A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.
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ROSS, LITTLE, an isle, in the parish of Borgue, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 4 miles (S. by W.) from Kirkcudbright. This is a very small islet situated at the mouth of the bay or sound of Kirkcudbright, the entrance between it and the eastern shore being about a mile and a half across; it is safe and bold on both sides; and there is here a secure and commodious harbour. The island being deemed an eligible site for a lighthouse, one was commenced, in 1840, by the Commissioners of Northern Lights; and it has proved of considerable advantage to vessels navigating the Solway Frith. Fine views are had from the isle.
ROSSIE, or Inch-Brayock, an island, in the parish of Craig, county of Forfar; containing 152 inhabitants. This is a small isle, at the mouth of the South Esk, near Montrose, with which place it is connected on the north by a magnificent suspension-bridge; and on the southern side is a drawbridge, allowing a free navigation at high-water in the basin of Montrose for vessels of moderate burthen. The island is now included within the burgh of Montrose by the boundary act, and will, in a few years, become a suburban appendage to that town. On the east point of Rossie is a drydock. Here was anciently the parochial church; hence the name Inch-Brayock, in the Gaelic Inis Breic, the "Church or Chapel Island." The spot is still occupied as the parish burial-place.
Rossie and Inchture
ROSSKEEN, a parish, in the Mainland district of the county of Ross and Cromarty, 13 miles (N. E.) from Dingwall; containing, with the villages of Bridgend, Invergordon, and Saltburn, 3222 inhabitants, of whom 1482 are in the rural district. This place is supposed to have derived its name, in the Gaelic language signifying "meeting," from the junction of the districts of Easter and Wester Ross on the western boundary of the parish. Rosskeen is washed on the south by the Frith of Cromarty, and is nearly thirty miles in length and about twelve miles in extreme breadth, comprising a large extent of Highland country. The surface is level towards the coast, from which, for almost four miles, it rises with a gentle acclivity towards the north-west; and it is aftewards diversified with numerous hills, of which the highest, Cairn-Coinneag, has an elevation of 3000 feet above the level of the sea. In the inland portion of the parish is the extensive vale of Strathrusdale, chiefly affording pasturage for sheep. The rivers are, the Rorie, or Balnagowan, which has its source within the parish, and flows into the bay of Nigg; and the Alness, which bounds the parish on the west, and falls into the Frith of Cromarty. There are four lakes, the largest of which is half a mile in length, and of which Loch Achnacloich is remarkable for the beauty of the sequestered and richly-wooded glen where it is situated. The soil in the low lands is partly light and gravelly, partly a rich loam, and partly a deep strong clay; in the central portion of the parish is a very wide bed of shell-marl, and in other parts extensive tracts of moss in which are found large quantities of fir and oak deeply imbedded. About 4000 acres are arable, 3000 woodland and plantations, and the remainder chiefly mountain pasture and waste; the crops are, wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, peas, and turnips. The system of husbandry has within the last few years been much improved; and a powerful stimulus is afforded by the shows held annually at Invergordon, for awarding prizes for the best specimens of live-stock and the finest samples of grain. Great quantities of waste land have been reclaimed and brought into cultivation; the farm houses and offices are in general of superior order, and all the more recent improvements in the construction of implements have been adopted. The cattle reared are chiefly of the Highland black-breed, with cows of the Ayrshire and Buchan on the dairy-farms, and a few of the Teeswater, lately introduced; the sheep are usually of the Cheviot, with a few of the black-faced, breed. A large number of swine are also fed.
The plantations, which are in a very thriving state, are principally fir and larch, with elm, beech, oak, ash, plane, and lime; and there are considerable remains of ancient wood, of which beautiful specimens, of venerable growth, are found on the lands of Ardross, belonging to the Duke of Sutherland. The substrata are generally of the old red sandstone formation, of which there is an extensive quarry on the banks of the river Alness. The principal seat is Invergordon Castle, of which the greater portion was destroyed by an accidental fire, and the remaining portion is inhabited by the family of the Mc Leods; the grounds are extensive and tastefully laid out, and contain some fine specimens of ancient timber. Kincraig House is also a pleasant residence. The manufacture of coarse canvass for bagging affords employment to about thirty persons, and some of the females are employed in spinning. Fairs are held at Invergordon annually; and facility of communication is afforded by good roads, and by steamers which ply at the harbour of Invergordon. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6689. Its ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Tain and synod of Ross: the minister's stipend is £156, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10. 10. per annum; patrons, the family of Hay Mackenzie. The church, which is situated in the centre of the parish, was erected in 1833, and is a spacious and substantial structure containing 1360 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average £12 per annum. There are also a school in the village of Saltburn, supported by the Edinburgh Gaelic Society, who allow the master a salary of £20; a school of which the master has a salary of £15, supported by the Inverness Education Society; and two Sabbath schools. In the parish are several cairns, in which have been found skulls and human bones of large size: one, called Carna-nam-Fiann, is supposed to have reference to the times of Fingal. Mr. Charles Mackintosh, the inventor of the process for rendering cloth waterproof, was a native of this place.
