton, 3450 inhabitants. This place, supposed to have been originally called Lepers' town, from an ancient hospital for lepers, of which the memorial is retained in the name of the lands near the site, is of considerable antiquity, and has been long celebrated for the beautiful remains of the castle of Craigmillar, which render it a favourite resort of the inhabitants of Edinburgh. At what time, or by whom, the castle was originally founded is not precisely known, but it was for more than three centuries, previously to its coming into the possession of the Gilmour family, the present owners, the baronial seat of the Prestons of Preston, whose armorial bearings appear on the walls. During the reign of James III., John, Earl of Mar, the younger brother of that monarch, was for some time detained in confinement in the castle, which was subsequently the residence of James V., when in his minority, while a contagious disease was prevalent at Edinburgh. The castle sustained considerable damage in 1543, and also in 1547, from the English, by whom it was partly demolished. It was soon restored, however, and, after her return from France, became a residence of Mary, Queen of Scots, whose retinue of French attendants lived in a small village situated at the base of the castle hill, and which, from that circumstance, obtained the appellation of "Little France." In 1566, after the murder of David Rizzio, a conference took place here between the Earls of Huntly, Argyll, and others, having for its object the procuring of a divorce between the queen and Darnley, which her majesty refused to sanction; and the castle was subsequently the scene of various historical events. The remains of this once stately edifice are situated on the summit of a rock rising, almost perpendicularly on the south, to the height of 360 feet above the level of the sea. They were once defended by an outer wall with a deep fosse; and within the line of this is still an embattled wall with circular towers on the east, built in 1427, and inclosing the court, into which is an entrance on the north. The ascent to the castle is by a flight of steps, leading into the ancient hall, which is yet entire; and there are several other apartments in good preservation, of which one, of very small dimensions, is said to have been the queen's bed-chamber. On the east is the ancient chapel, now in ruins, and used as a stable; the family chapel built by Sir John Gilmour is also a ruin. The grounds have been lately planted.
The parish, which extends from the eastern confines of the Pentland hills nearly to the Frith of Forth, and from the vicinity of Edinburgh to within a mile of Dalkeith, is about seven miles in length and three in mean breadth, comprising an area of rather more than 4700 acres, of which almost 4000 are arable, 370 meadow and pasture, and the remainder woodland and plantations. The surface is boldly undulated, attaining in some parts a considerable elevation, and commanding views over a wide extent of richly-fertile and highly-cultivated country, with many interesting features, and much romantic scenery. The view from Craigmillar Castle embraces the city of Edinburgh, the Pentland, Braid, and Blackford hills, the Frith of Forth, the coasts of Fife and East Lothian, and various other objects. The soil in the lower districts is a rich loam; in the higher lands, a thin but retentive clay; and on the confines of the Pentland hills, a dry gravel. The crops are, wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is in the highest state of improvement; the lands have been well drained, and, from the abundance of excellent limestone found in the parish, have been rendered extremely fertile. The lands are, however, but partially inclosed; and the farm-buildings are still in a very imperfect condition, though efforts for their improvement are now in progress. A considerable portion of land is laid out in gardens, and great quantities of fruit and vegetables are raised for the supply of the Edinburgh market: a sycamore-tree at Niddrie measures nineteen feet in circumference, and one at Morton Hall fourteen feet; and at Moredun, Drum, and Inch are also many fine trees. The horses bred are of a rather superior kind, and several of them have gained the prizes awarded by the Highland Society. One reared by Mr. Law, of Morton, and which gained the prize at the Glasgow meeting, 1838, is thought to be the finest horse ever bred in this part of the kingdom: another, reared by Mr. Jamieson, of Straiton, obtained a premium at the same meeting.
The substrata of the parish are chiefly coal and limestone. The former, consituting part of the coalfield of Mid Lothian, was extensively wrought for many years at Burdiehouse, and also at Gilmerton; but the works at the latter place have been suspended, partly from the expiration of the lease, but chiefly from the abundant supply brought to Edinburgh at a more moderate cost. A vein of ironstone has, however, been recently discovered at Gilmerton, the working of which may probably tend to increase the population of that village to the same extent as the discontinuance of the colliery has diminished it. The limestone is of excellent quality and very pure, containing about ninety-five per cent of carbonate of lime; there are quarries at Burdiehouse and Gilmerton, both in extensive operation. The stone of the former occurs in a seam twenty-seven feet in thickness, of a deep blue colour on the upper surface, and of a light grey beneath; and contains numerous shells, some perfect impressions of different plants, small fishes, and other remains. The stone of the latter, about nine feet in thickness, contains various organic remains, which are exclusively marine. On the north side of the castle hill at Craigmillar was an excellent quarry of freestone, from which materials were raised for the erection of the Regent's-bridge, George-square, and many of the streets in the southern district of the city of Edinburgh, the barracks at Piershill, and other buildings. The rateable annual value of the parish is £23,715. Inch House, the seat of Walter Little Gilmour, Esq., is an ancient spacious mansion erected prior to the year 1617, and is beautifully situated in an extensive demesne enriched with wood, and commanding some fine views. Morton Hall, the seat of Richard Trotter, Esq., erected in 1769, and improved by the present proprietor, is a handsome mansion in a demesne tastefully embellished with thriving plantations. The house of Drum, the residence of Miss Innes, is also handsome; it was erected by Lord Somerville. Moredun, the seat of David Anderson, Esq., built by Sir James Stewart; Brunstane, erected in 1639, by Lord Lauderdale; and the houses of Southfield, Sunnyside, St. Catherine's, and Mount-Vernon are all beautifully situated. The chief village is Gilmerton, which contains 548 inhabitants. There is a branch office here, connected with the Edinburgh post-office; and facility of communication is maintained by the Musselburgh, Dalkeith, Dumfries, and London roads, which intersect the parish; and also by the Edinburgh and Dalkeith railway.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Edinburgh and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £326. 14. 7., including £10 prebendal fees; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1815, is a handsome structure with a lofty embattled tower, forming an interesting object in the landscape, and contains 1430 sittings, all of which are free. A church, to which a quoad sacra parish was till lately annexed, was erected at Gilmerton in 1837; and this is now a preachingstation, supplied regularly by a minister of the Establishment, who receives an annual salary of £80, raised by subscription and collections. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship and a school. The parochial school is attended by about eighty children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £45 per annum. There are schools also at Gilmerton, Burdiehouse, and Niddrie, the teachers of which have each an endowment by the resident proprietors, in addition to the fees; and at Kames is a girls' school, established and supported by Mrs. Trotter. To most of the schools are attached libraries for the use of the children. There are some slight remains of the ancient chapel of Niddrie, formerly a distinct parish; it was founded in 1387, by Robert Wauchop, of Niddrie-Marshall, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and made subordinate to the abbey of Holyrood. Its burial-ground is still used. The ancient chapel and burying-ground of St. Catherine have long since disappeared. Near their site is a mineral well, the water of which has been found efficacious in the healing of cutaneous disease: a black oily substance constantly floats on the surface of the water. This well was inclosed by James VI., who visited it in 1617; but it was destroyed and filled up by Cromwell's soldiers in 1650: it has, however, been restored, and is now in good preservation. In the vicinity of Morton Hall are several tumuli; and to the west is the hill of Galachlaw, on which Cromwell encamped his army of 16,000 men previously to the battle of Dunbar. At Gilmerton is an artificial cavern of several apartments, excavated in the solid rock in 1724, by an eccentric individual who lived there with his family till 1735, and carried on the trade of a blacksmith. On the lawn in front of the house of Drum are the remains of the ancient market-cross of Edinburgh, placed there in 1756 by the Somerville family.
Life and Benvie
LIFF and BENVIE, a parish, chiefly in the county of Forfar, but partly in the county of Perth; containing, with the villages of Benvie, Dargie, Invergowrie, Liff, Muirhead, and part of Lochee, and the hamlet of Backmuir, 3980 inhabitants, of whom 136 are in the village of Liff, 5 miles (W. N. W.) from Dundee. The word Liff is a North British or Pictish term signifying "a flood" or "inundation," but the reason of its application to the first-named of these two ancient parishes is not known: the name of Benvie is supposed to be derived from the Celtic term beinn buidhe, "the yellow hill or mount." The parishes were united in November, 1758; but that of Liff, long before this, had received considerable augmentations. The parish of Invergowrie had been annexed to it before the middle of the seventeenth century; and the parish of Logie, including the lands of Balgay and Blackness, had been united to it quoad civilia a short time after that period. The lands of Logie, Balgay, and Blackness, however, containing a large portion of the suburbs of Dundee, have been from time immemorial, and are still, connected quoad spiritualia with Dundee. The present parish is situated at the south-western corner of the county of Forfar, and is bounded on the east partly by Dundee, and on the west and south-west by the parishes of Fowlis Easter and Longforgan, both in Perthshire. The river Tay forms the southern limit; and the Dighty, a small stream, divides the parish from Auchterhouse and Lundie on the north. It measures six miles from east to west, and four from north to south, comprising about 6000 acres, of which nearly 5000 are under cultivation, and the remainder in plantations, except fifty or sixty acres of pasture. The surface rises gently from the Tay for nearly three miles, and attains an elevation of 400 feet, but afterwards declines towards the north. Several rivulets, flowing from the west, water the different lands, and, being joined, at the distance of a mile from the Tay, by a stream running from the east through Lochee, form together the burn of Invergowrie, and, after passing and impelling the flour-mills of Invergowrie, fall into the bay of that name.
The soil in the lower grounds is either a black loamy earth, or clay, and is much enriched by the facilities afforded to the industrious tenants of obtaining manure from the town of Dundee; on the higher grounds the earth is generally light and sandy, resting upon rock or lime. All kinds of grain are raised; and great attention is also given to green crops, especially turnips and potatoes, of which latter large quantities are usually grown, many of the farmers letting out fields in small allotments for the purpose. The ground is mostly cultivated under the five-shift course; and the tenants are skilful and indefatigable, and farm their lands to the best advantage. Dairy husbandry is much on the increase, and numerous cows are kept, of the Ayrshire breed: the rest of the cattle are the Angus, and the sheep the North Highland, but little attention is paid to the improvement of these. The farm-buildings are in general convenient. The substrata of the parish comprise many varieties: the stratified rocks are red and grey sandstone. Great interest has recently been excited among geologists by the discovery of fossil organic remains in the denes of Balruddery, most of which have been determined, by competent authority, to belong to entirely new species; and in consequence also of various doubts with respect to the precise formation of their beds, a minute investigation is expected to take place. Several quarries of excellent freestone are in operation, particularly at Lochee, where they have long been wrought; and from one of these, a large portion of the material was taken for the construction of Dundee harbour. The yearly value of the whole of the stone raised is estimated at £1800. The plantations are extensive and interesting, and add much to the general beauty of the scenery; they comprise a great variety of trees, some of them, especially about the mansions, of very fine growth, and the whole are in a thriving condition, and produce, by the sale of cuttings, £800 a year. The rateable annual value of the parish is £10,503.
The House of Gray, the property of the representative of the ancient family from which it is named, is a noble and commanding edifice, built in the manor-house style, with turrets, in the year 1716; and the whole is in very good condition. It is surrounded by a beautiful park of 200 acres, finely ornamented with choice and venerable old trees; and on the estate are valuable plantations. Camperdown, formerly Lundie, House is an elegant modern Grecian structure, embellished on the east with a portico supported by eight massive Ionic columns; it is built of white Killala sandstone. The interior contains a beautiful saloon, lighted by a cupola; and among the ornaments of this splendid mansion is a striking and much-admired painting by Sir John Copley, representing the scene on board the Venerable immediately after the battle of Camperdown, in which De Winter appears as one of the principal characters, delivering up his sword to the British admiral. Adjoining the house is a large mass of wood exhibiting the effigy of a lion, which was the bulkhead of De Winter's ship, Vryheid; and about a quarter of a mile from the house are extensive shrubberies and gardens. The mansion of Invergowrie, lately much enlarged, is delightfully situated on a slope near the Tay, and commands a view of the bay of Invergowrie, of the course of the river, and of the Carse of Gowrie. Balruddery House is a modern edifice, of considerable elegance, and embraces, from its elevated site, fine prospects of the surrounding scenery, including numerous romantic dells of great beauty, and several rich and extensive tracts in the distance.
The chief village is Lochee, situated partly in the parish of Dundee, and which contains a large population, closely connected in commercial matters and general traffic with the town of Dundee; it is described under its own head, as are the other principal villages. The Kirktown of Liff has about twenty-six families; and there are thirty-five in Birkhill-Feus, a locality recently let out in small allotments for houses, and likely to become a settlement for weavers and others, on account of its situation on the turnpike-road from Dundee to Meigle and Cupar-Angus, between four and five miles distant from the first of these places. Household linen was formerly made to a considerable extent; but the chief manufacture now carried on is the weaving of coarse linen-cloth principally for exportation, in which many young persons of both sexes, as well as adults, are engaged, except during the spring and harvest time, when they obtain agricultural work. It is supposed that, out of the population of Lochee connected with this parish, amounting to 2439, two-thirds, both male and female, are occupied in manufactures, and the remainder consist of mechanics, handicraftsmen, and common labourers. Three spinning-mills have been erected in the village since the year 1825, as well as one at Denmiln; and at Bullion, near Invergowrie, works of some extent have lately been established for bleaching and dyeing yarn and cloth. The turnpike-road from Perth to Dundee passes near the southern limit of the parish, and that from Dundee to Meigle and Cupar-Angus through the eastern portion. The agricultural produce is taken for sale to Dundee, only three miles distant from the boundary; and from the same place, coal and various other necessary articles are procured.
