A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.
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CARNWATH, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the villages of Braehead, Forth, Newbigging, and Wilsontown; and containing 3550 inhabitants, of whom 766 are in the village of Carnwath, 25 miles (S. W.) from Edinburgh. This place is supposed to have derived its name from an ancient cairn, to the west of the present village, and near a ford (wath in Saxon) across the burn, now called Carnwath, which, previously to the construction of the bridges, was passable only here. The castle of Cowthalley, in the parish, was, for many years, the baronial residence of the Sommervilles, one of the most opulent and powerful families of the country in the 12th century, and of whom William, the first baron, was the firm adherent of Robert Bruce, during the disputed succession to the crown. It was burnt in one of those inroads of the English which so frequently occurred; but at what time, or by whom, it was rebuilt, is not distinctly recorded. This castle was often the temporary residence of James VI., while pursuing the diversion of hunting, for which the neighbourhood was peculiarly favourable; but the foundations only can now be traced, from which it appears to have been a fortress of considerable extent, surrounded by a deep fosse, and accessible by a drawbridge on the western side.
The parish is about twelve miles in length, from north to south, and about eight miles in breadth, and comprises 25,193 Scotch acres, of which 8500 are arable, 12,000 pasture and waste, 400 natural woods and plantations, and 70 undivided common. The surface is varied, consisting partly of level, and partly of rising grounds, the former having an elevation of 600, and the latter of 1200, feet above the sea, at the highest point; but there are no mountains or detached hills in any part. The principal rivers are the Clyde and the Medwin, which form part of the southern boundary; there are numerous springs of excellent water, affording an abundant supply, and also some possessing mineral properties, but they have not attracted much notice. The only lake of any consideration, is Whiteloch, to the west of the village; it covers about thirty acres of ground, and is of great depth in some parts; the shores on the south and west are richly wooded and the surrounding scenery is diversified. The soil, in one part of the parish, is a strong wet clay; in another, a deep rich loam; and in other parts, light and gravelly, intermixed with portions of moss. The chief crops are, barley, oats, a little wheat, potatoes, and turnips; the rotation system of husbandry is practised, and bone-dust has been extensively introduced as manure, and with much success. Great attention is paid to the management of the dairy, on most of the farms, under the encouragement of the Highland Society of the district; the cheese made is mostly of the Dunlop kind, and the greater part is sent to Edinburgh. The cattle are of the Ayrshire breed; there are but comparatively few sheep, and these are of almost every variety. The rateable annual value of the parish is £14,207.
The substrata are principally coal, ironstone, and limestone, all of which are extensively wrought. The coal and limestone are found in superincumbent strata, on the lands north of the rivulet of Dippool; the limestone occurs at a depth of nearly thirty feet from the surface, in seams of about six feet thick, and the coal, under it, in seams of about eighteen inches, wrought for burning the lime. On the other side of the Cleugh burn, is a very extensive coalfield, reaching to the northern boundary of the parish, and containing an inexhaustible mine, which, till within the last fifty years, had been only partially explored; but, on the establishment of a company here, for the manufacture of iron, a steam-engine was erected for drawing off the water, and mining operations were conducted on a very extended scale. To the west of this district, at Climpy, is another field of coal, which has also been worked by the company. The ironstone is found in strata of various thickness and quality; in some parts occurring in the form of tessellated pavement, and in others, in small detached masses. The village of Carnwath, in the southern part of the parish, is neatly built, and contains several regular streets, and many handsome houses, especially those of more recent erection; most of the old houses have also been much improved in appearance, and the whole has an air of great cheerfulness and comfort. It is inhabited chiefly by persons employed in weaving, for the manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley. A public library is supported by subscription; a weekly market is held, mostly for the sale of meal and barley, and there are fairs in July, for cows and horses, and for hiring servants; in the middle of August, for lambs and young horses; and in October, and also in February, principally for the hiring of farm-servants. On the day after the August fair, a foot-race and various other sports are celebrated.
The parish is in the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the minister's stipend is £250. 17.6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church, erected in 1798, and thoroughly repaired in 1833, is a plain neat edifice, adapted for a congregation of about 1100 persons, but almost inaccessible to a great portion of the population. Chapels in connexion with the Established Church have been built at Wilsontown and Climpy; but the latter is fast falling into a state of dilapidation. There is a place of worship for members of the New Light Burghers congregation, on the road to Wilsontown; and the parish also contains a place of worship in connexion with the Free Church. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34, with £34 fees, and a house and garden. The ancient cairn from which the parish takes its name is of elliptical form, and on the summit is an opening, from which was a descent, by a flight of steps, to the bottom; it is surrounded by a deep fosse and high mound, and is supposed to have been formed as a place of security in time of war, and for concealment of treasure. Sir N. M. Lockhart has planted it with hard-wood trees. Among the few other remains of antiquity in the parish, is the beautiful aisle of the old church, which was founded in 1386, and endowed, and made collegiate for a principal and six prebendaries, in 1424, by Lord Sommerville, who also connected with it a provision for the maintenance of eight poor aged men. This aisle, which is in good preservation, and displays some interesting details in the decorated English style, has been the sepulchral chapel of the Sommerville and Dalziel families, and of the earls of Carnwath, and is now the burying-place of the family of Lockhart.—See Wilsontown, &c.
CAROLINE-PLACE, a village, in the parish of St. Martin, county of Perth; containing 99 inhabitants.
CARRIDEN, a parish, in the county of Linlithgow, 1½ mile (E. by S.) from Borrowstounness; containing, with the villages of Blackness, Bridgeness, Cuffabouts, Grangepans, and Muirhouses, 1208 inhabitants. This place derives its name, originally Caer-edin, from an old Roman station on the wall of Antonine, which extended into this parish, nearly to Carriden House. Of this wall, however, there are no remains, though several Roman antiquities have been discovered, at different times, including a gold coin of the Emperor Vespasian, a Roman altar without incription, a brass sword, several vases, and other relics. Few events of historical importance occur in connexion with the parish, except such as are closely identified with the castle of Blackness, which, with the village, is noticed in a separate article. The parish extends for three miles, along the southern shore of the Frith of Forth, and is about two miles in breadth, comprising 2719 acres, of which 2550 are arable, with some fine tracts of meadow and pasture, 113 woodland and plantations, and the remainder roads and waste. The surface is varied, rising from the shore, for nearly a mile, in bold undulations, which, as they approach the south-west, near Linlithgow and Borrowstounness, attain an elevation of 519 feet above the sea, and form part of the Irongath hills; towards the east, they gradually subside into gentle acclivities. The shore is a sloping sand, mixed with calcareous matter, and, at low water, expanding into a considerable breadth of a mixture of alluvial soil and sand; the sandy margin, however, is gradually becoming firmer and more stony, from the encroachment of the sea.
The soil varies from a light sand to a rich and fertile loam, and, in some parts, to a heavy clay; the system of agriculture is in a highly improved state, and the crops are, grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips. Some attention is paid to the rearing of live stock; the sheep, of which small numbers are pastured on the lands, are generally of the black-faced kind; the cattle are the short-horned, occasionally intermixed with others from the north. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4510. The plantations consist of oak, ash, elm, beech, plane, lime, and larch, for all of which the soil is tolerably adapted. There are several quarries of freestone for building, and whinstone for the roads, which are worked for domestic use; coal is every where abundant, and has been wrought from a very remote period. Within the present century, not less than ten collieries have been opened, at a short distance from each other; but only four, of which two belong to the Duke of Hamilton, are at present in operation. Ironstone, also, is wrought to some extent. Carriden House is an ancient mansion with modern additions, situated in grounds tastefully laid out, and embellished with the windings of the Carriden burn, of which the banks are beautifully picturesque.
At the village of Grangepans, the making of salt is carried on to some extent, for which there were formerly six pans; but only four are now in operation. Near Blackness is a valuable field of clay, twelve feet in depth, affording materials for the making of bricks and tiles, of which, in 1834, the produce amounted to 150,000 bricks, 200,000 roofing, and the same number of draining tiles, since which time, the demand has much increased. At Bridgeness, is a pier for the shipping of coal and salt, and the landing of lime and manure; it has been recently enlarged by the proprietor, and with it is connected a railway, about a mile in length, from the collieries. Facility of communication is afforded by the road from Linlithgow to Queensferry, which passes through the south-eastern portion of the parish. On the lands of Capt. Hope, some stake-nets were laid down a few years since, and the quantity of salmon taken has occasionally been considerable. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Linlithgow and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale; the minister's stipend is £249. 17., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patron, the Duke of Hamilton. The church, a neat plain structure, erected in 1766, about half a mile from the old church, of which the burial-ground is still used, contains 458 sittings. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and an allowance in lieu of garden, and the fees average about £8 per annum. There is a good parochial library. Colonel Gardiner, who was killed at the battle of Prestonpans, in 1745, was a native of this parish; Dr. Roebuck, of Sheffield, the original founder of the Carron iron-works, and associated with the celebrated Watt in some of his improvements on the steam-engine, is buried in the churchyard; and the late Rear-Admiral Sir George J. Hope was proprietor of Carriden House.
CARRINGTON, or Primrose, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh; containing, with the villages of Thornton and Whitefaugh, 616 inhabitants, of whom 161 are in the village of Carrington, 6 miles (S. by W.) from Dalkeith. This place, at an early period, was the property of William, Lord Ramsay, who was created Earl of Dalhousie and Lord Carrington in 1633, and from whom it was purchased by Sir Archibald Primrose, ancestor of the earls of Rosebery. James, the successor of Sir Archibald, was created Viscount Primrose in 1703, and gave his family name to the estate, by which, in most documents, the parish is noticed, though the ancient name is still retained among the inhabitants of the surrounding districts. The Parish, which is bounded on the south by the Moorfoot hills, on the north by the Pentland hills, and on the south-east by the river South Esk, is about three miles and a half in length, and almost two miles in breadth, comprising an area of nearly 3500 acres, of which the greater part is arable; numerous rivulets flow through the lands into the South Esk, but none of them are of sufficient importance to require particular description. On the north lies the parish of Cockpen, on the north-west that of Lasswade, on the south Temple and a small part of Penicuick, and on the east the parish of Borthwick. The soil, on the bank of the river, and around the village, is generally fertile, but, towards the western extremities of the parish, and especially to the north, somewhat cold, wet, and moorish. The chief crops are, wheat, barley, oats, peas, potatoes, and turnips, and the rotation system of husbandry is generally practised; considerable progress has been made in draining and inclosing the lands, which are mostly in a good state of cultivation. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4617. Coal is found throughout the whole of the district, and some of the seams are of very superior quality. There are but two proprietors of land in the parish, the Earl of Rosebery and another gentleman, of whom the latter resides at the splendid modern mansion of Whitehall. The village, which is on the road to Dalkeith, is neatly built, and inhabited chiefly by persons employed in the various handicraft trades requisite for the wants of the neighbourhood; and facility of communication is maintained by good roads, kept in repair by statute labour, and by bridges over the Esk and other streams. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dalkeith and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £158. 7. 5., of which one-third is payable from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum; patron, the Earl of Rosebery. The church, a neat structure, was erected in 1711. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average £10 per annum.
