A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.
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DUNDONALD, a parish, in the district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 5 miles (S. W.) from Kilmarnock; containing, with the late quoad sacra parishes of Fullarton and Troon, 6716 inhabitants, of whom 345 are in the village of Dundonald. This place derives its name from the situation of its ancient castle on the summit of a hill near the village. Here Robert II., King of Scotland, and the first of the Stuarts, occasionally resided till his decease in 1390, and the castle was frequently the residence also of many of his successors, but was, with the lands attached to it, granted by James V. to a descendant of the Wallace family, by whom it was sold in 1638 to Sir William Cochrane, ancestor of the present Earl of Dundonald. The lands in 1726 passed to the Montgomerie family, who are still proprietors; but the site and the remains of the ancient castle, from which his lordship takes his title, are reserved by the earl. The PARISH is bounded on the north by the river Irvine, and on the west by the Frith of Clyde; it is about eight miles in length, and from five to six in breadth, comprising 11,000 acres, of which about 2500 are waste, and the greater portion of the rest in culture. The surface along the sea-coast and the banks of the river is nearly level, with some gentle undulations towards the centre, where it rises into hills of moderate elevation, of which the highest, called the Clavin hills, do not exceed 400 feet in height, commanding, however, from their summits a prospect embracing fourteen different counties. With the exception of the Irvine, there are no rivers of any importance in the parish, but springs of excellent water are found in great profusion.
The soil embraces almost every variety, and the arable lands are under excellent cultivation; the crops include oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips. Wheat, for the growth of which the soil is well adapted, is raised in large quantities; though, from the moisture of the climate, and the consequent lateness of the harvest, it was not long ago comparatively but little cultivated. The system of husbandry is good, and considerable tracts of waste land have been reclaimed by tile-draining, first introduced into the parish by the Duke of Portland. The farm-buildings are generally commodious and substantial; the lands are well inclosed, partly with hedge rows and partly with stone dykes, and the more recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been adopted. Much attention is paid to the management of the dairy-farms, and large quantities of the produce are sent to Ayr and Glasgow; the cattle are all of the Ayrshire breed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £23,496. There are still some remains of natural wood, consisting of birch, hazel, and mountain-ash, but none of the trees are remarkable for size: the plantations, though not extensive, are generally in a thriving state. The principal substrata are freestone and coal. The freestone is quarried at Craiksland and Collennan: that at the former place, which is of fine texture and durable quality, and may be raised in masses of any size, is sent chiefly to Ireland, and a steam-engine for sawing it into slabs has been erected at the quarry. The coal is wrought for the supply of the neighbourhood, and for exportation, at Shewalton, and also at Old Rome, on the lands of Fairlie. At the former the coal occurs in two seams, of which the lower, at a depth of thirty-five fathoms, is thirty-four inches, and the upper forty-three inches thick; and at the latter place are four different seams, varying from two feet eight inches to six feet in thickness. The mansion-houses are, Auchan House, built by the Earl of Dundonald, and now nearly in ruins, and the property of Lady Mary Montgomerie, by whose servants it is chiefly inhabited; and Fullarton, Fairlie, Shewalton, Newfield, Hillhouse, and Curreath, which are all handsome and comparatively modern buildings. The village of Dundonald is beautifully situated near the remains of the ancient castle, and has a pleasingly rural aspect. Letters were formerly delivered here by a runner from the Troon office, who passed daily through the village; but Dundonald has now a post of its own; and facility of communication is afforded by the turnpike-road to Dalmellington, and by several other roads which branch off in various directions. A mart is held in May, chiefly remarkable for a cattle-show. The village of Shewalton, on the bank of the river Irvine, contains 219, and that of Old Rome, on the same river, to the east, contains 257 inhabitants. A tram-road from Kilmarnock to Troon, constructed by the Duke of Portland in 1810, for the conveyance of coal to the port, and the Glasgow and Ayr railway along the sea-coast, completed in 1840, both pass through the parish, and afford great facilities.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £256, with a manse and glebe, valued together at about £40 per annum; patron, Lady Mary Montgomerie. The church, erected in 1803, is a neat structure situated in the village, and containing 630 sittings. Churches have been erected at Fullarton and Troon; and there is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial school is attended by about eighty children; the master has a salary of £28. 18., with a house and garden, and the fees average £40. There are schools also at Fullarton and Troon, and various Sabbath schools; and a parochial library, established in 1836, and now containing 150 volumes, is supported by subscription. Dr. James Mc Adam, a native of the parish, bequeathed £1000, of which he appropriated the interest to be distributed in blankets and coal to the poor; and the Misses Campbell, of Curreath, left £90, to be distributed annually to six persons not receiving parochial relief. The remains of the ancient castle of Dundonald consist of a quadrangular range of buildings, two stories in height, 113 feet in length and forty feet in breadth, and in a greatly dilapidated condition; on the western wall are the arms of the Stuarts, much obliterated. Previously to the Reformation it contained a chapel dedicated to St. Ninian, of which no vestiges are now to be traced. On the farm of Barassie was found, while constructing the line of the railway, an urn containing calcined bones, and which appeared to be rather of British than Roman character; and on the heights above the farm of Harpercroft are two ancient camps, of which the larger is defended by a circular embankment of earth and stones, inclosing an area of ten acres, having in the centre a similar inclosure of one acre in extent. The construction of these camps is popularly ascribed to the Romans; but it is not with certainty ascertained by whom they were formed.
DUNDRENNAN, a village, in the parish of Rerwick, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Kirkcudbright; containing 202 inhabitants. This place, which is situated in a beautiful valley, about a mile and a half from the north-western shore of Solway Frith, is celebrated for its ancient abbey, founded in 1142 by Fergus, lord of Galloway, for monks of the Cistercian order whom he brought from Rivaulx, in the county of York. The establishment, of which Sylvanus was the first abbot, continued to flourish under his successors till the Reformation; and after its dissolution in 1561, its revenues, amounting to £500, were, upon the death of the last abbot, annexed by James VI. to his royal chapel of Stirling. During the incumbency of the last abbot (Edward Maxwell, son of Lord John Herries), Mary, Queen of Scots, on her flight from the disastrous battle of Langside, arrived at this place, where she spent the night previous to her embarkation for England, for which she sailed from a small creek surrounded by precipitous cliffs, and since called PortMary in commemoration of the event. The village has a pleasingly rural appearance; the houses are neatly built, and ornamented with trees of ancient growth, and there are two comfortable inns for the reception of visiters. In the vicinity is the elegant mansion of Dundrennan, the seat of the Maitland family; and the place derives much interest from the venerable ruins of the abbey, and the beauty and variety of the surrounding scenery.
The ruins are situated on a gentle acclivity rising from a narrow vale, through which flows the streamlet called Abbey Burn, and consist chiefly of parts of the conventual church, originally a stately cruciform structure in the early English style, with a central tower 200 feet in height. Several of the monuments are still remaining, though in a greatly dilapidated condition. Among these is the tomb of Alan, lord of Galloway, who was interred in the church in 1233, and whose recumbent effigy in armour, and cross-legged, is sculptured in high relief, but much mutilated; and the tomb of one of the abbots in his canonicals is in tolerable preservation, though the inscription is totally obliterated. For the preservation of these remains, Mr. Maitland some years since presented a memorial to the commissioners of woods and forests, proposing to relinquish all his right of property in the abbey, on condition of its receiving from the crown protection from further dilapidation. In accordance with this proposal, the remains have been secured from decay, and, with the surrounding burialground, inclosed with a high fence of stone. The pavements of the church have been cleared from all accumulations of rubbish, and reduced to their ancient level; and many of the monuments, and of the beautifully clustered columns and gracefully pointed arches, have been restored. The whole, therefore, now exhibits one of the best preserved and most interesting relics of monastic architecture in the kingdom.
Dundyvan and New Dundyvan
DUNDYVAN and NEW DUNDYVAN, villages, in the parish of Old Monkland, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 1½ mile (W. S. W.) from Airdrie; containing, the one 1298, and the other 2202 inhabitants. These are two among numerous villages which have lately and rapidly sprung up in connexion with the extensive coalmines and iron and other works of this district, so distinguished for its mineral wealth and manufacturing importance. They lie on the high road from Airdrie to Glasgow, and are the seats of considerable iron establishments, which employ nearly the whole of the male population. The ironstone wrought at the furnaces here, of which there are several, is of the most valuable kind, some of it yielding from thirty to forty per cent of iron, and is usually denominated the "black band," and chiefly produced from the lands of Rochsilloch, the property of Sir William Alexander. About a mile south-east of Dundyvan are the celebrated Calder iron-works, and at the same distance westward are the Drumpellier coalmines; and all around, pits and quarries are in full operation.
DUNFERMLINE, a royal burgh, and parish, in the district of Dunfermline, county of Fife; including the villages of Charlestown, Crossford, Halbeath, Limekilns, Mastertown, Patiemuir, North Queensferry, and part of Crossgates; and containing 20,217 inhabitants, of whom 7865 are within the burgh, 12 miles (W. by S.) from Kirkcaldy, and 16 (N. W.) from Edinburgh. This place, which is of great antiquity, is supposed to have derived its name, signifying in the Gaelic language "the castle on the winding stream," or "the watch-tower upon the stream," from the erection of a castle on the summit of a peninsulated eminence in the glen of Pittencrieff, by Malcolm Canmore, about the year 1056. Of this castle only some small fragments are now remaining; but it appears, from the traces of foundations, to have been a quadrilateral structure, about sixty feet in length, and fifty feet in breadth, of great strength, and having an elevation of seventy feet above the level of the rivulet flowing through the glen. Malcolm, on the murder of his father Duncan by the usurper Macbeth, took refuge in England, where he was favourably received at the court of Edward the Confessor, till, on the death of Macbeth, slain by Macduff at the battle of Dunsinane, he ascended the throne of his ancestors. On the conquest of England by the Duke of Normandy in 1066, Edgar Atheling, heir to the crown of England, with his mother, and sisters Margaret and Catherine, attended by a numerous retinue of Saxon nobles, were, on their voyage to Hungary, driven by tempestuous weather into a bay in the north of the Frith of Forth, which has since retained the appellation of St. Margaret's Hope. Malcolm, on hearing of their landing, visited the party, and conducted them in person to his castle, where they were hospitably entertained; and soon after, Margaret, with whom, during his residence in England, he had formed a contract of marriage, became Queen of Scotland. At a short distance to the southeast of Malcolm's castle, a more sumptuous palace was subsequently erected, though the exact date is unknown; but of this once magnificent structure, the residence for many generations of the Scottish kings, and the birthplace of several of them, only a comparatively small portion remains, in which is seen the chimney-place of the apartment where Charles I. was born. Adjoining the palace was the Queen's House, erected for her private residence by Anne of Denmark, queen of James VI., to whom he had granted on the morning after his marriage the lordship of Dunfermline. This mansion was in good repair for many years after the palace was in ruins, but falling into neglect, was for some time occupied as a school, subsequently as a woollen factory, and in 1797, having become ruinous, was entirely removed.
A priory for Benedictine monks was founded by Malcolm, which, being in an unfinished state, was, after his death at the siege of Alnwick, in Northumberland, completed by his son Alexander I., and dedicated to the Holy Trinity and St. Margaret, King Malcolm's queen, whose numerous virtues obtained for her the distinction of canonization. The institution was governed by a prior till the reign of David I., who raised it to the dignity of a mitred abbey, and in 1124 placed in it thirteen additional monks from Canterbury, greatly extended the buildings, and endowed it with ample possessions in various parts of the kingdom. It continued to flourish, and became one of the most important and richest establishments in Scotland. In 1291, Edward I. of England visited Dunfermline, where he summoned the Scottish nobility to do homage for their lands as vassals to his crown: in 1296, he made a tour for twenty-one weeks through different parts of Scotland, in which he came to this town; and on his return to England, he took with him the inauguration stone from the abbey of Scone, which he deposited in the church of Westminster, in London. In 1303, Edward visited Dunfermline on his route from Kinross, and took up his residence in the abbey, where he was joined by his queen and a party of nobility, and remained from December till March. While here he was employed in receiving the submission of such of the Scottish nobles as had not on his former visit done him homage for their possessions; and on his departure for England his soldiers set fire to the abbey, which was reduced to little more than a heap of ruins, the church only, and a few cells of the monks, being spared. In this abbey, of which the buildings were so extensive, the Scottish nobility were accustomed to hold their meetings, during the wars of Bruce and Baliol, for rescuing their country from the English yoke; and to this circumstance is attributed its desolation by the forces of Edward.
David II., son of Robert Bruce, was born at the palace of Dunfermline on the 4th of March, 1323; and during that prince's long minority, Edward Baliol, when contending for the crown of Scotland, in 1332, after having landed his army at Kinghorn, came to this place, where he found a seasonable supply of arms and provisions laid up by order of Regent Randolph. In 1335, a parliament was held here, at which Sir Andrew Murray was made regent of the kingdom in place of Randolph, deceased; but, having gone to visit his estates in the north, in 1338, he died while on his journey, and, after being interred in the chapel of Rosemarkie, his remains were removed to this town, and deposited with those of Bruce and Randolph. In 1385, part of a large body of French auxiliaries who, on the invitation of Robert II., had come to that monarch's assistance against the English, were quartered at this place, which was visited soon afterwards by Richard II. of England, who, having burnt Edinburgh, advanced to Dunfermline, and lodged in the abbey, which, upon his departure, was burnt by the English army, together with the town. In 1441, James, son of Sir Robert Bruce of Clackmannan, was consecrated Bishop of Dunkeld in the abbey church here, and in the same year was also made chancellor of Scotland. The queen of James IV. made a short stay at Dunfermline in 1512; and in 1515, the abbot of Kelso and other friends of Lord Home were imprisoned in the town by order of the Duke of Albany, then regent. Mary, Queen of Scots, visited Dunfermline in her route to Dysart and St. Andrew's, in 1561; and in 1581, James VI. subscribed the covenant at this place. Charles I., afterwards king of England, was born in the palace on the 19th of November, 1600; and in 1633, in his progress through Scotland, he passed a short time at Dunfermline, on which occasion he created Sir Robert Ker earl of Ancrum, and conferred the honour of knighthood on several persons. In the year 1624, the town was nearly destroyed by an accidental fire. In 1650 Charles II. visited the town, where he subscribed the confession of faith called the "Dunfermline Declaration;" and in the following year a battle was fought near Pitreavie House between the forces of Cromwell and the royalist army, in which the latter sustained considerable loss. In 1715, about a month before the battle of Sheriffmuir, a detachment of the Pretender's army, consisting of about 300 highlanders and eighty horse, under the Marquess of Huntly, was surprised and defeated, with the loss of several killed and many taken prisoners, by the forces under colonel, afterwards Lord, Cathcart.
The town is pleasantly situated on an eminence stretching from east to west, and gradually rising from the south to an elevation of 356 feet above the level of the sea; it consists of one principal street, intersected at right angles by several smaller streets from north to south, of which those in the latter direction have a considerable declivity. The principal street was, in 1770, extended towards the west by the erection of a bridge across the glen of Pittencrieff, above which the proprietor, George Chalmers, Esq., raised a mound whereon there has been built, in a line with the High-street, a handsome range of houses with gardens attached to them, called Bridge-street. The houses in the chief streets are all substantial and well built. In several parts of the town are numerous villas and many private mansions surrounded with pleasure-grounds, which give to the place a somewhat rural appearance; and the tower and spires of the ancient abbey and public buildings, combining with other features, have a strikingly interesting aspect. Great additions to the town, and considerable improvements, have been recently made; the abbey park has been thrown open for building, and many handsome houses with extensive gardens have been erected. The streets are paved, and lighted with gas by a company established in 1828, who erected works in the lower part of the town at an expense of nearly £12,000; and the inhabitants are tolerably supplied with water brought from springs in the town moor into a capacious reservoir, from which it is distributed by pipes. The Dunfermline library, supported by a proprietary of shareholders, has a collection of about 3000 volumes, and the Tradesmen's and Mechanics' libraries, united in 1832, contain about 2000; a circulating library has been established, and in the town-hall is a public newsroom supplied with the daily journals and periodical publications. The Mechanics' institution, founded in 1825, still retains its apparatus, though the lectures have been discontinued; and a scientific association was established in 1834. The Western District of Fife Agricultural Society hold their meetings here in July, for the distribution of premiums, and the Horticultural, and Pittencrieff Horticultural Societies also meet annually; there is likewise an ornithological society in the town.
The staple trade is the linen manufacture, chiefly of the finer kinds, and which, by a regular and progressive series of improvements, has been brought to the highest state of perfection; the principal articles are, diapers, towelling, napkins, and damasks for table-linen of every variety of pattern, and remarkable for the beauty of their texture. Toilet napkins, with the royal arms in the centre, were made here for his late majesty William IV.; and in 1840, toilet cloths, executed according to a sketch by the officers of the Queen's household, and having the royal arms, with the initials V. R., and a border of oak and laurel, were woven by the same manufacturer for her present Majesty. An order, likewise, was subsequently received from the lord steward by another manufacturer, for damask table-linen of the finest quality, decorated in a suitable manner. The rapid advance in this manufacture was much promoted by rewards offered by the board of trade, and which, though generally discontinued, are still sometimes granted for specimens of superior elegance: in 1837, one firm in the town had obtained, in the course of a few previous years, premiums amounting to £516. The finer yarns are procured chiefly from Leeds and Preston, in England, and from Belfast, in Ireland; but there are large establishments in the town for the spinning of yarn for the weaving of coarser goods, which are sold partly by hawkers in different parts of the country. Coloured table-covers of great variety of pattern have been lately made to a very considerable extent; about 3000 persons are employed in the various looms, and the value of the goods manufactured annually exceeds £350,000. There are two iron-foundries in the town, and a third at Charlestown, in the parish, in which, in addition to the usual castings of iron, are produced some of brass. The manufacture of tobacco, for which there are two establishments, is considerable. There are also two tanneries and currying-works, three roperies, a soap-work, and a candle manufactory; five breweries, three of which are in the town; four dyeworks, a saw-mill, two tile and brick works, and various other establishments connected with the trade of the town. Branches of the Bank of Scotland, the British Linen Company, the Commercial Bank, and the Edinburgh and Leith Bank have been opened here. The market-days are Tuesday and Friday, the former for corn, which is numerously attended, and the latter for eggs, poultry, butter, and provisions: fairs are held for horses, cattle, and general merchandise, on the third Tuesday in January, March, April, June, July, September, October, and November. The post-office has a good delivery; and facility of communication is afforded by excellent turnpike-roads, of which more than thirty miles traverse the parish, and by railroads, from the collieries and lime-works, to Charlestown. A railway, also, has been constructed from the lower end of the town, and communicates with the Elgin railroad. Numerous steam-boats ply in the Frith of Forth, for which a pier has been formed at Charlestown; there are likewise harbours at Limekilns and Brucehaven. The rateable annual value of the entire parish is £53,515, of which £17,532 are returned for the burgh.