The parish is ecclesiastically in the presbytery of Dundee and synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of Lord Gray: the minister's stipend is £268, with a manse, and a glebe of ten acres including the garden, valued at £30 per annum. The church, rebuilt in 1831, is beautifully situated in the park of Lord Gray, who liberally granted to the heritors sufficient ground for the site and precincts: seats are provided for 750 persons. The cost of the building was upwards of £2200, exclusive of the spire, which rises from a bell-tower, at the east end of the structure, to the height of 108 feet from the ground. A church was erected at Lochee about the year 1830, at a cost of £2000; it contains nearly 1200 sittings, of which 100 are free, and the income of the minister is derived from seat-rents and collections. There are also places of worship for members of the Free Church and the United Associate Synod. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £34. 4., with a house and about £37 fees. A school in connexion with the late quoad sacra parish of Lochee was established, and premises erected, in 1837, partly by subscription and partly by a government grant, at an expense of nearly £300: the sum of £12. 10. is annually allowed, as a kind of endowment, by the General Assembly's Education committee. There is also a school of industry, under the patronage of the Countess of Camperdown. The remains are still to be seen here of a castle or palace called HurlyHawkin, built by Alexander I., who, having narrowly escaped assassination, founded the church of Scone in gratitude for his deliverance, and made over to it his lands of Liff and Invergowrie. A subterraneous building, with several compartments, was discovered some years since near Camperdown House, and, from the domestic utensils found, and other circumstances, appears to have been inhabited. The walls of the church of Invergowrie, also, are yet standing; it is supposed to be the most ancient place of Christian worship north of the Tay. Among the remaining antiquities is a Druidical temple consisting of nine large stones; and a place on the borders of the parish, to the east, called Pitalpie, "Pit of Alpine," is supposed to have been the scene of an engagement in the 9th century, between the Picts and Scots, in which the latter were vanquished, and Alpine their king, with many nobles, slain. Not far distant is a stone designated the King's cross, where it is said the royal standard was planted during the battle. Near the village of Benvie is a strong chalybeate spring, formerly in great repute. The late Professor Playfair, of Edinburgh, was born at Benvie on the 10th of March, 1748; and Admiral Viscount Duncan resided occasionally at Camperdown, his family seat. The ingenious William Playfair, brother of the professor, was also a native of the parish.
LIGHTBURN, a village, in the parish of Cambuslang, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 1¼ mile (E. S. E.) from the village of Cambuslang; containing 163 inhabitants. This place lies nearly in the centre of the parish, on the road from Hamilton to Glasgow; and is one of thirteen villages within its limits of which the population are chiefly colliers, weavers, cotton-spinners, and operatives of various kinds connected with the mines and manufactures of the district.
LILLIESLEAF, a parish, in the district of Melrose, county of Roxburgh; containing 771 inhabitants, of whom 355 are in the village, 6 miles (E. S. E.) from Selkirk. This parish, the name of which has in various records been written Lillesclive and Lillesclif, is seated on the river Ale, which, after forming its boundary for about four miles, falls into the Teviot. In common with other places similarly situated, it was thickly studded with fortresses, as a defence against the incursions of the enemy during the border warfare, in which it largely participated. Of these there were not less than fourteen, the most considerable being on the highest part of the eminence whereon the village is built; it was two stories high, and rendered strong by its position, having a gradual ascent from the Ale on the north, and a large pool and morass on the south. It was of rectangular form, and capable of maintaining 100 men within its walls. There were numerous smaller towers, called peels, in the village, in which the inhabitants commonly resided, their houses at that period being necessarily constructed for defence against incessant attacks: the remains of two of these towers are still to be seen. On the suppression of conventicles in the reign of Charles II., the moors in this parish were, from their secluded situation, selected for holding meetings; and some of the inhabitants were visited with imprisonment, exile, and death for attending them.
The parish is nearly six miles in length and about two miles and a half in breadth, and comprises 7000 acres, of which 2800 are arable, 3500 meadow and pasture, 650 woodland and plantations, and fifty waste. The surface is intersected from east to west by several ridgy heights, and is agreeably varied with rich valleys and well-cultivated declivities, interspersed with flourishing plantations, and presenting altogether an aspect of cheerfulness and fertility. The soil in some parts is a loam, and in others a heavy clay resting on a substratum of whinstone; the land is productive, and mostly in a high state of cultivation. Considerable advances have been made; and much land formerly a morass, and the resort of sea-gulls, has been drained. The system of agriculture called the four-shift course is prevalent. The want of lime, which is to be procured only from a distance of nearly thirty miles, and at a very considerable expense, is deeply felt; but on some farms where it has been used, the increase of the crops, and the melioration of the lands, have been found commensurate with the cost. The plantations are larch and Scotch fir, with a portion of oak, ash, and elm; and being well managed, are generally thriving. A saw-mill, for the purpose of cutting and preparing the timber produced by thinning the plantations, has been erected some years on the Riddell estate; it is worked by water, and has been found of extensive use. The farm-buildings have been already much bettered, and are in a state of progressive improvement; the fences are well kept, and add greatly to the appearance of the parish. The principal fuel is coal, which, being brought from a distance, is of very high price; but peat of inferior quality, brushwood, and the thinnings of the plantations, are often used, though, from the scarcity of the peat, which is nearly exhausted, and the dearness of brushwood, coal is little more expensive. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5684. The principal mansion is Riddell, for many generations the property and residence of the Riddell family, but which, on the death of Sir John B. Riddell, Bart., in 1819, was purchased by Mark Sprot, Esq.
The village is pleasantly situated and neatly built; a few of the inhabitants are employed in weaving stockings for the manufacturers of Hawick, but the population is chiefly agricultural. A subscription library has been formed within the last thirty years, which has a large collection of volumes; and a post-office has been established in the village of late: facility of communication with the neighbouring towns is maintained by roads kept in repair at the joint expense of the landholders and their tenants. The parish is in the presbytery of Selkirk and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and in the patronage of the Duke of Roxburghe: the minister's stipend is £243. 8. 5., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17 per annum. The church, built in 1771, is in good repair, and conveniently situated for the resort of the parishioners, but, from the lowness of the site, is subject to damp; in the eastern aisle is a stone with the date 1110, removed from the old church, which must have been of great antiquity. There is a place of worship for the United Associate Synod. The parochial school, for which a very commodious building has been erected by the heritors, affords a liberal education; the master has a salary of £30, with £17 fees, and a house and garden. There is also a private school, for which a schoolroom has been provided rent-free. The sum of £100 was bequeathed to the Kirk Session above a century since; the interest is regularly distributed among the poor. Two stone coffins, one containing an earthen pot filled with ashes and arms, and inscribed with the date 727, and the other containing the bones of a skeleton of gigantic stature, and bearing the date 936, were discovered in the ancient chapel on the Riddell estate, which has long ceased to exist. These are supposed to have been the remains of ancestors of the Riddell family, to one of whom, Walter Rydale, sheriff of Roxburgh, a charter was granted by David I., confirming to him the estate of Lilliesclive, and others which his father, Gervasius de Rydale, possessed at the time of his death.
LIMEKILNS, a village, and sea-port, in the parish and district of Dunfermline, county of Fife, 3 miles (S.) from Dunfermline; containing 949 inhabitants. This place, which was formerly considerable for its trade, appears to have been of some note at an early period. Not far from the harbour is an ancient vault called the King's Cellar, in which most probably were stored the various articles imported for the use of the royal household in the palace of Dunfermline, and on which is the date 1551. The village is situated upon the north shore of the Frith of Forth, and is neatly built. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the neighbouring lime-works, and in the exportation of coal, lime, wool, and other produce, in which several vessels belonging to the port are engaged. Ship-building, and the curing of fish, are also carried on to a moderate extent. The harbour, which is accessible to vessels of 300 tons' burthen at spring-tides, is spacious and commodious; and the several shipowners here were incorporated as an Insurance Company, by act of parliament, in 1834. There is a ferry to Blackness; and the steamboats to and from Stirling touch at the port. A merchant-seamen's fund has been established. There is a place of worship for the United Associate Synod; and a school for females is held in a room over the King's Cellar.
LINDORES, a village, in the parish of Abdie, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 2½ miles (E. S. E.) from Newburgh; containing 95 inhabitants. This place, which is of great antiquity, most probably arose under the protection of the Macduffs, thanes of Fife, to whom the lands originally belonged, and of whose baronial castle some vestiges remain. The village is of pleasing and rural appearance, and delightfully situated near the lake of the same name. This lake is about one mile in length, and three-quarters of a mile in breadth, its banks abounding in rich scenery; and in the immediate neighbourhood is the handsome mansion of Lindores, the residence of Admiral Maitland, built on a commanding eminence. The high road from Cupar to Newburgh passes close to the village. The Grange of Lindores, of which the population is 166, is also in this parish.—See Abdie, and Newburgh.
LINGA, an isle, in the parish of Delting, county of Shetland. It is of very small extent, and is one of a group of islands lying in Yell sound, between Yell and the Mainland. There is safe anchorage for fishing-sloops between this place and Delting.
LINGA, an isle, in the parish of Tingwall, Whiteness, and Weesdale, county of Shetland; containing 13 inhabitants. This is one of a cluster of isles, lying in the sound of Scalloway, which opens into the bay of the same name.
Linga, Little and Muckle
LINGA, LITTLE and MUCKLE, isles, in the parish of Stronsay, county of Shetland. These are small islands, the one lying to the north-west of Stronsay; and the other, which is the larger, and sometimes called the Holm of Midgarth, situated in the channel of Linga sound. This channel has two entrances to its convenient harbour, severally northward and southward; and through the latter, which is the wider, large vessels may pass, with the assistance of a pilot, and find safe anchorage in four fathoms of water. On Muckle Linga are the ruins of a chapel.
LINGAY, an isle, in the parish of Barra, county of Inverness. This is one of the Hebrides, and lies in the sound of Pabbay, a short distance north of the island of Pabbay; it is of very small extent, of nearly circular form, and uninhabited.
LINGAY, an isle, in the parish of Harris, county of Inverness. It is an island of the Hebrides, and one of a group lying in the sound of Harris, a little to the east of Groay, and about three miles south of the main land of the parish. Like the preceding, it is nearly of circular shape, and has no population.
LINKTOWN, a town, in the parish of Abbotshall, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife; containing 3240 inhabitants. This town is situated on the west side of the bay of Kirkcaldy, and consists of one principal street, nearly a mile in length, and of several lanes which lead into it from various parts of the parish. These are all narrow and inconveniently formed; and the houses, with the exception of some of more modern erection, are low and of mean appearance. The streets are lighted with gas from works recently erected in the parish for the supply of Kirkcaldy, Newtown, and places adjacent. Nearly in the centre of the town is a handsome residence belonging to John Pratt, Esq., of Glentarkie, which, being surrounded by grounds tastefully laid out, and embellished with shrubberies and young plantations, adds much to the scenery and general appearance of the place. Most of the chief manufacturers of the parish reside in this town, which abounds with factories of various kinds; the principal trade is the weaving of ticking, and the manufacture of dowlas, canvas, and a thin kind of sheeting. There are also several spinningmills, a pottery for the coarser sorts of earthenware, and a public small-beer brewery. The proximity of the market of Kirkcaldy renders the establishment of any at this place unnecessary; but a fair is held on the third Friday in April, formerly much attended for the sale of linseed; and another on the third Friday in October, once for the sale of black-cattle. These, however, have both very much declined; and at present, shoes and a few articles of pedlery only are exposed for sale. A society for supplying meal at a moderate cost, when that article is dear, has been established, and operates as a salutary check upon sudden fluctuations in the price of bread. The town is a burgh of barony, and is under the government of a bailie appointed by Mr. Ferguson. There is a small prison for the temporary confinement of persons convicted by the bailie of trifling offences against the peace; but it is very seldom used.—See Abbotshall.
LINLITHGOW, a royal burgh, a parish, and the seat of a presbytery, in the county of Linlithgow, of which it is the principal town; containing, with part of the village of Linlithgow-Bridge, 5950 inhabitants, of whom 3872 are in the burgh, 8 miles (E. S. E.) from Falkirk, and 16 (W.) from Edinburgh. This place derives its name, signifying in the Saxon language "the lake of the sheltered valley," from the beautiful expanse of water on which it is situated, in a secluded and richlyfertile vale. It is supposed to have been constituted a royal burgh by David I., who had a castle and a grange here, which formed part of the royal demesnes, and around which the town, still wearing an appearance of great antiquity, gradually arose. The earliest charter extant is one granted by Robert II.; but, long before that period, the town had been governed by two bailies, whose names were subscribed to the deed of submission tendered to Edward I. of England in 1292; and during the occupation of the Scottish burghs by the English in the reign of David II., it had been constituted one of the four principal burghs of the kingdom. On the night previously to the battle of Falkirk, Edward I. encamped his forces on the plains adjoining the town; and in 1300 he erected a castle at this place, where he spent the following Christmas, and in which he left an English garrison. The castle was, however, taken by Robert Bruce, who, introducing a few armed men concealed in a waggon-load of hay, obtained admittance for his followers, and put the whole of the garrison to the sword.