CARRON, a village, and the seat of extensive iron-works, in the parish of Larbert, county of Stirling, 2 miles (N. N. W.) from Falkirk. This village, which is situated on the north bank of the river Carron, about three miles from its influx into the Forth, and has every facility of obtaining water-power, and an easy transit for produce, became, in 1760, the seat of the iron-works which are so well known as the most important and extensive in the kingdom. These works were originally established by a company, consisting of Messrs. Roebuck, formerly of Sheffield, and afterwards of Birmingham, Mr. Garbet, merchant of the latter place, and Messrs. Cadell, of East Lothian. The company was incorporated by charter, in 1773, with a capital of £150,000, raised in shares of £250 each, and having engaged workmen from Sheffield and Birmingham, commenced operations under the superintendence of Mr. Gascoigne, son-in-law of Mr. Garbet, on a very extensive scale. The smelting of iron-ore, and the manufacture of cast-iron goods of every description, are carried on to a great extent; not less than 10,000 tons of pig-iron are annually made, and the manufacture of malleable iron from scraps, which is of more recent introduction, is also extensive. Among the articles produced are, cannon, mortars, howitzers, and carronades, which last derived their name from this establishment; shot, shells, and other implements of war; agricultural instruments, with various articles for domestic use, steam-engines, sugar-mills, sugar-pans, and anchors, anvils, and axles. There are four blast furnaces, two of which have been adapted to the use of the hot blast, and four cupola furnaces, all of which have water-wheels for propelling the machinery; and in summer, a powerful steam-engine until recently lifted water from a reservoir, to turn these wheels, at the rate of forty tons per minute. A steam-engine, also, of gigantic power, is incessantly at work, day and night, for the production of blast; and fifteen air furnaces are in operation. There are mills for boring cylinders and pipes, of which the machinery is almost unrivalled, and the various reservoirs for the supply of the works cover 100 acres of ground; the entire number of persons employed is more than 1000. The foundry is connected with the collieries of Kinnaird and Carron Hall, by a substantial railway of two lines, and, by another, with the shipping wharf on the Forth and Clyde canal, at the village of Bainsford.
CARRONBRIDGE, a village, chiefly in the parish of Morton, and partly in that of Durisdeer, county of Dumfries, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Thornhill; containing 254 inhabitants. This place takes its name from its bridge over the Carron water, which separates the parishes of Durisdeer and Morton; it is situated in the southern extremity of the former parish, and on the western boundary of the latter, a short distance east of the river Nith.
CARRONSHORE, a village, partly in the parish of Larbert, but chiefly in that of Bothkennar, county of Stirling, 3 miles (N.) from Falkirk; containing 838 inhabitants, of whom 453 are in Bothkennar. This village, which is situated on the north bank of the river Carron, about a mile below the Carron foundry, is the shipping place for a part of the produce of those extensive works, for which purpose, the company have erected spacious wharfs, and a dry dock for repairing vessels. The inhabitants are chiefly connected with the iron-works, in which many of them are employed, and also in the collieries in the neighbourhood, belonging to the company; the houses are neatly built.
CARSEBURN, a village, in the parish and county of Forfar, 1½ mile (N. E.) from Forfar; containing 108 inhabitants. It lies in the northern extremity of the parish, and on the borders of that of Rescobie: the road from Forfar to Brechin passes a short distance on the east.
CARSETHORN, a village, in the parish of Kirkbean, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 13 miles (S.) from Dumfries; containing 157 inhabitants. This place is situated on the shore of the bay of Carse, on the eastern coast of the parish, and is inhabited chiefly by persons engaged in the coasting trade, in which three small vessels are employed, averaging about fifty tons' burthen. The exports are mostly grain and other agricultural produce, to Glasgow, Cumberland, and Liverpool, and the imports are principally coal. A pier of wood has recently been constructed, for the accommodation of the farmers in the neighbourhood, in sending their live stock by the Liverpool steam-packet, which makes two voyages weekly during the summer, and one during the winter. The bay affords good anchorage to vessels in unfavourable weather; many from Dumfries, in contrary winds, take shelter, and others, bound for that port, wait in the bay for the spring tides.
CARSPHAIRN, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 12 miles (N. W. by N.) from New Galloway; containing 790 inhabitants, of whom 103 are in the village. This place, which was separated from the parishes of Kells and Dalry in 1627, is supposed to have derived its name from the erection of the church and village on a small level plain, at that time overgrown with fern. The parish is bounded on the east by the river Ken, and on the north and west by Loch Doon and the county of Ayr; it is nearly circular in form, about ten miles in length, and nearly nine in breadth, comprising about 56,000 acres. The surface, with the exception of a small tract of arable land around the village, is mountainous and hilly. The highest of the mountains is Cairnsmuir, which has an elevation of 2696 feet above the sea, commanding an unbounded view in every direction, except the south-west, where it is obstructed by the mountain of Carlines Cairn, nearly equal in height. The lower hills are covered with heath; but those of greater elevation are well clothed with verdure to their summits, affording excellent pasturage for sheep and black cattle. The river Deugh, which descends from the northern heights, with great rapidity, takes a south-easterly course, and flows into the Ken; and the parish is also intersected by numerous mountain streams, some of which abound with trout. The scenery is, for the most part, wild, with scarcely any ancient wood, and but very small patches of modern plantations.
The lands are principally occupied as sheep-walks, which have been improved by surface draining, and the parish is almost entirely pastoral; about 30,000 sheep, of the black-faced breed, are regularly pastured, and a very considerable number of cattle, of the Highland breed, are kept during the winter, and, in summer, sent to the English markets. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5414. The substrata are chiefly greywacke and granite; iron and lead ore are found, and it is said that the former was wrought for many years, till the woods producing charcoal were exhausted. A rich vein of lead-ore has been discovered, on the lands of the Honourable Col. Cathcart, who has spared no expense in bringing it into successful operation, for which purpose he has employed a large number of miners, chiefly from Wanlockhead and Leadhills. Buildings have been erected for crushing, washing, and smelting the ore, on the most approved plans, and for separating the silver from the lead, under the superintendence of skilful overseers. Cottages for the workmen have been built on the spot, and a schoolmaster's house, and spacious schoolroom for the instruction of their children; and the proprietor gives a liberal salary to the master and mistress.
The village is small; a post-office, a branch of that of Ayr, has been established, and facility of communication is afforded by the turnpike-road from Dumfries to Ayr. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and synod of Galloway. The minister's stipend is £182. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £27 per annum; patrons, the Crown and the Forbes family. The church, which is nearly in the centre of the parish, is a plain structure, erected within the last twenty years, and containing sufficient sittings. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, also the interest of £500, bequeathed by the late Mr. Mc Adam, and the fees average about £15. The poor have the proceeds of various bequests amounting to £800, of which £500 were left by Mr. Mc Adam. The chief remains of antiquity are cairns, in some of which, on their removal, stones, in the form of coffins, were found, containing human bones; there are also remains of a Druidical circle. The late Dr. Jackson, professor of natural philosophy in the university of St. Andrew's, was a native of the place.
CARSTAIRS, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the village of Ravenstruther, and containing 950 inhabitants, of whom 350 are in the village of Carstairs, 4½ miles (E. by S.) from Lanark. The name is most probably derived from the word Car, or Caer, signifying "a fort," and stair, or stairs, "a possession;" descriptive of an estate or possession in a fortified place. The ancient occupation of the district by the Romans, is evinced by many remains of antiquity, such as coins, baths, &c., but chiefly by the military station called Castle-dykes, and a Roman camp on the farm of Corbie Hall. The former of these is situated on the right bank of the Clyde, the southern boundary of the parish; and from it a road ran across Clydesdale, passing the Clyde near Lanark, and running over Stonebyre hill, after which it crossed the Nethan. The road to and from Corbie has been distinctly traced, for many miles; and from the concurrent opinions of antiquaries, this station is identified with the ancient Coria, a town of the Damnii, through which ran the great road from Carlisle to the wall of Antoninus. In the 12th century, the manor, with the church, belonged to the Bishop of Glasgow, whose right was confirmed by bulls from several popes. After the death of Alexander III., Bishop Wishart, with the consent of Edward I. of England, when that king was present to settle the dispute between Bruce and Baliol, built a stone castle near the church; and the manor and parish continued the property of the see of Glasgow till the Reformation.
The Parish, which is of an oblong form, is six miles in length, from north to south, and its average breadth is about three miles; it contains 11,840 acres. The surface is irregular, and is greatly marked in some parts by sand-knolls, which rise from fifteen to sixty feet above the general level, and inclose numerous mosses, formed from old woods, vegetable remains carried thither by winds, and the decomposition of plants, with an accumulation of stagnant water. The southern part is picturesque and beautiful, and ornamented by the expansive stream of the Clyde, the banks of which are enriched with fine pasture; and on a slope embosomed in forest scenery, and surrounded with plantations, lawns, and shrubberies, stands the magnificent structure of Carstairs House, from which the approach to the village furnishes one of the most interesting prospects in this part of the country. The river Mouse flows in a westerly direction through the centre of the parish, amidst dreary tracts of moss, among which it forms many deep pools; trout, pike, and various other kinds of fish, are taken by angling.