The burgh appears to have arisen gradually under the abbots of the monastery, from whom it derived certain privileges and immunities, which it continued to hold for nearly two centuries, till it was erected into a royal burgh by charter of James VI. in 1588, ratifying all former grants. The government, under this charter, is vested in a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, treasurer, chamberlain, and a council of sixteen, by whom all the other officers of the burgh are appointed. There are eight incorporated trades, viz., the smiths, weavers, wrights, tailors, shoemakers, bakers, masons, and butchers, all of whom, except the weavers, have exclusive privileges; the fraternity of guildry is very ancient, and possesses property of the yearly value of about £300. The jurisdiction of the magistrates extends over the whole of the royalty, and the provost is ex-officio a justice of the peace for the county of Fife; the magistrates hold the ordinary bailie-court and the ninemerks' court for the recovery of debts not exceeding the sum of ten shillings. The number of cases in the latter court has very much decreased since the institution of the sheriff's court for small debts; and the criminal jurisdiction is confined to misdemeanours. The police is under the direction of commissioners appointed by act of parliament in 1811. The burgh is associated with those of Stirling, Culross, Inverkeithing, and Queensferry, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the number of £10 householders within the burgh proper is 397, and of those under that rent, but above £5,432. The tolbooth, or Town House, was built in 1771, and two upper stories were added to it in 1792; it is a neat plain edifice, with a square tower 100 feet in height, and several carved stones which formed part of the ancient cross, now removed, have been inserted in the front wall of the building. The first-floor contains the council-room and the sheriff's court; and above is the town-hall, used also as an exchange reading-room, in which are portraits of ViceAdmiral Sir Andrew Mitchell, George Chalmers, Esq., and Provost Low, with busts of the late William Pitt and Lord Melville. The third story was used as the gaol previously to the erection of a more commodious building on the town-green. The Guildhall, or Spire hotel, was erected by the fraternity of guildry for the holding of their general meetings, and also for those of the county, but was never completed for that purpose, and in 1820 it became the property of a few individuals who converted it into an hotel. It is a handsome building with a spire 132 feet high, from which it takes its name, and contains, in addition to its arrangements as an hotel, a spacious hall fifty-two feet long, thirty-five feet wide, and twenty-one feet high, which is appropriated to various public purposes. The new Gaol was built at an expense of £2070; it is three stories high, and has eighteen cells, two apartments for debtors, and accommodation for the gaoler.
The parish, which is situated in the western part of the county, is of irregular form, about eight miles in average length, and five in average breadth, comprising 23,040 acres, of which 13,391 are arable, about 3740 not arable, 1135 woodland and plantations, and the remainder sites of buildings, water, and waste. The surface is greatly diversified with bold undulations, rising in some parts into hills of considerable elevation, of which the principal are Beath and Craigluscar, the former clothed with verdure to its summit, and commanding an extensive prospect. The coast, reaching for about a mile and a half along the Forth, is partly flat and partly high and rocky. The chief streams that intersect the parish are the Tower burn and the Baldridge burn, both tributaries of the Lyne, which, after these accessions, becomes of considerable size, and falls into the Frith at Charlestown. In the northern part of the parish are several lakes, of which the principal are, the Town loch, about a mile to the north-east of the burgh, and one mile in circumference; Loch End, two miles north of the town, formerly of equal extent, but now much diminished; Dunduff, a small sheet of water, three miles north of the town, and abounding with trout, perch, and pike; and Loch Fitty, two miles north-east of the town, one mile in length, and half a mile in breadth, containing pike, perch, and eels. Loch Gloe, or the White loch, in the Cleish hills, two miles in circumference, and Black loch, a little to the north-west of Loch Gloe, are partly in the parish of Cleish, and both abound with pike, perch, and trout. The soil is generally fertile, and the system of agriculture in a highly improved state; the crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips, peas and beans, with the various grasses; and a considerable portion of land is cultivated as orchards and gardens. The farm-buildings are substantial and commodiously arranged; the lands are well inclosed, and much waste has been improved by draining, and brought into profitable cultivation. The cattle are chiefly of the Fifeshire black breed, with some of the Teeswater on the dairyfarms, of the former about 1500, and of the latter 500; few sheep are reared, but nearly 1400 are fed upon the pastures, and there is a moderate number of swine.
The principal substrata are, coal and limestone, which are extensively raised, freestone, and greenstone; the rocks are generally of the trap formation, and in some parts display fine specimens of columnar basalt. The coalfields are very extensive, and have been wrought from a remote period, first by the abbot of Dunfermline, to whom William de Oberwill, proprietor of Pittencrieff, in 1291 granted the privilege of working a pit on part of his lands. It is, however, chiefly since the year 1771 that they have been wrought to any great extent, and it is calculated that there are still 3000 acres unwrought in the several fields in the parish. The coal, which is of the usual varieties, and generally of good quality, occurs in seams from a few inches to eight feet in thickness, at depths of from fifteen to 105 fathoms below the surface. The average quantity raised annually is 120,000 tons, which are conveyed by railroads from the pits to the harbours of Charlestown, in this parish, and of Inverkeithing, in the parish adjoining, for exportation; seventeen steam-engines are employed, varying from twelve to 120 horse power, and 2910 persons, of whom 1180 are engaged in working the mines. The most extensive quarries of limestone are those on the lands of Broomhall; the stone occurs within a quarter of a mile from the shore, in beds from twenty to fifty feet in thickness, containing a great variety of fossil remains, and the quantity annually raised is about 15,000 tons of stone, and about 400,000 bushels of shells. The stone is conveyed from the quarries by a railroad to Charlestown, where it is burnt; the rough stone is sent principally to Stirling, and the shells to Dundee and the north. There are also quarries at Roscobie and Lathalmond, the produce of which is chiefly sold in the upper lands of the parish; and others on a smaller scale are worked at Sunnybank and Craigluscar. The parish likewise contains several quarries of freestone and trap; ironstone occurs in the Elgin coalfield, and was formerly wrought, and pyrites of iron and of copper have been found. The remains of old timber are not very extensive; the plantations consist of oak, beech, elm, plane, ash, willow, larch, and Scotch fir. Broomhall House, the pleasant and retired seat of the Earl of Elgin, is a handsome mansion, beautifully situated on an eminence overlooking the village of Limekilns, and surrounded by undulated grounds richly wooded. The house has a valuable collection of paintings; and here are preserved the sword and helmet of King Robert Bruce, given to the late earl by Mrs. Bruce of Clackmannan, and also the nuptial bed of Anne of Denmark, queen of James VI., which was for some years in the possession of an innkeeper in the town, who, a short time before her death, presented it to the earl. Pitliver House, Keavil, and Pitfirrane are in the vicinity, but undistinguished by any peculiarity of features; Pittencrieff House was built in 1610, by Sir Alexander Clerk of Edinburgh, whose armorial bearings are over the doorway; and Logie is a modern house, in which is preserved a cabinet of richlycarved walnut, formerly belonging to Anne of Denmark. Pitreavie House was the ancient mansion of the Wardlaw family, and Balmulc also belonged to them: the mansion of the Hill, for many ages the residence of the Mitchells, is now occupied in several tenements.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunfermline and synod of Fife; patron, the Crown. There are two ministers, each having a stipend of £282; the minister of the first charge has also a manse, and a glebe valued at £34 per annum, but to the second charge there is attached neither manse nor glebe. The principal of the two incumbencies is filled by the Rev. Peter Chalmers, A. M., author of the highly valuable Historical and Statistical Account of Dunfermline, published in 1844, and whose accurate description of the Dunfermline coalfield, reprinted in that work, was honoured with one of the premiums of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland. The church, once a portion of the ancient abbey, and but ill adapted to its purpose, was rebuilt in 1821 to the east of the former nave, which is now its western approach. It is an elegant cruciform structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower rising from the centre to the height of 100 feet, and crowned with pinnacles: the parapet is pierced with openings representing the letters of the legend "King Robert the Bruce," whose tomb lies immediately beneath. The interior is finely arranged: the nave is separated from the aisles by handsome clustered columns with decorated capitals, surmounted by gracefully-pointed arches supporting the groined roof, which is ornamented with shields at the intersections of the ribs. This part of the church is lighted by a range of elegant clerestory windows, enriched with tracery; the east window is of large dimensions and of beautiful design, and the aisles and transepts are lighted by windows of corresponding character. Immediately under the tower is the pulpit, in front of the slabs covering the tomb of Bruce, near which it is intended to raise an appropriate monument. The church contains 1400 available sittings, and was completed at an expense of £11,000.
A church dedicated to St. Andrew was built in 1833, to replace an old chapel of ease which had become dilapidated; and in 1835 a district of the parish, about half a mile in length, and a quarter of a mile in breadth, containing a population of 3000, was assigned to it by the General Assembly, and for a short time formed a quoad sacra parish. It is a neat edifice containing 797 sittings, erected at a cost of £1560, partly by subscription: the minister's stipend is £120, derived from the seat-rents and collections, with a house and garden. An extension church, also, was erected at the east end of Golfdrum, in 1840, at an expense of £1673, of which £1002 were raised by subscription; and a district in the neighbourhood, with a population of about 3000, was formerly attached to it: the edifice contains 800 sittings, and the minister has a stipend partly secured on bond, and derived from seat-rents and collections. There was till 1843 a quoad sacra church in Canmore-street; but on the induction of its minister to the parish of Thurso, the congregation dispersed, and a Free church was built on its site in 1844. The parish likewise contains several places of worship for members of the United Associate Synod, one for the Relief Congregation, which was the first established in Scotland, one each for Baptists and Independents, and an Episcopalian chapel.
The burgh grammar school is of uncertain foundation, though said to have been originally dependent on the monastery: Anne of Denmark, queen of James VI., granted to the town council £2000 Scotch for its support, in 1610. The buildings consist of two class-rooms, and a good dwelling-house for the rector, who has a small salary in addition to the fees; there is also a trifling bequest for an usher, but none is appointed, the rector selecting and paying his own assistant. The school under the patronage of the Fraternity of Guild, and for which an appropriate building was erected in 1816, at their expense, contains two rooms, one for English reading, grammar, and geography, and the other for writing, arithmetic, mathematics, and the classics; it is superintended by two masters, each of whom has a dwelling-house and garden rent free, in addition to the fees. About 200 children attend a school at Priory Lane, in which formerly fifty children were taught gratuitously from the proceeds of £1000 bequeathed by Adam Rolland, Esq., of Gask, and now lost; it is supported chiefly by very moderate fees. There is also a school at Golfdrum, opened in 1842, in which about forty children are instructed from the proceeds of a bequest by the Rev. Allan Mc Lean, minister of the parish. Infant schools, Sunday schools, and others, of which some have small endowments, together afford instruction to nearly 3000 children; and there are also numerous friendly societies, and institutions for humane and charitable purposes.
The ancient monastery continued till the Reformation, when its revenue was estimated at £2513 Scots; the last abbot was George Dury, who died in 1561, when Robert Pitcairn, secretary of state to James VI., was appointed commendator, after which the abbacy was erected into a temporal lordship. Of this once magnificent structure the principal REMAINS are, the western portion of the ABBEY church, which is still entire, and presents a noble specimen of the later Norman style, with lofty massive columns and circular arches, and a timber-frame roof; the south wall of the roofless refectory, in which is a range of nine lofty windows; the western gable of the refectory, with a handsome large window of seven lights, enriched with flowing tracery; and the two towers at the entrance, of which one, north of the gable, and crowned with a low pyramidal spire, is entire, and the other, south-west of the gable, and under which is a spacious gateway, is partly a ruin. The great western doorway of the church, of receding arches enriched with zigzag mouldings, resting on a series of massive columns with flowered capitals, is a beautiful specimen of the later Norman style; and the north porch, though externally of plainer character, combines in the interior numerous minutely elegant details. In the abbey of Dunfermline were interred the remains of Malcolm Canmore and his queen, Margaret; his sons, Edward, Edgar, and Alexander I.; David I.; Malcolm IV.; Alexander III. and his queen, Margaret; Robert the Bruce and his queen, Elizabeth; the queen of Robert III.; and many of the ancient nobility of Scotland. In removing that portion of the abbey on the site of which the new church is erected, several very large slabs were dug up, supposed to indicate the royal sepulchres; and on taking away these stones, in 1819, among various other relics of the ancient kings, was found the skeleton of Robert Bruce, encased in two coverings of thin sheet lead, round which was wrapped a shroud of cloth of gold, the whole inclosed in a strong coffin of oak which had mouldered into dust. After due examination, and a careful and scrutinizing investigation of the minutest circumstances, which fully proved the identity of the body, the bones were replaced in their natural position, and, being wrapped in the original covering of lead, and deposited in a leaden coffin into which melted pitch was poured, were then reinterred in the very spot in which they had been found, in the choir of the ancient abbey, and immediately under the tower of the present church. On the lid of the coffin is the inscription, in raised letters, King Robert Bruce, under which are the dates 1329 and 1819. Upon the south-east side of the ravine, north of the tower of Canmore, is the cave of St. Margaret, to which that queen was in the habit of retiring for private devotions; it is an excavation in the rock, about twelve feet long and eight feet wide, and though of natural formation appears to have been adapted by art for that purpose. There are still some remains of the ancient Palace, consisting chiefly of the south-west wall and part of the eastern end of the building. The wall, which overlooks the glen, is 205 feet in length, sixty feet in height, and supported by buttresses; and in the ceiling of an oriel window near the south-eastern extremity, is a sculpture in bassrelief of the Annunciation, which was discovered during some repairs in 1812. At the south-eastern angle of the wall, a flight of steps leads down to a vaulted apartment called the Magazine from its having been used by the military, in the rebellion of 1745, as a store-room for their ammunition. There are remains of numerous chapels in the parish; and traces of the ancient walls surrounding the town, and vestiges of the gates, may also still be discovered. Dunfermline gives the title of Baron to the family of Abercromby.
DUNINO, a parish, in the district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 4 miles (S. E.) from St. Andrew's; containing, with the district of Kingsmuir, 471 inhabitants. This place derives its name, occasionally corrupted into Denino, and signifying in the Gaelic language "the hill of young women," from the establishment of a nunnery at an early period on an eminence about 300 feet above the level of the sea, and of which the remains, consisting chiefly of the foundation, were removed in 1815. The parish, including the lands of Kingsmuir, which on very doubtful authority have been claimed by the parish of Crail, is about three miles in length, and nearly of equal breadth, comprising 3275 acres, of which 2880 are arable, 270 woodland and plantations, and the remainder waste. The surface is generally level, but the scenery is somewhat enlivened by the course of three streamlets, in which are found excellent trout, and which, uniting their waters, form the burn of Kenly, flowing eastward into the German Ocean. The soil is mostly fertile, producing good crops of wheat, oats, barley, peas, beans, potatoes, and turnips, with the various grasses; and the pastures are luxuriantly rich. The system of husbandry is advanced; the lands have been drained, and inclosed with fences of stone; the farm-houses are well built, and roofed with slate; and on many of the farms are threshing-mills of the most approved construction. The cattle are generally of the Fifeshire black breed, with a few of the Ayrshire; the sheep are the Linton or Northumberland, and considerable numbers of swine are also fed on the several farms. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2965.
The plantations on the banks of one of the rivulets contain a great variety of hard-wood trees, and those in other parts consist of larch and Scotch fir, all in a very flourishing state. Though Dunino is situated on the great coal basin of Scotland, it has been found more profitable to obtain that fuel from St. Andrew's or Anstruther than to work it. The rocks in the parish are of white sandstone, of fine texture, and admirable quality for building; red sandstone is found in regular strata, and limestone forms the bed of a burn; disintegrated trap, intersected with veins of felspar, occurs in one place, and ironstone has been found in considerable quantities. Fairs are held at Kingsmuir in May and October; there are several post-offices within less than five miles of the church, and facilities of communication with St. Andrew's, Anstruther, Cupar, and other towns are afforded by good turnpike-roads. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of Fife. The minister's stipend is £198. 16., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £28 per annum; patrons, the Principal and Professors of the United College of St. Andrew's. The church is a handsome structure erected in 1826, and contains 224 sittings. The parochial school affords instruction to about forty children; the master's salary is £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £16. There were until within the last few years some ruins of the ancient castle of Draffan, supposed to be of Danish origin, and also of that of Stravithy; and there are still remains of the castle of Pittairthy, in the south of the parish, commanding an extensive view of the sea. The eastern, or more modern, portion of this building has the date 1653, and is supposed to have been built by Sir William Bruce of Kinross; though unroofed, the walls are in good preservation. Near the garden of the manse are some remains of a Druidical circle; and about a mile to the west is a farm called Pittan-Druidh, or the grave of the Druids. Some copper coins of Charles I. and II., and of William and Mary, were recently found in a grave in the churchyard: two coins of Philip II. of Spain were also dug up in the parish, one of gold, and the other of silver, supposed to have been found in the wreck of a vessel belonging to the Spanish armada; and in 1836, an urn containing ashes was ploughed up in a field on the lands of Balcaithly. Among the most distinguished characters connected with the parish, were, John Fordun, author of the Scoto-chronicon; John Winram, sub-prior of St. Andrew's; and the Rev. James Wood, who, previously to his becoming minister of St. Andrew's, was one of the commissioners that brought Charles II. from the continent at the Restoration. Sir Robert Ayton, author of the celebrated poems, was a native of Dunino.
DUNIPACE, a parish, ecclesiastically united to the parish of Larbert, county of Stirling, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Falkirk; containing, with the villages of Herbertshire, Denovan, and Torwood, 1578 inhabitants, of whom 562 are in the rural districts. This place, of which the name, of Celtic origin, is derived from two artificial mounds, by some writers supposed to signify "the Hills of Peace," and by others, with greater probability, "the Hills of Death," is of remote antiquity, and has been the scene of numerous important events, of which the last was the signature, on one of these hills, of a treaty of peace by Edward I. of England in 1301. Dunipace is bounded on the south by the river Carron, and is of triangular form, comprising about 5800 acres, of which 4800 are arable, 630 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moor, moss, and waste. The surface towards the west rises to an elevation of 600 feet above the Forth; towards the east it terminates in the Carse of Stirling; and in addition to the artificial mounds from which the parish takes its name, and which are about sixty feet in height, was formerly another, about two miles to the west, having an elevation of forty feet, but which has been entirely removed within the last few years. The soil is generally light and dry, with some tracts of clay; the crops are, wheat, which has been lately introduced and grows well, barley, oats, turnips, and potatoes; and a large proportion of the surface is in pasture. The cattle are mostly of small size, as best adapted to the land, whether for feeding or for the dairy; the farms are of moderate extent, and under good management. A farmers' society was established in 1839, for the encouragement of agriculture and the improvement of the breed of cattle; and a ploughing-match and a cattle-show are held annually, when prizes are awarded to the successful competitors. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7594.
The plantations are generally thriving; and there are considerable remains of the ancient forest of Torwood, where, till within the last thirty years, was a stately oak, in the hollow trunk of which, twelve feet in diameter, the celebrated Wallace and his companions occasionally held meetings, to concert measures for rescuing their country from the tyranny of Edward I. of England. Herbertshire Castle, a very ancient structure of unknown date, supposed to have been originally a royal huntingseat, is beautifully situated on the north bank of the Carron, in an extensive demesne, richly wooded, and tastefully laid out in walks commanding much picturesque scenery. Dunipace House, a handsome modern mansion, is finely situated near the site of the old church; and Quarter House, also a good residence, is sheltered by thriving plantations. Carbrook House is romantically situated within a short distance of Torwood Castle, from the woods of which it derives much additional beauty to its scenery. Facility of communication with Falkirk and other towns in the vicinity is afforded by excellent roads, and by a bridge of three arches erected in 1828, to replace one of inconvenient construction which had become insecure from its antiquity; and a handsome bridge leading to Dunipace House was built over the river Carron, a little below the ancient ford, in 1824. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish, which about the year 1620 was united to that of Larbert, are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Stirling and synod of Perth and Stirling. The minister, who officiates in both places, has a stipend of £271. 13., with a good manse in Larbert, and a glebe, the common property of the two parishes, valued at £26. 10. per annum; patron, the Crown. The old church of Dunipace was taken down from apprehension of insecurity, and the present church erected on a site about a mile and a half to the west, in 1834, at a cost of £2500; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains 604 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is attended by about sixty children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £15. William Simpson, Esq., of Plean, bequeathed £500 to the Kirk Session for the benefit of the poor. There are some remains of the castle of Torwood to the west of the turnpike-road from Falkirk to Stirling: the history of this structure, which is surrounded by the remains of the ancient Caledonian forest, is involved in much obscurity: the lands attached to it were purchased from one of the lords Forresters by the late Thomas Dundas, Esq., grandfather of Colonel Dundas, of Carron Hall, the present proprietor.