James IV., while at the palace of Linlithgow, visited the church previously to his expedition into England, and is said to have received, when offering up prayers for his success, a supernatural warning of the melancholy fate which attended him in the battle of Flodden Field, in 1513. A severe engagement took place at LinlithgowBridge in 1526, between the forces of the Earl of Angus, whose party, during the minority of James V., held that prince in their power, and those of the Earl of Lennox, who sought to obtain possession of the royal person, and deliver him from their arbitrary controul. The Earl of Lennox, after receiving promise of quarter, was killed by Sir James Hamilton; and the place of his interment was long distinguished by a mound called Lennox's Cairn. In 1570, the Earl of Moray, then regent, was shot while passing through the town, from the balcony of a house belonging to the Archbishop of St. Andrew's, by Hamilton, of Bothwell-Haugh; his remains were conveyed to Holyrood House, and interred in the church of St. Giles, at Edinburgh. During the prevalence of the plague in Edinburgh in 1646, the meetings of the parliament were held in the palace of Linlithgow, in which the members, upon various occasions, had previously assembled, and the town also derives no inconsiderable degree of interest from the circumstance that it was the birth-place of Mary, Queen of Scots, who was born in the palace on the 8th of December, 1542. Linlithgow was visited by her present Majesty on the 13th of September, 1842, in the course of her tour through Scotland; and every demonstration of respect and loyalty was made by the inhabitants.
The palace, which, from a very early period, was the occasional residence of the Scottish kings, is supposed to have been first erected on the site of a Roman station: the original buildings, however, were destroyed by fire in 1424. The present structure, built by James I., received considerable additions in the reigns of James IV. and V.: upon the marriage of the latter with Mary of Guise, it became the favourite residence of that queen; and it was afterwards much improved by James VI., on his visit to Scotland in 1617. The buildings at this time occupied a quadrangular area, 175 feet in length and 165 feet in breadth; and though the exterior had a heavy appearance, the interior of the quadrangle displayed much elegance of style and beauty of decoration. In the centre of the inner court was a fountain of freestone, elaborately sculptured in various devices; the surrounding buildings were also ornamented with sculpture. Placed in a canopied niche, was a well-executed statue of Pope Julius II., who presented the sword of state to James V. on his coronation, and on each side of this was the figure of an ecclesiastic, in a smaller niche; but these were destroyed in the eighteenth century. In the rebellion of 1745, General Hawley, who commanded a detachment of the English forces under the Duke of Cumberland, quartered his troops in the palace, which, during their occupation of it, was by some accident set on fire, and reduced to its present ruinous condition. The principal portions now left are, the hall in which the parliaments were held, a noble apartment ninety-nine feet long, thirty feet wide, and thirty-five feet high to the summit of the walls, which alone remain; the room where Queen Mary was born; the banquet-room; and the chapel. What exists of this venerable structure is preserved from further decay by the Commissioners of Woods and Forests, and is under the superintendence of Sir Thomas Livingstone, Bart., as representative of the earls of Linlithgow, hereditary keepers. Very judicious repairs have been just executed; the staircase of the north-west turret has been made good, and in 1845 the outer gateway was very completely restored.
The town is beautifully situated on the south bank of the lake from which it takes its name, and extends for about a mile along the high road from Stirling to Edinburgh, consisting principally of one street, which, towards the middle, expands into an open area. In this part is the Cross, an hexagonal structure, richly sculptured with grotesque figures, and surmounted by a unicorn, the whole rebuilt in 1807 in close imitation of the ancient structure, which had fallen into decay; it is connected with a well of pure water, which issues from thirteen different openings, for the supply of the town. The houses are generally of ancient and venerable aspect, though interspersed with many of more modern style, and the town is well lighted with gas. The tanning and currying of leather are among the main trades carried on here: in the former are five establishments, affording occupation to about thirty men; and in the latter, nine, in which fifty men are employed. The manufacture of boots and shoes is also very considerable, giving constant employment to about 300 persons. An extensive distillery, and a large brewery, engage many hands; there are also some works for the making of glue; and a part of the female population are occupied in needlework for the Glasgow houses. The market, which is on Friday, is abundant; and fairs are held on the first Friday after the second Tuesday in January, the last Friday in February, the third Friday in April, the second Friday in June, and the first Fridays in August and November. Facility of communication with the surrounding districts is afforded by excellent roads, and by the Union canal and the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway, which pass through the parish: the last has a station here, where all the regular trains stop, and from which there are omnibuses for conveying passengers and luggage to Bathgate and Borrowstounness. The town contains a post-office, and a branch of the Commercial Bank; and a small monthly paper called Dick's Advertiser is published here, and circulated through the county.
The burgh, under a succession of charters, confirmed and extended by Charles I., is governed by a provost, four bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and a council, together amounting to twenty-seven members. The magistrates have jurisdiction within the royalty, and for a mile beyond its boundaries; but the residence of the sheriffsubstitute in the burgh relieves them from exercising any jurisdiction, except in trifling police cases. There are eight incorporated trades, the smiths, weavers, bakers, wrights, tailors, shoemakers, fleshers, and coopers; the fee of admission to a stranger, as a trade burgess, is one guinea, and as a member of the guild £5. The townhouse, built in 1668, contains the hall for the transaction of the public business of the burgh, the sheriff's courthouse, and the apartments which until July, 1845, formed the gaol: the present prison, just erected, is well secured, and every attention is paid to the health of the inmates, of whom, including those for the county, the number was, in 1843, 125. In the rear of the town-house are the county-buildings, plain in their exterior, but internally well arranged; the hall is a spacious and handsome apartment, and is embellished with portraits of John, Earl of Hopetoun, by Raeburn, and of Sir Alexander Hope, by Gordon. The burgh, in connexion with those of Falkirk, Airdrie, Hamilton, and Lanark, returns a member to the imperial parliament; the number of persons within the parliamentary boundaries, occupying houses of £10 per annum and upwards, is 121, of whom seventy-seven are burgesses.
The parish is bounded on the west by the river Avon, separating it from the county of Stirling; and is about five miles in length, from east to west, and three miles in breadth; comprising an area of 11,960 acres, of which, with the exception of a moderate portion of land inaccessible to the plough, and under plantations, all are arable. The surface towards the east and northeast is tolerably level, but towards the south is intersected by a continuous range of hills of various elevation, of which the highest, Cocklerue and Binny Craig, are each about 600 feet above the level of the sea. On the north side of the loch of Linlithgow, also, are the Irongath hills, of inferior height, but commanding fine views of the Frith of Forth and the adjacent country. The lake is about a mile in length and a quarter of a mile in breadth, and is of considerable depth, communicating with the Avon by a small rivulet called the Loch burn: towards the centre it is deeply indented by the site of the ancient palace, the grounds of which form a kind of peninsula. The scenery of the lake is strikingly beautiful, its shores rising into eminences richly wooded, and being embellished with the gardens and pleasuregrounds of the palace, of which the stately and venerable ruins form a prominent feature. The Avon, likewise, flows through a tract of country abounding with picturesque scenery; and the aqueduct which continues the Union canal across the valley, and the viaduct of the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway, add greatly to the beauty of the landscape. The soil in the lower districts is a loam alternated with gravel; and in the higher, of lighter quality, resting on a retentive clay: the system of agriculture is in the most improved state, and the crops are generally abundant. The farms vary from 125 to 500 acres in extent; the lands are well inclosed and drained, and the farm-buildings substantial and commodious. The cattle are for the most part of the Ayrshire breed, especially on the dairy-farms; there are also many of the short-horned kind. Few sheep are reared, though considerable numbers are pastured: the horses are mostly of the Clydesdale breed. The plantations, many of which are of recent date, are well managed, and in a thriving state; and the parish generally is well wooded. Limestone is plentiful, and is extensively wrought; coal, also, occurs in thin seams in the southern district, but no mines are in operation. At Kingscavil and East Binny are extensive quarries of freestone: from the former was taken the stone for the erection of the palace, and in the latter is found a bituminous substance which is sometimes made into candles. On the lands of the Earl of Hopetoun, a vein of silver was formerly wrought; but every attempt to recover it has failed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £21,384.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the controul of the presbytery of Linlithgow and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £304. 19. 2., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £11 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, supposed to have been founded by David I., as the chapel-royal, and dedicated to St. Michael, is an ancient and venerable structure in the early English style of architecture, with a square embattled tower formerly surmounted by a turret in the form of an imperial crown. It is 180 feet in length and 105 feet in breadth; and the walls were once decorated with statues, of which, however, only that of the patron saint is now remaining. In the south aisle, dedicated to St. Catherine, and near which is the family vault of the earls of Linlithgow, James IV. received the premonition of his defeat at Flodden Field, already noticed. The whole building, which is one of the finest specimens of the kind in Scotland, displays elegant details; it was repaired and enlarged in 1813, and now contains 1100 sittings. There are also a Free Church, two places of worship for members of the United Secession, and one for Independents. The burgh school, under the patronage of the town-council, was formerly conducted by a rector who had a salary of £30 per annum, and an assistant with a salary of £15; but, since the last appointment, it has been taught by a rector only. The scholars are numerous, and the fees amount to many pounds per annum. A school for girls was founded by the late Mrs. Douglas. Dr. Henry, the historian, bequeathed his library to the parish; and there is a library at Linlithgow-Bridge. The incorporated trades give small annual payments to decayed members; there are also numerous friendly societies. The traces of a Roman road, on the summit of a height on the north side of the lake, are plainly discernible, and near it was recently found an urn containing ashes; at the base of the hill of Cocklerue are vestiges of a Roman station, and on the Boroughmuir 300 Roman coins were discovered a few years since. To the west of the town are two eminences, of which one was in ancient times the place for administering justice; the plain below is still designated Domesdale. On the eminence called Friars' Brae, to the south of the town, was a Carmelite convent, supposed to have been founded in 1290. There was likewise a monastery of Black friars, of which some traces may be seen in the eastern portion of the town, where was also the hospital of St. Magdalene for lazars, subsequently appropriated by James I. for the entertainment of strangers, and the site of which is now covered by the Union canal. A tablet of stone was many years since found while digging a grave in the churchyard, elegantly sculptured in compartments. In one compartment, the Saviour is represented in the attitude of prayer, with the three Disciples asleep; and in another, saluted by Judas, and seized by the guards, while healing the ear of Malchus, with a figure of Peter sheathing his sword.
LINLITHGOW-BRIDGE, a village, partly in the parish and county of Linlithgow, and partly in the parish of Muiravonside, county of Stirling; 1 mile (W.) from the town of Linlithgow; containing 633 inhabitants. This is now a considerable place, situated on the Avon, and on the high road from Linlithgow to Falkirk. It is distinguished for a battle, fought in 1526, between the faction of the Earl of Angus, who had possession of the person of James V., then a minor, and the party who sought his deliverance from the influence of the Douglases; the conflict took place close to the village, which has given its name to the engagement. The present bridge was built by Alexander, Earl of Linlithgow, about the year 1650, as appears by a grant of its customs to Earl George, by Charles II., in 1677. In the village is a subscription library; and near it are some large print-works and a paper-mill.
LINLITHGOWSHIRE, a county, in the south of Scotland, bounded on the north by the Frith of Forth; on the east and south-east, by the county of Edinburgh; on the south-west, by Lanarkshire; and on the west, by the county of Stirling. It lies between 55° 49' and 56° 1' (N. Lat.) and 3° 18' and 3° 51' (W. Long.), and is about twenty-one miles in length and twelve miles in extreme breadth; comprising an area of 112 square miles, or 71,680 acres; 5675 houses, of which 5333 are inhabited; and containing a population of 26,872, of whom 13,797 are males, and 13,075 females. This portion of the country, sometimes called West Lothian from its forming the western district of the ancient and extensive province of Lothian, was at the time of the Roman invasion inhabited by the British tribe Gadeni; it afterwards became part of the province of Valentia, and the western boundary of the Roman conquests in this part. No district of the province abounded more with Roman works than this county. A Roman road from the village of Cramond extended along the shore of the Frith to Carriden, where, indeed, the wall of Antonine is supposed to have also terminated, of which wall a very considerable portion traversed this district. Upon the departure of the Romans, great numbers of the emigrants from the Irish coast, who had established themselves in Cantyre, removed to these parts, and for a long period retained possession of their settlements, though much harassed by the Picts and others. After the union of the two kingdoms under Kenneth II., they became identified with the Scots; and in the reign of David I., this district of the Lothians was erected into a separate sheriffdom.
Prior to the Reformation the county was included in the archdiocese of St. Andrew's, and subsequently in the diocese of Edinburgh, of which it constituted the archdeaconry of Linlithgow; it is now in the synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and comprises one presbytery and twelve parishes. The civil affairs are transacted at Linlithgow, which is the county-town and a royal burgh, where all the courts are held; the shire contains also the royal burgh of Queensferry, the market-town and burgh of barony of Bathgate, and the town and port of Borrowstounness, with some smaller towns and populous villages. Under the act of the 2nd of William IV., the county returns one member to the imperial parliament. The surface is for the most part pleasingly diversified with gentle undulations, and is intersected nearly in the centre by a range of eminences of moderate elevation. In the east and south the land is generally level; but towards the west are some hills, though of inconsiderable height, which are clothed with verdure, and crowned with woods. The principal river is the Almond, which has its source among the hills of Lanarkshire, and, intersecting the county in a north-eastern direction, flows into the Frith of Forth at the village of Cramond: it is navigable for boats and small craft within a quarter of a mile from its mouth. The river Aven, or Avon, after forming for some distance a boundary between the county and Stirlingshire, falls into the Frith to the west of Borrowstounness. The only lake of any importance is Linlithgow loch, which is about a mile in length and a quarter of a mile wide, comprising an area of 154 acres; it is beautifully situated among rising grounds richly wooded, and embraces much picturesque and romantic scenery. On the south bank are seated the town and palace of Linlithgow, the gardens of which latter extend westward along its margin; and at the north-west extremity is a small rivulet called the Loch Burn, which, after a short course, flows into the Avon.