Near the Clyde, the soil is an alluvial deposit, bearing very superior crops. Between this and the passage of the Mouse, is a continuous bed of sandy earth, lying chiefly in the form of knolls, on a subsoil of sand and stones; and beyond the Mouse, in the western district, it is clayey, and in the eastern, chiefly a flat moss. The number of acres cultivated, or occasionally in tillage, is 9936; waste or pasture, 1509; and in wood and plantation, 400: of those which are waste, 500 are supposed capable of profitable cultivation. The produce consists of oats, barley, potatoes, turnips, and hay; the cattle are of the Ayrshire kind; all the modern improvements in agriculture have been adopted, and the growth of turnips has been particularly attended to. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6465. The prevailing rock is grey sandstone; there are also considerable quantities of whinstone, and some limestone, and in the north-west is a bed of fine clay, near which a tile-work has been erected, where drain-tiles are made. The road from Lanark to Edinburgh, by Carnwath, and also that by Wilsontown, and the road from Glasgow to Peebles, all run through the parish. Fairs were formerly held on the first Thursday in May, and the second in July and November, all O. S. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; patron, Henry Monteith, Esq. The minister's stipend is £234, and there is a manse, a well-built structure, with a glebe of the annual value of £35. The church, which was built in 1794, and has a handsome spire, is situated in the centre of the village, on an eminence, and contains 430 sittings. There is a parochial school, in which are taught the classics, practical mathematics, and all the usual branches of education; the master has the maximum salary, with a house and garden, an annual bequest of £1. 10., and £27. 13. fees.
CARTLAND, a village, in the parish of Lanark, Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 2 miles (N. W.) from Lanark; containing 112 inhabitants. It is situated in the north-western part of the parish, and to the west of the high road between Lanark and Carluke. In the village is a small school, to the master of which the heritors allow £5 per annum, with a house and garden; his fees are about £15. The romantic rocks called Cartland Crags, are in this vicinity; they form a deep chasm, supposed to be the effect of an earthquake, and through which the Mouse water finds its way to the Clyde. A bridge of three arches is thrown across the chasm, which is of considerable height; and below, is an old narrow bridge, with a semicircular arch, said to be of Roman structure. The scenery of the place is finely described in Miss Porter's well-known story of the Scottish Chiefs.
CARTSDYKE, late a quoad sacra parish, in the East parish of Greenock, Lower ward of the county of Renfrew; containing 3651 inhabitants. This place is situated on the Frith of Clyde, and adjoins the town of Greenock, of which it has become a suburb, on the east side, it is also called Crawfurdsdyke, from the erection of a small quay by its proprietor, Thomas Crawfurd, Esq., who obtained from Charles I. a charter erecting his lands here into a burgh of barony. There is a good roadstead, much frequented by the Glasgow and other shipping sailing along the river and Frith of Clyde. The parish was separated from Greenock in 1839, for ecclesiastical purposes, under the superintendence of the presbytery of Greenock and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the stipend of the minister is derived from seat-rents. The church, originally in connexion with the Secession Synod, was rebuilt on the same site, in 1828, at a cost, including a school-house, of £1052, raised by private subscription; it contains 906 sittings. Besides the school attached to the church, there are several other schools, affording instruction to a considerable number of children.—See Greenock.
CASTLE, a village, in the parish of New Cumnock, district of Kyle, county of Ayr; containing 155 inhabitants.
CASTLECARY, a village, in the parish of Falkirk, county of Stirling, 8 miles (W. S. W.) from Falkirk. This hamlet, which is situated at the western extremity of the parish, and on the bank of the Forth and Clyde canal, takes its name from an ancient castle on the line of the Roman road, of which the tower, now inhabited by the Earl of Zetland's forester, is the only remaining portion. On the bank of the canal is a small landing-place for goods and passengers; and in the immediate vicinity are some saw-mills driven by water, in which about sixteen persons are employed, and some freestone quarries, which are extensively wrought.
CASTLE-DOUGLAS, a market-town and burgh of barony, in the parish of Kelton, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 10 miles (N. N. E.) from Kirkcudbright, and 89 (S. S. W.) from Edinburgh; containing 1848 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on a gentle acclivity rising from the margin of Loch Carlinwark, originally consisted only of a few cottages called "Causeway End," and subsequently "Carlinwark." It derives its present name from the ancient castle of Threave, the baronial seat of the Douglases, and the last of the numerous fortresses which held out for that family, till the year 1453, when it was surrendered to the crown. The rapid increase of the present town, and its former manufacturing importance, arose from the introduction of the cotton manufacture, by its proprietor, Sir William Douglas. This source of employment, for a time, continued, and added greatly to its population; but the subsequent introduction of the power-loom, rendered it impracticable to carry on the works with advantage, in a locality destitute of an adequate supply either of coal or of water, and the manufacture was consequently abandoned. The place, not-withstanding, continued, from its situation in the centre of the county, and its facilities of intercourse, to acquire an increasing degree of agricultural and commercial importance; and became, in a very short time, the principal mart of the surrounding districts.
The town is situated on the great road from Carlisle to Portpatrick, and consists of several spacious streets, intersecting each other at right angles, and forming handsome squares, of which the internal areas are laid out in gardens. The houses are well built; and there are several villas in the immediate vicinity, which abounds with pleasing scenery. Gas was introduced into the town in February 1844, by a company, and has proved of considerable benefit. A public library is supported by subscription, and contains about 1200 volumes, and there is also a circulating library in the town. The shops are remarkably elegant, and are well stored with various kinds of merchandise; the post-office is one of the most important in the south of Scotland, and has fourteen branch offices under its controul, all of which have a daily delivery. A savings' bank was opened in 1841, and has now deposits to the amount of £2022. The market is on Monday, and is abundantly supplied with grain of all kinds, and other agricultural produce; large numbers of black-cattle and sheep, and great quantities of pigs, are constantly exposed to sale. Fairs are held on the 11th of February if on Monday, otherwise on the Monday following, for horses; on the 23rd of March, for horses, and for hiring servants; the first Monday in April, for hogs; the Monday before the second Friday in August, for lambs; the 23rd of September, for horses, and hiring servants; and the Monday after the 13th of November (O. S.), for horses. These fairs were formerly held at Kelton Hill, from which place, with the exception of one still held there, in June, they were removed to the town.
In 1790, the town was erected into a Burgh of barony, by a royal charter, which was confirmed and extended by a charter dated 1829, and under which the government was vested in a provost, two bailies, and seven councillors, who are elected triennially, on the first Wednesday in September. The magistrates, whose jurisdiction extends over the whole of the burgh, hold courts every Tuesday, for the adjudication of civil causes to any amount, and for cases of petty delinquency, and matters connected with the police, as occasion may require; they are assisted by the town-clerk, who acts as assessor. The number of burgesses is about ninety, and their qualification is by a perpetual feu right, or by having a lease, for a hundred years, of any ground within the burgh on which a house has been built. The town-house is a modern building, with a tower and a clock, and was presented to the burgh by the late Sir William Douglas. There is a place of worship for Reformed Presbyterians; and the recent seceders from the Establishment have erected a Free church here.—See Kelton.
CASTLETON, a parish, situated in the district of Melrose, county of Roxburgh; containing 2135 inhabitants, of whom 1030 are in the village of New Castleton, 9 miles (E. by N.) from Langholm. This place derived its name from an ancient castle here, which stood on the east bank of the Liddel, upon a perpendicular precipice upwards of 100 feet in height, and was defended on the west and south by two strong ramparts, and a deep fosse, which are still entire. The parish was anciently denominated Liddesdale, from the river, which runs through it from the north-east to the south; camps, forts, cairns, and castles remain in various places, and on account of its situation directly along the English border, it was formerly the scene of violent contentions. Hermitage Castle, a building 100 feet square, protected by a strong rampart and ditch, and standing upon the bank of a river of the same name, is said to have been built by Sir Ranulph de Soules, warden of the Border in the reign of David I. One of his descendants, Lord Soules, and also governor of the castle, according to the current tradition, was burnt near the site of a Druidical temple, on a hill here, called Nine-Stone Ridge; and in the castle, Sir Alexander Ramsay, of Dalhousie, was starved to death in 1342, by Sir William Douglas, lord of Liddesdale. The castle was visited in 1561, by Mary, Queen of Scots, who travelled from, and returned to, Jedburgh in the same day, over mountains, and through marshes almost impassable. Near it stood the chapel of Hermitage, now a ruin, in the middle of a burying-ground, which is still in use, and in the wall of which is fixed the ancient font. The lands of Liddesdale, in 1540, were annexed to the crown, by act of parliament; and in 1648, were granted to Francis, Earl of Buccleuch, whose descendant, in 1747, upon the abolition of heritable jurisdictions, was allowed £600 as a compensation for the regality.
The Parish is the largest and most southerly in the county, and about eighteen miles long, and twelve broad, containing 65,200 acres; it is bounded on the north-east by Northumberland, and on the south-east by Cumberland. The southern extremity is nearly of triangular form. The surface is diversified to a high degree; the lower part of the parish is hilly, and in the upper part the country is entirely mountainous, rising abruptly, in many instances, to a great elevation, and affording excellent pasture for numerous flocks of sheep. The principal mountains are, Greatmoor, Millenwood Fell, Tudhope, Windhead, and Tinnis Hill, which last is seen as a landmark at a great distance from the ocean; some of these rise as much as 2000 feet above the level of the sea, and give a wild and romantic appearance to this division of the parish. The part inhabited consists of two valleys, one of which, bordering on the river Hermitage, is about ten miles long, from the source of that stream until it loses itself in the Liddel; the banks of the water are clothed with natural wood, which, with the general character of the scenery, enlivened with the beautiful current, exhibits a rural picture of the most attractive kind. The other valley is that lying along the sides of the Liddel, which river, as well as the Tyne, rises near the head of the parish, on the north-east. The Tyne takes its course to the east, slowly winding through Northumberland; and the Liddel runs directly west, for a few miles, after which it turns to the south. The country through which the latter passes, is wild, bleak, and mountainous, and, for ten miles, the banks are entirely naked; where it is joined by the Hermitage, however, they are covered with trees, and flourishing plantations there constitute prominent features in the improving and beautiful landscape. In addition to these streams, are the Tinnis, Blackburn, Tweeden, and Kershope, which last divides the two kingdoms, with several others, all famed for their supply of trout; there are also numerous mineral springs, and several beautiful cascades and waterfalls on the various streams.