Dunkeld and Dowally
DUNKELD and DOWALLY, a parish, in the county of Perth, 15 miles (N. by W.) from Perth, and 55 (N. N. W.) from Edinburgh; comprising the ancient city of Dunkeld, partly within the parish of Caputh; for many years the seat of the primacy of the kingdom prior to its removal to St. Andrew's, and now the seat of a presbytery; and containing in the parish 2848 inhabitants, of whom 1096 are in the town. This place, which is of very remote origin, and is supposed to have been the capital of the ancient Caledonia, appears to have derived its name from the erection of a castle or stronghold, towards the close of the 5th century, on an eminence commanding the passes of the vale of Atholl, and still called the King's seat, from its having been the resort of some of the earlier monarchs for partaking the diversion of the chase. There are yet remains of this ancient fortress; and near the site, Mary, Queen of Scots, narrowly escaped a serious injury from one of the herd, while witnessing a chase for the celebration of which the Earl of Atholl had employed 2000 of his Highlanders to collect the deer of the central Highlands. A monastery was founded here about the year 570 for brethren of the order of St. Columba, subordinate to the abbey of Iona, over which that saint at the time presided; and Columba remained for some months at this place, for the instruction of the people of the surrounding district, who assembled in great numbers to hear him. The establishment was placed under the superintendence of an abbot, many of whose successors held the most distinguished offices in the state; and the brethren, who are identified with the ancient Culdees, employed themselves chiefly in teaching and transcribing the sacred Scriptures, but had no communion with the Church of Rome. The monastery, originally of rude construction, was rebuilt with stone about the year 729, and continued to advance in importance; numerous dwellings gradually arose in the immediate vicinity, and in 834 the town had so much increased in extent that Brudus, king of the Picts, with a numerous army, after crossing the Tay, found sufficient accommodation in the town and castle preparatory to his battle with Alpinus, king of the Scots, at Angus.
In 845, the Danes, on their march to plunder the monastery, were encountered near Dunkeld by Kenneth Mc Alpine, who defeated them with considerable loss; but, in 905, again advancing for the same purpose, they succeeded in plundering the monastery and laying waste the town. In the reign of Kenneth III., a numerous army of Danes, in a third attempt to commit the same depredations, were intercepted on their march by that monarch, who, in a severe conflict near Luncarty, defeated them with great slaughter. The buildings connected with the monastery still increased, and the relics of St. Columba were removed from Iona, and deposited in a church erected here, and dedicated to his memory by Kenneth Mc Alpine after he had united the Scots and Picts into one kingdom. The Culdees continued their establishment under a superior of their own nomination, and had, in the parish of Dowally and other places in the district, various smaller institutions, till they were superseded by canons regular in the reign of David I., who, in 1127, converted the monastery into a cathedral establishment, and made Dunkeld the seat of a diocese, which retained the primacy of the kingdom until the distinction was transferred to the see of St. Andrew's in the reign of James III. The prelates of Dunkeld were much exposed to the aggressions of the heads of the Highland clans in the vicinity of the diocese, with whom a constant state of warfare was maintained. The revenues of the see were frequently intercepted by armed bands who waylaid the bishops' officers, and carried them off by violence; and such of the lands belonging to the bishops as were contiguous to the estates of the Highland chiefs were either seized and appropriated to their own use, or plundered and laid waste. The bishops were assaulted even while officiating in the cathedral; and those who ventured to resist, or bring to punishment, the leaders by whom these outrages were perpetrated, were beset by parties against whose hostile attacks they were compelled to defend themselves by a numerous retinue of armed attendants.
In the reign of James II., the Earl of Atholl, nephew of that monarch, assembled the canons of the abbey, and requested them to appoint his brother, Andrew Stuart, though not in full orders, successor to the see, which had become vacant by the death of Bishop Brown. With this request they thought proper, through intimidation, to comply; but the election was afterwards abrogated by Pope Leo X., and Gavin Douglas, uncle of the Earl of Angus, was appointed, whose arrival to take possession of the see caused the servants of Stuart to fly to arms, and seize upon the palace and the tower of the cathedral, whence they discharged a volley of shot against the house of the dean, to which Douglas had retired to receive the homage of the clergy. On the following day, the city was filled with the armed adherents of both parties, and a dreadful scene of violence ensued; but at length, Stuart, finding it impossible to relieve his men in the palace, was compelled to abandon it, and, having no hope of retaining the prelacy, he retired on condition of being allowed to hold that portion of the bishop's rents which he had already received, and also the churches of Alyth and Cargill, on payment annually of a trifling acknowledgment. From this time the see remained undisturbed till the Reformation. The church erected by Kenneth Mc Alpine in 845 continued to be the cathedral till 1318, when the choir of a more spacious and elegant structure was completed by Bishop Sinclair, and appropriated to that purpose; in 1406 a nave was added to the building by Bishop Cardney, and the remainder of the church was completed in 1464 by Bishop Lauder, who also erected the lofty tower of the cathedral, and built the chapterhouse, in 1469. The episcopal palace, to the south-west of the cathedral church, was formerly defended by a castle, erected in 1408, but of which at present nothing remains except the site, still called the Castle Close; and in 1508, a wing was added to the palace, and a handsome chapel built immediately adjoining it. The bishops had palaces also at Cluny, Perth, and Edinburgh, with ample revenues; and at the time of the Reformation, the church of Dunkeld was valued at £1600 per annum. In 1560, a commission was issued by the Lords of Congregation for purifying the church, by removing the altars, images, and other idolatrous ornaments, and burning them in the churchyard; and in their zeal to fulfil this commission, the mob destroyed the whole of the interior of that beautiful and venerable structure of which the ruins display the stately magnificence, and left nothing entire but the walls. These, too, were subsequently stripped of their roof, and have since remained in a state of dreary ruin, with the exception only of the choir, which in 1600 was roofed with slate at the expense of the family of Stuart, of Ladywell, and has been appropriated as the parish church. By acts of the General Assembly in 1586 and 1593, the city was made the seat of a presbytery; but there is still a bishop of Dunkeld, though unconnected with the Church of Scotland, who presides over the episcopal churches of Dunkeld, Dunblane, and Fife.
After the battle of Killiecrankie in 1689, the Highland troops of Viscount Dundee, who had been killed in that conflict, advanced to the city, then garrisoned by the newly-raised Cameronian regiment; and after a severe struggle, the Highlanders obtained possession of many of the houses, from which they made frequent discharges of musketry upon the Cameronian soldiers, who, in order to dislodge them, set fire to the buildings where they had sought shelter. The whole of the town, with the exception of the cathedral and three houses, was totally burnt; and the inhabitants were compelled to take refuge in the church. In 1703, the Marquess of Atholl was elevated to the rank of duke by Queen Anne, who is said to have subsequently paid a visit to that nobleman, first at Blair-Atholl, and then at Dunkeld House, to confer with him on matters connected with the union of the two kingdoms; and in corroboration of the event a state room in the castle at the former place is still called Queen Anne's bedchamber. On the breaking out of the rebellion in 1745, the Marquess of Tullibardine, accompanied by the Pretender, whose cause he had embraced, took temporary possession of Blair Castle in the absence of his younger brother, the Duke of Atholl, and sent the lords Nairn and Lochiel to proclaim the prince at the market-cross of Dunkeld. Early in the following year, the Duke of Cumberland stationed part of his forces at Blair-Atholl and in the city, which posts, after his departure, were occupied by bodies of Hessian troops, between whom and the Atholl Highlanders frequent skirmishes took place in the neighbourhood. In September, 1842, Her Majesty the Queen, while visiting her Scottish dominions, made an excursion to Dunkeld House, attended by Prince Albert, and was met on the boundary of the estate by a numerous guard of the Atholl Highlanders, who escorted the royal visiters to the park. Here Lord Glenlyon, the heir of the family, at the head of his Highland regiment, received the Queen, and then conducted her to the tent which had been erected for her reception on the lawn to the north-west of the cathedral, a spot commanding a splendid view of the wildly romantic and beautifully picturesque scenery for which the place is so highly celebrated. Her Majesty reviewed the regiment, and passing along the line formed by the various local societies that had been assembled in the park, retired into the tent, where a sumptuous collation was served, after which the officers of the Atholl clan were severally introduced to the Queen, and had the honour of kissing hands. Having remained for a few hours at Dunkeld, Her Majesty took her departure for Breadalbane, escorted by the Hon. Capt. Murray, who rode by the side of the royal carriage to the boundary of the Atholl estate, a distance of thirteen miles, pointing out by name to the Queen the various objects of interest. In 1844, Her Majesty, on her second visit to Scotland, passed again through Dunkeld.
The town is beautifully situated on the north bank of the river Tay, over which is a noble bridge of five open arches, of which the central arch has a span of ninety feet, and the others of eighty-four and seventyfour each, with two dry arches of twenty-five feet span, the whole erected in 1809, by the late Duke of Atholl, at an expense of £30,000, of which £5000 were granted by government. From the centre of the bridge is a fine view of the city, which consists partly of a spacious street of handsome modern houses, extending from the bridge along the line of the great north road from Perth to Inverness; and a street of more ancient but well-built houses crosses the former at right angles, in the marketplace, from which the old cross was removed about the commencement of the present century. Near the cathedral is the deanery, the only house now remaining of the three saved from the conflagration in 1689. There is a public library, called the Mackintosh library, which originated in a gift to the town by the Rev. Donald Mackintosh, in 1811; it is under the direction of a committee of curators, and the collection at present consists of more than 2000 volumes. The manufacture of linen and the tanning of leather, formerly carried on to a considerable extent, have been discontinued, and the chief trade at present is the making of shoes. Many of the poorer class are employed during the spring and summer months in the peeling of oak, and at other times in agriculture and in the slate-quarries; there are also a distillery, a public brewery, and several malting establishments, and a saw-mill, affording occupation to a moderate number of persons. Since the erection of the bridge a very great increase has taken place in the general traffic of the town and neighbourhood. There are now two spacious hotels with posting establishments, for the reception of visiters whom the beauty of the scenery and the numerous objects of deep interest in the vicinity attract; and several lodging-houses are occupied by families and individuals who during the summer months make this their residence. The post-office has a good delivery; the Inverness mail through Atholl passes daily, a coach to Perth three times in the week, and during the summer there are coaches to Inverness, Dundee, Loch Lomond, and Perth. The market, which is amply supplied with provisions of every kind, is on Saturday; and fairs for cattle and horses, and for hiring farm-servants, are held on February 14th, March 25th, April 5th, June 9th, and the second Tuesday in November. The police is under the management of an officer appointed by the Duke of Atholl as hereditary lord of the barony. A court for the recovery of small debts is held quarterly, under the sheriff; and the county magistrates for the district hold their courts in the Masons' lodge, in which also public meetings are held, and the general business of the town transacted. The old prison was taken down in 1743, and one of the dry arches of the bridge was subsequently inclosed and fitted up for the temporary confinement of offenders.
The parish is situated on the north side of the vale of Atholl, and extends for more than six miles along the bank of the Tay, varying in breadth, and comprising about 12,000 acres, of which 1200 are arable, 300 pasture, 10,000 woodland and plantations, and the remainder covered with water. The surface is strikingly diversified with hills of precipitous elevation and fantastic form, of which the steep acclivities are indented with deep ravines, and which vary in height from 1000 to 2000 feet above the level of the sea, rising abruptly from a narrow tract of shelving low land apparently gained by embankment from the river. These hills were planted with larch-trees by the late Duke of Atholl, and form an extensive forest, nearly fourteen miles in length from Craig-y-barns, opposite the King's Seat, which has an elevation of 1000 feet above the sea, and varying from three to six miles in breadth. On the summit of the hill of Duchray, which rises to a height of 1900 feet, is a lake about half a mile in circumference, abounding with perch; on the hill of Ordie, at an elevation of 700 feet, is another, several miles in circumference, in which are trout of excellent quality; in the barony of Dulcapon is Loch Broom, also containing trout; and at Rotmel are two lakes, in which perch are found. The soil in the lower lands is thin and light, but on the acclivities of the hills richer, and slightly intermixed with clay, producing good crops of oats and barley, with turnips and potatoes. The state of husbandry has been greatly improved, and an agricultural society for the district established; the lands have been drained and inclosed; the farm-buildings and offices are of stone, roofed with slate, and are comfortable and well arranged. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6073. The substratum is principally clay-slate, of which the rocks are composed, and which is remarkable chiefly for the irregularity of its formation. On the eastern base of the hill of Craig-y-barns, a small vein of copper-ore was discovered, but has not been wrought; and in a bank of sand about twenty feet above the level of the river Tay, in the lands of Dowally, some grains of gold were found, of which ornaments were made; but the quantity obtained was so small, in comparison with the expense of extracting it, that all attempts have been abandoned. Pearls of good colour and form, though coarse, are found in the muscles of the Tay, and occasionally some of finer quality and of great value.
The present Dunkeld House, one of the seats of the Murray family, now in an unfinished state, was commenced by the late Duke of Atholl not long before his death in 1830, since which event the building has been discontinued. The mansion had been raised to the second story; an elegant family chapel, the grand staircase, and a gallery ninety-six feet in length had been nearly completed; and in this state, with a temporary roof to protect the walls from injury, the structure, which is in the later English style of architecture, still remains. It is situated in a park of no great extent, but pre-eminent for the unrivalled beauty of its scenery, and for the extensive views it commands over the rich vale of Athol and the river Tay on the one side, and the majestic forest and wildly mountainous district on the other. Within the park are the stately remains of the venerable abbey of Dunkeld, with which the style of the mansion is in pleasing harmony; the grounds are laid out with great taste and effect, and combine every possible variety of deeply-interesting features. Near the remains of the cathedral are two fine larch-trees, the first of that species introduced into Britain, having been brought from the Tyrol by Mr. Menzies, of Culdares, in 1738. They were reared in the greenhouse, and planted not far from the old mansion about the same time as those in the Monzie gardens, near Crieff; they have attained a height of about ninety feet, with proportionate girth, and are apparently in a state of progressive increase. The village of Dowally consists of a few houses near the church of that name, with one good inn; there is also the small village of Kindallachan, about a mile distant.
The parish of Dowally and the ancient city of Dunkeld both formed originally part of the extensive parish of Caputh, from which they were separated in 1500, and erected into a distinct parish. The minister's stipend is £161, with an allowance of £63 in lieu of manse and glebe; patron, the Duke of Atholl. The CHOIR of the CATHEDRAL was first repaired, and fitted up for public worship, at the expense of the Murray family, about the year 1691; and in 1820 it was thoroughly repaired, and restored, with some trifling exceptions, to its original state by the late duke, at a cost of £5400, towards which £1000 were granted by government. The interior contains 655 sittings, and is separated from the aisles by a range of seven circular arches, supported on low massive Norman columns, above which are a triforium of similar character, and a range of clerestory windows of the early English style. In the choir was formerly a recumbent figure of Alexander, son of Robert, King of Scotland, but better known as the Wolf of Badenoch; it is now placed in the vestibule, in which, also, is a tablet to the memory of the Rev. John Robb, minister of Dunkeld, who was wrecked in the Forfarshire steamer in 1838. In the north wall of the choir is a tablet to Thomas Bisset, commissary of Dunkeld; and in the south aisle is the monument of Bishop Cardney, on which is his effigy in a recumbent posture, under a crocketed canopy. The statue of Bishop Sinclair, of which the head has been broken off, is in one of the aisles; and within the walls are also tombstones of the Dean of Dunkeld in 1476, and the rector of Monedie in 1548. The other portions of the cathedral are roofless, and falling into decay; the walls of the aisles are strengthened with buttresses between the windows, terminating in crocketed pinnacles above the parapet, and at the west end of the nave is the lofty tower, ninety-six feet high, with an octagonal turret of great beauty. The Chapter-house, which has been appropriated as a sepulchral chapel for the Murray family, contains several stately monuments, among which are, a marble statue of John, fourth duke of Atholl, attired in his parliamentary robes, erected by his duchess in 1833; a monument to the Marquess of Atholl, on which the armorial bearings with their several quarterings are richly emblazoned; and a tablet inscribed to the memory of Lord Charles Murray, who died in Greece.
The church of Dowally was erected in 1820, on the site of the old church founded by Bishop Brown; it is a neat structure containing 210 sittings, all of which are free, and to which, by the erection of a gallery, eighty might be added. On the east wall of the building are the armorial bearings of Bishop Brown. Divine service is performed every Sunday, both in the English and Gaelic languages, by the assistant minister of Dunkeld. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, Independents, and Glassites. The Royal Grammar School was founded in 1567, by James VI., who granted funds for its support, from which the rector derives a salary of £5. 13. 4., in addition to the fees and a house rent free; the presentation is vested in the Murray family, subject to the approval of the synod of Perth and Stirling, who have power of removal on sufficient cause. The buildings are maintained by the family; the course of study is similar to that of the High School of Edinburgh, and the number of scholars averages about eighty. A parochial school was established at Dowally in 1833, by the trustees of the Atholl estates, who erected a school-house, and pay the master a salary of £34, in addition to about £14 fees. A school for the instruction of girls in sewing, tambouring, and other branches of female industry, was instituted by Jane, Duchess of Atholl, in 1788, and since her decease has been maintained by Lady Glenlyon; the duchess also instituted a Sunday school in 1789, for which she erected an appropriate building. An hospital was erected in 1510, by Bishop Brown, for the maintenance of seven aged men, each of whom had a free house, with five bolls of meal, and an allowance of five merks annually. The building was destroyed in the conflagration of the city in 1689, and some good houses were erected on the site, of which several were afterwards sold; the rent of the remainder is distributed in meal among the bedesmen, under the patronage of the commissary. A chapel dedicated to St. Ninian was founded in 1420, by Bishop Cardney, who endowed it with the lands of Mucklarie, the rents of which are now paid to the rector of the royal school; there are no remains of the building, and the site is occupied by the houses in Atholl-street. On the summit of an eminence to the east of the town, not far from St. Ninian's, was a chapel dedicated to Jerome, and called the Red Chapel; the site is inclosed by a stone wall, but there are no remains of the edifice. The ruins of the ancient castle of Rotmel were removed about the beginning of the present century, when numerous coins were found in digging up the foundation. To the east of the city is an extensive tract called the Craigwood, in the centre of which is an eminence commanding a fine view of the town and the several passes of the vale of Atholl. On the side of Craig-y-barns are two caves overlooking the King's Pass, of which one was an ancient hermitage, and the other the abode of a noted robber who was shot on his return from the well of St. Columba; and on the east side is another, called the Duchess' Cave, which till lately was neatly fitted up. There are also several caves on the back hills of Dowally, which were inhabited for many months after the battle of Culloden.
DUNKELD, LITTLE, a parish, in the county of Perth, adjoining Dunkeld, and containing, with the village of Inver, 2718 inhabitants. This parish, which includes the ancient parish of Laganallachy, is bounded on the north-east by the Tay, and is about sixteen miles in length, and from five to six in extreme breadth, comprising 23,200 acres, of which about 7500 are under cultivation, 3204 woodland and plantations, and the remainder waste. The lands are divided into three districts, Murthly, Strathbran, and the Bishopric, the last so called from having formerly belonged to the ancient see of Dunkeld. The district of Murthly extends from the parish of Kinclaven on the east to the village of Inver, and includes the hill of Birnam. The district of Strathbran extends from Inver to Amulrie on the west, for nearly nine miles, and is watered by the river Bran, from which it takes its name; and the Bishopric stretches from Inver for almost ten miles along the Tay. The surface is strikingly diversified with ranges of hills, of which that of Birnam, on the south, rises in stately grandeur to a considerable elevation, embracing an extensive view of the adjacent country; the hill of Craigvinian, on the western bank of the Tay, also commands some finely-varied prospects. The river Bran has its source in Loch Freuchy, on the southern border of the parish, and in its precipitous and romantic course forms several picturesque cascades; it flows into the Tay nearly opposite the town of Dunkeld. There are also a few lakes, chiefly in the mountain district, all of which abound with excellent trout, and in Loch Skiack are found pike of considerable size. The soil varies extremely in different parts of this extensive parish; in the eastern portions it is generally a rich black loam, and in other districts partly sand and partly gravel. The crops are, barley, bear, and oats, with turnips and potatoes, of which last great quantities are raised, and sent to the London markets, where, from the excellence of their quality, they obtain a decided preference. Considerable numbers of black-cattle are reared in the Highland districts of the parish, and sent to the southern markets; and many sheep, usually of the black-faced breed, are fed by the various tenants. There are extensive woods and plantations in Murthly and the Bishopric; the prevailing trees are, oak, ash, Scotch fir, larch, and plane, with birch and hazel. The coppices of oak are cut down as they successively attain the growth of twenty years, and produce a valuable return by the sale of the bark, in the preparation of which many of the population are employed during the summer months. Great quantities of Scotch fir, also, of large girth, are sent to England for ship-building, and timber for railroads and other purposes. Near Murthly is a quarry of fine freestone, from which was raised the stone for the cathedral of Dunkeld, and more recently, for the erection of the bridge at that place across the Tay; there is likewise a quarry of excellent slate at Birnam hill, which is extensively wrought. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8960.