About four-fifths of the land are arable, and the remainder woodland, plantations, and waste. The soil, though various, is in many parts extremely fertile; in the lower districts, a gravelly loam; and in the higher parts, chiefly clay resting on a retentive subsoil. Considerable progress has been made in draining, and great improvements have taken place in the system of agriculture; the lands have been inclosed with fences of thorn; the pastures are rich, and the dairy-farms under excellent management. The cattle are principally of the Teeswater and Ayrshire breeds, and the horses chiefly of the Clydesdale breed. There are not many sheep; they are of the black-faced, with a few of the Leicestershire breed, which appear to thrive well. The ancient forests, which were very extensive, have mostly disappeared, and have been replaced by modern plantations, adding greatly to the general beauty of the scenery; they are of oak, ash, elm, beech, lime, sycamore, chesnut, larch, and Scotch, silver, and spruce firs. A large portion of the land is also laid out in gardens. The substrata are mainly coal, limestone, and freestone. Ironstone is also found in abundance in some parts; lead-mines were formerly wrought in the Bathgate hills, and the ore contained a considerable proportion of silver. The coal is extensively wrought, especially in the vicinity of Borrowstounness; and there are extensive quarries of the limestone and freestone, which latter is of fine texture. Marl, and clay for the manufacture of bricks and pottery, are also abundant. The seats are, Binns House, Hopetoun House, Duddingston House, Dalmeny Park, Amondell, Kinneil, Houston House, Wallhouse, Lochcote, Bonhard, Newliston, Dundas, Craigiehall, and various others. Of the palace of Linlithgow, the birthplace of Mary, Queen of Scots, which was destroyed by fire in 1746, the walls, and some of the principal apartments, are still in a state of tolerable preservation. Among the principal manufactures are those of salt and shoes; the spinning of cotton, and printing of calico, employ a considerable number of persons, and there are extensive tanneries, breweries, and distilleries. The chief commerce is the exportation of coal, of which large quantities are shipped from Borrowstounness. Facility of communication is afforded by good turnpike and parish roads, kept in excellent order: among the former are the Great North road to Edinburgh, the Edinburgh and Glasgow road, and the road from Lanark and Glasgow to Queensferry, where steamers are constantly in attendance to convey passengers across the Frith of Forth. There are also the Union canal and the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway, the former carried over the river Avon by an aqueduct, and the latter by a handsome viaduct of lofty arches. Numerous vestiges remain of Roman roads, camps, altars, vases, coins, and other memorials of that age; also ruins of ancient castles, Druidical remains, preceptories, monasteries, and other relies of antiquity.
LINTON, a village, in the parish of Prestonkirk, county of Haddington, ½ a mile (S. W.) from Preston; containing 775 inhabitants. This place derives its name, by which the whole parish was originally designated, from its situation on the banks of the river Tyne, which, in this part of its course, obstructed by precipitous and overhanging rocks, once formed a Lynn, or water-fall, of great beauty. This fall, however, since the recent levelling of the crags to facilitate the progress of salmon up the stream, is now scarcely perceptible, except after continued rains, or sudden floods. The village is neatly built and well inhabited; the surrounding scenery, also, is agreeably diversified. The principal approach is by the London road, which passes for four miles through the parish, crossing the river by an ancient bridge near the village, which is inconvenient for the passage of carriages. A post-office has been established, with a daily delivery; and facility of intercourse is afforded by good roads. There is no trade but what is requisite for the supply of the inhabitants; the spinning of wool and the weaving of blankets were formerly carried on to some extent, affording employment to many of the inhabitants, but they have been for a long time discontinued. The parochial and other schools are in the village, it being conveniently situated for the purpose; there are also a subscription library, a branch of the East Lothian itinerating libraries, and several friendly societies, which have contributed greatly to diminish the number of claims on the parish. A little to the west of the village is an upright stone supposed to point out the site of sepulture of some chieftain who was killed in battle.
Linton, or West Linton
LINTON, or WEST LINTON, a parish, in the county of Peebles; containing, with the village of Carlops, 1515 inhabitants, of whom 550 are in the village of Linton, 11 miles (N. E. by N.) from Biggar. This parish, the name whereof is derived from the river Lyne, comprises 25,400 acres, of which 4000 are arable, 400 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hilly moor, affording excellent pasturage for sheep. The surface is pleasingly varied, and the lands have a general elevation of about 600 feet above the level of the sea; the scenery is diversified with wood and water, and from the higher grounds are obtained some interesting and extensive prospects over the adjacent country. The Lyne, which has its source in the hills to the north, traverses the parish, and flows into the Tweed; and in the same range rise the smaller rivers Esk and Medwin, of which the former constitutes the eastern, and the latter the western, boundary of the parish. There are every where springs of excellent water, yielding an abundant supply. On the lands of Rutherford is a spring called Heaven-Aqua, the properties of which are similar to those of Tonbridge-Wells, in England; it has been rendered easy of access by the new line of turnpikeroad which passes close by the spring, and an elegant and commodious hotel has been erected for the accommodation of persons who visit the spot. Near Slipperfield is a fine lake, about a mile and a half in circumference, and of great depth, which abounds with pike and perch, and is frequented by almost every variety of aquatic fowl in great numbers. It is situated in the centre of a wide tract of barren heath, for the improvement of which considerable efforts have been lately made.
The soil in the upper part of the parish is much interspersed with patches of heath and moss of various kinds, and of different degrees of depth. In the lower parts is a rich loam, occasionally intermixed with sand; in some places, a light dry soil well adapted for the growth of turnips; and in others, a sandy loam mixed with clay and moss. The chief crops are, oats, turnips, and potatoes; the system of agriculture is highly advanced, and all the more recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been extensively adopted. The farm houses and offices are substantially built, and well arranged; and on all the farms threshing-mills have been erected. Considerable attention is paid to the management of the dairy and the rearing of live stock. About 350 milch-cows are kept on the several farms, of the Ayrshire and Teeswater breeds, with an occasional cross of the two; 450 young cattle are pastured, and several of them are sold off annually to the butcher. The number of sheep on the various pastures is 9700, of which 3700 are of the Cheviot, and the remainder of the black-faced breed; and about 180 horses are kept for agricultural uses. There are very few remains now to be seen of the ancient woods that formerly abounded in the parish, which is situated in the immediate vicinity of Ettrick forest; the plantations are generally of modern growth, well managed, and in a very flourishing condition. The substrata are mainly limestone and coal, both of which have been worked to a considerable extent. There is a very extensive limestone quarry, and lime-works are carried on at Carlops and also at Whitfield; the average quantity of lime is estimated at 20,000 bolls annually. The coal is wrought at Carlops, and also at Harlamuir and Coalyburn; freestone is quarried at Deepsykehead; and near the village is a bill called Leadlaw from a supposition that it contained lead-ore, frequent attempts to obtain which have been made without success. Pebbles of great beauty are frequently found, closely resembling, and in some instances nearly equal to, the Cairngorum. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7696.
The village of Linton is pleasantly situated on the banks of the river Lyne; it is irregularly built, and many of the houses are of antique appearance. It is inhabited by persons employed in hand-loom weaving for the manufacturers of Glasgow, and in the various trades requisite for the supply of the neighbourhood. A fair is held on the last Tuesday in June, for sheep, and is well attended from the neighbouring districts; fairs are also held on the Friday before the first Monday in April, and the Friday before the 25th of September, for the sale of live stock, and the hiring of farm servants. There is a public show of stock annually in August; and in the winter a ploughing-match takes place, when prizes are awarded to four of the most successful competitors. The approach to the village has been greatly improved by a new line of road lately formed, which has also facilitated the intercourse of the inhabitants with the market-town and other places in the vicinity. The parish is in the presbytery of Peebles and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and in the patronage of the Earl of Wemyss; the minister's stipend is £232. 14. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church is a neat and substantial edifice, erected in 1776. There is also a place of worship for the members of the United Secession. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34, with about £35 fees, and a house and garden. A parochial library has been established for some years, and has a collection of more than 500 volumes of standard works in the general branches of literature. The poor have the interest on £229, funded bequests. Cairns are found in several parts of the parish; and in one on the lands of Temple, near Linton village, was discovered a stone coffin of very rude formation, containing human bones: in another, which is still remaining on Garvaldfoot moor, a Roman urn is said to have been found. Stone coffins have at various times been dug up in several places.
LINTON, a parish, in the district of Kelso, county of Roxburgh, 6 miles (S. E. by S.) from Kelso; containing 526 inhabitants, of whom 40 are in the hamlet. This place derives its name, signifying "the town of the lakes," from its situation once on the north-west border of a lake of great extent called Linton loch, and from another lake designated Hoselaw, in the eastern extremity of the parish. The church appears to have been bestowed in the reign of David I. upon the abbey of Kelso by Sir Richard Cumyn, ancestor of John Cumyn who aspired to the crown of Scotland; and the lands of the parish were granted in the reign of William the Lion to William de Somerville, son of Roger, Baron of Whichnor, in England, as a reward for his having destroyed a ferocious animal which committed great depredation in the neighbourhood. He was afterwards made principal falconer to the Scottish king, and sheriff of Roxburghshire; and resided in the castle of Linton, which he had founded, and which afforded an asylum to his father, Roger de Somerville, on the subsequent defeat of the English barons who had extorted from King John the grant of Magna Charta. Roger died in this castle, which continued to be the seat of his descendants till near the close of the fourteenth century, when they removed to the castle of Cowthally, in Carnwath. The castle of Linton was besieged by the Earl of Surrey in the reign of Henry VIII., and razed to the ground; and scarcely any vestiges of the building are now to be traced, though, within the last forty years, a large iron door was dug out of the ruins, which appears to have belonged to the dungeon. Walter de Somerville, the third baron, was a faithful adherent to the fortunes of Wallace, under whose banner he fought against Edward I., for the defence of his country; and his son, John de Somerville, strenuously maintained the cause of Bruce, after whose defeat at Methven he was taken prisoner by the English. During the border warfare, this parish, forming part of the Dry Marches, was the principal thoroughfare between the two kingdoms, and consequently participated largely in the transactions of those times, in which the family of the Kerrs, of Graden, eminently distinguished themselves. There are still some traces in the parish of their ancient residence, which seems to have been a strong fortress, surrounded by a moat.
The parish is about six miles in length and two in breadth, and is bounded on the east by the county of Northumberland; it comprises about 6500 acres, of which nearly 5500 are arable, eighty woodland and plantations, and the remainder rough pasture and waste. The surface rises in gentle undulations from a rich and fertile vale near its western boundary, and is inclosed on the north by a range of hills, of which Kiplaw, Hoselaw, and Blakelaw are the principal. The larger of the two lakes from which the parish took its name was nearly circular in form, and had an area of about fifty acres; it was surrounded by hills of considerable height cultivated to their summit, except on the west, where was a valley through which its superfluous waters found their way into the river Kale. The lake has, however, been drained, and at present forms a valuable tract of land appropriated to corn husbandry, for which it appears to be well adapted. The substratum is moss of various kinds, resting on a bed of rich marl, which, however, from its great depth below the surface, has only recently been wrought. Hoselaw lake comprises a rectangular area of about thirty acres, and is of an average depth of fifteen feet; it abounds with perch and silver-eels, and is much resorted to during the summer by anglers. There are springs of excellent water in various parts of the parish, more especially in the vicinity of Loch Linton; and numerous rivulets descend from the neighbouring hills. The soil of the western district is various, consisting of loam, clay, and gravel; that in the eastern portion, of a lighter quality. The chief crops are wheat and barley, with a due proportion of oats; the plantations consist of fir, oak, ash, and elm, for which the soil seems favourable. The principal manure is lime, obtained from Northumberland, whence also is brought coal, which is the chief fuel; a small seam of coal was discovered within the parish, but found incapable of being wrought with any profit. The substratum is generally whinstone rock, in which crystals are frequently discovered; and there is a quarry of freestone of excellent quality, but not worked to any great extent, Considerable improvements have been made in draining, and much waste land has been lately brought into cultivation. The fences of thorn are kept in good order, and interspersed with hedge-row timber, which is highly ornamental; the farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, and the cottages of the labouring class have an air of cleanliness and comfort. The pastures are generally fertile, and great attention is paid to improvement in the breeds of cattle and sheep; the former are principally of the shorthorned kind, and the latter principally of the Leicestershire. The agricultural produce finds a ready market at Berwick, between which place and Kelso, a railroad, which has been long in contemplation, would afford a most desirable facility of intercourse; the live stock is chiefly sent to the markets of Edinburgh and Morpeth, which are nearly at the same distance. The principal landowner is Mr. Elliot, to whom rather more than two-thirds of Linton belong, and whose seat, Clifton Park, is situated in the valley at the western extremity of the parish, in the centre of a thriving plantation. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5586.