ROTHES, a parish, partly in the county of Banff, but chiefly in that of Elgin; containing 1843 inhabitants, of whom 946 are in the village, 8½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Fochabers. This place in 1782 received a considerable augmentation by the annexation of a part of the suppressed parish of Dundurcus, the remaining portion being united to the parish of Boharm, on the east side of the Spey. It stretches in length about nine or ten miles along the river, which here has several picturesque windings; and measures about three miles in average breadth; comprising 13,440 acres, of which 7450 are cultivated or in pasture, 2250 under plantations, and the remainder in its natural state. The surface is highly diversified, consisting of level tracts lying adjacent to the river, and well cultivated, and a series of irregular elevations of different height. These latter form throughout the district a kind of barrier inclosing the lower grounds on all sides, and contain extensive plantations, and large tracts of moor and moss, affording abundance of good fuel, and natural pasturage for cattle and numerous flocks of sheep. The land near the river is intersected by the terminating points of several hills, separating it into four distinct haughs or detached plains, called Dandaleith, Rothes, Dundurcus, and Orton, which have a rich and fertile soil of alluvial earth, and deposits of clay, gravel, and sand, or deep loam, and produce fine crops of oats, barley, and wheat. Along the base of the hills, the soil is sharp and gravelly; and in the more elevated parts, much intermixed with moss. At the northern extremity of the parish, the Duke of Richmond has the district of Inchberry, covering 835 acres; two-thirds are moor, and the soil altogether of inferior quality. On the east side of the river, in the county of Banff, projecting from the hill of Beneagen, is the estate of Aikenway, of peninsular form, and divided into two farms and a small croft. Besides the cultivated tracts adjacent to the Spey, portions of the hills have been brought under profitable tillage; and the Glen of Rothes, a defile skirted on each side by lofty mountains, and through which passes the road from Elgin, contains several farms producing heavy crops of grain.
The improvements introduced chiefly comprise the rotation system of cropping, and the extensive use of lime manure; many tracts of waste ground have been reclaimed, and the harvests are in general early, being favoured by the shelter, on one side, of the high hills of the parish, and on the other by the mountain of Beneagen. The substrata consist mainly of granite, of which blocks varying in size are scattered over the surface; in the neighbourhood of the mountain streams are found hard sandstone, and mica-slate imbedded in granite. At the southern extremity of the parish is the celebrated rock of the Lower Craigellachie, formed of immense masses of quartz; and between this and the village of Rothes is the eminence of Conerock, composed of the same material, and exhibiting, when broken, beautiful specimens of rock-crystal, formerly much in demand. The rateable annual value of Rothes is £3824. The wood consists chiefly of larch and Scotch fir, many trees of which are seen in a very thriving condition, and of full growth, around Orton House, the principal mansion in the parish, situated on a pleasant eminence nearly a mile from the river. The house of Auchinroath, a commodious residence, is ornamented with large plantations of larch and Scotch fir; and in many parts are clumps and belts, in addition to those already named, consisting of oak, beech, ash, elm, and other trees. The village, containing a population of 946 persons, is the property of the Earl of Seafield, the chief proprietor of the parish, and is situated on a pleasant spot surrounded by lofty hills; it was commenced in 1766, and the land let out on leases of two-nineteen years, and the life-rent, thereafter, of the possessor. Each tenement occupies the eighth part of an acre; the annual rent is ten shillings, and attached to each is an acre or two separately rented, which, being of good quality, assists the occupant in obtaining a comfortable livelihood.