Murthly Castle is beautifully situated on the south bank of the river, in a finely-wooded and ample demesne rising in bold undulations, and comprehending much picturesque scenery; a handsome modern mansion has been begun by the proprietor in front of the castle, and various improvements have been made in the grounds. Dalguise is an ancient mansion with modern additions, pleasantly situated on the road to Taymouth: Kinnaird House stands on an eminence overlooking the Tay, in grounds tastefully laid out, and abounding with romantic scenery. Birnam Lodge and Birnam Cottage are both pleasant houses nearly opposite to Dunkeld; and a handsome seat in the cottage style, beautifully situated on the western acclivity of Torwood, has been recently built by Mr. Wallace, of Perth. There are numerous hamlets in the parish, few of which can be regarded as villages, with the exception of Inver, itself a small village, situated at the influx of the river Bran into the Tay, and, previously to the erection of the bridge, the station of a ferry across that river. This village is much frequented by parties visiting the romantic scenery in its vicinity. Among its principal attractions are, the Rumbling Bridge, thrown over a deep chasm in which the Bran, rushing with impetuous violence among the rocks, forms a romantic cascade; and Ossian's Seat, or the Hermitage, situated on the north bank of the Bran, in the woods of the Duke of Atholl, and close to which is a natural cascade of less romantic, but more picturesque, appearance. Near the village is a saw-mill driven by water equivalent to twenty-four horse power, where a considerable number of persons are employed. There are several fishingstations on the Tay, in which salmon and salmon-trout were formerly taken in abundance; but the quantity for some years has been rapidly decreasing, and the fisheries at present yield but a very inconsiderable rent to the proprietors. Facility of communication is afforded by excellent turnpike-roads, of which those in the districts of Strathbran and the Bishopric pass for ten miles, and that in the eastern district for four miles, through the parish; and about half-way between Dunkeld and Amulrie, a bridge has been built over the river Bran.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunkeld and synod of Perth and Stirling; patron, the Crown. The minister's stipend is £157. 10., with a manse, and the glebes of this place and Laganallachy together are valued at £18 per annum. The parish church, situated near the south bank of the Tay, was built in 1798, and is a neat plain structure containing 820 sittings. The church of Laganallachy, in the district of Strathbran, has about 450 sittings; and divine service is performed there one Sunday in the month, wholly in the Gaelic language. There is a Roman Catholic chapel attached to Murthly Castle, recently fitted up by the proprietor. Two parochial schools are supported; the master of the one has a salary of £29. 18., with about £10 arising from the fees, and the master of the other a salary of £10, with £10 fees, and both have houses and gardens rent free. There are also three schools connected with the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, the masters of which have salaries of £15 each; and, the schools being situated in populous districts, the amount of fees is considerable. A small parochial library is supported by subscription. John Stewart, Esq., of Grandtully, about the commencement of the last century, bequeathed £20,000 merks Scotch for the maintenance of twelve poor men of the Episcopalian Church; and in 1740, a building for their reception was erected on the lands of Murthly; but the original purpose of the testator was not carried into effect, and the property consequently accumulated to the sum of £2609 sterling, of which the interest is divided among poor persons of this and the neighbouring parishes. There are several Druidical remains; and on the farm of Balinloan is a remarkable stone called Clach-a-mhoid, where it is said a baron in the vicinity held his court. Two very large trees are still standing near the church, said to be the only remains of Birnam Forest, and on a plain near the bank of the Bran are the ruins of the castle of Trochery, an ancient residence of the Gowrie family.
DUNLOP, a parish, chiefly in the district of Cunninghame, county of Ayr, but partly in the Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 2½ miles (N. N. W.) from Stewarton; containing 1150 inhabitants. This place derives its name, signifying in the Gaelic language a "winding hill," from the situation of its ancient castle on the summit of a hill, of which the base was surrounded by a small river. The parish is about seven miles in length, and two in average breadth, and comprises 6554 acres, of which 5834 are arable, 130 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill pasture, moss, and waste. The surface is gently undulated, and though rather elevated, in no part attains a height of more than 150 feet above the level of the sea; the highest hills are those of Craignaught and Knockmead, towards the north-east, which command some pleasing and richly-varied prospects over the adjacent country. From Bruckenheugh, about a mile to the south of the church, the view embraces the wooded district between this parish and the sea, the shores of the Frith of Clyde with their numerous bays and promontories, the lofty mountains of Arran, with Ailsa Craig and the hills of Ireland in the distance. There are many springs of excellent water, and the lands are intersected with various streams, of which the principal is the Lugton; it has its source in Loch Libo, in Renfrewshire, and, after a course of about fifteen miles, in which it forms a boundary between this parish and that of Beith, flows into the river Garnock near Kilwinning. The Glassert burn runs through the centre of the parish, dividing it into two equal parts, and, receiving several streamlets in its course, falls into the Annack; Corsehill burn is also a small stream, separating the parish from that of Stewarton. Lugton burn abounds with trout and pike; trout are also found in the other streams, and in the Glassert char used formerly to be taken in abundance, but they have now totally disappeared. Halket loch, formerly covering about ten acres, has been drained within the last few years, and is now a luxuriant meadow.
The soil is generally of a clayey retentive quality, but fertile, and under proper management very productive; in the southern parts of the parish a rich loam is prevalent, and in the higher lands are some patches of moss. The principal crop is oats, with a few acres of wheat; barley and bear are raised for home consumption, and also small quantities of potatoes and turnips, for which, however, the soil is not well adapted. The system of agriculture is improving; the rotation plan of husbandry is adopted, and the draining of the lands, hitherto much neglected, is now growing into general practice. The dairy-farms are the chief objects of attention with the farmers, and the cheese produced has long been distinguished for its quality; it differs from other kinds mainly in its being made of unskimmed milk, a practice originally introduced here by Barbara Gilmour, from which circumstance all cheese made in a similar manner has obtained the distinctive appellation of Dunlop cheese. About 25,000 stone are annually produced in the parish, and find a ready sale in the various markets. Great attention is paid to the rearing of cattle, which are all of the Ayrshire or Cunninghame breed; the sheep are generally the Leicestershire: about 900 milch-cows are kept for the dairy. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8493. There are no natural woods; the plantations consist of larch, Scotch fir, ash, elm, beech, and plane, and on the larger properties they are well attended to, and are in a flourishing state. The substrata are, claystone passing into porphyry and amygdaloid, with occasional masses of greenstone and basalt; limestone, sandstone, and coal. The limestone, which abounds with petrified shells, is quarried at Laigh-Gameshill; it occurs in seams of about sixteen feet in thickness, and being of excellent quality about 5000 bolls are annually raised, part of which is burnt on the spot. Limestone is also wrought in other parts of the parish, but to a comparatively small extent. The coal, of which only a few cart-loads have been removed, was found to be of so inferior a quality that it was not thought advisable to continue the working of it: the greenstone and freestone have been quarried in several places for building purposes and for making dykes for inclosing the lands, and also to furnish materials for the furrow-drains.
Dunlop House, a spacious and elegant mansion in the early English style, is beautifully situated on the bank of the Corsehill burn, in a deeply-sequestered spot, and embosomed in a richly-planted demesne. The village, which is pleasant, consists principally of one street, neatly built; a subscription library has been established, and there is also a library in connexion with a Sabbath school, which contains about 250 volumes. The inhabitants of the village are partly employed in the various trades requisite for the supply of the parish, and many of them are engaged as cheese-factors for the neighbouring districts, which they supply not only with the produce of Dunlop, but also with that of other places in the county of Ayr. Fairs for the sale of dairy stock and agricultural produce are held on the second Friday in May (O. S.) and the 12th of November, at both of which a considerable quantity of business is transacted. The parish is in the presbytery of Irvine and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Earl of Eglinton. The minister's stipend is £215, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church, erected in 1836 to replace the ancient building, which had become too small for the increased population, is a neat and substantial edifice adapted for a congregation of 830 persons. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £25. 13., with £18 fees, a house, and £2. 2. in lieu of a garden. The present school-house was erected in 1840: the old one, yet standing, was built in 1641 by James, Viscount Clandeboyes, by whom, according to the inscription in front, it would appear to have been endowed; but nothing is known of the funds appropriated to that purpose. At Chapel House, about half a mile from the village, were the ruins of an ancient chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which have been removed within the last few years. The castle of Dunlop, which was taken down to make room for the present modern mansion, was of great antiquity; but both the date and the original founder are unknown. Aiket Castle, about a mile to the south of the church, was for many centuries prior to the year 1700 inhabited by a branch of the Cunninghame family: the original tower, which was four stories in height, and of which the lower story has a vaulted roof of stone, has been lowered to make it correspond with the additional buildings requisite for converting it into a dwelling-house. The learned John Major, the tutor of John Knox, and professor of theology in the university of Glasgow, was vicar of Dunlop; and James Hamilton, Viscount Clandeboyes, was born in the parish, of which his father was vicar. Lieutenant-General James Dunlop, of Dunlop, father of the present proprietor, was eminently distinguished in his military profession; his mother was the early friend and correspondent of the poet Burns.
DUNMORE, a village, in the parish of Airth, county of Stirling, 8 miles (E. by S.) from Stirling; containing 153 inhabitants. It is situated on the south-west side of the Frith of Forth, and on the road from Airth to Stirling, and has a harbour, now a calling-place for the Stirling steamers. The village is small and of rather mean appearance, but the scenery around it is peculiarly beautiful, and the high grounds in the vicinity finely contrast with the almost level plain of the rest of the parish. Formerly an extensive coal-mine was in operation, but the works were relinquished about the year 1810, when more than thirty families removed from the neighbourhood. Dunmore Park is the handsome seat of the Earl of Dunmore, the head of a branch of the noble family of Murray, dukes of Atholl, Lord Charles Murray, second son of John, first marquess of Atholl, having been created, in 1686, Earl of Dunmore, Viscount Fincastle, and Lord Murray of Blair, Moulin, and Tillemot. The present mansion was erected about twenty years since; it is a large building in the Elizabethan style, and stands on an expansive lawn, surrounded by grounds tastefully laid out, and richly planted with timber of various kinds and growth. Here is an ancient tower, one of three in the parish. On the summit of Dunmore hill, which is of considerable height, are the remains of a strong fortification; and in digging a few years since, an anchor was found imbedded in the soil, at least half a mile from the present course of the river.
DUNNET, a sea-port and parish, in the county of Caithness, 9 miles (E. N. E.) from Thurso; containing 1880 inhabitants. This parish, of which the origin of the name is involved in obscurity, is one of the most northerly in Scotland, and is about ten miles in length, and varies in breadth from two to four miles. It is bounded on the south by the parish of Bower, on the south-west by that of Olrig, on the east by Cannisbay, and on the north and north-west by the Pentland Frith, into which projects the extensive promontory of Dunnet Head. This head consists of numerous hills and valleys, covered with fine pasture for cattle and sheep, and throughout its whole extent of coast, which is about nine miles, presents a front of broken rocks to the sea from 100 to 400 feet high; an isthmus of low land, about two miles broad, connects it with the rest of the parish, but it is entirely uninhabited. A large number of sea-fowl, especially the layer or puffin, visit it during the season of incubation. The shore to the east of Dunnet Head is low and rocky, and the current of the Frith during spring tides is so exceedingly strong that no vessel can stem it, from which circumstance, and the velocity of contiguous currents in opposite directions, the navigation here is dangerous to strangers. The bay of Dunnet, though it runs far into the land, affords no shelter for any vessel on the north side, it being exposed to the west; but along the Frith are several good havens for small craft, and of these, Brough, and Ham or Holm havens are considered capable of great improvement. In the interior, the parish is of level surface, there being scarcely an eminence deserving the name of a hill. The larger portion consists of moss and moor, and the soil in the cultivated parts is in general of a light nature, with little clay or loam; in some places it is sandy, and in others a light black earth and rich clay. Adjoining the shore east of Dunnet bay, is a barren tract nearly two miles in breadth, which is said to have been formerly arable ground. The rock formation at Dunnet Head is freestone, and throughout the rest of the parish it is grey slate: at Inkstack are some quarries of flagstone, supplying materials for pavements, of which considerable quantities are shipped for the south. The rateable annual value of Dunnet is £4268.
The parish contains the three villages of Dunnet, Brough, and Scarfskerry, of which a part of the population is engaged in salmon-fishing, carried on, particularly in Dunnet bay, for the last ten or twelve years with great success; there is also a lobster-fishery, for the supply of the London market; and cod, haddock, flounders, halibut, and skate are also obtained. There are four fairs, of which the principal is Marymas, held on the Tuesday after August 15th (O. S.); it continues two days, and is almost exclusively a cattle and horse fair: the others are held on the first and third Tuesdays in October, and first Tuesday in April (O. S.) for cattle. Cattle are also conveyed by steamers to the Leith and Edinburgh markets; grain is generally shipped to the same quarter, and meal is sent to the weekly markets of Wick and Thurso. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the presbytery of Caithness and synod of Sutherland and Caithness; patron, Sir James Colquhoun, Bart. The stipend of the minister is £191, with a manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £12. The church, which is very ancient, is a plain oblong building, with a tower at the west end; in 1836-7 it underwent a thorough repair, having been re-roofed, and enlarged by a capacious aisle, and it is now a commodious and comfortable place of worship. In the parochial school are taught the ordinary branches of education; the master has the maximum salary, with about £10 from fees, and a house and garden. Another school is supported by the General Assembly, and a third partly by Mr. Traill, on whose property it is built, and partly by fees; there are also two female schools, aided by the respective heritors and the Kirk Session. In 1764, William Sinclair, Esq., of Freswick, bequeathed an annuity of £5. 11. for the poor of the parish; and the late Messrs. Oswald, of Glasgow, left £600, now vested in land, for the same purpose. A lighthouse has been built on Dunnet Head, and was first lighted on the 1st October, 1831; it stands on a precipice, about 300 feet above the level of the sea, and from the ground is sixty-one feet in height. It has already proved of great service in preventing shipwreck and guiding vessels through the Frith.
DUNNICHEN, a parish, in the county of Forfar; including the villages of Bowriefauld, Cotton of Lownie, Craichie, Drummetermont, and Letham; and containing 1625 inhabitants, of whom 54 are in the village of Dunnichen, 3½ miles (E. S. E.) from Forfar. This place, which is of considerable antiquity, derives its name, signifying in the Gaelic language " the hill or fort of the valley," from a prominent hill overlooking the vale of Lunan, and on which are still some remains of an ancient fort of loose stones, though the greater part has been removed to furnish materials for inclosing the lands. A battle is supposed to have been fought here at some remote period, which tradition refers to the time of Arthur, king of the Britons; but no authentic account of it has been recorded, though numerous graves, evidently of warriors, have at various times been discovered by the plough, filled with human bones, and some of them containing runs of red clay rudely ornamented, and holding ashes. The parish contains 4024½ Scotch acres: the surface is gently undulated, rising in some places into hills, of which the two highest are, Dunnichen hill, having an elevation of about 800, and Dunbarrow, an elevation of 700, feet above the level of the sea. The former hill, which is cultivated from its base to the summit, and interspersed with thriving plantations, forms a pleasing feature in the landscape, and commands a richly-varied and extensive prospect over the whole vale of Lunan to the east, and Forfar and Strathmore to the west, the view terminating in the distance in the Grampian range. The Vinney water, which has its source in the parish of Forfar, collects various inconsiderable tributaries in its course through this parish, and falls into the Lunan in Kirkden. A loch formerly covered an area of fifty acres, but it has been partially drained, and converted into pasture land; on the north side of it is a small chalybeate spring, strongly impregnated, and near the base of Dunbarrow is a much more copious spring, of similar quality but less power.
The soil in the higher grounds is a shallow friable loam intermixed with sand, which becomes deeper and richer towards the lower lands, where is generally a clayey loam. Of the whole number of acres 3112 are arable, 400 in plantations, and the remainder, of which about 500 acres might be reclaimed and brought into cultivation, is rough pasture and waste. The usual crops are, grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is in an advanced state; bone-dust has been introduced for manure on turnip land, and shell-marl, by which the soil in many parts has been much improved, is procured in abundance from the lake of Restenneth, in the parish of Forfar. Considerable attention is paid to the improvement of live stock, and the dairy-farms are well managed; the cattle are chiefly the Galloway, with a few of the Fife and Teeswater breeds. No sheep are reared, but great numbers are sent hither from the Grampians to feed on turnips during the winter, and many cattle of all breeds, bought at the neighbouring fairs, are pastured here. The plantations, being duly thinned, are in a flourishing state. The substrata of the parish are chiefly sandstone or freestone, with portions of greenstone occurring occasionally, and in detached situations; the sandstone frequently contains rounded pebbles of jasper, quartz, and agate. In the trap rocks of Dunbarrow is often found a siliceous incrustation, in which rock crystals are imbedded, and in and near the summit of Dunnichen are several masses of granite and mica-slate. The sandstone, which is generally of a greyish white, and sometimes inclining to blue, is extensively quarried at Dunnichen; it produces excellent millstones and other blocks of very large dimensions, which may be easily cut, and are susceptible of a high polish, but, if suffered to remain long after being taken from the quarry, acquire a degree of hardness that bids defiance to any tool. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4600.
Dunnichen House is pleasantly situated on the southern slope of the hill, near its base, and commands an extensive and pleasingly-varied view; the demesne is richly planted, and is rapidly improving under the spirited management of its proprietor. The principal manufacture carried on in the parish is the weaving of coarse linen-cloth called Osnaburghs, and linens of finer texture for sheeting and shirting. Fairs are held at Letham twice in the year, for cattle, and the hiring of farm-servants; and a fair is also held in the Kirkton on the third Wednesday in March, O. S. The roads formerly afforded very few facilities of communication with the neighbouring places; but a new road from Dundee to Brechin has been completed, greatly tending to increase the intercourse with the larger towns. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Forfar and synod of Angus and Mearns; patron, the Crown. The stipend of the incumbent is £158, of which £38 are received from government; the manse was built in 1815, in a very superficial manner; the glebe land is valued at £11 per annum. The church, seated on an eminence in the small hamlet of Kirkton, was erected in 1802, but from the dampness of the situation, and the bad construction of the roof, which was covered with flags of sandstone, it was found necessary, in 1817, to cover it with a new roof of slate; it is a plain edifice adapted for a congregation of 456 persons. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church and Congregationalists; the linen-hall of the village of Letham is also appropriated as a place of worship by Seceders. The parochial school, situated in the hamlet of Craichie, affords a liberal course of instruction; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £6 per annum. On the area of the ancient fort was found, after the removal of the stones of the building, a thick bed of ashes mixed with numerous human bones, and in one part was discovered a number of small golden balls thought to have been the current coin of the realm at the period of its erection. The late George Dempster, Esq., for many years representative of the county, was a native of the place.