Linton is in the presbytery of Kelso and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and in the patronage of Mr. Pringle; the minister's stipend is £239. 2. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The church, situated on the summit of a circular hill, and approached by an avenue of stately trees, is of very great antiquity, and has been put into a state of substantial repair within the last fifty years; it affords accommodation to 200 persons, and, though at a great distance from the eastern part of the parish, is easily accessible to the great majority of the parishioners. The parochial school affords education to about forty children; the master's salary is £34, with £30 fees, and a house and garden. There are several mineral springs, of which one, on the farm of Bankhead, is deemed efficacious in scorbutic complaints. Jasper in large masses is frequently turned up by the plough in different parts. The site of Linton Castle may still be traced on the summit of a hill near that on which the church is situated; but it has recently been planted with trees. On the summits of various other hills are remains of circular encampments, probably formed during the wars of the border; and in many places are tumuli, some of which have been opened, and found to contain urns of clay of circular form, inclosing human bones. Some of them are supposed to be of Roman origin; and in parts of the parish the tumuli are so numerous as to warrant the conjecture that it must have been the scene of some considerable battle. In repairing the church, a large grave was discovered containing fifty skulls, many of which showed marks of violence, and which are supposed to be those of warriors slain in the battle of Flodden Field; and in the moss, about three feet beneath the surface, was found within the last few years a Roman spear of brass.
LINTRATHEN, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 7 miles (W.) from Kirriemuir; containing, with the village of Bridgend and the hamlet of Pitmudie, 981 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from a Gaelic term signifying "rapid lynn," on account of a waterfall near the church, is ten miles in length, and five in extreme breadth, and comprises about 10,000 acres; 3000 are cultivated, above 1000 under wood, and the remainder moorland. It is situated in the district usually called the Braes of Angus, consisting of that portion of the county between the Grampian range and the valley of Strathmore; the upper division is formed of part of the inferior Grampian elevations, and the lower of sloping valleys, separated by hills of moderate height. On the west, the parish is partly divided from Glenisla parish by the Isla, a beautifully-picturesque stream flowing for two miles of its course between rocky banks, more than 100 feet high, and of singnlarly-diversified forms. In its progress the river displays the two cascades named the Reeky Lynn and the Slug of Achrannie, and increases the striking impression of the romantic scenery around by the fury of its action in the rocky cavities into which it precipitates itself at the latter fall. The Melgum, rising in the mountains, flows smoothly till it reaches the village, where, however, its bed becomes rocky, and whence, for about three miles, to its confluence with the Isla, it rolls onwards in a series of waterfalls that constitute some of the most attractive features in the general scenery. The loch of Lintrathen, situated within a quarter of a mile of the church, is nearly circular in form, and highly picturesque: the ground on the north and south sides is several hundred feet high, and ornamented with plantations; and at the western extremity is the Knock of Formal, having an elevation of 1500 feet, and covered with wood to the summit. Trout are abundant in this water, as well as in the rivers; and perch also are taken, with a few pike.
The prevailing soil is a deep black loam, lying chiefly on granite and trap; the lands are under the best system of cultivation, and produce all the usual kinds of grain, of good quality, though but little wheat is grown, on account of the severity of the winters. Turnips, also, and potatoes are raised to a considerable extent, and the whole of the produce of the parish averages annually in value £12,480. The six-shift course is mostly followed; wedge-draining has been successfully practised, and, with the liberal application of lime and bone-dust manures, has greatly increased the worth of the land. Most of the farms are inclosed with stone fences, and the buildings are of a superior character. The cattle are very numerous; they are of the black Angus-polled breed, with a few of the Teeswater. The only natural wood is on the banks of the rivers; but 1200 acres of plantations, consisting of larch and Scotch fir, with sprinklings of oak, ash, beech, and plane, have been formed within the last forty years. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3838. The village, situated near the church, is in a ruinous state; but the houses are expected shortly to be rebuilt. The fuel generally in use is peat, obtained from the mosses, which however are nearly exhausted: coal is sometimes procured from Dundee, whither, as well as to Forfar and Kirriemuir, the produce of the district is generally sent for sale. The parish is in the presbytery of Meigle and synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of the Earl of Airlie. The minister's stipend is £159, of which more than a third is received from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The church is a plain structure accommodating 408 persons; it was built in 1802, and repaired in 1829; but is inconveniently situated near the southern boundary of the parish, eight and a half miles from the opposite extremity. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £30, with a house, and £26 fees. The Earl of Airlie takes an inferior title from this place.
LINWOOD, a village, and lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Kilbarchan, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 2½ miles (W.) from Paisley; containing 1126 inhabitants. This village, which has arisen entirely since the introduction of the cotton manufacture, is situated on the lands of Blackstone, and consists of numerous well-built houses and neat cottages inhabited by persons employed in the factories. The principal factory, originally built in 1792, and burnt down in 1802, was rebuilt by the present company in 1805. It has a central range 170 feet in length and sixty-one high, with a west wing 100 feet long and fortyone in height, and an east wing eighty feet in length and about thirty high; the machinery is propelled by two water-wheels and a steam-engine, together of sixtyeight-horse power, and the number of persons employed is on the average 400. There is also a mill belonging to Mr. Henderson, sixty-seven feet in length and forty-four feet in breadth, in which are 4000 spindles, put in motion by a steam-engine of sixteen-horse power, and affording occupation to about forty persons. A school has been established by the proprietors of the works, who allow the teacher a salary of £20, with a schoolhouse; his income, with the fees, amounting to about £60 per annum.
Lismore and Appin
LISMORE and APPIN, a parish, in the district of Lorn, county of Argyll; containing, with the late quoad sacra parish of Duror, 4193 inhabitants, of whom 1399 are in Lismore, and 1102 in Appin, the former 7 miles (N. N. W.), and the latter 10 (N. by E.), from Oban. The name of the first of these two place, in Gaelic Lios-Mor, "a great garden," is generally considered as having been applied to the locality on account of the unusual richness of the soil, it being situated in the midst of a tract of country of comparative sterility. The etymology of Appin is altogether uncertain; but many think it probable that it has been corrupted from the appellation Abb-fhon, "Abbot's-land," as the upper parts of the district anciently belonged to the parish of Elean-Munde, so called from St. Munde, who was an Abbot in Argyll in the 10th century. Some are of opinion, however, that the name of Appin is derived from the word Appenine, as descriptive of the mountainous features of the surface. Lismore and Appin were formerly called the parish of Kil-Muluag, or Kil-Maluag, from a saint who lived in the 7th, or as some imagine in the 12th, century, and whose remains were brought to Lismore for interment. The spot, indeed, where the debarkation took place is still shown, named Port-Maluag Lismore was once the seat of the bishopric of the Isles, and afterwards formed part of that of Argyll, this county being erected into a separate see upon a petition presented to the pope by John the Englishman, Bishop of Dunkeld, on which occasion the new bishop fixed his residence at Lismore, where the ruins of his castle are yet to be seen.
This Highland parish is in the district of Upper Lorn, and is of prodigious extent. It consists of the island of Lismore, one of the Hebrides, situated in the arm of the sea generally designated Loch Linnhe, but sometimes Linnhe-Sheilich; the tract of Kingerloch, belonging to the old parish of Lismore, and on the western side of the loch; and the extensive tract called Appin, stretching from the coast of Loch Linnhe, on the west, to Perthshire on the north-east, and having Loch Leven upon the north, by which it is separated from Inverness-shire. Loch Creran forms the south- eastern boundary; the Lynn of Lorn, an arm of the sea three leagues wide, runs on the south; and on the south-west is the sound of Mull. Lismore is ten miles long, and one mile and a half in average breadth, comprising 9600 acres; while Kingerloch is sixteen miles long and four broad, and includes 40,960 acres. The length of Appin, from south-west to north-east, is about forty-eight miles, and the medium breadth ten miles and the number of acres is computed at 307,200, making the aggregate number in the parish 357,760, of which 4000 are cultivated, the same number under wood, and the remainder pasture and waste. The parish comprehends, in the most attractive combinations, every description of Highland scenery, consisting of lofty hills and mountains; romantic glens and valleys, enlivened and ornamented with picturesque waters and cascades; and several fine fertile plains. The sea-coast embraces altogether a line of about eighty miles. That of Appin measures forty-six miles from the extremity of Loch Creran, on the east, to the head of Loch Leven on the north, and is in general sandy, often bold and exceedingly irregular, and marked with many curvatures and indentations forming convenient bays and harbours. From the port and village of Appin the line is tolerably straight to Keill, or Cuil where however it makes a sudden flexure to the west, constituting a fine expansive bay; it then winds, with considerable irregularity, round towards the north of the district, and assumes a pretty uniform appearance at Loch Leven. To the south of the village of Appin, the indentations and harbours are very numerous. At the mouth of Loch Creran is safe anchorage for small craft; westward is the well-sheltered bay of Airds, where shoals of herrings are sometimes taken; and a few miles to the north is the sound of Shuna, formed by the island of that name and the main land of Appin, and affording ample security for shipping in the most stormy weather. The bay of Cuil, already referred to, is bounded by a semicircular line measuring a mile between its extremities, and has a fine sandy beach: large draughts of herrings that visit the bay are often brought to shore. To the north of this is the bay of Kentailen, a small creek well defended by the adjacent heights, which are crowned with wood.
The Lismore coast, twenty-four miles in extent, is also bold, and the water deep even at the shore, except towards the north-east, where the island is low and sandy. At the northern extremity of the isle, on the west coast, is Port-Ramsa, a spacious harbour with good anchorage, protected by several small islands; and a little to the south-west of this is Loch Oscar, or Oscar's bay, so called, it is said, from the circumstance of a party of Fingalians, who came hither to enjoy the pleasures of the chase, having anchored their vessel in the bay. The landing-place is still called Portnamurlach, or Port-na-mor-laoch, "the landing-place of the great heroes;" and in the vicinity is an eminence, whence the female part of the company beheld the sport, and which is yet designated Druim-nam-Ban-Fionn, or "the ridge of the Fingalian ladies." The bay affords a secure retreat for large vessels, protected by several islands, among which the chief is Elein-Loch-Oscair, or "island of Oscar's bay;" but it is of dangerous entrance on the north. Several smaller harbours, comprehending principally Salen, Killchiaran, and Achnacroish, are only fit for boats. The navigation in some parts is highly hazardous, especially at the rock of Carraig, between the southern end of Lismore and the island of Mull: here, also, is a most violent current; but a light-house erected about 1833, on the little island of Musdale, has proved of great service in preventing accidents. The Kingerloch district embraces a coast sixteen miles in length, which is sandy, often bold and rocky, and contains a harbour called Gerloch, or Loch Chorey, the most spacious in the whole parish, being a mile long and half a mile broad; it has good anchorage for vessels at all seasons. Most kinds of the fish common to the county are caught off this parish, including cod, ling, haddock, whiting, lythe, mackerel, and flounders, with considerable quantities of salmon and herrings; they are all taken mostly for domestic use, except the salmon, many of which are sent to the south. Oysters are found in Loch Creran, and the usual sorts of shell-fish on every part of the coast.
The most lofty elevations in the interior of the parish are the mountains of Glencoe, celebrated by Ossian, and in the neighbourhood of which the country is wild in the extreme, and uninhabited, consisting principally of hill, moss, moor, and glen. These sublime and commanding masses, piled in immense bodies one upon another, reach in some places 3000 feet above the level of the sea, and are accessible only among their lower portions, where tolerable pasture is afforded for sheep. The summits, the resort of eagles, have never been explored by any human being. The heights rise almost perpendicularly, and with surpassing grandeur, on each side of the glen, the deep narrow gorge and solitary recesses of which are seldom warmed by the rays even of the summer's sun. The hills of Ballichulish, a beautiful range covered nearly to their summits with rich verdure, attain an elevation of about 2000 feet above the sea, and, by a few scattered trees still remaining, exhibit relics, and mark out the western boundary, of the ancient Caledonian forest. The Kingerloch coast is marked by hills of less height, but much more abrupt and rocky, and broken by many ravines opening into pleasing valleys, and by some caves of inferior extent. Several recesses, also, of this description occur on the Lismore coast. The chief rivers are the Coe and Creran: the former traverses Glencoe and joins Loch Leven at Invercoe; and the latter, having passed through Glencreran, and received the Ure and other tributaries, empties itself into Loch Creran at its head. Kingerloch contains the smaller stream of Coinich; and there are also those of Duror, Laroch, and Leven in the parish, all of which produce salmon and good trout. Lismore abounds in springs of beautiful water, which find excellent reservoirs in the numerous fissures and caverns penetrating the great bed of limestone rock whereof the island consists. There are also several lochs in Lismore, of moderate dimensions; some contain fine trout, and one is stocked with eels.
The climate of the parish is exceedingly moist, the sleet and rain that fall here being considerable; but the mildness of its temperature, together with the genial nature of the soil in some parts, especially in Lismore which is considered to a great extent a grain country favours the operations of husbandry; and the crops, though not large, are in general excellent. Appin, comprehending the districts of Airds, Strath of Appin Duror, Glencreran, and Glencoe, is almost entirely a pastoral district; but there are some flat grounds adjacent to the sea-shore, on which the soil is generally light and gravelly, producing good crops of potatoes, barley, and oats. The farms and houses here, which have a very interesting and picturesque appearance, are, however, soon succeeded by grazing tracts, stretching far into the more hilly country, where the soil is frequently clayey and mossy. The sheep are mostly the native black-faced; but the Cheviots have been lately introduced, some of which are crossed with Leicesters. A large number are always in pasture, the average being about 25,000; and, like the cattle, which are chiefly the Highland breed, they are of very good quality Many fine horses are kept, and Lismore is celebrated for its beautiful grey and dappled breed of that animal, Several improvements have been introduced on the estates of the chief proprietors within these few years, embracing principally draining, inclosing, and the reclaiming of waste lands; and the rotation system of crops is practised to a limited extent. The arable land in Appin and Kingerloch is always let with large uncultivated tracts, at one given rate per acre; in Lismore, some farms, to which there is no hill pasture, pay about £1. 10. per acre. The rateable annual value of the parish is £15,708.