The inhabitants are chiefly mechanics and agricultural labourers, no business being carried on in the parish in the form of manufacture, except the production of rough blanketing to a small extent. A few persons, also, are engaged during the season in the salmonfishery carried on in the Spey; and others in a large distillery recently erected, in which between 30,000 and 40,000 gallons of whisky are annually made. The Elgin road runs through the district; and a road branches off at the village, leading to Garmouth. Three fairs are held annually for the sale of black-cattle and for general business, respectively on the third Thursday in April, the third Wednesday in July, and the third Wednesday in October. The parish is in the presbytery of Aberlour and synod of Moray, and the patronage belongs to the Earl of Seafield and the Crown: the minister's stipend is £159, of which nearly a fourth is paid by the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe of nearly twenty acres, that of Dundurcus having been annexed. The church is a plain structure, situated in the centre of the village. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction in the ordinary branches; the master has a salary of £34. 4., augmented by an allowance from the Dick bequest, with a house, £26. 5. fees, and the interest of £500 left recently by Dr. J. Simpson, a native of the parish. A savings' bank was established about the year 1840. Near the village are the remains of the wall belonging to an ancient fortified castle, once the seat of the earls of Rothes; and on the south side, at a short distance, are the vestiges of a burial-ground formerly attached to the chapel, of which latter nothing exists. A little further is the Chapel well, highly celebrated in Roman Catholic times. About two miles from the village of Rothes is the ruin of the old church of Dundurcus, with its burial-ground, inclosed with a substantial wall built a few years since at the cost of Dr. Simpson.
ROTHESAY, a royal burgh, a sea-port, the countytown, and a parish, in the county of Bute, 89 miles (W. by S.) from Edinburgh; containing, exclusive of the new civil parish of North Bute, and the village of PortBannatyne, 6056 inhabitants, of whom 5789 are in the burgh. This place, anciently called Cill-a-Bruic, or "the church of St. Brock," derived its present name Rothesay, signifying in the Gaelic language "the King's Seat," from a castle erected here about the year 1092, by Magnus, King of Norway, to secure the conquest he had recently made of the Western Isles. The castle, around which a small town had arisen, belonged to the family of the Mac Rodericks in the reign of Alexander III., and was then burnt by the Norwegians under Haco, who made himself master of it, after a loss of 300 men on the part of the garrison: it did not, however, remain long in his possession, being retaken upon the defeat of his forces by Alexander III. at the battle of Largs in 1263. During the reign of John Baliol it was seized by the English, who in 1311 surrendered it to Robert the Bruce. The castle was subsequently taken by Edward Baliol, who fortified it, and kept possession of it till its capture by Robert II., who made it occasionally his residence during the years 1376 and 1381. Robert III. in 1398 assembled a council at Scone, and created his son, David, Earl of Carrick, Duke of Rothessy; and in 1401 he conferred upon the town all the privileges of a royal burgh. In the reign of James III. the dukedom of Rothesay, which was the first ducal dignity in Scotland, was made hereditary in the heir apparent to the throne, who at his birth, or immediately on his father's accession, becomes Prince and Steward of Scotland, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Lord of the Isles, and Baron Renfrew.
The family of Bute, who were hereditary keepers of the castle, continued to reside in it till 1685, when it was besieged and taken during the civil wars by the Marquess of Argyll, by whom it was burnt. The remains, which are inclosed within a circular wall defended by four round towers, are more remarkable for their great strength than for their style of architecture or their picturesque appearance. After its various devastations, the town gradually recovered its original importance, and became a place of considerable trade, and the chief mart for the exchange of their respective commodities between the Highlanders and the Lowlanders. It continued to increase in prosperity till the year 1700, when, on the erection of Campbelltown, to which place many of its inhabitants removed, it began to decay; and in 1760 nearly one half of the houses had been deserted, and suffered to fall into ruin. In this languishing state it remained till 1765, when, a customhouse being erected, it was made the principal port for the landing of all colonial produce previously to its being shipped for Ireland. The subsequent establishment of the herring-fishery, and the introduction of the cotton-manufacture by an English company, greatly contributed to its prosperity; and it rapidly increased in extent and population.