The soil varies considerably, that in the neighbourhood of the rivers being soft and rich, while the higher grounds exhibit a poorer mould; in some parts, it is of a mossy character. Most of the arable land lies on the banks of the rivers; wheat, of average quality, has been produced, but the ordinary crops are, barley, oats, potatoes, and turnips. The mossy ground is esteemed for the use of black-cattle and sheep; the cattle are chiefly the Galloway, Dutch, and Highland, many of which are brought by the farmers from the Falkirk and Doune markets, and supported during the winter upon coarse hay and other fodder, and after being fattened on the pastures, are sold towards the end of summer. The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,126. Several plantations have been made of Scotch fir, spruce, larch, oak, ash, and beech, which are, for the most part, in a flourishing condition; and the natural wood consists of some of the same species, in addition to a considerable quantity of alder. There is a large supply of limestone of various qualities, which is wrought to a great extent on the estates of Lariston and Thorlieshope; coal is obtained on the estate of Liddelbank; and quarries of freestone are in every direction, except at the head of Hermitage, where there is nothing but blue whinstone. The village, the building of which was commenced in 1793, by the Duke of Buccleuch, consists principally of two streets, named the Liddel and the Hermitage; several other streets cross these, at right angles, and in the centre is a market-place, called Douglas-square, round which the buildings consist of two stories. There are also smaller squares, at each extremity of the main street. Fairs are held for the sale of sheep twice a year, and three for hiring servants, in April, May, and November, respectively; and the Eskdale and Liddesdale Farmers' Association meet once in every three years at Castleton. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Langholm and synod of Dumfries, and the patronage is exercised by the Duke of Buccleuch; the minister's stipend is £250, with a good manse, and a glebe of twenty-five acres. The church, built in 1808, accommodates between 600 and 700 persons, and is in a convenient situation, at the junction of the Liddel and Hermitage. The Associate Synod have a place of worship. There is one principal parochial school, to which there are three auxiliaries; the salaries of the masters amount to £51, of which the head master receives £30, leaving the remaining sum to be equally divided among the other teachers; the fees of the four schools are about £70. A good subscription library has also been established, in the village. Dr. Armstrong, author of the Art of Preserving Health, was a native of Castleton.
CASTLETOWN, a village, in the parish of Crathie and Braemar, district of Kincardine O'Neil, county of Aberdeen; 57 miles (W.) from Aberdeen; containing 124 inhabitants. This village is situated on the southern bank of the Dee, and on the great military road leading from Blairgowrie to Fort George and Aberdeen, and is usually termed Castletown of Braemar. The ancient castle of Braemar, from which it has its name, standing on a gentle acclivity below the village, in a pass between two hills, was formerly the seat of the earls of Mar, who possessed the neighbouring lands, and was afterwards converted into a garrison, for the intimidation of the Highland chieftains. It was leased to government in 1748, for ninety-nine years, for barracks, and has since been occasionally occupied by soldiers. The spot is shown here where, in 1715, the Earl of Mar raised the standard of the Pretender; and about a mile and a half down the valley, is a steep rock called "Charters' chests," so named from a cave in it, of difficult access, where the charters which pertained to the Invercauld property were deposited during the rebellion of the earl. There is a post-office, with a daily post to and from Aberdeen; and three fairs are held annually, two chiefly for cattle, and the other for cattle and sheep. An ordained missionary, supported by the royal bounty, regularly officiates for this district; there is also a chapel for Roman Catholics. Near the village, are the ruins of an old castle said to have been built as a hunting-seat for King Malcolm Canmore, who erected a bridge here over the Cluny water, which stream, at a short distance to the north, falls into the Dee.
CASTLETOWN, a village, in the parish of Olrick, county of Caithness, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Thurso; containing 477 inhabitants. This is a remarkably neat and thriving village, situated near the south coast of Dunnet bay; it owes its advancing prosperity to its proximity to the valuable quarries of Castlehill, of which the stone is known by the name of Caithness pavement. A church has been recently built, at the east end of the village, in which, also, is the parochial school; and a female school has been partially endowed.
CATHCART, a parish, partly in the Lower ward of the county of Lanark, but chiefly in the Upper ward of the county of Renfrew; including the villages of New and Old Cathcart, Clarkston, Crosshill, Crossmy-loof, Hanginshaw, Langside, Millbridge, and Netherlee; and containing 2349 inhabitants, of whom 174 are in Old Cathcart, 3 miles (S.) from Glasgow. This place, which is supposed to have derived its name, of Celtic origin, from the situation of its castle on the river Cart, is of remote antiquity. It appears, at an early period, to have formed part of the possessions of Walter, lord high steward of Scotland, who, in 1160, granted its church, together with all its dependencies, to the abbey of Paisley, which he had founded. The remainder of the lands became the property of the ancient family of Cathcart, of whom Sir Alan, in 1447, was raised to the peerage by James II., under the title of Lord Cathcart; the estates were alienated by Alan, the third lord, in 1546, and then belonged to the Semples for several generations. Of the Cathcart family, who have again become owners of the castle, three were killed in the battle of Flodden Field, in 1513, and another in the battle of Pinkie, in 1547; the fourth lord Cathcart distinguished himself at the battle of Langside, and the eighth lord, as colonel of the Scots Greys, contributed to the victory obtained over the rebel army at Sheriffmuir. William, the tenth lord, who commanded the British forces at the taking of Copenhagen, in 1807, was, on that occasion, created viscount, and, in 1814, Earl Cathcart.
The Parish, which is about five miles in length, and from one and a half to two miles in breadth, is bounded on the north and east by the county of Lanark. The surface is beautifully diversified with gentle undulations, and detached hills of greater elevation, cultivated to their summits; and is intersected with the windings of the river Cart, in some parts flowing with gentle course, through verdant meadows, and in others forcing its way between rugged and precipitous banks, thickly wooded. The number of acres is 2950, of which, with the exception of about 90 in woodland and plantations, and about 60 in lawns and pleasure-grounds, the whole is arable, and in cultivation. The soil is generally fertile, and the system of agriculture has been greatly improved; the rotation plan of husbandry is prevalent, and the lands have been rendered more productive by furrow-draining. The chief crops are, oats, potatoes, wheat, and hay, in regular succession, for which ready sale is found in the markets of Glasgow and other towns. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8925. The substratum is part of the coal basin which extends from the hills of Campsie, on the north, to those of Cathkin, on the south; there are several coalmines in the parish, but none at present in operation. Limestone and freestone are also abundant, and a large quarry of the latter, at Crosshill, is extensively wrought; in the channel of the Cart, are numerous minerals, of which a valuable collection has been presented, by Lord Greenock, to the Hunterian museum of Glasgow. Cartside Cottage, the residence of Earl Cathcart, is a handsome seat, near the remains of the ancient castle, which, from its strength, has resisted all attempts to remove it, and still forms an interesting ruin, defended on two sides by the precipitous banks of the river. Aikenhead is also a handsome and spacious mansion, consisting of a centre and two wings, finely situated, and surrounded by a large demesne tastefully embellished with wood and plantations. The principal manufacture is that of handloom weaving, in which about one hundred families are employed, at their own dwellings, for the manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley; on the river Cart, is an extensive paper-mill, originally established by a French refugee, in 1685, and on the same stream, is a mill for the manufacture of snuff. There are also extensive cornmills; and on the river, just before it enters the parish of Eastwood, is a bleachfield, at Newlands, but the persons employed in it mostly belong to Pollockshaws.
The Ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the minister's stipend is £276, with a manse, built in 1818, and a glebe valued at £16. 10. per annum; patron, John Gordon, Esq. The old church, which contained only 150 sittings, and was greatly dilapidated, was taken down, and the present church erected, in 1832, at an expense of £2500, by the heritors; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains 1000 sittings. The parochial school was built in 1830, at a cost of £500; the master has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £15. The Cathcart Club, which holds its annual meetings in Glasgow, generally distributes about £25 per annum among such of the needy families in the parish as do not apply for parochial aid. On the hill of Langside are some remains of what is supposed to have been a Roman camp, and which, from its having been occupied by Mary, Queen of Scots, while an anxious spectator of the battle of Langside, is called by the people Queen Mary's camp. A Roman vase, of elegant workmanship, was discovered about the commencement of the present century, by the late minister of the parish, while digging for the foundation of a house at Wood-End, and is now in the Hunterian museum. On the farm of Overlee, on the north bank of the Cart, numerous subterranean buildings have been found; the sides were from four to five feet in length, faced with undressed stone, and in the floors, which were paved with thin flags, were excavations as if for fire-places, in which ashes were found. The Rev. Principal Carstairs was a native of the parish, of which his father was minister.—See Clarkston, Langside, &c.
CATHCART, NEW, a village, in the parish of Cathcart, county of Renfrew, ½ a mile (W.) from Old Cathcart; containing 280 inhabitants. This village is of very modern date, and is indebted for its origin to the opening of a new line of road into the county of Ayr, which is carried over the river Cart, near this place, by a neat bridge, erected in 1800. The inhabitants were greatly increased in number, by the opening of a coal-mine, in the immediate vicinity, in which the greater portion of them were employed; but this has recently been suspended in its operation.
CATRINE, a manufacturing village, and until recently a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Sorn, district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 2¼ miles (E. by S.) from Mauchline; containing 2659 inhabitants. This place, which, prior to the year 1786, contained only the two families of the miller and the blacksmith of the parish, is indebted, both for its origin and progress, to the establishment of the cotton manufacture, at that time, by the late Claud Alexander, Esq., of Ballochmyle, and David Dale, Esq., a merchant of Glasgow. These works, after being carried on for a few years, were purchased from the original proprietors by Messrs. Finlay and Company, of Glasgow, who enlarged the concern, and brought it to its present flourishing condition. The buildings are spacious, and replete with machinery of every kind; two water-wheels, each fifty feet in diameter, estimated at 200 horse-power, have been erected for giving motion to the machinery, and two steam-engines, of sixty horse-power each, have been added, to secure the continuance of the work under any failure of water. In the bleaching-works, also, the requisite machinery is propelled by a water-wheel of thirty-two feet diameter, and by a steam-engine of twenty-eight horse-power. Every process of the cotton manufacture is carried on, with the utmost regularity; the raw material sent from Glasgow is spun, woven, bleached, and finished, either for home consumption, or for exportation to foreign markets. In the bleaching-works, which were established in 1824, in addition to the goods produced in the cotton factory of this place, all the cloth manufactured at the other works of the company are bleached; the process is carried on within the walls, at all seasons of the year, and from 150 to 200 acres of land, which would be requisite for the exclusive purpose of a bleachfield, are thus appropriated to agricultural uses. The number of persons employed in both the works is 960.