The substrata in Lismore are entirely limestone: in Appin, among the varieties of rock, slate is prominent, and is extensively wrought on the farm of Laroch, near Ballichulish, at the foot of Glencoe. At the works there, which have been in operation for about fifty years, a fine compact and durable material is raised, suited in every respect for roofing, of a deep blue colour, and having pyrites wrought completely into their texture, and called "diamonds" by the quarrymen. The number of people employed, with the carpenters, blacksmiths, and others, is about 300; they mostly live on the estate, in neat well-built tenements with a portion of ground attached, and are in comfortable circumstances. From five to seven millions of slates are raised yearly, and sent to numerous sea-ports in Scotland and Northumberland, from a harbour almost close at hand, where there is a large wharf, to which the cargoes are conveyed by tram-roads on an inclined plane from the quarries. There is also lead in several places; but the attempt to work it has proved unsuccessful. The wood in Lismore consists chiefly of the hard species; for, though once, it is said, covered by a large deer-forest, little else is now to be seen but plane and beech trees, with some ash. These usually grow in clusters, and, being interspersed about the island, supply an agreeable relief to the uniformity of its scenery arising from the continuity of its verdant and arable tracts. The wood in Appin is partly natural and partly planted: among the former are oak, ash, birch, and hazel; and the latter comprises plane, beech, ash, elm, and several kinds of fir, the whole sprinkled with beautiful hollies of rich green hue. The sea-shore of Appin, and the lands immediately stretching from it, are favourite localities for gentlemen's seats. Elegant and pleasing mansions, embosomed in well-wooded valleys, and enlivened by neighbouring rivulets and cascades, rise in various directions, backed by lofty mountains and commanding in front fine sea views. The chief are, Kinlochlaich, Appin House, Airds, Achnacone, Ardsheal, Ballichulish, Fasnacloich, and Minefield, mostly modern.
The villages in the island are Clachan and Port-Ramsa, the latter of which, a fishing-village, has a good harbour; those in Appin are, Laroch, Port-Appin, Tayribbi, and Portnacroish. The whole are small, with the exception of Laroch, where the population, consisting to a great extent of people engaged in the slate-mines, amounts to about 500, and is gradually increasing. A post-office is established at Appin, communicating daily with Inverary; and a sub-office at Lismore communicates twice a week with Appin. A sub-office, also, at Kingerloch communicates twice a week with Strontian. The Kingerloch district is destitute of roads; those in Lismore are in tolerable order, though far inferior to the roads in Appin. Much traffic is carried on in pigs, poultry, and eggs, which were formerly sold at the market-town of Oban, distant ten miles by land from Appin, and seven by sea from Lismore. This produce, however, is now chiefly sent to Glasgow by the steam-vessels, which pass in their way to Inverness, and touch here twice in each week in summer, and once in winter. The sheep and cattle are disposed of principally to drovers: a fair is held at Duror, in Appin, in April, and another in October; and cattle-markets are held, for receiving the stock from the various districts, at the periods when the drovers are passing through to the south-country markets. A fair of minor importance, and only for local purposes, is held at Lismore in October.
The parish is ecclesiastically in the presbytery of Lorn and synod of Argyll, and in the patronage of the Duke of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £213, with a manse, and a glebe of ten acres, valued at £17. 10. per annum. There are two parochial churches. The one at Lismore, situated on the Appin side of the island, is the chancel of the cathedral formerly maintained there; it was newly roofed in 1749, and accommodates 540 persons with sittings, all free. The Appin church, containing 350 sittings, also free, was built in 1749, and enlarged in 1814, and is conveniently situated in the district of Strath, in the midst of the incumbent's charge. There is also a church at Duror, about nine miles from the parish church of Appin, and to which are attached the districts of Duror and Glencoe. Two missionaries, supported by the royal bounty, officiate in Kingerloch, Glencoe, and Glencreran; but these places are only the parts of their charge belonging to this parish, their services being shared with other parishes adjacent. An episcopal chapel is maintained in Glencoe, and another at Portnacroish, in Strath of Appin; they were till lately served by the same clergyman, who officiated alternately. A Roman Catholic chapel is situated near the slate-quarry at Ballichulish; and there was formerly a Roman Catholic seminary in Lismore, instituted in 1801, but removed from the island in 1831. There are six parochial schools, of which two are in Lismore, and four in Appin; three of the latter, situated respectively at Glencreran, Glencoe, and Duror, sprang from the fourth. In all the schools, Gaelic and English reading are taught, with the usual elementary branches, comprehending Latin and mathematics in some of the schools if required. The master of the principal school in Lismore has a salary of £17, a sum of £10 from Queen Anne's mortification, and about £10 fees; the master of the second school receives £19 per annum, and £12 fees. The master of the chief school in Appin has a salary of £20, with £10 from Queen Anne's mortification, and about £10 fees; and the three other masters respectively, £6, with £5 fees; £18, with £8 fees; and £8, with £6 fees. The relics of antiquity comprise the remains of numerous castles, the chief of which is that of Elein-an-Stalcaire, or "the island of the falconer," built by Duncan Stewart, of Appin, who was constituted its hereditary keeper, for the accommodation of King James IV. when hunting. It is situated in the sound separating Lismore from Appin, on a rock; and was new-roofed and floored in 1631. Castle-Coeffin, also a very ancient structure, covered with ivy, and situated in Lismore, is said to have been erected by a Danish prince after whom the castle is named. Nearly opposite, on the Kingerloch coast, is Castle-Mearnaig, sometimes called the Castle of Glensanda, standing on a rock, and celebrated for its fine echo. There are also the Castle of Shuna, and those of Tirefoor and Achinduin in Lismore, at the last of which the bishop of Argyll occasionally resided: the other antiquities consist of obelisks, cairns, tumuli, and the remains of religious houses, none of them of much note.—See Glencoe, Ballichulish, and Duror.
LITTLE-MILL, a village, in the parish of Old Kilpatrick, county of Dumbarton; containing 136 inhabitants. This, though a small, is a growing village, situated on the north bank of the river Clyde, and at which Messrs. Mills and Wood had till recently a considerable yard for ship-building. The yard was opened by them in the spring of 1834, and they built in it several steamers of the larger size. In the village is a small school.
LIVINGSTONE, a parish, in the county of Linlithgow; containing, with part of the village of Blackburn, 1004 inhabitants, of whom 111 are in the village of Livingstone, 2½ miles (W. by S.) from Mid Calder. This place derives its name from an ancient castle called Livingstone Peel, which in the time of David I. was the baronial residence of the family of the Livingstones, whose descendants were elevated to the peerage by the title of Barons Livingstone, and of whom Alexander, the seventh baron, was by James VI., in 1600, created Earl of Linlithgow. This title, however, became extinct on the attainder of James, the fourth earl, for his participation in the rebellion of 1715. Of the ancient castle, there were some remains till the middle of the last century, consisting chiefly of the fosse and rampart; but they have entirely disappeared; and the more modern mansion of the Livingstone family was taken down by the present proprietor, the Earl of Rosebery, soon after he purchased the lands. About half a mile to the north-east of the castle, was once a building said to have been a hunting-lodge of the kings of Scotland during their residence in the palace of Linlithgow, and of which the fragment of a square tower was remaining within the last forty years.
The parish was formerly of much greater extent than at present, as it included the parish of Whitburn, which was separated from it in 1730. It is now about seven miles in extreme length from east to west, and almost one mile and a half in breadth, comprising an area of 5800 acres, of which, with the exception of nearly 300 acres of woodland and plantations and 200 acres of moss, the whole is arable and pasture. The surface, though boldly undulating, scarcely rises into hills of any striking height, except in the north-eastern extremity, where the Dechmont-law, or Knightsridge hill, attains an elevation of 686 feet above the level of the sea, commanding an extensive and richly-diversified prospect. The lower grounds are watered by the river Almond, which in its course through the parish is but a moderate stream turning some mills, though, when flooded, it frequently bursts its banks, and expands into considerable breadth. The soil is generally clay, much improved by draining and manure; the crops are favourable, and the lands not under the plough afford good pasturage for cattle, which are of the Ayrshire and Teeswater breeds, with occasional crosses. The lands are well inclosed, and the more recent improvements in husbandry have been adopted. The plantations, which consist of spruce, larch, and Scotch fir, with an intermixture of the hard-woods, are well managed, especially those on the lands of the Earl of Rosebery, the yearly thinnings of which are considerable. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4556.
Limestone, coal, and whinstone are the principal substrata; but they have not been wrought to advantage. Compact basalt is found near the base of Dechmontlaw, of which the summit is greenstone; and still nearer the base, on the eastern side, is fine blue shale. There are several quarries of whinstone and sandstone; and near the village of Blackburn is a quarry of lakestone, which was wrought for many years, producing excellent stone for laying ovens, and the working of which, lately discontinued as an encroachment on the road, is now completely resumed. Blackburn House is a handsome mansion, pleasantly situated in grounds embellished with thriving plantations. The village of Livingstone has a public library containing about 300 volumes, supported by subscription: at the village of Blackburn, which is described under its own head, the cotton manufacture is carried on to a considerable extent. Facility of intercourse with Mid Calder and the adjacent district is maintained by good roads. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Linlithgow and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £188. 12., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £18 per annum; patron, the Earl of Rosebery. The church, rebuilt in 1732, and recently repaired, is a neat structure containing 263 sittings. There are also places of worship for members of the Free Church and Independents. The parochial school is attended by about seventy children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees are considerable. There is also a school at Blackburn, supported by subscription.
LOANHEAD, a village, in the parish of Lasswade, county of Edinburgh, 1¼ mile (W. by S.) from Lasswade; containing 810 inhabitants. This is a rural and pleasant village, situated a little east of the high road from Liberton to Penicuick, and is a favourite retreat in summer for families from the larger and more busy towns around, particularly Edinburgh, from which city it is distant between four and five miles. It contains a number of good houses and several handsome villas; and possesses the advantage, not usual in such small places, of an excellent supply of water, brought in pipes. In the neighbourhood are collieries, considerable paper-mills, and a brewery; employing a large part of the population. There is a Cameronian meeting-house; and the visitors have the benefit of a good subscription library.
LOANHEAD, a village, in the parish of Denny, county of Stirling, 1¾ mile (S. S. W.) from the village of Denny; containing 74 inhabitants. This village, which is situated in the eastern portion of the parish, upon a stream that flows into the river Bonny, is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the collieries and in the various manufactories in the neighbourhood. There is a place of worship for members of the United Secession; and a Congregational library, containing 500 volumes, is supported by subscription.
LOANS, a village, in the late quoad sacra parish of Troon, parish of Dundonald, district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 7½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Kilmarnock; containing 205 inhabitants. This village is situated on the turnpike-road from Ayr to Irvine, and is inhabited chiefly by persons employed in the works in the immediate vicinity. At the northern extremity is a road communicating with the line of the Glasgow and Ayr railway.
LOCHALSH, a parish, in the district of Mainland, county of Ross and Cromarty, 9 miles (W. N. W.) from Kintail; containing, with the village and late quoad sacra parish of Plockton, 2597 inhabitants. This parish, of which the name is said to be of Danish origin, and of which little of the early history is known, is situated at the south-western extremity of the county, and is bounded on the north by Loch Carron, and on the south by Loch Alsh. It is skirted on the east by a lofty range of hills, and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and the narrow channel which separates the Isle of Skye from the main land; and is about twenty-eight miles in extreme length, and eight miles in average breadth; but more than one-half the parish is uninhabited. The surface is hilly and mountainous; but the hills are less rugged than in the more northern districts, and the lower acclivities of many of the smaller hills are susceptible of cultivation, and their summits clothed with a thin moss affording tolerable pasture. About 1500 acres are arable, 3000 meadow and green pasture, 2500 woodland, 800 moss, and about 45,000 hill pasture, moorland, and waste. The moors abound with grouse and other species of game; red-deer frequent the higher hills, and the hills near the coast are visited by aquatic fowl of every variety, and in great numbers.
The soil in the hollows between the hills, and on some of the acclivities, is tolerably fertile, producing favourable crops of oats, barley, and potatoes, of which last great quantities are raised; and the system of husbandry has within the last few years made considerable progress. Numbers of black-cattle and sheep are reared in the pastures, and much attention is paid to the improvement of the breed; the dairy-farms, also, are under good management, the butter obtaining a decided preference in the markets. The cattle and sheep are sold to dealers, who purchase them for the southern markets. The inhabitants, during the intervals of their agricultural pursuits, are engaged in the fisheries, on the produce of which they depend for a considerable portion of their subsistence. The fish chiefly taken here are herrings and sythe, or cole-fish, which are found in great quantities in the lakes; and ling, cod, and skate are occasionally obtained off the coast. The parish contains extensive remains of natural wood; and the plantations, which consist of firs, interspersed with the usual forest-trees, are generally in a thriving state. There are neither mines nor quarries of any kind in operation. Fairs, chiefly for black-cattle and horses, are held in May, September, and November. The only village is Plockton, which is described under its own head. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Lochcarron and synod of Glenelg: the minister's stipend is £160. 17. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £48 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1810, is a neat plain structure containing 650 sittings. A church was built at Plockton by parliamentary grant in 1827, to which a quoad sacra district was assigned by act of the General Assembly in 1833. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 6., with a house, and an allowance of £1. 7. 8. in lieu of garden, and the fees average about £25 per annum.