DUNNING, a parish, in the county of Perth; including the village of Newtown of Pitcairns, and containing 2128 inhabitants, of whom 1068 are in the village of Dunning, 9 miles (W. S. W.) from Perth. This parish, supposed to take its name from the Gaelic term dun, signifying a hill or fort, contains the remains of three military stations called Ardargie, Rossie Law, and Ternavie, which are thought to have belonged to a line of forts constructed by Agricola along the northern base of the Ochil hills, where the parish lies, and stretching to Ardoch, and thence to the wall of Antoninus. This supposition is corroborated by the circumstance of Roman armour and numerous human bones having been dug up in the locality; and the proximity of the Pictish station Forteviot, and the traces of many fortifications, lead to the conclusion that this was subsequently the arena of several sanguinary conflicts. The family of Rollo, descended from Eric de Rollo, who came over with William the Conqueror as secretary, were first located in this place, where they have since remained, in the time of David I., who gave considerable possessions to Richard de Rollo, a son or grandson of Eric: the estate in 1512 was erected into a free barony, and in 1651 Sir Andrew Rollo, Knt., was created by Charles II. Baron Rollo, of Duncruib, the name of the property belonging to this ancient family. The village of Dunning was burnt to the ground in January, 1716, with many others, by the Earl of Mar, in order to arrest the progress of the royal troops; and to perpetuate the remembrance of this a thorn-tree was planted, which is still in a flourishing condition, and an object of curiosity and veneration.
The parish extends in length about seven miles, from north to south, and four in breadth, comprehending an extensive tract of cultivated land, and 200 acres of plantations: one-third of the whole lies among the Ochil hills, in which rises the Dunning, a stream that falls, after a rapid course over a gravelly bed, into the river Earn. A lake called the White Moss, situated in the western portion, containing many small fish, and frequented by large flocks of wild ducks, covers about eleven acres of ground, and forms, with the lively burn, a pleasing and interesting object in the general scenery; and the lofty Ochils, depastured by numerous flocks of sheep, and here stretching along the south-eastern boundary of the county, exhibit a bold and striking outline, replete with romantic features which can scarcely fail to captivate the admirer of the beauties of nature. The soil along the banks of the Earn is light and sandy, but in the other parts generally clayey or gravelly, and the crops are raised under the rotation system. The farm-houses are commodious, and roofed with slate; among the improvements carried on, that of draining marshy grounds has been extensively practised, and several tracts, especially one called the White Bog, have been converted into good arable land. The rateable annual value of the parish is £9000. Quarries of common stone, of firm texture, are open in several parts, and a bed of white freestone has been lately discovered; whinstone is abundant in the Ochils, and fragments of quartz are carried along the streams. The plantations are detached and of small extent, and consist of oak, fir, ash, elm, and poplar: the garden belonging to the mansion of Duncruib, the seat of Lord Rollo, is ornamented with a fine spruce-tree, planted in 1707, of great bulk, elevation, and beauty. The modern residences are the houses of Pitcairns and Garvock. The village of Dunning is held in feu from Lord Rollo, and is governed by a baron-bailie; it has many good houses, a public reading-room, and a post-office, and in place of a gaol there is an instrument of punishment called the jougs. A large proportion of the population of the parish are cotton-weavers, and obtain work from Glasgow; a wool-mill employs many hands, and there are three corn-mills, a flour-mill, a saw-mill, two malt-mills, a distillery, and a brewery. Three fairs are annually held. The parish is in the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage of the Earl of Kinnoull; the minister's stipend is £239, with a manse, and a glebe of eight and a quarter acres, valued at £20 per annum. The church, which was rebuilt in 1810, is conveniently situated in the village, and contains 1000 sittings, all free. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and there are two meeting-houses belonging to the United Associate Synod, one to Original Seceders, and one to the Relief persuasion. The parochial school affords instruction in Latin and the ordinary branches; the master has the maximum salary, with about £50 fees.
DUNNOTTAR, a parish, in the county of Kincardine; containing, with the village of Crawton, and a portion of the town of Stonehaven, 1873 inhabitants. This place, of which the Gaelic name is descriptive of the situation of its ancient castle on a peninsular promontory, appears to have been distinguished as the scene of some important events connected with the history of the country. The castle is by some writers supposed to have been originally founded by the Picts, to whom the great tower, which is evidently the most ancient part of the structure, is traditionally attributed, but the earliest authentic notice of it occurs during the contest between Bruce and Baliol, when Wallace, who had assumed the regency, wrested it from the English, by whom it was garrisoned. Some records in the possession of the Marischals assign the erection of the castle to Sir William Keith, an ancestor of that family, who in the fourteenth century obtained permission to construct a fortress on the site, on condition of building a church in a more convenient situation, in lieu of the ancient parish church, which stood within the precincts of the present ruins. The fortress was one of the strongest in the country, and remained for many ages in possession of the family of Keith, the first of whom, in the reign of Malcolm II., having killed in battle the Danish general Comus, had been rewarded with a grant of lands in Lothian, and invested with the title of Great Marischal of Scotland. During the parliamentary war in the reign of Charles I., the regalia were for security deposited in the castle, which General Ogilvy, who was then in command, defended for more than six months against the forces of Cromwell, under General Lambert, in 1651, till, severely pressed by famine, he was compelled to capitulate, having previously conveyed the regalia in safety to Kinneff, through the assistance of the governor's lady, and Mrs. Granger, wife of the minister of that parish, where they were concealed under the pulpit of the church till the Restoration. For this service, the king created the earl-marischal's second son Earl of Kintore, and invested the general with the title of baronet. George, the last earl-marischal, having joined in the rebellion of 1715, the title and estates of the family were forfeited to the crown; and the castle, which had been previously purchased by government, was dismantled, and has since been a ruin.
The parish is situated on the road from Aberdeen to Edinburgh; it is bounded on the north by the parish of Fetterresso, on the east by the German Ocean, on the south by the parish of Kinneff, and on the west by that of Glenbervie. The surface is boldly diversified with hills, of which Carmount, at the extremity of an extensive heath of that name, has an elevation of more than 800 feet, and with successive ridges for nearly three miles towards the north-west. The coast is abruptly precipitous, consisting of a range of cliffs in detached masses, rising from 150 to 300 feet in height. In these cliffs are numerous caverns worn by the action of the waves, of which one, called the Long Gallery, under a lofty promontory, extends for more than 150 yards in length, and affords a channel through which a boat may pass from the bay at its entrance to another at its outlet. To the south of this cavern is Fowlsheugh, the highest of the rocks on this part of the coast, and the haunt of numbers of aquatic birds of every description, that build their nests and hatch their young in these almost inaccessible heights. The entire number of acres is 8156, of which 4860 are arable, 690 woodland and plantations, and 2606 natural pasture and uncultivated waste; the soil is various, consisting in different parts of clay, loam, sand, and gravel, and being frequently found in all these varieties on the same farm. The system of agriculture has been much improved, and the rotation plan of husbandry is in use; much unprofitable land has been brought into cultivation; the farm-buildings are in general substantial and commodious, and great attention is paid to live stock. There are few sheep reared; the cattle are usually of the black kind, and are mostly sold when two years old. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8768. The woods are, oak, ash, and beech, of which there are many fine specimens, on the lands of Auquhirie; and the plantations, whereof the most extensive are on the estate of General Forbes, are, pine, larch, and Scotch and spruce firs, intermixed with various kinds of hardwood, all of which, with the exception of the Scotch fir, thrive well. The moorlands abound with every kind of game; partridges in great numbers, and some few pheasants, are found, and snipes, wild ducks, and teal are plentiful. The rocks on the coast are for the greater part of the pudding-stone formation, with portions of trap and porphyritic granite, and occasionally of columnar basalt; sandstone is extensively quarried, and a species of flag, formerly in use for roofing, is also wrought to a moderate extent. Dunnottar House, the seat of General Forbes, is a spacious mansion surrounded with rich and flourishing plantations; the grounds are tastefully laid out, and the gardens attached to the house were formed at an expense of £10,000. Barras, the ancient seat of the Ogilvys, is now a farm-house. The weaving of linen is carried on to a small extent, and many of the inhabitants are engaged in the fisheries and other branches of trade in the town of Stonehaven: Crawton, in the south-eastern portion of the parish, is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the white-fishery, which is extensively carried on off this part of the coast. Facility of communication with the neighbouring markets is afforded by good roads in every direction; along the sea-coast is the high road to Edinburgh, and the Strathmore turnpike-road passes through the interior of the parish. The ecclastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Fourdoun and synod of Angus and Mearns; the minister's stipend is £233, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £8 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, erected on the site of the former building in 1782, is a neat and commodious structure pleasingly situated. The parochial school is in Stonehaven, and is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £46. The remains of Dunnottar Castle are very extensive, occupying an area of five acres on the summit of an abrupt and precipitous cliff, boldly projecting from the mainland, with which it is connected by an isthmus nearly covered by the sea at high water; the great tower is still almost entire; and the various ranges of building, which, though roofless, are in tolerable preservation, convey an impressive idea of its former grandeur and importance. In the churchyard is a gravestone to the memory of some Covenanters who were confined in the castle; and here Sir Walter Scott, then on a visit to the minister of the parish, is said to have had his first interview with the individual whom, in his Antiquary, he describes under the appellation of "Old Mortality."
Dunoon and Kilmun
DUNOON and KILMUN, a parish, in the district of Cowal, county of Argyll, 7½ miles (W. by S.) from Greenock; containing 4211 inhabitants. The early history of this parish is involved in great obscurity, and rests chiefly on tradition. Its castle, of which neither the date nor the founder is distinctly known, anciently belonged to the hereditary high stewards of Scotland, to whom Malcolm gave a grant of lands in the district in the eleventh century. During the contested succession to the throne, the castle was besieged by Baliol, to whom it surrendered in 1333; but in the following year it was re-captured by Robert Bruce, and placed under the custody of the Campbells, ancestors of the Argyll family, who were appointed hereditary constables, and also lords of Cowal. The Earl of Lennox, while seeking to become regent of the kingdom, appeared in the Clyde with a fleet, in 1554, and, having made himself master of Rothesay, proceeded to this place, and laid siege to the castle, which was held by his powerful opponent, Archibald, Earl of Argyll, whom he compelled to retreat with severe loss. In 1563, Mary, Queen of Scots, paid a visit to the Countess of Argyll, in her progress through the west, and, during her residence here, granted several charters to the inhabitants of the district, which are still extant. The castle continued in the possession of the earls of Argyll till the end of the seventeenth century, since which time it has been suffered to fall into ruin: the remains consist only of part of one of the towers, in a dilapidated state, affording but a very inadequate idea of the original buildings, which appear to have covered an acre of ground. Kilmun, formerly a separate parish, is supposed to have derived its name from the erection of a church dedicated to St. Mun near the shore of the Holy loch, upon the spot where a stranded vessel from the Holy Land, laden with consecrated earth for the foundation of the cathedral of Glasgow, deposited what portion of her cargo could be saved from the wreck. A collegiate church was subsequently founded here, and endowed for a provost and six prebendaries in 1442, by Sir Duncan Campbell, of Lochawe, first lord of Argyll, and grandfather of Colin Campbell, the first earl; the only portion now entire is the square tower, about forty feet in height.
Dunoon is bounded on the south and east by the Frith of Clyde, and Kilmun by Loch Long on the east, and partly by the Holy loch, an inlet from the Frith, which on the south separates a portion of it from Dunoon: the districts were united about the year 1660, and are together 24 miles in length and from two to nine in breadth, comprising 144 square miles. The surface is boldly varied with hills and valleys, and towards the shores of the Clyde, along the greater part of it, slopes gently to a level plain; the interior is intersected with several mountainous ridges in various directions, of which that forming part of the range of hills in the vicinity of Benmore is the most elevated. These ranges are the boundaries of some extensive valleys which they inclose between their steep acclivities, and of which the principal are, Strath-Echaig, about two miles in breadth, and extending for nearly four miles to Loch Eck, which thence forms its continuation for about seven miles; Glenfinart, three miles in length, and, like the former, richly wooded; and Glenmassan; all abounding with romantic scenery. Numerous mountain streams, many of them having pleasing cascades, traverse the parish; but the only one that can be called a river is the Echaig, which issues from Loch Eck, and, after a course of about four miles through the vale of Echaig, in which it receives the Massan and another stream, falls into the Holy loch. Loch Eck, of which about one-half is within the parish, is nearly seven miles in length, and half a mile broad; the banks are precipitous and well wooded, and the scenery around beautifully diversified. The soil is generally a light sandy loam of no great depth, and in some parts of the valleys deeper and of richer quality. The crops are, oats, a very little barley, potatoes, and turnips; wheat was formerly raised but has been abandoned: the pastures are good, and great attention is paid to live stock. The system of agriculture is improved; the lands in cultivation are well drained, and considerable tracts of waste have been reclaimed and rendered productive. The cattle are of the West Highland breed, with the exception of some of the Ayrshire on the dairy-farms; and the sheep of the black-faced kind, with a few of the Leicestershire and Cheviot breeds. The substrata are chiefly mica and clay slate, sandstone of the old red formation, and in some parts limestone, but of very inferior quality; there are quarries of slate and freestone, but they are not extensively wrought. The rateable annual value of the parish is £15,754.
The principal seat is Castle Toward, a handsome mansion in the later English style, erected by the late Kirkman Finlay, Esq., and situated in an ample and richly-wooded demesne, commanding extensive and varied prospects. Hafton House is in the Elizabethan style, and beautifully seated on the western shore of the Holy loch, in an extensive park embracing fine views of the Frith. Glenfinart House is a spacious modern building in the old English style, erected on the site of a mansion occupied by the late Earl of Dunmore, on the shore of Loch Long, at the opening of the valley of Glenfinart: Benmore House, Bernice, and the Castle House, near the ancient castle of Dunoon, are also handsome mansions beautifully situated. The village of Dunoon is on the margin of the Clyde, and is much frequented during the summer months by parties on excursions of pleasure; the houses are neatly built, and numerous pleasing villas have been erected. The small village of Kilmun, on the northern shore of the Holy loch, is also a place of favourite resort. Though not recognized as a port, a pier or jetty has been constructed at Dunoon for the accommodation of passengers by the steam-packets which touch at the place; and a substantial quay has also been erected at Kilmun. The only trade is the shipping of cattle, sheep, and agricultural produce, for Liverpool and other English markets; a schooner of eighty tons' burthen was lately built here, and is now employed in the foreign trade. There are post-offices at Dunoon, Kilmun, and Ardentinny, the first having two daily deliveries in winter and three in summer, and the others one delivery each; facility of communication is afforded by good roads, and by the steamers from Glasgow, Greenock, and other ports in the Clyde. Fairs are held on the second Wednesday in January, February, August, and October, and the third Tuesday in November (O. S.).
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunoon and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £275, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £36.17. per annum; patron, the Duke of Argyll. The church at Dunoon was erected in 1816; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, and since its enlargement in 1834 contains 793 sittings. The present church at Kilmun was erected in 1841; it is also a handsome building, with a tower of loftier elevation than that of the ancient church, which is still remaining. Chapels of ease have been built at Toward and Ardentinny, partly by subscription, aided by grants from the Church Extension fund; they are under the charge of missionaries, who receive from £70 to £90 each from funds subscribed for that purpose. A third missionary has a similar stipend for assisting the minister of the parish, who officiates alternately in each of the two churches. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church and the United Associate Synod. Parochial schools are supported at Dunoon, Kilmun, and Toward; the master of Dunoon has a salary of £30, of Kilmun £25, and of Toward £22, each with a house and garden, in addition to the fees. Two schools are maintained by the General Assembly, of which the masters have salaries of £25 each, one at Dalilongard, and the other at Ardentinny; and a female school of industry, of which the mistress has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, is supported by an association of ladies. There is also a school in connexion with seceders. Some vestiges remain of what is supposed to have been a Roman camp, on the farm of Ardinslat; Druidical remains still exist, and various stone coffins of rude formation, containing skeletons in a perfect state, have been found. There are also ruins of the castle of Toward, the ancient baronial residence of the Lamonts.
DUNREGGAN, a village, in the parish of Glencairn, county of Dumfries, 5½ miles (W. S. W.) from Penpont; containing 277 inhabitants. It is a well-built and thriving place, situated on the banks of the Dalwhat stream, over which is a stone bridge, forming a communication with the village of Minnyhive: the population has latterly considerably increased.
DUNROSSNESS, a parish, in the county of Shetland; including the islands of Fair and Mousa, and the late quoad sacra district of Sandwick and Cunningsburgh; and containing 4494 inhabitants. This parish is situated at the southern extremity of the Mainland, and forms the principal part of a peninsula, washed on the east, south, and west by the sea. The shore, though not so deeply indented with inlets as that of most other parts of the Shetland isles, is still very irregular in its outline, and contains several voes; the chief are Greetness and West voe, which, with Quendal bay, border on Sumburgh head, the most southerly point of the Mainland, rendered classical by Sir Walter Scott's Pirate, and on which an excellent lighthouse was erected a few years since, at an expense of about £40,000. Among the islands in the parish are those of Colsay, Mousa, St. Ninian's, and Fair Island, which are used chiefly for the pasturage of sheep and cattle, and, with the exception of the last, are inconsiderable. The exposure of Dunrossness is remarkably bleak and stormy, and occasionally whole farms are destroyed by the drifting of sand, and inlets filled up which before had been used as creeks or harbours; but the district yields to very few, if any, in Shetland, in the fertility of its soil and the quality of the crops. The lochs of Skelberry and Scousburgh, in winter, are the resort of wild swans; and eagles, ravens, and hawks, with a great variety of wild-fowl, frequent the shores. At this time of the year, also, the stormy seas, and the dreary tracts of peat-moss, invest the locality with a wild and uninviting appearance; but at other periods the scene is greatly altered, and especially during the operations of harvest and fishing every thing wears a pleasing aspect.
The soil of the lands under cultivation is various, comprehending sand, loam, and clay, and the crops consist principally of bear, black oats, and potatoes; ploughs, drawn by horses, are used in some parts, but most of the small farms are turned by the spade, and husbandry, as in all other districts of Shetland, is made entirely subordinate to the occupation of fishing. The rateable annual value of the parish is £1665. At a place called Fitfill, copper-ore was wrought some years since, and shafts were also sunk at Sand-lodge, in Sandwick, but the operations, proving unsuccessful, were shortly abandoned. The inhabitants are engaged in the ordinary kinds of fishing, and three or four vessels come annually to Levenwick bay, from Rothesay, to receive the herrings immediately after they are taken. In addition to the trade in fish, considerable quantities of potatoes of very good quality, as well as of oats and bear, are sent to Lerwick for sale; and a small profit is annually derived from the manufacture of kelp. The parish is in the presbytery of Lerwick and synod of Shetland, and in the patronage of the Earl of Zetland. The minister's stipend is £208, exclusive of a vicarage-tithe on a certain number of lambs and quantities of butter and wool; there is a manse, and the glebe is valued at £8 per annum. The church was built in 1790, and contains 858 sittings; and on Fair isle is another church, a substantial edifice, erected by the then proprietor of the island, many years ago; it affords accommodation to about 150 persons. There are meeting-houses for Baptists and Methodists. The parochial school is situated in the Sandwick district, and at Cunningsburgh is a school supported by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; in each of those places a library has lately been instituted, and another is established in Dunrossness.