The village, which alone constituted the parish, is pleasantly situated in an extensive and picturesque vale, through which the river Ayr pursues its winding course, and is neatly built on the north bank of the river, over which is a handsome stone bridge; it is lighted with gas of the very best quality, from works which have been considered the most excellent in Ayrshire for economy of production. There are two public libraries, containing each a collection of from 600 to 700 volumes, and supported by subscribers; a philosophical library; and a library in connexion with a Sunday school. Many of the inhabitants are also employed in hand-loom weaving, for the manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley, and several in the various trades requisite for the supply of the population; a penny-post has been established, and there is an excellent market on Saturday, for provisions of all kinds. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. A chapel of ease was built by Mr. Alexander, in 1792, at an expense of £1000; it was purchased by the feuars of the village, about ten years ago, as they were bound by contract to erect a chapel and enclose a burying-ground, and it afterwards became the church of the parochial district which has been recently dissolved. It is a substantial edifice, adapted for a congregation of 730 persons, and, by the subsequent addition of galleries, has been made to contain 1160 sittings; the patronage is exercised by the communicants. Places of worship have been built for members of the Free Church and the United Secession; and a school for the children in the works, has been long supported by the proprietors. A friendly society was established in 1829, and has a fund of £300; it is well supported, and has been found very beneficial in obviating necessity for parochial relief. The late Dugald Stewart, the eminent professor of moral philosophy, had a summer residence here.
CATTERLINE, a village, in the parish of Kinneff and Catterline, county of Kincardine, 5 miles (N. by E.) from Stonehaven; containing 79 inhabitants. This village is situated on the eastern coast, and chiefly inhabited by fishers, who have two boats, and take cod, ling, skate, haddock, and various kinds of shell-fish. A small harbour has been constructed by the erection of a pier, at the expense of Viscount Arbuthnott, which affords facilities for the landing of coal, lime, and other necessary supplies; and from the natural advantages of the situation, there is great probability of its further extension. A coast-guard station has also been established here.
CAULDHAME, a hamlet, in the parish of Kippen, county of Perth; containing 70 inhabitants.
CAUSEYHEAD, a village, partly in the parish of Logie, county of Clackmannan, and partly in the parish and county of Stirling, 1 mile (N. by E.) from Stirling; containing 309 inhabitants. It takes its name from its situation, being the head of the long causeway of Stirling. In the neighbourhood is a sandstone quarry, of which the material is used for ordinary purposes.
CAUSEYSIDE, a village, in the parish of Old Monkland, Middle ward of the county of Lanark; containing 367 inhabitants.
CAVA, a small islet, in the parish of Orphir, county of Orkney; containing 23 inhabitants. It is situated about two miles south from Pomona, and is about a mile in length, and a quarter of a mile in breadth. There is a ruinous chapel on the island, and around it a churchyard.
CAVERS, a parish, in the district of Hawick, county of Roxburgh, 2 miles (N. E. by E.) from Hawick; containing, with the village of Denholm, 1709 inhabitants. The name of this place is supposed to be derived from a compound British word signifying "a short field" or "inclosure," applied originally to a part of the parish. There are several camps of Roman and Saxon origin, and also a defence-ditch, constructed by the Picts, and about seven miles long, all indicating the character of those who, in remote antiquity, occupied the locality; but no information remains as to any transactions of so distant a period. The lands, in 1398, were granted to George, Earl of Angus, and, in 1402, came to Isabel, Countess of Mar, who, without consent of the king, transferred them to the Earl of Douglas, then a prisoner in England. This neglect appears to have vitiated the assignment, and the property consequently escheated to the king, Robert III., who, in 1405, gave it to Sir David Fleming, of Biggar, as a reward for his loyalty and eminent services. Sir David, a short time after, was assassinated by James, son of Archibald, Earl of Douglas, after which, the lands, with the sheriffdom of Roxburghshire, remained in the family of Douglas till the abolition of heritable jurisdictions. The town of Cavers was taken and laid waste by the English, in 1596, and appears not to have been rebuilt. The advowson of the church once belonged to Melrose Abbey, having been granted to that establishment by William, first earl of Douglas, who was interred at Melrose, in 1384.
The Parish is about twenty-four miles long, and from two to eight miles in breadth, and contains about 76,000 acres; its outline, like its surface, is altogether irregular, intersecting, and being intersected by, several other parishes. The scenery comprises hill and dale, pasture and arable land, wood and water, all uniting to produce an agreeable landscape. The lower part of the district consists of a series of continuous undulations, well cultivated, inclosed with neatly-trained hedge-rows, and occasionally ornamented with choice plantations; the upper division is of an entirely different character, being altogether pastoral, and diversified chiefly with verdant hills and woody brakes, which relieve the uniformity of its wild and spreading tracts of grazing land. The numerous hills, the peculiar features of which are their graceful and well-rounded summits, are covered in summer with a rich verdure, and have some very fine views. The loftiest mountain is the Wisp, which rises 1830 feet above the level of the sea, and commands a prospect, to the eastward, of the sea at Berwick-upon-Tweed; to the south and west, of the Solway Frith, and, in a clear day, the Isle of Man. There are several other mountains of nearly the same elevation, which exhibit almost every diversity of position, form, and surface, all combining to produce a powerful impression on the admirer of this description of scenery. The principal river is the Teviot, which rises in the parish, and forms its north-western boundary; the Slitrige also rises in the parish, and, after winding about through a great variety of interesting scenery, is lost in the Teviot at Hawick. All the streams in these parts abound in trout, and are annually visited, in the principal spawning season, about Martinmas, by salmon from the sea.
The soil is very various; rich and fertile near the confluence of the Teviot and Rule; in the lower division, generally a good productive mould; but in the more elevated lands, of inferior character, and occasionally bare and rocky. The higher grounds are employed chiefly for the pasturage of sheep, of which the total number is about 11,500, all of the pure Cheviot breed: the cattle, to the rearing of which great attention has been paid, are chiefly the Teeswater. The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,493. The principal mansions are, Cavers House, the seat of the Douglas family; and Stobs Castle, the property of Sir William F. Eliott, Bart. There are several good turnpike-roads, of which that between Edinburgh and Carlisle passes through the upper part of the parish; another runs through the lower part, to Jedburgh, Kelso, and other places, and a third, along the Slitrige, communicates with the English border counties. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Jedburgh and synod of Merse and Teviotdale; patron, James Douglas, Esq. The stipend of the minister is £250, with a manse, built in 1813. The church is an elegant and substantial edifice, situated in the lower division of the parish; it was built in 1821, with sittings for about 400 persons, and is in very good repair. There is also a chapel at Caerlanrig, in the upper part of the parish, erected by the inhabitants about forty years ago, and supposed to have succeeded several others, which stood on the same site. The Duke of Buccleuch, who supplied the ground, and materials for the building, allows the minister £25 per annum; and he receives several other contributions, making up a sum of about £50 as a salary, and also has a manse. There are three parochial schools, situated at Denholm, Stobs, and Caerlanrig; the master at Denholm has a salary of £30, with about £25 fees, and the other masters each receive from £12 to £15 salary, and about £20 fees. Some time ago, a large stock of gold coins was found at Priest-haugh, supposed to have been hidden by the attendants of Queen Mary, when she visited Bothwell at Hermitage Castle, in Liddesdale, in 1561. At Caerlanrig, the celebrated border robber, John Armstrong, of Gilknockie, with several of his companions, was executed by order of King James V.
CAVERTON, a village, in the parish of Eckford, district of Kelso, county of Roxburgh, 4½ miles (S. by E.) from Kelso; containing 50 inhabitants. It is in the vicinity of an extensive common, on which is a racecourse, where the Kelso races are held.
CAWDOR, a parish, partly in the county of Inverness, but chiefly in that of Nairn; containing 1150 inhabitants, of whom 146 are in the village of Cawdor, 5½ miles (S. S. W.) from Nairn. This place was anciently called Barewan, or Barivan, from the situation of the original church, of which there are some remains in the braes or hilly parts of the parish, and from its patron saint, Ewan. It has for several centuries, however, been distinguished by the appellation of Calder, or Cawdor, the name of a tributary stream flowing through it into the river Nairn, and of which the banks, richly wooded, and crowned with a stately baronial castle, have long been celebrated for their romantic beauty. Connected with this fortress, for the erection of which a royal license was obtained in 1393, are some highly interesting historical allusions. The murder of Duncan, King of Scotland, has been traditionally referred to this place, and the room is still shown in which it is said to have occurred; but the date of the building sufficiently contradicts this opinion, which may have been erroneously derived from the circumstance of Macbeth's inferior title being Thane of Cawdor. During the rebellion in 1745, Lord Lovat, who had taken an active part in that transaction, found refuge from his pursuers in a retired apartment of this castle, in which, for a considerable time, he lay concealed.
The parish, which is bounded on the north by the river Nairn, is about four miles in length, and of very irregular form, varying from one mile to five miles in breadth, with a narrow strip extending southward for nearly sixteen miles, and crossing the river Findhorn. It comprises 35,313 acres, of which more than 3000 are arable, upwards of 5000 acres woodland and plantations, and the remainder pasture and moor. The surface, for nearly a mile from the bank of the Nairn, is a continued plane, rising towards the south into hills of considerable elevation, of which the acclivities near the base are in excellent cultivation, the higher portions richly planted, and the summits covered with heath. The soil, in the plains, is a loam of moderate fertility, resting on sand and gravel, and the hills afford tolerable pasture for cattle; the lower hills are composed chiefly of old red sandstone, and in the higher are beds of gneiss, interspersed with veins of granite. The system of agriculture has been greatly improved, under the auspices of the Nairnshire Farming Society, who hold annual meetings here, at which they award premiums for the best specimens of stock; the crops consist of grain of every kind, potatoes, and turnips, and the rotation plan of husbandry is predominant. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2370. Timber attains a luxuriant growth; oak, ash, fir, alder, and birch are indigenous to the soil, and the plantations consist mostly of beech, larch, lime, sycamore, and elm. The prevailing character of the scenery is beautifully picturesque.