LOCHANS, a village, in the parish of Inch, county of Wigton, 2½ miles (S. S. E.) from Stranraer; containing 103 inhabitants. It lies in the southern extremity of the parish, and is a very small village, of which the population is agricultural.
LOCHARBRIGGS, a village, in the Old Church parish of Dumfries, county of Dumfries, 3½ miles (N. N. E.) from the town of Dumfries; containing 213 inhabitants. This place is situated in the extreme north of the parish, and on the river Lochar, from which, and from a bridge across that stream, it has its name. In the vicinity is a quarry. From Locharbriggs to the sea the distance is about ten miles.
LOCHBROOM, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 45 miles (N. W. by W.) from Dingwall; containing, with the late quoad sacra parish of Ullapool, 4799 inhabitants. This place derives its name from two considerable inlets, by which it is intersected for some miles towards the east, and of which the large is situated in the north, and the smaller, or Little Loch Broom, in the southern portion of the parish. It is bounded on the west by the channel of the Minch, separating it from the island of Lewis, and is from forty to fifty miles in length, and from twenty to thirty miles in extreme breadth; but, from the numerous indentations of its coast, and the irregularity of the surface, its extent has not been correctly ascertained. The surface is divided into numerous promontories by lochs or inlets from the sea, and in the interior rises into mountainous heights of considerable elevation, between which ars some rich and fertile valleys. The principal mountains are, Stac, Cumhill-Mhor, and Big Rock, to the north; Ben-Deirg to the east; Fannich in the south-east; and those of Strath-na-Sealg on the south-west; but their various degrees of elevation above the level of the sea have not been computed.
Among the chief valleys are Strathceannard and Rhidorch, in the barony of Coigach, the former watered by the river Ceannard, and the latter by the small river Ceannchruinn, which issues from the inland Loch Achall, and runs into the bay of Ullapool. The larger and smaller valleys of Lochbroom are watered respectively by the rapid river Broom and the Little Broom, which receive in their course various mountain streams The valley of the Laigh is watered by the Meikle, which issues from Loch-na-Sealg, and by the small river Greenyard, which forms part of the southern boundary of the parish. All these streams abound with salmon, grilse, trout, and other kinds of fish. The chief inland lakes are, Loch Achall, beautifully situated in a richly-wooded vale; and Loch-na-Sealg, a fine sheet of water more than seven miles in length and a mile broad, of which the shores are marked with features of picturesque character. The coast is bold and precipitously rocky, rising into promontories of considerable elevation; the most conspicuous are those of Mhor, Riff, Dunan, Duard, Ardchaduill, Handerick, and Stadaig. Off the coast are several islands: the principal are, Tanara containing ninety-nine, Martin forty-five, and Ristal nineteen, inhabitants; and the Summer islands, which, though uninhabited, afford excellent facilities for wintering young cattle.
The soil in the valleys is generally fertile; but, except on the lands of Dundonnell, which were greatly improved by a late proprietor, Kenneth Mc Kenzie, Esq., little progress has been made in husbandry. Only a comparatively small portion of the land is under cultivation, and the quantity of grain raised in the parish is far from being adequate to the supply of the inhabitants. The principal attention is devoted to cattle and sheep, for which the hills afford good pasture, and of which many thousands are annually reared. The cattle are of the West Highland black breed, of small stature; the sheep, originally of the native breed, were some years since superseded by the black-faced, and these are in their turn giving way to the introduction of the Cheviot breed. There are but comparatively small remains of the ancient woods with which the parish formerly abounded. Of the more recent plantations, the chief are confined to the demesne of Dundonnell and a few other spots, consisting of some fine specimens of oak, ash, birch, geen, mountain-ash, and bird-cherry, with thriving plantations of fir. The principal substrata are of the old red sandstone formation, and the rocks are chiefly of quartz and gneiss, with veins of granite: limestone is also found, but, from the difficulties of the ground and the scarcity of fuel, it is but little used. Dundonnell, the seat of Hugh Mc Kenzie, Esq., is a handsome mansion, beautifully situated near the romantic glen of Strathbeg, in grounds tastefully laid out in shrubberies and plantations by the late proprietor. The only village is Ullapool which is described under its own head. There are various fishing stations; and during the season large shoals of herrings frequent the bay of Loch Broom, and other bays in the parish. The herrings are partly sent to Dingwall, but great numbers are sold for curing to the agent of Mr. Methuen, who is stationed at the isle of Ristal. Numerous boats are engaged in this fishery, and find good anchorage in the several bays, of which that of Loch Broom affords safe shelter for vessels of the largest burthen: at the isle of Tanara, also, is an excellent harbour. Facility of communication is afforded by a road from Dingwall to Ullapool, which passes through the valley of Loch Broom; but it is not at present in good repair. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Lochcarron and synod of Glenelg. The minister's stipend is £298. 10. 9., with a manse and glebe; patrons, the Mc Kenzies, of Cromartie. The church, situated at the head of Loch Broom, was built in 1844–5; it is a neat structure containing from 700 to 800 sittings, the whole of which are free. A church has been erected by parliamentary grant in the village of Ullapool. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well conducted, and affords instruction to about fifty children both in Gaelic and English; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £6 per annum. There are also two schools supported by the General Assembly; four by the Gaelic Society of Edinburgh, who allow the masters a salary of £20 each; and a female school; together affording instruction to about 500 children. Norman Mc Leod and Murdoch Mc Leod, both Highland poets of some eminence, were natives of this parish. The Rev. James Robertson, minister in 1745, a man of gigantic strength, and remarkable for his stedfast loyalty, obtained, by his intercession with the government, the pardon of several of his parishioners who had taken part in the rebellion of that time.
LOCHCARRON, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 19 miles (N. by W.) from Glenshiel; containing, with the village of Janetown, 1960 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from an estuary in its vicinity, called Loch Carron, which is so named from the winding river Carron falling into it, the word in the Gaelic language signifying "a winding stream." In ancient times this place was the scene of dreadful conflicts among the neighbouring clans, and was successively in the possession of various distinguished chiefs: the famous Mac Donalds, of Glengarry, occupied the western part, at Strome, but were expelled, after several bloody feuds, by Lord Seaforth, of Kintail, who seized upon the castle of Strome in the year 1609. So late as the middle of the last century the people were in a state of the greatest ignorance; but their moral and social condition has since been greatly meliorated by education, and the labours of their religious teachers. The parish is twenty-five miles in length, and varies in breadth from six to ten miles. The general appearance of the surface is diversified by hill and dale, mountain and valley; and the lower grounds are watered by numerous rivulets and streams. The climate is very rainy, on account of the mountainous character of the country, and its proximity to the sea; the parish is, however, remarkably pleasant in fine weather, and abounds in attractive scenery. On the eastern side is a beautiful glen, encompassed by irregular hills, and gradually expanding into extensive tracts of heath; and the Carron running through this valley, greatly enriches, with its silvery stream and verdant banks, the interesting prospect. At a small distance, from a lofty hill thickly wooded with ash, birch, and alder, is seen Loch Dowal with its three islands, and, a little further on, Loch Carron, resembling in the perspective a fresh-water lake. The finest view, however, of this lake, and of the wide range of neighbouring scenery, is from an elevation in Lochalsh, above Strome ferry, whence, towards the north-east, the waters of the loch expand into a sheet apparently twenty miles in circumference, and derive a peculiar interest and beauty from the number of lofty hills by which they are surrounded.
The parish contains many varieties of soil, and the land is divided between two proprietors. The number of acres cultivated, or occasionally in tillage, is 1238; 1500 acres are under wood, and it is said that about 200 might be profitably added to the cultivated land in the parish. The total value of produce for the year is about £10,090, out of which £1620 are derived from grain, £2035 from potatoes and turnips, £2750 pasture, £585 hay, £3000 fisheries, and £100 incidentals. Considerable improvements have been made in agriculture, encouraged by the lengthening of the leases; but the land is, perhaps, let at too high a rate generally to allow of extensive changes on the part of the tenant. The prevailing character of the strata is gneiss, intermixed with quartz, red sandstone, and limestone, the last of which is plentiful at Kishorn, and is used principally for agricultural purposes. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2889. The village of Janetown is nearly a mile in length, and has latterly become a thriving place, having a population exceeding 500; the hamlet of Strome is also in the parish. The houses of the poor are built of stone and lime, and are of inferior character; they are covered with turf and heather, have mud floors, are without chimneys, and consist frequently of but one apartment with a temporary partition, in which are contained, also, the cattle belonging to the family. The people living on the coast, who depend on the fisheries, and on husbandry only in part, are in a somewhat better condition than their inland neighbours, whose situation is far from comfortable. The fuel in use is dried moss, which is obtained without expense. The roads are in good order; and there is a regular communication, by carriers, with Inverness, whence supplies are obtained for domestic consumption. In Janetown is a post-office, where the mail comes three times a week; and conveyances of all kinds visit the parish: there is one annual fair, held at New Kelso on the first Monday in June. A herring-fishery connected with the parish employs many hands; and the salmon and sea-trout which in June, July, and August may be obtained in the river Carron in large numbers, supply a considerable revenue to the fishermen. The ecclesiastical affairs of Lochcarron are regulated by the presbytery of Lochcarron and synod of Glenelg; and the patronage is in the Crown. The stipend of the minister is £158, of which nearly a third is paid from the exchequer; and there are a manse, and a glebe of seven arable acres valued at about £7, with pasturage for six cows and 150 sheep. The church is a plain but substantial building, erected in 1836, and capable of accommodating between seven and eight hundred persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. There is also a parochial school, in which the classics and all the ordinary branches of education are taught; the master's salary is £34. 4., with about £12 fees. A few chalybeate springs are to be found in the parish. The only relic of antiquity of note is the ruin of Strome Castle.
LOCHEARNHEAD, a village, in the parish of Balquhidder, county of Perth, 3½ miles (N. E. by E.) from the village of Balquhidder; containing 46 inhabitants. This place is at the western extremity of Loch Earn, and on the great military road from Stirling to Fort-William; and is a beautiful little village, having a well-known inn, and a post-office; but deriving its chief interest and attraction from its situation at the head of the loch from which it has its name. The loch is one of the most delightful of the many lakes in Perthshire, and has justly been described as a miniature and model of the most splendid and varied scenery. It is in length about nine miles, and in breadth one; and its depth is said to be a hundred fathoms, a circumstance to which is attributed its never freezing. The banks on both sides are clothed in luxuriant verdure; and the mountains that surround it rise in majestic simplicity to an immense height, terminating in bold and rocky outlines, and having their sides diversified with precipices, and deep hollows and ravines. Wild woods ascend in many places along the surface of these heights; and innumerable torrents pour from above, and, as they descend, become shrouded in trees, until they lose themselves in the waters of the lake. On the south is Ben-Voirlich, or " the Great Mountain of the Loch," which attains an altitude of 3300 feet, and from whose summit is a magnificent prospect over the south of Scotland, stretching to the eastern and western seas, and to the mountains on the English borders. In the vicinity of the village, the beauty and grandeur of the scenery seem condensed and combined. On the north side of the lake is the modern village of St. Fillan's; and in the eastern extremity of it, is a small but charming island, said to be artificial, and which was once the rendezvous of desperate banditti, who were surprised on a night by the clan Macnab, whom they had plundered of provisions, and all put to the sword. At Lochearnhead is a place of worship for members of the Free Church.
LOCHEE, a manufacturing village, and lately a quoad sacra parish, partly in the parish of Dundee, and partly in the parish of Liff and Benvie, county of Forfar, 1¼ mile (N. W. by W.) from Dundee; containing 3693 inhabitants, of whom 2439 are in the parish of Liff and Benvie. This village, which is pleasantly situated on the turnpike-road to Newtyle, and forms a populous suburb of the town of Dundee, is neatly built, and principally inhabited by persons engaged in the manufacture of the coarser kinds of linen-cloth, chiefly for exportation. The weaving of these goods is carried on to a very great extent, affording employment to nearly 2000 people; and many of the inhabitants are occupied in the spinning of flax, for which three mills have been erected in the village within the last few years. In connexion with these works is an extensive establishment at Bullion, near Invergowrie, for bleaching and dyeing yarn and cloth, and in which are a water-wheel of fourteen, and a steam engine of six, horse power. A post-office under that of Dundee has been established in the village; and facility of communication with Dundee and the principal towns in the district is maintained by good roads. The parish was separated, for ecclesiastical purposes only, by act of the General Assembly in 1834, and was nearly two miles in length and a mile and a half in breadth. The church, originally erected as a chapel of ease, in 1829, at a cost of £2000, raised by subscription of the inhabitants, is a neat structure containing 1144 sittings, of which 100 are free. The minister is appointed by the male communicants, and derives a stipend of £155 from the seat-rents and collections. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, and the United Associate Synod. A parochial school, for which an appropriate building was erected in 1837, at an expense of £300, whereof a portion was granted by government, and the remainder raised by subscription, is partly supported by the Education Committee of the General Assembly, who pay a salary of £12. 10. to the master, in addition to the fees.
LOCHFOOT, a village, in the parish of Lochrutton, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Dumfries; containing 130 inhabitants. This place has its name from its situation at the foot of Loch Rutton, and is of very small extent, and chiefly inhabited by persons of the agricultural class, whose number has recently increased owing to the system of feuing. This is the only village in the parish.