DUNSCORE, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 9 miles (N. W.) from Dumfries; containing, with the village of Cottack, 1517 inhabitants. This place is not remarkable for any events of historical importance, but it was formerly the seat of some families of considerable antiquity, the chief of whom were, the Griersons of Lag, of Chapel, and of Dalgoner, the Kirks or Kirkhoes of Bogrie and Sundaywell, and the Kirkpatricks of Elliesland and Friars' Carse. The Griersons possessed the tower of Lag, now a ruin, for many generations, Gilbert M'Gregor or Grierson having migrated from the Highlands about the year 1408, and obtained the lands from John Mc Wrath, who in the conveyance deed is described as armour-bearer to Archibald, Earl of Douglas. A descendant of this family joined the Maxwells of Nithsdale, against the Johnstones of Annandale, and fought at the famous battle of Dryfe-Sands in 1593; and there is still a lineal representative of the family remaining in the parish. Considerable estates at Dunscore were given to the monks of Melrose by Affrica, daughter of Edgar, son of Dunevald and grandson of Dunegal of Stranith, a term implying "the strath or valley of Nith:" Edgar had possessed the lands under William the Lion, and been succeeded in them by his daughter, who assigned so large a portion to the monks. The benefice of Dunscore, however, belonged to the monastery of Holywood, and the cure was served by a vicar. The parish contains some lands called the Friars' Carse, formerly a monkish residence dependent on the establishment of Melrose; a small loch on the property, containing an artificial island, is said to have been the ancient fishpond, and the island the place where the monks hid their valuables when the English invaded Stranith.
The Parish is twelve miles long, and varies in breadth from half a mile to three miles and a half, containing 12,500 acres. It is bounded on the north by the parishes of Glencairn and Keir; on the south by the parish of Holywood and the stewartry of Kirkcudbright; on the east by the river Nith, which separates it from Kirkmahoe; and on the west by the loch and water of Urr, dividing it from the stewartry. The surface in the neighbourhood of the Nith is flat, but in other parts it is greatly diversified with hills and valleys; in the upper district it is mountainous and rocky, and Bogrie, the most elevated hill, rises more than 1200 feet above the level of the Solway Frith. The Nith runs for two miles along the boundary; and the Cairn, a much more rapid stream, over which is a bridge eighty feet in span divides the parish into two parts, and, after receiving the Clouden, falls into the Nith a little below Irongray. The soil in the lower district is a light gravelly or sandy earth; the holm land on the banks of the Nith and Cairn is alluvial; in the upper parts the soil is mostly a kind of loam, in a tilly subsoil, and very stony. There are also occasional patches, as well as considerable tracts, of peat-moss. The soil in general is thin and dry, except on the holm land, where it is much richer and deeper; the hills in many places are almost bare, and exhibit on the rocky surface nothing but heath. Fully three-fourths of the land are under cultivation; 500 acres are meadow, 250 plantation, chiefly larch and fir, and 60 natural wood, consisting of birch and oak. All kinds of grain are raised, as well as green crops; agriculture has been gradually advancing for some time past, and improvements have been effected in every department. On the estates of Allanton, Dalgoner, Friars' Carse, and Stroquhan, are good and substantial mansion-houses. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in husbandry, but weaving is also carried on, though to an inconsiderable extent. The Glasgow and Dumfries turnpike-road passes through the parish, from which a branch strikes off at the lodge of Friars' Carse, leading westward through Balmaclellan to New Galloway; there is also a road intersecting the parish from Dumfries to Ayr. The rateable annual value of Dunscore is £8900.
The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dumfries and synod of Dumfries; patron, the Crown. There is a good manse, with a glebe of fifty-one acres, and the stipend of the minister is the minimum, with an addition of £12. 12., voluntarily given by the heritors since 1793. The church, standing in the village of Cottack, in the centre of the parish, is a well-built structure, surmounted with an elegant square tower at the west end; it was erected in 1823, and contains 850 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship, and there is a meeting-house belonging to the Relief Synod. Three parochial schools are supported, in which the classics, with all the usual branches of education, are taught; about £51 are portioned equally among the masters, who also receive the interest of £300 bequeathed about a century ago, by Mr. Grierson, of Edinburgh. The master of the central school has, in addition, the interest of £50 bequeathed in 1807 by Mrs. Janet Dobie, and of £50 left in 1829 by Robert M'Kinnel, Esq., of Mc Murdostan, who also at the same time left £200 for the school in the lower district. Among the relics of antiquity are those on Springfield hill, a considerable eminence, where are traces of a military station, supposed to be Roman, of an oblong form, and covering two acres of ground. Burns, the poet, resided for several years in the parish, at the farm of Elliesland.
DUNSE, a market-town, burgh of barony, and parish, in the county of Berwick, 15 miles (W.) from Berwick, and 42 (S. E.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the late quoad sacra district of Boston, 3162 inhabitants. This place derived its name from the situation of the ancient town on the north-western acclivity of the hill on the south side of which, after the destruction of the old town, burnt by the English, the present was erected, near the base of the eminence, towards the close of the sixteenth century. It is neatly built; the houses are chiefly modern, and of good, and in some instances of handsome, appearance; the streets are spacious, well paved, and lighted, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water by a committee of the feuars, at the expense of the common property of the town. There are neither any manufactures, nor much business carried on here, except such handicraft trades as are requisite for the supply of the inhabitants and the immediate neighbourhood; but the town is thriving, and is one of the most important in the county. A public library, in which is a very fair collection, is maintained by subscription; and there are also a reading-room furnished with newspapers and periodical publications, and two circulating libraries that are liberally supported. The post has a good delivery: the market is on Wednesday, and fairs are held in June, August, and November, for cattle and horses, and are well attended; there are also markets in March, May, July, and September, for sheep, of which a great number are sold. Facility of communication with the county-town, and with Edinburgh and other places, is afforded by excellent roads, of which the turnpike-road to Edinburgh passes near Dunse.
A charter was granted in 1489, by James IV., constituting the town a burgh of barony, with power to choose magistrates, and to exercise all the privileges usually enjoyed by burghs of barony; and these rights appear to have been in force for nearly two centuries, during which the bailies and burgesses had municipal jurisdiction within the limits of the burgh. In 1670, a charter was granted by Charles II. to Sir James Cockburn, who had purchased the lands of Dunse from the Homes, of Ayton, confirming all the previous immunities, which were afterwards vested in the family of the Hays, of Drummelzier, whose descendant, William Hay, Esq., of Dunse Castle, is the present superior of the barony. Under him the government of the burgh is administered by a baron-bailie, who exercises the ordinary jurisdiction in cases of petty offences against the peace, and in pleas of debt and trespass to a limited amount. The town-hall, erected in 1816, at an expense of £2688, of which £1488 were raised by the sale of the common belonging to the burgh, and the remainder by subscription, is a handsome edifice in the ancient style of English architecture, containing in the upper part a spacious hall or court-room for the transaction of business relating to the burgh, and for the holding of public meetings, under which are some shops. The police is under the direction of certain commissioners, who represent the ancient burgesses, and unite with the baronbailie in the general management of the town. There are within the burgh 148 houses of the annual value of £10 and upwards, and 84 of more than £5 and under the sum of £10.
The parish is about six miles in length, from south-east to north-west, and three miles and a half in average breadth, and of very irregular form; it is bounded on the north and east for a considerable space by the river Whiteadder, and comprises 12,000 acres, of which nearly 6000 are arable, 1000 woods and plantations, and the remainder hill-pasture. The surface is exceedingly diversified: in the north it forms part of the Lammermoor range of hills, including Cockburn Law, which is about 900 feet above the level of the sea, and a conspicuous landmark for vessels navigating the coast; and in the eastern and southern portions, it rises in gentle undulations to a considerable height, attaining at Dunse Law an elevation of 630 feet above the sea. Besides the Whiteadder, there is a small rivulet called Langton burn, which has its source in the parish of that name, and after forming a part of its southern boundary, falls into the Blackadder near Wedderburn. There are few springs of water fit for domestic use in the town, and the chief supply was formerly obtained from a spring on Dunse Law; but, by the appropriation to that purpose of a considerable sum of money bequeathed by Alexander Christie, Esq., of Grueldykes, an abundant supply of excellent soft water has, with the permission of Mr. Hay, been conveyed in pipes from a spring near the site of the old town. There is a lake of artificial construction, formed in the grounds of Dunse Castle for the embellishment of the demesne. Salmon and grilse are found in abundance in the Whiteadder, during the months of September and October; and in May, trout of a delicate flavour are plentiful in the Langton burn. The scenery is richly diversified, displaying in some parts a considerable boldness of feature, and in others much picturesque beauty; and from the higher grounds are extensive and finely-varied prospects.
The soil in the northern district of the parish is of a dry gravelly quality, in the south a rich deep loam, and in those parts in the more immediate vicinity of the town a dark sandy loam. The crops are, grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is in a very advanced state, and the five-shift course generally practised; the lands are well drained and inclosed, and all the improvements in husbandry and in agricultural implements have been adopted. A due degree of attention is paid to live stock; the sheep are of the Leicester and Cheviot breeds, and the cattle of the short-horned or Teeswater, with the exception of some Kyloes or Highland oxen fattened for home consumption, the others being chiefly reared for the English markets. The rateable annual value of the parish is £15,922. The woods and plantations are under good management, and in a very thriving condition. The chief substrata are greywacke and greywacke-slate, with alternations of greenstone and red sandstone both of the old and new formation; granite and porphyry are found in some of the hills. The sandstone is quarried in the southern part of the parish, and abounds with vegetable impressions. Dunse Castle is an elegant and spacious mansion in the ancient English style, mostly of modern erection, and including the old tower built by Randolph, Earl of Moray, and incorporated with the present structure; it is beautifully situated in a demesne tastefully laid out and embellished with the lake already referred to, abounding with tench and perch. Wedderburn Castle is a stately mansion in the Grecian style, finely seated in richly-planted grounds; and Manderston is also a handsome house, the grounds of which are embellished with a sheet of water and flourishing plantations.
The parish is in the presbytery of Dunse and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and patronage of William Hay, Esq.; the minister's stipend is £291. 13., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum. The church, erected in 1790 to replace the ancient building, of Norman character, which had fallen into decay, is a plain neat edifice adapted for a congregation of 837 persons. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, members of the United Associate Synod, and those of the Relief Synod. The parochial school affords education to about 120 children; the master has a salary of £34, with £70 fees, and a house and garden. The poor have the proceeds of a legacy of £100 by General Dickson, and of one of £1000 by Mr. Christie; and an annuity of £10 is paid to five poor females, cousins of the late Dr. Abraham Robertson, Savilian professor of astronomy in the university of Oxford. There are also two friendly societies and a savings' bank, which have both contributed to diminish the number of applications for parochial relief. The foundations are still remaining of Edinshall Castle, situated on the slope of Cockburn Law, and one of the earliest of the fortresses erected here by the Saxons on their invasion of Britain. It was of circular form, about eighty-six feet in diameter, and the walls were nearly sixteen feet in thickness, and perforated in the interior with numerous cells, extending round the whole, and apparently vaulted; but the materials have been almost entirely removed for various purposes, and little more than the foundations are remaining. On the east and south of the circular tower, are the foundations of several quadrangular buildings; and the whole was defended by ramparts of stone and earth, between which were trenches of considerable depth. From the situation of the building it appears to have been rather intended for a residence than a military post. On the summit of Dunse Law are vestiges of the intrenched camp occupied by General Leslie and 20,000 of the Covenanters in the year 1639. Abraham Robertson, LL.D., was born here in 1751; and Boston, author of the Fourfold State, a well-known religious work, the Rev. Thomas Mc Crie, D. D., author of the Life of John Knox and other works, and the Rev. James Gray, who, officiating in his ministerial capacity at Cutch, in the East Indies, and superintending the education of the prince of that country, died there in 1830, were also natives of the place. It is said that the celebrated John Duns Scotus was likewise born at Dunse.
DUNSHELT, or Daneshalt, a village, in the parish of Auchtermuchty, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 1 mile (S. E.) of Auchtermuchty; containing 646 inhabitants. This place takes its name from its having been the retreat of the Danes, who, in one of their invasions, being defeated in the battle of Falkland Muir, retired from the field, and took refuge from the pursuit of the conquerors in the lower part of the parish. The village is pleasantly situated on the river Eden, and on the road to Falkland, and is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the weaving of linen and cotton goods for the manufactures of Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Dundee. There is a place of worship for Seceders, and also a school in the village.
DUNSYRE, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 1½ mile (W. N. W.) from Roberton, and 5 miles (S. W.) from Linton; containing 288 inhabitants, of whom 68 are in the village. This place, of which the name, of Celtic origin, is supposed to signify the "hill of the seer," appears to have formed part of the possessions of various families of distinction in the earlier periods of Scottish history, and is now, with the exception of a small portion, the property of Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart, Bart. The parish is more than four miles in length from north to south, and from three to four miles in breadth, and is bounded on the east and south by the South Medwin, and on the north by the North Medwin and Dryburn, it comprises 8779 Scottish acres, of which about oneeighth are arable, and the remainder pasture and waste, with thirty acres of woodland and plantations. The surface is generally elevated, and rises into hills of considerable height, of which that of Dunsyre forms in this parish the termination of the Pentland hills, a range extending for nearly twenty miles from the immediate vicinity of Edinburgh. This hill has an elevation of 500 feet above the general surface of the lands, and of 1230 above the sea; and a small range of gradually diminishing hills branches off towards the west from it, stretching to the parish of Carnwath. Between the Dunsyre and Walston ranges is the level valley of the South Medwin, about three miles in length and a mile broad. The scenery of the parish is enlivened with plantations and with numerous streams, of which the only one that may be called a river is the South Medwin, having its source in the north-eastern extremity of the parish, near the base of Craigingar, and which, flowing through the valley, is, after a course of two or three miles further, diverted towards the west, where it receives a stream called the West water, issuing from the hills to the north. Craneloch, situated in the moorland, is about a mile in circumference, but the scenery is destitute of beauty, presenting nothing but marshy lands skirted with heath; it abounds with pike and perch, and trout is also found in both the Medwins. The lands abound with springs of excellent water, and there are some which have a petrifying quality, and others strongly impregnated with iron.
The soil is generally light and sandy, in some parts intermixed with clay, and in others almost a barren heath; the crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is advanced, and the rotation plan of husbandry universally adopted; the lands have been drained to a considerable extent, and the channel of the South Medwin straightened to afford greater facilities for draining the marshy grounds in its vicinity. Attention is paid to the management of the dairy, and to the improvement of stock; the milch-cows on the dairy-farms are all of the Ayrshire breed, and the cattle mostly with a cross of a heavier kind for agricultural purposes and for the market. About 3000 sheep, chiefly of the black-faced breed, are annually pastured. Considerable quantities of skim-milk and Dunlop cheese, and of butter, are sent to the neighbouring markets; and the dairy produce generally is esteemed equal in quality to that of any part of the county of Ayr. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2624. The substrata are mainly whinstone of a blueish colour, freestone, and an indifferent kind of limestone, with partial seams of a much purer kind resembling grey marble, and varying from eight to sixteen feet in depth; traces of iron-ore are found in several places, and copper-ore is supposed to exist. Coal is also thought to prevail in some parts, but no efficient attempt to procure it has yet been made. The woods and plantations are chiefly Scotch fir and larch, but they are rather diminishing than increasing in extent. The village is pleasantly situated in the vale of the North Medwin: at Medwin Bank are a carding-mill and a dyeing establishment. The parish is in the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £156. 15., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £28 per annum. The church, situated on an eminence on the bank of the river Medwin, is an ancient edifice, with a tower in the later English style, which was added to it in 1820, when it underwent a complete repair; it is adapted for a congregation of about 250 persons. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £25, with £5 fees, and a house and garden. There were formerly numerous castles in the vale of Dunsyre, in one of which the baron-bailie held his courts; several relics of Roman antiquity still remain, and the ancient Roman road through the lands to the camp at Cleghorn may be traced. The entrance to the glen in which the hill of Dunsyre is situated, and which is called the Garvald, forms a communication between the east and west portions of the parish; the route of the army of Agricola through this rugged defile is pointed out by a dyke of earth, and some cairns are yet remaining, in which sepulchral urns of burnt clay, rudely carved, have been discovered.
DUNTOCHER, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Old Kilpatrick, county of Dumbarton; containing 3809 inhabitants, of whom 2749 are in the village, 8 miles (N. W. by W.) from Glasgow. This very thriving place, which, less than forty years since, was a mere hamlet, owes its prosperity to the enterprising spirit of a resident, Mr. William Dunn, who about that period purchased the Duntocher mill, and extended the works then employed for spinning cotton-yarn. In the neighbourhood are now several vast establishments for this branch of manufacture, and for weaving, all of them aided by powerful steam machinery. Many of the inhabitants are also employed in coal, lime, and iron works, in brick-making, and various other pursuits, chiefly on the property of Mr. Dunn here; and all around presents a scene of remarkable and successful industry. The village is situated about two miles distant, northward, from the river Clyde, and on the road from Kirkintilloch to Dumbarton; and in the immediate vicinity are the villages of Faifley and Hardgate. A sub post-office has been established under Glasgow. At Duntocher is a bridge, supposed by some to be a Roman structure, and near it is an engraved stone, stating that it was erected in the reign of Adrian; but it is probable that the materials whereof it is built were obtained at a more recent date from a contiguous Roman fort, of which the lines can with difficulty be traced: the bridge was repaired by the late Lord Blantyre in 1772. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the controul of the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the stipend of the minister is £114, produced by seat-rents and collections, and the patronage is vested in the male communicants. The church was erected in 1836, at the cost of about £1660, contributed by the General Assembly and by opulent individuals, and is a very chaste and handsome edifice, containing accommodation for 876 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and there are two Secession meeting-houses and a Roman Catholic chapel, besides two or three schools. A sepulchral stone of Roman origin, and of elegant design and workmanship, was discovered some time since.
DURISDEER, a parish, in the county of Dumfries; containing, with part of the village of Carronbridge, 1445 inhabitants, of whom 107 are in the village of Durisdeer, 6 miles (N. by E.) from Thornhill. This district, which in ancient times was covered with wood, is supposed to derive its name from duris, signifying a door, and deer, a forest. Several great families have been connected with it, of which the chief are those of Douglas, Stuart, the Menzies of Enock, and the Hunters of Balagan; and the place was formerly celebrated for its castle, which, with the fortresses of Dumfries, Dalswinton, and Morton, was, by an agreement between the English and Scots, demolished, as being troublesome to the former, at the restoration of King David Bruce, who, after being captured at the battle of Durham, had been kept eleven years prisoner in England. The parish is eight miles long and six broad, and contains nearly 20,000 acres; it is almost surrounded by hills, covered with grass, heath, or bent, and the highest of which are the Lowthers, on its northeastern side, which rise 3130 above the level of the sea: the climate is bleak, but dry and healthy. The river Nith runs through the lands, in a direction from north-west to south-east, and besides this important stream, there are five considerable burns, viz., the Enterkin, the Carron, the Hapland, the Maarburn, and the burn at Crarie-Knoll.
The soil in general is loamy, deep, and fertile, in many places inclining to a reddish colour; in some parts it is gravelly and sandy, and occasionally wet and heavy. About 7896 acres are cultivated; 9554 are hillpasture, and 2000 are wood, including 500 acres that are of natural growth: the plantations chiefly consist of hard-woods, in the thinning of which every tree is in course of time removed except the oak. The usual kinds of grain and various green crops are raised of good quality; the cattle are of the Galloway breed, and the sheep the black-faced; the improved system of husbandry is followed, and considerable advances have been made in fencing, the construction of farm-buildings, and the formation of roads. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7901. The rocks in the hills are whinstone or greywacke, and on the low grounds they are chiefly sandstone of a red colour, and very soft, though in some places white, and of a much firmer texture: quarries have been opened for stones adapted for farm-buildings and dykes. Drumlanrig Castle, in the parish, a seat of the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, whose property extends over a very large district in this part of the country, is described under its own head. The village is situated near the eastern boundary of the parish, on the road from Dumfries to Edinburgh. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Penpont and synod of Dumfries; patron, the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry. There is a manse, with a glebe valued at £25 per annum, and the stipend of the minister is £221. The church, erected in 1720, contains a handsome marble monument, representing James, second duke of Queensberry, weeping over the form of his deceased duchess: a vault attached to the church is the burial-place of the family. There are two parochial schools, in which the classics, with the usual branches of education, are taught; the salaries of the masters are respectively £30 and £24, with about £10 fees each, and the accommodation of a house. A third school is carried on in the parish, situated at Enterkinford, and the master receives £10 per annum from the Duke of Buccleuch. About a mile above the church are the vestiges of a Roman camp which appears to have been a summer station connected with the great one at Tibbers, to guard the pass from Lanarkshire.