Cawdor Castle, the seat of Earl Cawdor, and his occasional residence, is a stately structure in good preservation, and of much strength; the walls, which are of great thickness, and crowned with battlements, are defended by a lofty tower, which is the most ancient portion of the building, and the whole presents a fine specimen of baronial grandeur. The village, which is neatly built, obtained a charter of incorporation in the reign of Charles I.; but it never exercised any of the privileges conferred upon it, or rose into any importance. The only manufacture carried on is that of whisky, in the well known Brackla distillery; a penny-post has been established, as a branch of the office at Nairn, and the roads are kept in good repair. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish, which has been augmented with portions of those of Nairn and Auldearn, are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Nairn and synod of Moray. The minister's stipend is £156, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £7; patron, Earl Cawdor. The church, built in 1619, and repaired and improved in 1830, is a neat structure, containing 681 sittings; the service is performed alternately in the English and Gaelic languages. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, and the fees average about £10. A school was lately established, and is supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, who also support a school for females; and another female school is endowed by the Countess Cawdor.
CERES, a parish, in the district of Cupar, county of Fife; containing, with the villages of Chance-Inn and Craigrothie, 2944 inhabitants, of whom 1079 are in the village of Ceres, 2¼ miles (S. E.) from Cupar. This place, of which the name is of very uncertain derivation, appears to have consisted originally of several distinct baronies, belonging to various families of importance. The parish is about eight miles in length, and of extremely irregular form, varying from about half a mile to four miles in breadth. The surface is pleasingly varied with hills and level plains, and intersected by different streams, of which the principal is the Eden, winding along the north-western boundary of the parish, for nearly a mile and a half; this beautiful river formerly abounded with trout of excellent quality, which, since the erection of some manufactories on its banks, have greatly diminished in number. Two rivulets, flowing respectively from the south and west, unite their streams in approaching the village of Ceres, and form the small river of that name, which, after passing through the village, falls into the Eden; it is subject to violent inundations, which have destroyed one stone bridge of great strength, and occasionally do much damage to the lands. The general scenery is diversified; and the ruins of several ancient baronial mansions, which occupy commanding situations, and retain much of their original grandeur, give an air of romantic interest to the landscape.
The soil is various; along the banks of the Eden, it is of light sandy quality; in other parts, a fine loose mould, interspersed with clay; and in others, consists of moss and moorlands, which, by the recent improvements that have taken place in agriculture, have been rendered fertile. The number of acres in the parish, is estimated at about 8000, of which 3200 are arable, about 4000 in pasture, and 800 in plantations and moor; the system of husbandry is in a very advanced state. The cattle, of which great numbers are fed for the neighbouring markets, are of various breeds; and great quantities of pork are sent hence, to the London and other markets. The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,562. The plantations are well managed and flourishing; and on the lands belonging to several of the proprietors, is some stately timber. The substrata are chiefly freestone, whinstone, and limestone, with portions of columnar basalt; and coal is found in some parts of the parish. The freestone and whinstone are extensively quarried for building and other purposes, and large quantities of the latter are employed in the construction of drains and fences; the limestone is very abundant, of various qualities, and also wrought to a great extent. The coal, which is likewise of various quality, has been extensively wrought, but the workings have been discontinued for some years; the seams of coal are found in a direction parallel with the limestone, from which it is separated by masses of trap. Edenwood, the property of Sir George Campbell, is a splendid modern mansion, beautifully situated in grounds tastefully laid out; and Teasses is also a handsome mansion, commanding a fine view of the Frith of Forth.
A considerable number of the inhabitants are employed in the spinning of flax, tow, and yarn, the raw materials for which are brought from Dundee, to which town, and also to the manufacturers of Fife, the yarn is sent. Two mills for these purposes were erected in 1827, on the lands of Pitscottie Easter; they are usually propelled by water, but in dry seasons, when the supply of water is insufficient, are driven by steam, and they afford employment to a considerable number of persons. There is also a spinning-mill at Tarvet, which was erected in 1799, and is driven partly by water, and partly by steam, and which also comprises machinery for sawing timber. A bleaching establishment was opened at Duraden in 1825, which, from a well of that name in the vicinity of the works, is called the St. Ann's Bleaching Company; and affords employment to about forty persons. The articles woven in the parish were formerly confined to brown Silesias; but, since the erection of the mills, and the establishment of the bleachfield, sheetings and dowlas have been chiefly manufactured; about 900 persons are thus employed, and the average value of their produce amounts to £60,000 per annum. The village is pleasantly situated, and surrounded by scenery containing many highly interesting features; the river Ceres flows through the centre of it, and a good bridge of stone has been erected. The houses are chiefly inhabited by persons engaged in weaving and in the various manufactures carried on in the parish; it has been considerably extended by the erection of numerous houses beyond the bridge, and the church, which was formerly at one extremity of it, is now, by that addition, almost in its centre. Fairs are held on the 24th June and 20th October, for the sale of wool, grain of all kinds, cattle, and horses, and are numerously attended.
The church formerly belonged to the religious establishment of Kirkheugh, at St. Andrew's, and was afterwards under the direction of that presbytery; but the ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are now under the controul of the presbytery of Cupar and synod of Fife. The stipend of the incumbent is £229. 13.; the manse was built in 1788, and the glebe comprises about seven acres; patron, the Earl of Glasgow. The church, erected in 1806, near the site of the former, is a neat and substantial edifice, adapted for a congregation of 1100 persons. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, Associated Antiburghers, and the Relief persuasion. The parochial school affords a liberal course of instruction, including the classics and mathematics; the master has a salary of £34, and £38 fees, with a house. In the old church, was an aisle belonging to the family at Craighall, which, previously to the Reformation, was a chapel dedicated to St. Ninian. There are some interesting remains of the seat of Craighall, about half a mile from the village of Ceres; they are situated on the bank of a deep, sequestered, and richly-wooded dell, and still present a striking memorial of ancient grandeur. The remains of Struthers, the seat of the earls of Crawfurd, situated in a park of 200 acres inclosed with a stone wall, have been reduced to a mere ruin; the venerable and stately timber on the lands, has either perished or been cut down, and of the once splendid castle, with its lofty embattled towers, one solitary tower alone is left. The parish also contains another old residence, a tower, about twenty-five feet square, and sixty feet high, built of hewn freestone, and situated on an eminence commanding an extensive prospect over the surrounding country. Lindsay, of Pitscottie, author of a history of Scotland, was a native of this place; and Thomas Haliburton, professor of divinity in the university of St. Andrew's, was minister of it.
CESSFORD, a village, in the parish of Eckford, district of Kelso, county of Roxburgh, 6 miles (N. E.) from Jedburgh; containing 150 inhabitants. It is situated in Teviotdale, and near the Teviot stream, which here runs on the west, and immediately afterwards takes a south-westerly direction. Near the village are the remains of the ancient castle of Cessford, which gives the title of Baron to the Duke of Roxburgh.
CHANCE INN, a village, in the parish of Ceres, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 2 miles (S. by W.) from Cupar; containing 132 inhabitants. It is in the western part of the parish, and on the borders of the parish of Cults, and has a post-office.
CHANNELKIRK, a parish, in the county of Berwick, 6 miles (N. N. W.) from Lauder, on the road between Edinburgh and Kelso; containing 780 inhabitants. The name of this place is said to have been originally Childer-kirk, signifying "the children's kirk," some supposing it to have been so called from the dedication of its church to the Innocents; it has also been written Childin-kirk, meaning, according to others, "the church at the fort," on account of the church and village standing within the area of a Roman camp. The numerous Pictish encampments, traces of which yet remain in the parish, show it to have been, in ancient times, the scene of military commotion, of the particulars of which no information is recorded. The monks of Melrose Abbey were accustomed to pass along a road running through this district, in their way to and from Edinburgh, and rested and refreshed themselves at a house a few miles west from the church, called the "Resh Law," or "Restlaw Haw," which was about half way between Melrose and Edinburgh, and the ruins of which still remain. The parish is of circular figure, measuring about six miles in diameter, and contains upwards of 17,000 acres. The surface is marked by hills and valleys, having but a small portion of level ground. Towards the north and west, the lofty hills, which form a part of the Lammermoor range, separate the counties of East and Mid Lothian from the shire of Berwick, and are for the most part bleak, and covered with heath. The highest hill, in that direction, is Soutra, which attains an elevation of 1000 feet above the sea. The vale of the Leader commences here, stretching out to the east, and having the Lammermoor hills for its northern boundary; on the south, is a moory ridge which separates it from the valley of Gala. There are numerous springs of good water, running from all the hills; but the only river is the Leader, which, after receiving, in the principal valley through which it glides, several mountain streamlets, flows onwards for about seventeen miles, and falls into the Tweed below Melrose.
The soil, near the banks of the river, is a light dry earth, resting upon a deep subsoil of sandy gravel; a deep layer of peat is found on the hills wherever the surface is level to any extent, and frequently there are, under this, considerable quantities of fine sand and gravel. About one-half is under a regular rotation of crops; the other half is permanent hill pasture. There is no natural wood; but about 100 acres are in plantations, consisting principally of larch and Scotch fir, with some elm and ash, which are, for the most part, in a thriving condition. A very small quantity only of wheat is produced, the soil and climate being uncongenial to its growth; the system of husbandry is the five years' rotation of crops, which is usually applied to light soils suited to the growth of turnips. The sheep on the hills are generally of the old Scotch black-faced breed, but in the lower grounds, the Cheviots, and sometimes the Leicesters, are preferred. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6053. The rocks on the hills are all of the trap formation, and in the bottom of the river Leader are beds of red sandstone, which is used for building: some whinstone quarries in the parish supply materials of the best quality, and in great abundance, for road-making and building. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Lauder and synod of Merse and Teviotdale; patron, Sir Hugh Campbell, Bart. The minister's stipend is £190, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum. The church is situated in the hamlet of Channelkirk, nearly in the middle of the parish, but somewhat inconveniently, being too distant for the bulk of the population, and seated on a hill about 800 feet above the level of the sea; it was built in 1817, in the Elizabethan style, and accommodates 300 persons. There is a parochial school, the master of which has a salary of £30, about £40 fees, and a house and garden; there is also a good parochial library, established about fifty years since.