LOCHGELLY, a village, in the parish of Auchterderran, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 2¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Beath; containing 612 inhabitants. This village is pleasantly situated in the southwest part of the parish, and near the loch from which it takes its name; the high grounds have an elevation of more than 300 feet above the level of the sea, and are cultivated to the very summit. The borders of the lake, which is three miles in circumference and in some parts of great depth, abound in richly-diversified scenery, comprising highly cultivated fields well inclosed, and numerous flourishing plantations. A subscription library is supported, and a savings' bank has been long established here. Many of the inhabitants are employed in the neighbouring collieries belonging to Lord Minto, and in the quarries. The road from Beath to Auchterderran passes close by the village. There is a place of worship for members of the United Secession; also two schools attended by about seventy children each, and the masters of which are exclusively supported by the fees.
LOCHGILPHEAD, a village, and lately a quoad sacra parish, partly in the parish of South Knapdale, but chiefly in that of Kilmichael-Glassary, district and county of Argyll, 24 miles (S. W.) from Inverary; containing 2748 inhabitants, of whom 2072 are in Kilmichael-Glassary. This place derives its name from its situation at the head of Loch Gilp, a branch of Loch Fine; and at the end of the eighteenth century comprised only a few fishermen's huts, since which time it has rapidly increased in extent and importance. The present village consists of several well-formed streets of substantial houses, of handsome appearance; and is paved, and partially supplied with water conveyed by leaden pipes to the houses. The scenery is richly diversified, and abounds with interesting and romantic features; and in the vicinity are some good seats, of which the demesnes are tastefully laid out, and embellished with plantations. The inhabitants are principally employed in the herring-fishery, which is carried on to a very considerable extent; cod, ling, and other whitefish are also taken here in abundance. About 40 boats are engaged in the herring-fishery, each having a crew of three men; and more than 100 persons are occupied in preparing, curing, and packing: the herring-fishery commences in June, and continues till December. The harbour of Lochgilphead affords good anchorage, but little shelter from the south winds; and the small bays of Silvercraigs give protection to the boats employed in the fishery. The principal port, however, is Ardrissaig, in the parish of South Knapdale, about two miles to the south of Lochgilphead, at the extremity of the Crinan canal, and where an excellent pier, on which is a light-house, has been constructed. The canal affords a direct communication between Loch Fine and the Western Ocean, avoiding the circuitous and dangerous navigation round the Mull of Cantyre. This important work was commenced in 1793, and completed in 1801, at a cost of £180,000; it is nine miles in length, and ten feet in depth, admitting vessels of 160 tons' burthen, and has thirteen locks varying from ninety-six to 108 feet in length, and from twenty-four to twenty-seven in breadth.
From its situation on the high road from Inverary to Campbelltown, the village derives a considerable degree of inland trade. A distillery has been established, in which on an average 76,000 gallons of whisky are annually produced; and on the confines of the district, bordering upon Inverary, a mill has been erected for the manufacture of gunpowder. In front of the principal street, an area has been inclosed for the cattle-markets and fairs that are held annually in the village, and for the prize shows for cattle and sheep and the most approved specimens of husbandry, which take place towards the end of September. The post-office has a daily delivery from Inverary, Glasgow, and Campbelltown, and a delivery three times in the week from Kilmartin; and facility of communication is maintained by good roads and bridges, kept in excellent repair, and by the steamers that frequent Loch Fine and the canal. The parish of Lochgilphead was about five miles in length and three miles in breadth, comprising an area of 9500 acres, of which the far greater portion is hilly moorland, affording only pasturage for sheep and cattle. The internal economy is in every respect similar to that of the parish of Kilmichael-Glassary. The principal mansions are, Kilmory; Achindarrock, a modern residence beautifully situated on an eminence overlooking the Crinan canal; and Achnaba. The district was erected into a quoad sacra parish by act of the General Assembly: the church, built at a cost of £750, by parliamentary grant, in 1828, and enlarged by the addition of galleries in 1834, is a neat plain structure containing 506 sittings. The minister has a stipend of £120, paid from the exchequer, to which £30 are added by voluntary contribution of the heritors, with a manse, and a small glebe; patron, the Crown. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, Baptists, Independents, and members of the Congregational Union; also a female school in the village, under the patronage of the Orde family, baronets of Morpeth, in the county of Northumberland.
Lochgoilhead and Kilmorich
LOCHGOILHEAD and KILMORICH, a parish, in the district of Cowal, county of Argyll, 10½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Inverary; containing 1018 inhabitants, of whom 445 are in Kilmorich. This place, of which the original name, Kil-nam-Brathairankill, signifying in the Gaelic language "the Church of the Brotherhood," was probably taken from some religious establishment here of which there are no authentic records, derives its present appellation of Lochgoilhead from the position of its church at the head of Loch Goil. The parish included anciently not only Kilmorich, which is still united to it, but also the greater portion of the parish of Kilmaglass, now Strachur; and prior to the Reformation it was an archdeanery, of which the revenues were very considerable. It is bounded on the east by Loch Long, and on the west by Loch Fine, and is about thirty-five miles in length, varying from six to twenty miles in breadth, and comprising a vast tract of which the exact extent has not been distinctly ascertained, but of which it is certain that little more than a fiftieth part is arable. The surface is boldly diversified with hills of various elevation, forming the western extremity of the Grampian range. These mountains, the height whereof has not been precisely computed, though few are supposed to be less, and some are probably more, than 2000 feet, are interspersed with rugged rocks and lofty precipices of dreary aspect; but, as they have been grazed by sheep, some of them are clothed with verdure almost to their summit. The rocks are perforated with numerous natural caverns of singular appearance, in one of which a lord of Ardkinglass, who had been defeated by a powerful neighbour, concealed himself with some of his followers for a whole year, during which time he was supplied with provisions by his vassals. Among the hills are some small valleys under cultivation; and along the coasts are also tracts of arable land, where the soil is tolerably fertile. There are two inland lakes abounding with trout of excellent flavour; in the rivers Goil, Fine, and Long, also, are found trout of various kinds, and, near the coast, sea-trout and salmon. The three lochs likewise abound with fish of different descriptions, of which the most common are, haddock, whiting, cod of small size, and, during the season, herrings.
The soil in the hills is generally light and thin; in the high glens, wet and spongy; and in some other parts, a deep moss. The crops are, oats, bear, and potatoes; but the parish is principally adapted to the pasture of sheep and black-cattle, particularly the former, which are partly of the native, and partly of the Linton breed. The black-cattle are the Argyllshire; but, from the mountainous character of the country, few are reared, and these usually sold when three or four years old. The greater part of the wool is sent to the Liverpool market. The district appears to have formerly abounded with wood, and in the mosses are found numerous trunks of trees of various kinds: the remainder of these woods, preserved with care, consist chiefly of ash, alder, hazel, birch, and oak. The more recent plantations, which on the lands of Ardkinglass are extensive, are principally elm, beech, plane, lime, larix, and Scotch and silver firs. Limestone is obtained, but, from the scarcity of fuel, is little used; and near the head of Loch Fine is a mine of lead, the ore of which was found to contain a larger proportion of silver than any other in the Western Highlands; but it has not been wrought. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5602. The principal seats are Ardkinglass Lodge, a handsome edifice on the site of the ancient castle, the remains of which have been converted into offices for the present mansion; Ardgartain House, a modern structure; and Drimsynie House, also a modern mansion. The village of Lochgoilhead, in which the parish church is situated, and that of Cairndow, in which is the church of Kilmorich, and where a post-office has been established, as well as an excellent inn for the accommodation of travellers, are the only villages. Facility of communication is afforded by the great military road from Dumbarton to the West Highlands, which passes for sixteen miles through the parish; by the Loch Goil steamer in summer, plying daily, and in winter three times in the week, between Glasgow and Inverary; and by the ferry from St. Catherine's, across Loch Fine, to Inverary, on which is a steam-boat for the conveyance of passengers.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunoon and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £167. 9. 9., of which one fourth is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £37.10., per annum; patron, Jas. H. Callendar, Esq., of Ardkinglass. The church at Lochgoilhead is an ancient structure, situated at the head of Loch Goil, in good repair, and containing 305 sittings; the church of Kilmorich, on the shore of Loch Fine, is a modern structure, having been erected in 1816, and contains 258 sittings. The minister officiates two Sundays at Lochgoilhead, and on the third Sunday at Kilmorich. The parochial school, at Lochgoilhead, is well attended; the master has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and the fees average £5 per annum. A school at Kilmorich is supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge; and other schools for the instruction of poor children are maintained during the winter by benevolent associations. There are some remains of the ancient castle of Dunduramh, a strong but irregular fortress in a low situation, accessible chiefly by sea; also of the castle of Carrick, a fortress of great strength, built upon a rock entirely surrounded by the sea, and accessible from the land only by a drawbridge. The time of the foundation of this castle is not known; but, during the feud between the houses of Argyll and Atholl, it was burnt by the vassals of the latter: it was a royal fortress, and the Duke of Argyll is still hereditary keeper.
LOCHINVER, a village, in the parish of Assynt, county of Sutherland, 14 miles (W.) from Assynt; containing 75 inhabitants. It is situated on the western coast of the county, at the head of the loch from which it takes its name, and has some good houses and a few shops. In its vicinity is an establishment for preserving fish, meat, and vegetables, fresh for sea use, and for exportation. The loch serves as a good harbour, and has the convenience of a pier: several creeks, also, afford shelter and anchorage. An excellent road from the loch, passing through the village of Assynt, intersects the parish; and there are various local roads within its limits. At the mouth of Loch Inver is the small island of Soya. There is a preaching-station in the village.
LOCHLEE, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 22 miles (N. W.) from Brechin; containing, with the hamlet of Tarfside, 622 inhabitants. This place derives its name from the river Lee, which passes through a loch of considerable size near its centre. The lands formerly belonged to the Lindesay family, one of whom erected a strong castle here in 1526, which continued for many ages to be the residence of his descendants, and of which the walls are still entire: Lord Panmure is the present proprietor. The parish, in its full extent, is about fifteen miles in length and seven in average breadth; but that portion of it which is inhabited comprises an area of little more than half that compass. It is situated among the Grampian hills, and is separated by the most elevated of that chain from the county of Aberdeen; about 1000 acres of land are arable, 50 natural wood, and the whole of the large remainder rough moorland, heath, and waste. The surface is rocky and mountainous, interspersed with spreading valleys and deep glens. The loch already referred to lies in a cavity between the rocks and mountains which almost encircle it; it is nearly a mile and a half in length, and about half a mile broad, and from its peculiar situation has a strikingly romantic appearance. Of the mountains that separate the parish from Aberdeenshire, the highest are Mount Keen and Mount Battoch; the former, on the west, has an elevation of 4000, and the latter, on the north-east, an elevation of nearly 3500, feet above the level of the sea. The height of the mountains on the south and north-west varies from 2000 to 3000 feet. The river Lee receives the tributary streams of the Mark and the Brany near the parish church, and then forms the North Esk, which, augmented by various other rivulets, falls into the German Ocean.
The soil generally is thin and light, but by the use of lime is in many parts rendered fertile and productive; the mountain tracts, and parts of the valleys, are covered with heath and peat-moss, affording the principal fuel of the parish. The crops are, oats, bear, potatoes, and turnips; the rotation system of husbandry is practised, and considerable improvements have been recently made. A few of the lands have been inclosed, and draining has been carried on to some extent; the farm-buildings are usually substantial, and kept in good repair by the tenants. The declivities of the hills afford pasturage for sheep, of which about 16,000 are on the average annually fed: 3000 lambs, also, are reared. The sheep are mostly of the black-faced breed; and for the encouragement of improvement in the stock by importations from the southern districts, an annual show has been established at Millden, by Lord Panmure, at which prizes are awarded by his lordship to such of his tenants as produce the finest specimens. The cattle and horses are both of the Angusshire breed: the former, of which the average number is 400, are generally small; of the latter, few more are kept than are necessary for agriculture. The woods consist exclusively of birch, with the exception of a few ash and alder trees. The mountains and rocks of the parish are chiefly of primitive rock, interspersed with trapstone, mica-slate, and limestone; and, towards the summits of the higher mountains, of granite. Lead-ore is also found; a vein was worked in 1728, but the produce was not sufficient to pay the expense, and it has since that time been discontinued. The rateable annual value of Lochlee is £1331. Facility of communication is maintained by a good road through the parish, and by many wooden bridges, of which two cross the North Esk, and three stone bridges, of which one was built in 1830. The parish is in the presbytery of Brechin and synod of Angus and Mearns, and patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £158. 6. 7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church, built in 1803, and enlarged in 1824, is adapted for a congregation of nearly 300 persons. There is an episcopal chapel. The parochial school affords ample instruction; the master has a salary of £34, and receives also, as catechist, an appropriation of funds to that purpose about a century since, producing one hundred merks, six bolls of meal, and ten acres of land, of which eight are arable. Another school is endowed with £15 per annum by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge; the master has likewise a house, garden, and six acres of land, given to him rent free by Lord Panmure, and the school fees, amounting to about £12 per annum. There is also a parochial library, containing a small but well-chosen collection of religious publications. Alexander Ross, parochial schoolmaster of Lochlee, was the author of a pastoral poem of some merit, entitled The Fortunate Shepherdess. There are numerous tumuli in the parish, in one of which was found the head of an ancient battle-axe. Nearly opposite to the manse are the remains of the old castle of Invermark, the residence of the Lindesay family.