DURNESS, a parish, in the county of Sutherland, 20 miles (N. W. by W.) from Tongue, and 76 (N. W.) from Golspie, containing 1109 inhabitants. This parish, of which the name is of doubtful origin, anciently comprised the whole of the lands called "Lord Reay's country," a district of 800 square miles in extent, from which, since the year 1724, have been separated the parishes of Tongue on the east, and Eddrachillis on the south-west. The present parish of Durness is bounded on the north by the North Sea, and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, and is about twenty-five miles in length, and twelve in average breadth, comprising, with its several Friths, an area of 300 square miles, of which scarcely one-hundredth part is under cultivation. The surface, which is boldly diversified, and abounds with magnificent scenery, is naturally divided into three mountainous districts, separated from each other by spacious inlets from the North Sea. Of these, the district of Parf, extending from the Atlantic Ocean on the west to the Kyle of Durness, occupies an area of more than seventy square miles; the district of Durness, reaching from the Kyle to the western shore of Loch Eriboll, has an area of about eighty square miles; and the district of Westmoin, extending from the eastern shore of Loch Eriboll to the morass east of Loch Hope, contains nearly 100 square miles. The principal Mountains are, Scribhisbheinn, Faisbheinn, Fairemheall, Creigriabhach, and Bendearg, all in the Parf district, varying in height from 1500 to 2500 feet; Ceannabinn, Meallmeadhonach, Cranstackie, and Ben-Spionnadh in the Durness district, of which Ben-Spionnadh has an elevation of 2566 feet; and Ben-Hope, 3150 feet in height, in the district of Westmoin, which contains also several ranges of lofty and precipitous hills. The valleys are, Strath-Dinard, extending from the Kyle of Durness along the river Grudy for about fourteen miles; Strath-Beg, a narrow fertile vale about two miles in length; and Strathmore, extending from the north base of Ben-Hope, for about six miles, along the banks of the river to which it gives name. The rivers of importance are, the Hope, a continuation of the Strathmore water, which latter has its source in Glen-gollie, and, having run for ten miles, flows into Loch Hope; and the Dinard, which rises in Loch Dinard, and, after a course of ten miles, falls into the Kyle of Durness. Both these rivers, especially when swollen after heavy rains, are impetuous, and afford good fishing for trout, and occasionally for salmon. There are numerous inland lakes, of which the most extensive is Loch Hope, six miles in length, and about half a mile broad. Loch Borley is one mile in length, abounding with char, and in its centre is a beautiful green island; Loch Crospul is about half a mile in length, and has abundance of trout; Loch Dinard and various others are of still less extent.
The coast is generally bold and elevated, and in most parts defended by a chain of rocks, rising precipitously from the sea, to heights varying from 200 to 700 feet, in some places the shore is low and sandy, and at the bay of Balnakiel are hills of shifting sand. The headlands are, Cape Wrath, Farout Head, and Whiten Head. A lighthouse has been erected on the first-named, at an elevation of 350 feet above the level of the sea: the building, which is of granite found near the spot, was commenced under the direction of the lords commissioners in 1827, and is about fifty feet in height, displaying a revolving light alternately red and white, and visible at a distance of twelve nautical miles. Since its completion, wrecks, which were previously frequent, have seldom occurred. Of the friths that intersect the parish, the principal are, the Kyle of Durness, about six miles in length, and one mile in average breadth, and, to the east of this, Loch Eriboll, ten miles long, and varying from one mile to four miles in breadth. The chief bays are, Durness, between the district of Parf and the long promontory of Farout Head; the small bay of Balnakiel, to the east; and the bay of Camisendun, in Loch Eriboll, affording excellent anchorage, and resorted to by vessels unable to double Cape Wrath or enter the Pentland Frith. There are several islands off the coast, of which Garvellan, to the east of the Cape, and about a mile from the shore, is 100 yards long, nearly of equal breadth, and sixty feet high, and is frequented by various species of seafowl. Hoan, near the entrance of Loch Eriboll, is one mile in length, and half a mile in breadth, covered with verdure; and Choaric, within the loch, is of equal dimensions and fertility: in both there are places of sepulture, said to have been originally selected for security from the depredation of wolves which infested the parish. Numerous caverns, also, have been formed in the rocks along the coast by the action of the waves; the most remarkable is Smo, two miles to the east of the church, having natural arches of great height, in some parts 100 feet wide, and abounding with features of romantic character. About a mile from the eastern part of the coast, towards the north, are the rocks called the Stags, of which the summits only are above water; and at some distance from Cape Wrath are others, visible only at neap tides; all of which, previously to the erection of the lighthouse, were frequently fatal to vessels making for the Cape.
Of the small portion of land under Cultivation, the soil is clay or moss, resting on a substratum of limestone and clay, and the crops are, grain of various kinds, and potatoes; but the parish is principally pastoral, and dependent on its fisheries. The cattle are of the Highland breed, and the sheep, with the exception of a few of the black-faced, chiefly of the Cheviot breed. Several tracts of waste have been reclaimed and laid down in pasture, and comfortable cottages have been built on most of the small holdings. The rateable annual value of the parish is £1745. The herring-fishery commences in June, and continues till September; a small kind of herring of superior flavour is found in Loch Eriboll, but is used only for home consumption. In this fishery are engaged ten boats, manned with four men and a boy each, for which the harbour of Rispond affords good accommodation. The lobster-fishery commences in May, and continues till August, and employs six boats, with two men each: when taken the lobsters are kept in a perforated floating-chest, whence they are forwarded weekly in smacks to the London market. Cod and ling are abundant off the coast, but are taken only for domestic use; salmon are found in the river Dinard and in Loch Hope, and the number caught annually, including grilse, averages about 11,000. The cattle and sheep of the parish are sent to Falkirk, and the wool to Liverpool and Hull. The harbours are, Loch Eriboll, affording safe anchorage and ample shelter for vessels of any burthen; Rispond, where a substantial pier has been constructed; and Port Our, near Balnakiel, which is adapted only for boats. A boat-slip, also, has been constructed at Clashcarnach, to the east of the Cape. There are considerable remains of ancient wood, consisting principally of birch, growing in sheltered situations; but no plantations have been formed. At Balnakiel is an ancient mansion-house, formerly the residence of Lord Reay, but now occupied by a sheep farmer: there is no village properly so called, but in various parts are clusters of small houses containing from ten to thirty each. Facility of intercourse has been greatly extended by the Duke of Sutherland, proprietor of the parish; and good roads have been constructed, among which are those from the Kyle of Durness to Cape Wrath, from Loch Eriboll to Tongue, and a line from the west to the east of the parish, thirty-four miles in length round the loch, or crossing the ferry twenty-four miles. A post-office has been established, which has communication with Tongue twice every week. The ecclesiatical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Tongue and synod of Sutherland and Caithness. The minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., of which more than two-thirds are paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum: the patronage is in the Crown. The church, situated within a few yards of the sea-shore, is a plain structure erected in 1619, and containing 300 sittings. In the Eriboll district, about ten miles from the parish church, is a small church in connexion with the Establishment, built in 1804, and containing 100 sittings; divine service is occasionally performed by a missionary supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. There is a place of worship for members of the Free Church. The parochial school is not well attended; the master has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and the fees average £11. A school, also, is maintained in connexion with the Free Church. There are remains of several Picts' houses, of which the most entire is Dornadilla's Tower, at Strathmore, consisting of circular concentric walls, 150 feet in circumference, and nearly twenty feet in height. Robert Donn, the "Burns" of the Highlands, and author of some Gaelic poems, lies interred in the churchyard; and a substantial monument of granite has been erected to his memory.
DUROR, lately a quoad sacra district, in the parish of Lismore and Appin, district of Lorn, county of Argyll, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from Appin; containing 1692 inhabitants. Duror is situated on an arm of the sea, called the Linnhe loch, into which a portion of the land projects in a kind of promontory; on the north is Loch Leven, and on the south stretches Loch Creran. It includes the district of Glencoe, is about twentyeight miles in length, and averages about seven in breadth; but of this extensive area scarcely a twentieth part is under cultivation, the rest being chiefly pasturage for sheep and black-cattle, and very thinly inhabited by shepherds. The greater number of the population are at Glencoe, where, and near the village, are considerable slate works and quarries, of which the material, of a blue colour, and much esteemed, is exported in large quantities to Leith, England, and even America. The surface around Glencoe is in many places wild, mountainous, and romantic, and the vale is celebrated as the birthplace of Ossian, and for the cruel massacre of its unsuspecting inhabitants in 1691. At Ballichulish and Ardsheal are good mansions, the former rather modern, and the latter somewhat ancient. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the controul of the presbytery of Lorn and synod of Argyll; the stipend of the minister is £120, with a manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £1.15.: patron, the Crown. The church, built about 1826, by the parliamentary commissioners, is a plain edifice containing accommodation for 323 persons, and was repaired in 1834. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and there is a Roman Catholic chapel, with an episcopal chapel and a mission church. Two parochial schools are supported, in both of which English and Gaelic, and the first elements of education, are taught; the salaries of the masters respectively are £18 and £8, with about £22 and £10 in fees. A mineral spring here was used for medicinal purposes for some time, but it lately fell into disrepute, and is now quite neglected.
DURRIS, a parish, in the county of Kincardine, 5 miles (E.) from Banchory-Ternan, and 13 (W. S. W.) from Aberdeen; containing 1109 inhabitants. This place is supposed to derive its name, often pronounced Dores, from a Gaelic word signifying a mouth or entrance, which is descriptive of this part as affording a principal entrance into the Highlands. The parish was once a chapelry belonging, as is generally thought, to the ancient order of Knights Templars; but its primitive history is involved in considerable obscurity. The estate of Durris, which extends into the neighbouring parish of Banchory-Ternan, was formerly in the possession of Lord Peterborough, who let it upon lease to the late John Innes, Esq., of Leuchars, near Elgin. On the reduction of this lease by the supreme court, the property came into the hands of the fourth Duke of Gordon, in 1824, as next heir of entail; and by authority of an act of parliament transferring the entail to other lands, the estate was purchased from the last duke by Anthony Mactier, Esq., late of Calcutta, by whom it is at present held. The parish is five and a half miles long, about three and three-quarters broad, and contains about 17,000 acres; it is bounded on the north by the river Dee, which separates it from the parish of Banchory-Ternan, and from Drumoak, in Aberdeenshire; and in the south by the Grampian mountains. The surface is marked by great irregularities, consisting of considerable tracts of flat ground, alternated with abrupt acclivities and the lofty hills of Mindernal, Mountgower, Craigberg, and Cairnmonearn, the last of which rises about 1200 feet above the level of the sea. There are several small rivulets, but the only one worth notice is the Shiach burn, which, after a rapid course of twelve miles, falls into the Dee at the Church.
The soil on the haugh lands by the river side is in some parts a rich and fertile loam, and in others light and sandy; in a few places the soil has a mixture of clay and gravel to a considerable extent, and rests upon a stiff tenacious subsoil: in almost every direction, and even in the cultivated fields, occur enormous masses of stone, generally gneiss. The hills are usually covered with two or three feet of moss and heath, but the naked rocks often protrude; in the hollows at the base is a greater depth of moss, supplying peat in large quantities, and of the best description. Upwards of 4000 acres are under tillage, about 1500 in plantations, and the rest in pasture, moss, and moor, 1000 acres of which are capable of improvement at a moderate expense; oats and barley are the grain raised, and of the green crops turnips and potatoes are the chief. The sheep are the black-faced, and the cattle the black-dodded kind, to which the Ayrshire breed has lately been added. The five and six years' rotations of crops are generally followed; the farm-buildings are in good repair, and drainage and manuring with lime are carefully attended to. The rocks consist principally of granite, whinstone, and gneiss, the last of which is most abundant, and appears to be inexhaustible; there is limestone in several places, but it has never been quarried, and its precise quality is not exactly known. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3778.
The chief seat is the house of Durris, recently built, and connected with a more ancient mansion by an extensive colonnade; both have lately been subject to considerable additions and alterations. There is no village: a turnpike-road runs through the parish for about four miles, leading from Stonehaven to Banchory; a new road from Aberdeen to Banchory, completed in 1840, passes through from east to west, and several cross roads are well adapted to local convenience. Fairs are held in May, June, and September, for the sale of cattle and sheep. There are two or three salmonfisheries in the river, but they have for some time past been decreasing, and are now in a very low condition. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery and synod of Aberdeen; patron, Mr. Mactier. There is a manse, with a glebe of 15 acres, valued at as many pounds per annum, and the stipend of the minister is £158, of which £81 are received from the exchequer. The church, a very plain edifice, was built in the year 1822 by the late proprietor, and accommodates 550 persons with sittings, all free: part of the old church still remains, bearing the date 1537. The members of the Free Church have no place of worship. There is a parochial school, at which Latin is taught, with the usual branches of a plain education; the master has a salary of £29, with £20 fees. Another school, commonly called Hog's Charity School, was instituted by Mr. Hog, a native of the parish, who left £5 per annum to a teacher, who was required to educate gratuitously ten poor children recommended by the Kirk Session. The master has also a small plot of land, given by the late proprietor, and the fees, making in the whole a salary of about £30 a year; and the same branches are taught in this school as in the parochial, Latin excepted. There are some Druidical remains, and tumuli, and several chalybeate springs in the parish: of the last, one, called Red-Beard's Well, from a robber of that name, who is said to have lived in a neighbouring cave, is in considerable repute, and resembles, in many respects, the Harrogate water.
DUTHIL, a parish, chiefly in the county of Elgin, but partly in that of Inverness, 2 miles (N. E. by E.) from Carr-Bridge, including the late quoad sacra district of Rothiemurchus, and containing 1769 inhabitants. This place, which was anciently called Gleannchearnach, or "the heroes' glen," derived its present name from the Gaelic word Tuathil, signifying "north," on the removal of its church from a spot in the south, called Deishal. Rothiemurchus, united to Duthil in 1630, was disjoined in 1824, and formed into a separate ecclesiastical district, which is described under its own head. Exclusively of this portion, which is in Inverness-shire, the parish is wholly situated in the southern part of the county of Elgin, on the north-eastern bank of the Spey, and in a mountainous and thickly-wooded tract, in ancient times an almost impenetrable forest; it was the scene of many deadly feuds between rival chieftains in past ages, and the residence of the powerful Cumyns. This family possessed the principal part of the estates, and for many generations maintained hostilities with the Grants; but the enmity between the clans was ended by the marriage of the heiress of one of the Cumyns to Sir John Grant of Freuchy, the great rival, thereby fixing the property in the family of Grant, with whom it has remained to the present time. Duthil measures in length about sixteen miles, and thirteen in breadth, and comprises a large proportion of uncultivated ground, and of natural wood, consisting chiefly of fir, the part under tillage being of small extent.
The surface presents a hilly, bleak, and dreary aspect, the scenery taking its principal character from extensive moors and mountains, the latter covered with heather, and the whole only occasionally interspersed with patches of grass or corn land. A lofty range traverses the whole northern side, and terminates in the Monadhlia, an imposing chain of mountains common to the districts of Badenoch, Strathdearn, and Stratherrick; and parallel with this, but not of equal height, a ridge passes along the southern portion, bleak and barren like the other. These two ranges skirt the intermediate valley of the Dulnan stream, which takes its rise in the Badenoch hills, and, flowing through the vale from west to east, loses itself in the Spey at Belentomb of Inverallan, and which, though generally small, overflows its banks when swollen after rain or snow, and carries desolation among the neighbouring lands. The forest of Duthil or Dulnanside was destroyed by fire at the beginning of the last century, an event which was the occasion of the final extirpation of the wolves, so long before the terror of the neighbourhood; but there is still a large forest of natural Scotch fir in the northern district, where two saw-mills, of two saws each, erected for the cutting the timber felled in the locality, are turned by the waters of the Dulnan. The lochs are of small extent, but some of them contain fine trout, especially Loch Bhruach, situated on the northern hills; in others are pike; and salmon and trout are taken in the rivers.
The soil near the Dulnan and Spey is chiefly alluvial, upon a deep clayey subsoil, producing in favourable seasons heavy crops of oats; and some of the higher grounds, also, where the soil is thin and gravelly, and intermixed with stones, yield notwithstanding, by the recent improvements in cultivation, and when aided by genial seasons, an ample return in oats, bear, barley, turnips, and potatoes. The system of husbandry has been greatly improved within the last twenty years, and the five-shift course is usually followed; much waste ground has been reclaimed, and the former huts of the farmers, raised with turf, have been succeeded by well-built stone dwellings, neatly thatched with straw. Birch, alder, and fir thrive well in this part, and the first, which grows naturally to a considerable extent, greatly relieves the generally uninteresting scenery: an extensive tract of barren moor was planted by the late Sir James Grant along the northern bank of the Spey, upwards of fifty years since, and the trees are now in a flourishing condition. The rateable annual value of Duthil is £2674. The Highland road between Perth and Inverness passes through the parish; and from the hamlet of Carr-bridge, where a post-office was established in 1836, a road branches off to Grantown: besides the bridge at the hamlet, there is one at Sluggan, built shortly after the year 1745, on the line of road formed under the direction of General Wade, but it has been almost impassable since the flood of 1829. The cattle of the district are sold at neighbouring markets to the south country dealers: the timber cut in the forest is sent mostly to Inverness. The parish is in the presbytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray, and in the patronage of the Earl of Seafield; the minister's stipend is £200, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £5 per annum. The church is a commodious edifice, built in 1826, and accommodating between 800 and 900 persons with sittings, all free: a handsome mausoleum of grey granite has lately been erected over the burialground of the Grant family. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £25. 13., with about £12 or £15 fees, and £32 from the Dick bequest: there is also a school endowed by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, and another is supported by the education scheme of the General Assembly.
DYCE, a parish, in the district and county of Aberdeen, 7 miles (N. N. W.) from Aberdeen; containing 472 inhabitants. This parish was in remote times called the chapelry of St. Fergus, to whom the present church is dedicated; and it is supposed that, with several adjacent parishes, it was formerly connected with the cathedral of Old Machar. It is in extreme length about six miles, and between three and four in breadth, and contains 4667 acres; it is bounded by the parish of Fintray on the north, by that of Newhills on the south and south-west, by Kinellar on the north-west, and by New and Old Machar on the east. The surface, which is not marked by any very striking peculiarities, is in general tolerably level, with the exception of the land in the north-west, whence the broad hill of Tyrebagger, commencing a declivity, slopes towards the south-east for a distance of about three miles, and then loses itself in the plain below. The river Don runs along the northern and eastern boundaries of the parish, and after a further course of a few miles in a south-eastern direction, falls, two miles north of Aberdeen, into the German Ocean: the trout-fishing during the months of March and April is very superior.
The finest soil lies in the low grounds along the banks of the river, and consists of alluvial deposit, producing rich and heavy crops; the soil in the other parts is indifferent, and on the summit of the hill of Tyrebagger poor and thin. The number of acres under cultivation is 2910, under wood 1176, and in waste 581, out of which 237 are considered capable of profitable cultivation. The system of agriculture here followed is a rotation of five, six, or seven years, of which the five years' consists of grain; turnips; bear, and sometimes oats, with clover and rye-grass; hay or pasture; and pasture. Large flocks of sheep were formerly to be seen, but they have been greatly diminished since the inclosures and the plantations in the parish were made, and there are now but a small number kept for home consumption: the cattle are mostly the native Aberdeen, which are frequently crossed with the short-horned breed, and in some grounds these latter are preferred unmixed. The farm-houses are in general good and substantial dwellings, and some of them very superior; the steadings are complete sets of buildings of a quadrangular form, slated, and usually supplied with threshing-mills. On the smaller farms, however, the houses and inclosures are of an inferior description, though in a state of progressive improvement. Great changes have been effected within the last twenty years in improving inferior soils, six or seven hundred acres of which have been successfully treated; and a very large embankment has been raised, as a protection against the destructive inundations of the river Don, the floods of which have recently been much augmented through the multiplication of drains. The rateable annual value of the parish now amounts to £3570.