CHAPEL, a village, in the parish of Abbotshall, district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 2 miles (N. W.) from Kirkcaldy; containing 159 inhabitants. It lies in the northern part of the parish, and nearly on the borders of the parish of Dysart.
Chapel Of Garioch.
CHAPEL OF GARIOCH.—See Garioch.
CHAPELHALL, a village, in the late quoad sacra parish of Holytown, parish of Bothwell, Middle ward of county Lanark; containing 1431 inhabitants. This village is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the collieries and mines in the immediate vicinity, and in the extensive iron and steel works of the Monkland Company, which have been long established in the neighbourhood. There is a place of worship for members of the United Associate Synod; and schools for the instruction of children are supported by the proprietors of the several works.—See Holytown.
CHAPELHILL, a hamlet, in the parish of Monzie, county of Perth; containing 77 inhabitants.
CHAPELTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Borgue, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 1 mile (S. W.) from Borgue; containing 31 inhabitants.
CHAPELTON, a village, in the parish of Cambuslang, Middle ward of the county of Lanark; containing 367 inhabitants, almost exclusively employed in weaving. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church.
CHAPELTON, a village, in the parish of Glasford, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 3½ miles (N. by E.) from Strathaven; containing 602 inhabitants. This village, which derives its name from the occasional performance of divine service here, previously to the erection of the present church, is pleasantly situated, and the inhabitants are generally employed in agriculture. There are three friendly societies, consisting in the aggregate of about 200 members; and a temperance society of forty members. Two endowed schools have been established, both of which are branches of the parochial school, and so situated as to be easily accessible to the children from all parts of the parish; and there is also a sabbath school, supported by subscription.
Chapelton Of Boysack
CHAPELTON OF BOYSACK, a hamlet, in the parish of Inverkeilor, county of Forfar, 5 miles (N. by W.) from Arbroath; containing 52 inhabitants. It is situated to the south of the Lunar water, and on the road from Brechin to Arbroath. Here is a school, endowed with a small bequest, and of which the master has a house and garden.
CHARLESTON, a village and small sea-port, in the parish and district of Dunfermline, county of Fife, 3 miles (S. W. by S.) from Dunfermline; containing 772 inhabitants. This village, which is situated on the north shore of the Frith of Forth, was founded for the accommodation of the persons employed in the extensive collieries and lime-works of the Earl of Elgin, in the immediate neighbourhood. It is well built, and has a neat and pleasing appearance; the surrounding scenery is enlivened by the well-planted demesne of Broomhall, the seat of the earl, and the inhabitants are generally in easy circumstances. The manufacture of various articles of cast-iron and brass, for which a foundry has been established, is carried on to a moderate extent; and there are some extensive limekilns, in which the limestone obtained from the quarries is burnt. The produce of the Elgin collieries, and the limestone from the quarries, are conveyed by railways from the mines, to the harbour here, for exportation; the quantity of coal shipped annually, is estimated at 120,000 tons; of limestone, 15,000 tons, and of shell-lime, about 400,000 bushels. The harbour is spacious, and has been deepened and greatly improved within the last few years, and great facility of communication has recently been afforded by the erection of a wooden pier, for the steamboats plying in the Frith, which touch at this place. A school is supported by the Earl of Elgin.
CHARLESTON, a village, in the parish of Glammis, county of Forfar, 1½ mile (S.) from Glammis; containing 348 inhabitants. This is a new village, fast increasing in extent and population.
CHARLESTOWN, a village, in the parish of Aboyne and Glentanner, district of Kincardine O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 5 miles (W.) from Kincardine O'Neil; containing 260 inhabitants. This thriving place, formerly called Bunty, is pleasantly situated on the western bank of the burn of Coull, near Aboyne Castle, and is a burgh of barony, of which the Marquess of Huntly is superior. The tollbooth, however, was destroyed towards the close of the last century, and the traces of the pot and gallows are now scarcely visible. There are an excellent inn, several good shops, and some flour, barley, and malt mills, and numerous persons are employed in various handicraft trades; a post-office has been established, and the mail-coach to and from Aberdeen passes through daily. A weekly market is held, and there are five fairs annually. The village contains a parochial school, and not far distant stands the church.
CHARLESTOWN, a village, in the parish of Aberlour, county of Banff, 5 miles (N. W. by W.) from Dufftown; containing 328 inhabitants. This village was founded in the year 1812, by its proprietor, Charles Grant, Esq., who erected it into a burgh of barony, by the name of Charlestown of Aberlour; it is about half a mile in extent, comprising nearly all the holm lands of the district, and is neatly built. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in agricultural pursuits; there is a good inn, and fairs are held on the first Thursday in April, the Thursday before the 21st of May, and the second Thursdays in July and November. The female school for the parish is situated in the village, and affords instruction chiefly in sewing and English reading.
CHARLESTOWN, a hamlet, in the parish of Knockbain, county of Ross and Cromarty; containing 87 inhabitants.
CHERRY BANK, a village, in the East parish of the city and county of Perth; containing 157 inhabitants.
CHESTERHILL, with Sauchenside, a village, in the parish of Cranston, county of Edinburgh, 1 mile (S. W.) from Cranston; containing 284 inhabitants.
CHESTERS, a village, in the parish of South-dean, district of Jedburgh, county of Roxburgh, 6 miles (S.) from Jedburgh; containing 82 inhabitants. The village is seated between the Rule and Jedburgh waters, from which it is equidistant; and from its central situation, it contains the church. On the adjacent heights are the ruins of some strong fortifications or camps; their form is circular, and, in general, they are quite distinct, and each is apparently within view of South-dean Law, which, according to tradition, was a place of observation, where fires were lighted on the approach of an enemy.
CHIRNSIDE, a parish and burgh of barony, in the county of Berwick, 4½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Ayton; containing 1203 inhabitants. The name of this place is interpreted "the Sepulchral Tumulus on the side of the hill." The parish is about three miles in length, and the same in breadth, and contains upwards of 5000 acres; the surface is flat, with the exception of Chirnside hill, in the northern part, from which some beautiful prospects are obtained. The Whiteadder river runs along the southern boundary of the parish, and is here a fine expansive stream, being but a small distance from its junction with the Tweed near Berwick: close to the northern boundary, flows the Eye water. There is no waste land; the soil is good, and in a high state of cultivation. About 370 acres are under plantations, which are in a thriving state, especially those on the banks of the Whiteadder, at Ninewells; about one-half of the rest of the land is in tillage, and the other in grass. All kinds of grasses and of grain are produced, of good quality, but oats form the most considerable crop; potatoes and turnips are also raised, and the latter are very fine and plentiful. About 2500 sheep are usually kept, which are the large Leicesters, and the cattle are of the short-horned breed; draining has been practised to a great extent, and large sums have lately been expended in embankments on the river Whiteadder. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8891. The rocks consist of freestone, which is abundant, and of which several quarries are wrought. The village is in the south-western part of the parish; it has a fair on the last Thursday in November, for the sale of sackcloth, linen-yarn, and pottery-ware; and the road from Dunse to Ayton runs through the centre of it. The principal mansions are, Whitehall, Ninewells, and Mains. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Chirnside and synod of Merse and Teviotdale; patron, Mitchell Innes, Esq. The minister's stipend is £247, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £29 per annum. The church, which is very ancient, is in tolerable repair; the western door is Saxon, and on one of the walls, evidently of later erection, is a tablet dated 1572, with the inscription Helpe the Pur; the edifice affords accommodation for 500 persons. The United Associate Synod have a place of worship, as have also the Reformed Presbyterian Congregation. There is a parochial school, in which are taught the classics, mathematics, and French, with all the usual branches of education; the master's salary is £34, with about £30 fees, and a house and garden. Until very recently there existed a circulating library, established forty years ago. The celebrated historian, David Hume, was brought up, from his infancy, at Ninewells House; and the Rev. Henry Erskine, father of the Rev. Ebenezer and Ralph Erskine, leaders of the Secession, was the first minister here after the Revolution: a handsome monument has lately been erected to his memory, in the churchyard.
CHRYSTON, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Cadder, Lower ward of county Lanark; including the villages of Mollensburn, Moodiesburn, and Muirhead, and the hamlet of Auchinloch, and containing 2670 inhabitants, of which number 555 are in the village of Chryston, 7 miles (E. by N.) from Glasgow. The district is formed of the eastern half of the parish of Cadder, and comprises about eleven square miles, its greatest length being four and a half, and its greatest breadth three and a quarter miles. The village is handsomely built and pleasantly situated, and but for the want of water, which is obtained only from the well of Bedlay, nearly a quarter of a mile distant, and difficult of access, might become a more populous and flourishing place. A fair, chiefly for the sale of fat cattle, was formerly held here, at Martinmas; but it has been for some time discontinued. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The church is a handsome structure, built by subscription of the inhabitants; the stone for its erection was quarried by the labourers, and hauled, together with the lime and other materials, by the farmers without any charge; it will accommodate 564 persons, and is well attended. The stipend of the minister is £90, derived from seat-rents, with a manse and garden, valued at £10 per annum. A cemetery has been purchased, and is now appropriated to interment. One of the parochial schools is situated here; and a library has been recently established. The ancient tomb of the family of Gray, former proprietors, is here crossed by the line of road leading to Cumbernauld.
CLACHAN, a village, chiefly in the parish of Campsie, but partly in that of Fintry, county of Stirling, 2 miles (W.) from Lennoxtown; containing 191 inhabitants. This village, called the Clachan of Campsie, is romantically situated in the vicinity of copse woods and secluded valleys, which are much resorted to in summer. The hills above it bend in the form of an amphitheatre, and numerous streams pour down the winding glens into the Glassert, a rivulet which rises in Campsie fells, and falls into the Kelvin above Kirkintilloch. A bleachfield, for the preparation of various kinds of muslin, was established here in 1819. The village formerly contained the parochial church.