The prevailing rock in the district is granite; a large supply is obtained from quarries in the hill of Tyrebagger, and stone has at various times been cut for the Bell-rock lighthouse, Sheerness quay, Deptford quay, the West India docks, the custom-house of London, St. Katherine's docks, and new London bridge. Very extensive plantations of Scotch fir and larch have been made on the hill, and are the resort of roe-deer, blackcock, and a good supply of woodcock; but the grouse which were so numerous before the formation of plantations have almost entirely disappeared. On the lower grounds are found partridges, snipe, wild-duck, hares, and rabbits. The inhabitants of the parish are employed chiefly in agriculture and in working in the quarries. The great turnpike-road from Aberdeen to Inverness, via Huntly, runs along the western boundary for about two miles; the turnpike-road from Aberdeen to Banff crosses the eastern quarter; and the centre is intersected by the canal from Aberdeen to Inverury, by which coal, lime, and manure are brought up, and grain and other farm produce sent back, passage-boats plying on it twice a day during summer. Among the mansions are, Caskieben, the seat of Dr. Alexander Henderson, author of a work on wines, and Pitmedden, both modern buildings. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery and synod of Aberdeen. The stipend of the minister is £160, of which nearly a third is drawn from the exchequer; there is a manse, with good offices, built some few years since, and the glebe is valued at £7. 10. per annum; patron, John Gordon Cumming Skene, Esq. The church is an old edifice, of uncertain date, and small and uncomfortable; it stands at the northern extremity of the parish, upon a rocky point formed by a winding of the river Don, and commands a fine view, extending to twenty miles, of the scenery with which the course of that stream is ornamented. There is a parochial school, in which Latin is taught, with the usual branches of education; the master has a salary of £34, fees amounting to about £8, and an allowance from the fund of the late Mr. Dick. The chief relic of antiquity is a Druidical temple situated on the southern slope of Tyrebagger hill, and commanding an extensive view of the sea-coast and the lower grounds; it is formed of ten large pieces of granite, disposed about eight feet distant from each other, in the form of a circle, and rising to the height of from five to ten feet above the ground. Urns have sometimes been discovered. In the churchyard is one of the oblong monumental stones commonly supposed to be of Runic origin, but justly traced to more recent times; among a great variety of other sculpture, it is marked by a cross, forming a prominent object in the graving. Arthur Johnston, of Caskieben, a celebrated Latin scholar, was connected with this place.
Dyke and Moy
DYKE and MOY, a parish, in the county of Elgin, 3 miles (W. by S.) from Forres; containing, with the villages of Kintessack and Whitemyre, 1366 inhabitants, of whom 166 are resident within the village of Dyke. These two ancient parishes, of which the Gaelic names are descriptive of the former as a channel for waters, and of the latter as a level and fertile plain, were united in 1618. The whole is bounded on the north by the Moray Frith, and on the west by the county of Nairn, and comprises about 17,300 acres, of which 3220 are arable, 2800 woodland and plantations, 1300 meadow and pasture, and the remainder waste. The surface is generally undulated within the district of Dyke, which contains the forest of Darnaway towards the south, and the woods of Dalvey and Brodie towards the north. In the district of Moy is a fine extent of level plain, stretching northward to Kincorth, on the western shore of Findhorn loch, towards the lands of Culbin, which at a very early period were overwhelmed with drifts of sand, and are now covered with sand-hills, some having an elevation of 100 feet. The river Findhorn, which, in its course to the sea at Findhorn, forms the eastern boundary of the parish, in 1829 rose to an unusual height, and carried into the bay an immense quantity of sand, which for three square miles diminished its depth by nearly two feet. Several rivulets intersect the parish, and flow into the Findhorn, of which the most considerable is the Muckleburn; they all abound with trout, and afford good sport to the angler, and the salmon-fishery in the Findhorn is of considerable value. The coast throughout the entire extent of the parish for about six miles is shallow and sandy: there are numerous beds of cockles, which not only afford an abundant supply for sustenance to the poor, but are sold by the women through the adjoining district, making a return of more than £100 per annum, on the average.
The soil on the level lands is a rich brown and black loam, generally light, and easily cultivated; and in other parts of the parish are alternations of sand and gravel. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, turnips, and potatoes, with the usual grasses; the system of agriculture is in an improved state, and furrow-draining has been tried with success upon some of the farms: lime, marl, and bone-dust have been extensively adopted for manure. The lands, however, are only partly inclosed, and the farm-buildings, though more commodious than formerly, are susceptible of still greater improvement; there are sixteen threshing-mills, the greater number worked by horses. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5942. The woods, which are extensive, are oak, ash, beech, elm, birch, horse-chesnut, sycamore, and alder; and in the forest of Darnaway much valuable timber is raised and sold for shipbuilding and other purposes. The plantations, which are well managed and in a thriving state, consist of larch, and spruce and Scotch firs; and there are several flourishing orchards in the parish. The substrata are principally old red sandstone, with gneiss and granite; there is coarse limestone, containing schist and pyrites of iron; and occasionally some lead-ore is found, but not in sufficient quantity to encourage the working of it.
Darnaway Castle, one of the seats of the Earl of Moray, situated on a gentle eminence, and surrounded by an extensive and richly-wooded park, has been recently enlarged and improved. In one of the wings, in the more ancient part of the building, is a noble hall eighty-nine feet in length, and thirty-five feet wide, with a lofty roof of timber frame-work, built by Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, regent of Scotland during the minority of David Bruce, and in which are still preserved his hospitable table and chair of old carved oak: in this splendid hall the late earl gave a sumptuous entertainment to his tenantry in 1839. Brodie House is an ancient castellated mansion, to which extensive additions in a corresponding style of architecture have been made by the present proprietor, and is situated in grounds that have been tastefully embellished; the ceiling of the drawing-room is laid out in compartments ornamented with grotesque figures of stucco in high relief, and in the various rooms is a valuable collection of paintings. Dalvey House, situated on a knoll overlooking the Muckleburn, and nearly occupying the site of the castle of Dalvey, is a handsome modern mansion; the gardens, which are extensive, and kept in fine order, are open to public inspection. The houses of Moy and Kincorth are also good residences.
The village of Dyke is beautifully situated in a secluded spot embosomed in trees: facility of communication is afforded by the great post-road from Aberdeen to Inverness, which passes through the parish, and by other good roads that intersect it in all directions, by bridges over the several burns, and by an elegant suspension-bridge over the Findhorn, which connects the parish with Forres, the nearest post-town. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Forres and synod of Moray. The minister's stipend is £244. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16. 13.; patrons, the Crown and James M. Grant, Esq., of Moy. The church, conveniently situated in the village, is a neat structure erected in 1781, in good repair, and containing 900 sittings, all of which are rent free. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £30 per annum, besides which he receives £44 from the Dick bequest: there is also a female school in the village, under a teacher who has a house and garden, with a small endowment in money. In the park of Brodie House is a stone on one side of which is sculptured a cross, and on the other several fabulous animals; it was discovered in digging the foundation for the church, and was erected in the village in commemoration of Rodney's victory, and thence called Rodney's Cross, but was removed to its present situation within the last few years. In sinking the same foundations, a labourer, who had contrived to keep the discovery a secret from his companions, found in an earthen pot a large number of silver coins of the reign of William the Lion of Scotland, of which many had been struck at Stirling, and some of Henry II. of England, all which he sold by weight for £46. About the year 1822 there was dug out of a steep bank on the Findhorn a large stone coffin containing a human skeleton.
DYSART, a burgh, seaport town, and parish, in the district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife; including the villages of Boreland and Gallatown, the late quoad sacra parish of Pathhead, and part of that of Thornton; and containing 7591 inhabitants, of whom 1885 are in the town, 2 miles (E.) from Kirkcaldy, and 14 (N. by E.) from Edinburgh. This place appears to have retained its original name, which in the Gaelic language signifies the "Temple of the Most High," from its rise to the present time. The earliest event upon record connected with it is the invasion of Fife by the Danes, towards the close of the ninth century, when, bringing their fleet to anchor in the Frith of Forth, they landed on the coast of this parish, and marching into the interior, were opposed by the natives, who, assembling to obstruct their progress, gave them battle in a field about a mile to the north of the town. To commemorate this occurrence, a large stone was erected in the centre of the field of battle, which still points out the spot. Few particulars of historical importance have been preserved to throw any light upon the origin and progress of the town; the records of the burgh, and other ancient documents in the possession of the Sinclair family, were burnt in 1715, when the mansion of Lord Sinclair was destroyed by an accidental fire. The castle of Ravenscraig, a little to the west of the town, was, together with the adjoining lands, granted by James III. to William Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, on his resignation of that title, and has ever since been in the possession of the family: here Lord Sinclair used to hold his baronial court, and the castle continued to be a residence till the Restoration, after which it was suffered to fall into decay, and it is now a ruin of romantic appearance, seated on a steep rock overlooking the sea.
The town, which is of great antiquity, and was once the principal trading port on this part of the coast, comprises three narrow streets diverging from an open area in the centre, in which is situated the town-hall; and still retains much of its original character. The high street consists of substantial houses of antique appearance, some till lately having in front piazzas, under which the merchants and dealers formerly sold their wares. Extensive salt-works appear to have been established here at a very early period, from which, about the middle of the fifteenth century, not only the chief towns in Scotland were supplied, but also great quantities were exported to Holland. From that period the trade of the town and port continued to flourish for two or three centuries; malting and brewing were carried on to a considerable extent; large quantities of merchandise of every description were regularly exposed for sale, and the high street and the square were thronged with merchants. Its port was crowded with shipping, and its foreign and domestic commerce advanced beyond that of any other town in this part. This state of prosperity lasted till the Union, after which it began to decline; its port was almost deserted, its trade with foreign coasts nearly annihilated, and its manufactures greatly diminished. From this depression, however, it in some degree recovered, though it is far from having regained its former importance; a manufactory of nails was established in the town, in which, till within the last forty or fifty years, about 100 persons were constantly employed, and the quantity of nails annually made was valued at £2000. Many of them, used in ship-building, were sent to Edinburgh, Glasgow, and the principal towns in the north, but for some years this branch of trade has been declining, and it is at present only carried on to a very limited extent. The manufacture of linen-cloth has also greatly diminished; but one branch of it still continues to flourish. The chief trade now pursued is the manufacture of checks and ticking, which was established about a century since, and has been uniformly increasing; 2000 looms are constantly in use; the number of yards annually produced is more than 31,000,000, and the value above £150,000. This trade affords employment to about 5000 persons; the articles are sent to London, Manchester, Liverpool, Nottingham, Leeds, and other places, and likewise to the Cape of Good Hope and the East and West Indies. A mill for spinning flax was erected some years since, in which about 100 persons are engaged; and there is a pottery of stone-ware, affording employment to a nearly equal number; also a small ropewalk.
The business of the Port consists chiefly in the exportation of coal and ironstone from the pits in the parish, and in the importation of flax and other goods from Holland and the Baltic. There are eight vessels of the aggregate burthen of 638 tons belonging to the port; and the number of vessels that entered during a recent year, to deliver or receive cargoes, was eighty-seven, of the aggregate burthen of 5296 tons. The harbour, from the ill construction of the eastern pier, was once exceedingly dangerous, and the swell so great as to subject the vessels sheltering in it to damage. It was proposed to take down that pier, and to rebuild it in a new direction, which, according to the opinion of several eminent engineers, would not only remedy the evil, but render this one of the most commodious harbours on the coast; but, as the expense of the improvement would have been beyond the means possessed by the town, it was resolved merely to convert a quarry adjoining it into a wet-dock, which has answered the purpose admirably. The depth of water in the new dock, which adjoins the western pier, is eighteen feet at spring-tides; and it is capacious enough to hold seventeen or eighteen vessels of moderate tonnage, which may ride in perfect safety, in addition to what the harbour would formerly accommodate. A patent-slip has likewise been constructed, at a considerable expense, for repairing ships; and ship-building is also carried on upon a large scale. Two steam-boats ply regularly between this place and Newhaven; a sailing-packet leaves the port without fail every day for Leith, and another for Dundee occasionally. Fairs were formerly held six times in the year, for the sale of wool, white cloth, linseed, and black-cattle; they were attended by numerous merchants from Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Stirling, but have of late been altogether discontinued. Two subscription libraries have been established; and there are also a mechanics' library, one exclusively for religious publications, and two public reading-rooms, which are well attended.
The town was made a Burgh of barony by Lord Sinclair, and there is still extant the copy of a summons issued from Ravenscraig Castle to the bailies, and commanding their appearance at his baronial court. It was afterwards erected into a royal burgh by charter of Charles II., and the government was vested in two bailies, a treasurer, and a council of twenty-one burgesses; but in consequence of an error in the election of the council in 1831, the burgh was disfranchised by judgment of the court of session, who appointed three managers to take charge of its affairs, by whom, from the impossibility of electing a council subsequently, the concerns of the town are still administered. The jurisdiction of the magistrates extends to the bounds of the royalty. The treasurer and the town-clerk, who acts also as assessor, and the other officers, are at present appointed by the managers; the bailies act as justices of the peace for the royalty, and hold a court for the determination of civil actions, but in 1831 only four civil cases were brought before it for decision, and there is no record of any criminal cases whatever. Burgesses and freemen residing within the burgh are exempt from one-third of the dues paid by strangers on the landing of goods at the quay. Dysart, by the act of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV., unites with Kirkcaldy, Kinghorn, and Burntisland, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the right of election is vested in the resident householders of the annual value of £10 and upwards, the number of whom within the limits of the municipal burgh is thirty-two, the chief of them being burgesses. The number of £10 householders without the municipal, but within the parliamentary limits, is 124; and the whole number of voters at a late election was 106. The town-hall is a plain substantial building of stone, with a tower surmounted by a spire; it was originally erected in 1617, and contains a spacious hall for the transaction of municipal affairs, a guard-house, weighhouse, and prison. During the civil war in the reign of Charles I., the former building was converted into a barrack by Cromwell's soldiers, one of whom entering the magazine with a lighted match, the powder exploded, and reduced the whole building to ruins, in which state it remained for some years, till it was rebuilt.
The parish, situated on the Frith of Forth, is about four miles in length, and three in breadth, and comprises 3054 Scottish acres, of which about 400 are natural woods and plantations, and the remainder arable land in good cultivation. The coast, which extends for about two miles, is abrupt and rugged, and marked in several parts with rocks of considerable elevation. The surface rises gradually towards the north, and in the more level tracts is enlivened by two small rivers, the Oar and the Lochty, of which the former has its source in the parish of Dunfermline, and, receiving in its course two streams issuing respectively from the lochs of Fittie and Gellie, flows in an eastern direction into the river Leven in the parish of Markinch. The Lochty rises in the parish of Kinglassie, and falls into the Oar at a short distance from the influx of that stream into the Leven. The soil is in general fertile, and the substratum abounds in mineral wealth; the most improved system of husbandry is adopted, and much waste land has been reclaimed, and brought into cultivation. The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, and turnips, of which large quantities are raised for the supply of the neighbouring markets. Great attention is paid to live stock: there are, however, very few sheep; the cattle are generally of the Fifeshire, Ayrshire, and Teeswater breeds; the rearing of horses is an object of particular solicitude, and many fine specimens are produced. The plantations, of which more than 300 acres are on the property of the Earl of Rosslyn, are chiefly fir, oak, and elm, which are well managed and very thriving; the lands are inclosed, and the fences kept in good repair; the farm-buildings and offices, also, are very superior. The rateable annual value of the parish is £10,775. The SUBSTRATA are, limestone, which is extensively quarried for agricultural and other purposes; sandstone, which, though inferior in appearance, is notwithstanding of good quality; claystone, worked on a ?large scale for pavements, hearths, and other uses; ?coal, of which there are not less than fourteen beds on the estate of the Earl of Rosslyn; and ironstone, which is found below the coal, of excellent quality, producing about twelve hundred weight of iron from every ton. Most of the beds of coal are thin; but three of them, lying above each other, are now being worked, of which the uppermost is five, the next eight, and the lowest five feet in thickness. The pits are sunk to a depth of seventy fathoms, and produce an abundant supply: the coal is slow in burning, but throws out an intense heat; it was among the first that was wrought in Scotland, and there are the remains of some exhausted mines that are supposed to have been in operation more than three centuries since. Five beds of ironstone are worked a little to the westward of the coal-mines, where it lies nearer to the surface; it is wrought on an extensive scale, and the produce is shipped to Carron, for the supply of the foundries of that place. The landed proprietors of the parish, by the encouragement they have given to improvements of every kind, have contributed greatly to its prosperity: the Earl of Rosslyn occasionally resides here, in a mansion situated a little westward of the town, commanding an extensive view of the Frith and the richly-varied scenery of the adjacent country. The house is spacious, and of handsome appearance, and the grounds are extensive, and finely planted with ornamental timber and forest trees, of which many are of stately growth.
The parish is ecclesiastically in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife; patron, the Earl of Rosslyn. The church being collegiate, there are two incumbents; the stipend of the first is £265. 10., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £21. 8. per annum; the stipend of the second minister is £207. 11., without either manse or glebe. The church, erected in 1802, is a neat and substantial edifice situated at one extremity of the town, and is adapted for a congregation of 1600 persons. A church was erected by subscription in the village of Pathhead within the last twenty years, at an expense of £3000; and the parish has for ecclesiastical purposes been divided by the presbytery, and one division allotted to each of the parochial ministers. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the Relief, and Antiburghers. A subscription school was lately erected, forming a great ornament to the town, from the elegance of its design. The Burgh school, which is also the parochial school, affords a liberal course of instruction, but from its situation is accessible only to residents in the town; the master, who is elected by the town-council, has a salary of £43 per annum, arising partly from the funds of the burgh, and partly from the interest of money bequeathed for that purpose, with £50 school fees, and an allowance in lieu of a house and garden. There is an endowed school at Pathhead, the master of which has a good salary for teaching 150 children reading, writing, and arithmetic; also one in Boreland, of which the master has £8 per annum, with a school-room and dwelling-house rent free, and a supply of coal. The parish contains several religious societies, the principal of which are, a Bible and missionary association which gives part of its income to the Gaelic and Hibernian Societies; a Sabbath-evening school society; and a society for the education of children, which pays one-half of the school fees for the children of such parents as are willing to pay the other half. There is a society for the support of indigent and aged females, which appropriates about £40 annually to that purpose. Three friendly societies, also, belonging respectively to maltmen, bakers, and sailors, have been established in the town for more than two centuries; and their funds, which are ample, are exclusively appropriated to the relief of poor members. In the south part of the town are the remains of an ancient chapel dedicated to St. Dennis; parts of the old walls are standing, but the building itself has been converted into a forge. Near the site of this chapel are the remains of the old church, which appears to have been a venerable structure, the porch and the tower bearing evidence of great antiquity; the former has a groined roof of stone, and above the door are two sculptured stones, one of which seems to have been a pedestal for a statue, probably of the tutelar saint. Nearly in the centre of the harbour is a high rock called the Fort, and supposed to have been fortified by the troops of Cromwell during the parliamentary war; but no traces of any military works are visible. On the lands of Carberry farm the Romans are said to have had a camp, though no vestiges are at present discernible; and about a mile to the west of the town are the Red rocks, concerning which many traditionary stories are current. Robert Beatson, who obtained an ensigncy in 1756, and was present at the taking of Martinique and Guadaloupe, was born in this parish; he was distinguished as the author of a Political Index to the History of Great Britain and Ireland, a chronological register of both houses of parliament, and other works. Dysart gives the title of Earl to the family of Tollemache; the first earl was son of the Rev. William Murray, incumbent of the parish, and acted a conspicuous part in the reign of Charles I.