Clachan, St. John's
CLACHAN, ST. JOHN'S, a village, in the parish of Dalry, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 15 miles (N. N. W.) from Castle-Douglas; containing 574 inhabitants. This village, which is situated on the banks of the river Ken, was built upon lands leased for the purpose, by the Earl of Galloway. The houses, to each of which is attached a portion of land for a garden, are neatly built; and the village, which is spacious, has a pleasingly rural aspect. A branch post-office, under the office of Castle-Douglas, has been established; and a pleasure-fair, called the Clachan Race, is held annually. Coaches pass through daily, between Ayr and Kirkcudbright. An ancient stone named St. John's Chair, formerly in the old church, dedicated to St. John, is still preserved here; and also a stone with the inscription "P. G. VII.," supposed to have been the foundation stone of a chapel erected in the time of Pope Gregory VII.
CLACHNAHARRY, a village, in the parish and county of Inverness, 1 mile (W.) from Inverness; containing 260 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the shore of Beauly loch, a continuation of the Moray Frith, takes its name from a rocky eminence now called the Watchman's Stone, on which sentinels were anciently placed, to give intelligence of the approach of any hostile forces of the neighbouring clans; and in commemoration of one of the numerous conflicts that occurred here, a lofty column was erected on the spot, by the late H. R. Duff, Esq., of Muirtown. The village forms a suburb to the burgh of Inverness, and is much resorted to for the wildly romantic scenery, and the numerous interesting features, in its immediate vicinity. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in fishing, and in the building of boats, for which its situation near the union of the Caledonian canal with the Frith, renders it peculiarly appropriate; a small pier has been constructed near the sea-lock of the canal, and contributes greatly to the benefit of the place and neighbourhood.
CLACKMANNAN, the county town, and a parish, in the county of Clackmannan, 2 miles (E. S. E.) from Alloa; containing, with the villages of Newtonshaw and Kennet, 5145 inhabitants, of whom 1077 are in the town. This place, of which the name, in the Gaelic language, signifies the church town of Annan, anciently belonged to the Annandale family, of whom the last heiress, Agnes, conveyed it, by marriage, to the ancestor of the royal family of Bruce, on his first settling in Scotland, in the 12th century. The tower of Clackmannan is said to have been built by King Robert Bruce, on the site of the baronial residence of the family, soon after his accession to the throne; and it appears to have been the residence of several of his successors, kings of Scotland, till 1330, when it was granted by David II., to his kinsman, Robert Bruce, first lord of Clackmannan. The lordship continued in possession of the descendants of that family, till the male line became extinct by the death of Henry Bruce, the last lord, in 1772, after which, on the decease of his lady, the lands became divided among various proprietors.
The town is beautifully situated on an eminence rising gently from the Forth, to a height of 190 feet, and chiefly consists of one street. In the centre are the remains of the ancient tollbooth, of which only the steeple is standing; the gaol and court-house, formerly attached, are now in ruins, and a county-hall has recently been erected to the north of the town, though the courts are invariably held, and the public business transacted, at Alloa. The houses are irregularly built, and of very mean appearance; in addition to those in the principal street, are several rows of cottages, mostly inhabited by persons employed in the collieries. There are two public subscription libraries. Several of the inhabitants are engaged in various handicraft trades, and there are numerous shops for different wares; but, from the proximity of Alloa, very little business is transacted. Two markets are held yearly, and there is a post-office subordinate to that of Alloa; facility of intercourse is afforded by good roads, and by the steamers that ply between Granton Pier and Stirling, which call at Alloa and at Kincardine, in the adjoining parish of Tulliallan, and provide for the inhabitants an easy and very cheap means of communication with Edinburgh and the intermediate places.
The parish is bounded on the south-west by the river Forth, for about two miles and a half, and thence stretches towards the river Devon, by which it is bounded on the north. It is nearly six miles in length, and comprises an area of about 8000 acres, of which 6000 are arable and pasture, 1700 woodland and plantations, and the remainder waste. The surface, for more than a mile from the bank of the Forth, is level carse land, beyond which it rises in gentle undulations to the vale through which the Black Devon flows, and thence, more precipitously, to the vale of the Devon. The Black Devon has its source in the hills of the parish of Saline, on the east, and, after sweeping round the western base of the hill on which the tower of Clackmannan is situated, flows into the Forth about two miles from the town. The Forth is about one mile in breadth opposite the parish, having been considerably contracted by an embankment, by which a considerable portion of land has been gained from it. The Soil, though various, and resting chiefly on a cold tilly subsoil, is not unfertile; the chief crops are, oats, barley, wheat, turnips, and potatoes. The system of husbandry has been improved under the auspices of the Clackmannanshire Agricultural Society; the lands have been well drained and partly inclosed, and the farm-houses and offices are generally substantial and commodious. The cattle are mostly of a mixed description, but there are also several of the Teeswater, and many of the Ayrshire breed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £13,704. The plantations are principally oak, larch, and Scotch and spruce firs; they are well managed, and in a thriving state.
The substrata are ironstone and coal, which are very abundant, and sandstone, of which there are several quarries. The Coal field contains eleven workable seams, varying from two to nine feet in thickness, and of which the lowest is found at a depth of 110 fathoms; the most important collieries are those of the Clackmannan, the Devon, and the Alloa Companies. The seams principally wrought, are, the upper and under five feet, the nine feet, and the three-and-a-half feet seams, which are all of the best quality, and the upper two feet seam, which is found only in the northern part of the parish. The upper five, and nine, and two feet seams are wrought by the Devon Company, chiefly for their smelting-works; and the others, by the Clackmannan and Alloa Companies. The aggregate quantity raised daily is about 500 tons, of which 200 are consumed in the parish, and the remainder conveyed by railroads from the mines, to be shipped to various parts of Scotland, for which facility is afforded by the harbour of Kennetpans, and the construction of extensively-projecting piers, at the mouth of the Black Devon. The collieries give employment to about 700 men. The Devon Company's iron-works in the parish, are situated on the banks of the river Devon, and employ three furnaces, for the making of pig-iron, of which about 6000 tons are annually produced; and connected with the works, is an extensive foundry, in which large quantities of cast-iron goods are made. At Kilbagie is a distillery, which has been long established, but at present no operations are carried on; the buildings occupy an area of nearly seven acres, inclosed with a high wall, and for their supply with grain, 850 acres of land were formerly expressly cultivated. The works were carried on upon a very extensive scale, and 700 cattle were fed upon the premises; the whisky was chiefly for the London market. There is also a distillery near the town, upon a smaller scale, chiefly for the home market; a large brick and tile work has been established, and there are three saw-mills, of which the machinery is propelled by water.
The principal mansions in the parish are, Schaw Park, a spacious ancient house, containing many handsome apartments, and finely situated in grounds tastefully embellished; Kennet House, situated on rising grounds overlooking the Forth; Aberdona, in a beautifully secluded spot; Brucefield; Kennetpans, commanding a fine view of the Forth; and Kilbagie, pleasantly situated about a mile from the river. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Stirling and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister's stipend is £284, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 per annum; patron, the Earl of Zetland. The church, erected about the year 1820, is a handsome structure, with a tower of lofty elevation, and contains 1300 sittings; and an additional church has been recently erected, in the north-west district of the parish, which contains 620 sittings. There is a place of worship in the town for members of the Relief Synod. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, in addition to the fees. The ancient tower of Clackmannan is still tolerably entire; it is eighty feet high, and contains several apartments, and from the summit, to which is an ascent by a spiral staircase, a truly interesting prospect is obtained. On the banks of the Devon are the remains of Sauchie Tower, formerly the seat of the Cathcart family, and now the property of the Earl of Mansfield; this tower is in a still better state of preservation than that of Clackmannan.
CLACKMANNANSHIRE, a small county in the interior of Scotland, bounded on the north and north-west by Perthshire, from which it is separated by the Ochil Hills; on the east, by the county of Fife; and on the south and south-west, by the river Forth. It lies between 56° 5' and 56°14' (N. Lat.), and 3° 33' and 3° 56' (W. Long.), and is about ten miles in length, and eight miles in extreme breadth; comprising an area of fifty-two square miles, or 33,280 acres; 3517 dwelling-houses, of which 3406 are inhabited; and a population of 19,155, of whom 9386 are males, and 9769 females. This county is in the synod of Perth and Stirling, and comprises four entire parishes, with part of another. For civil purposes, it is associated with the county of Kinross, under one sheriff, who appoints a sheriff-substitute for each county; and it contains the towns of Clackmannan and Alloa, in the latter of which the sheriff-substitute resides, and holds his courts, though the quarter-sessions are occasionally held at Clackmannan. Under the act of the 2nd of William IV., the county, jointly with that of Kinross, returns a member to the imperial parliament.
The Surface, for a considerable breadth from the shore of the Forth, is level, but, towards the north, rises rapidly, forming part of the Ochil range of hills, of which Bencleugh, the highest, has an elevation of 2000 feet above the sea. The principal rivers are, the Forth, the Devon, which, after a westerly course through a beautifully romantic district, falls into the Forth to the west of Alloa; and the Black Devon, which, after traversing the county in direction nearly parallel with the Devon, flows into the Forth not far from Clackmannan. There are some small lakes, and an artificial sheet of water called Gartmorn Dam, which is 160 acres in extent. About two thirds of the land are arable, and the remainder hill pasture; the soil, in the lower districts, is exceedingly rich and fertile, producing crops of grain of every kind, and the higher lands afford good pasturage for sheep and cattle. The system of agriculture is in a highly improved state. The rateable annual value of the county is £51,522. The chief minerals are ironstone and coal, both of which are extensively wrought; and of the former, more than 200,000 tons are annually raised: silver-ore has been also found in some places. The most important manufactures are those of tobacco and snuff, flint and crown glass, steam-engines, and machinery of all kinds, and the woollen manufacture, which has been recently much extended; there are also extensive potteries, and brick and tile works, various distilleries, breweries, and tanneries. Ship-building, and the making of ropes and sails, are likewise carried on. There are several remains of antiquity, among which are the towers of Alloa and Clackmannan, of which the latter was the residence of Robert Bruce; Roman coins have been found, and some sepulchral urns, and various other relics.