The town is beautifully situated at the head of the bay of Rothesay, in the Frith of Clyde, on the east side of the Island of Bute; and consists of several spacious and well-formed streets, where of the principal are, Highstreet, Montague-street, Princes-street, Argyll-street, and Bishop-street, from which various smaller streets diverge in different directions. The houses generally are substantial, and well built of stone; and along the shores of the bay are numerous handsome mansions and pleasant villas. The streets are lighted with gas, and the inhabitants amply supplied with water from wells in the town. The facilities for seabathing afforded by the beach, and the discovery of a sulphuretted spring of great efficacy, have rendered this a fashionable watering-place; and during the summer months the town is resorted to by numerous visiters, for whose accommodation there are lodging-houses and comfortable inns. The Rothesay Public Subscription Library, established in 1792, has a collection of 1500 volumes; the Rothesay Youths' Library, established in 1818, has about 1200 volumes. Two public reading and news rooms are supported by subscription, and are regularly supplied with journals and periodical publications; and in connection with the Farmers' Society, instituted in 1825, a periodical called The Bute Record of Rural Affairs is published in the town. The society, also, has a library of works on agriculture.
The principal manufacture is that of cotton, for which there is a spinning-mill, driven by water collected for the purpose in reservoirs, and in which 355 persons are engaged. Two power-loom factories afford employment to many persons. There are also distilleries, tanneries, yards for ship and boat building, works for the making of nets, several cooperages, and various handicraft trades; and a considerable number of people are occupied in the West Highland and northern herring-fisheries, and in the curing of fish, of which 20,000 barrels are annually cured. The trade of the port consists chiefly in the exportation of cloth, leather, barley, potatoes, turnips, and other agricultural produce, herrings, and white-fish; the imports are, cotton, hides, grain, coal, lime, salt, barrel staves, and freestone. The number of vessels belonging to the port is fifty-eight, of the aggregate burthen of 3000 tons, and navigated by nearly 300 men; and a large number of boats, also, are employed in the fisheries. The harbour is safe, and accessible to vessels of 300 tons: the approach is facilitated by a lighthouse at the entrance of the bay, and is defended by a battery on the shore, mounted with several pieces of cannon. Five steam-boats ply between this place and Glasgow, varying from eighty to 100 tons' burthen each, and from fifty to seventy horse power: there are likewise two steam-boats employed in the Greenock traffic.
By charter of Robert III., confirmed by one of James VI. in 1594, the government of the burgh is vested in a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and twelve councillors. There are no incorporated guilds; and the only privileges of the burgesses are, freedom to trade within the burgh; and exemption from one-half of the customs paid by strangers. The fees for admission are, for strangers as merchant-burgesses £3. 3., and as artificers £2. 2.; and for the sons and sons-in-law of burgesses, one-half only of those sums. The magistrates have civil jurisdiction within the burgh to any amount; their criminal decisions are limited to petty offences. As the county-town, the sheriff's and commissary's courts are held here. The magistrates of the burgh formerly had an admiralty jurisdiction extending over the whole coasts of the county of Bute; but since 1820 it has been discontinued. The original town-hall, in the Watergate, becoming ruinous, another was erected in 1614, in Castle-street, almost contiguous; and in 1832 the present building, occupying the sites of both, was raised at an expense of £4000. It is a handsome structure in the castellated style, with an elegant tower in which are two illuminated dials; and contains the courts for the sheriff, magistrates of the burgh, and county justices of the peace, and a spacious hall for the transaction of the public business of the town and county, in which is a portrait of the Marquess of Bute. The buildings comprise also the gaol for the county, which is under excellent regulations. The burgh was formerly associated with those of Ayr, Campbelltown, Inverary, and Irvine, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; but since the Reform act, it has been thrown into the county. The post-office has two or three deliveries daily from Greenock and Glasgow; and branches of the Royal, Western, and Clydesdale Banks have been established in the town. The market is on Wednesday, and fairs are held annually on the first Wednesday in May, the third Wednesday and the following day in July, and the last Wednesday in October. Facility of communication is afforded by roads kept in excellent repair by statute labour and contributions from the Marquess of Bute and others, and which are consequently free of toll.
The parish once included the larger portion of the Isle of Bute, and was bounded on the north-east and north-west by the Kyles of Bute, which separated it from the county of Argyll; on the east by the Frith of Clyde; and on the west by the sea, which divided it from Arran. It extends, inclusively of North Bute, recently made a distinct parish, for nearly ten miles in extreme length, and is about three miles in average breadth; thus comprising 20,530 acres, of which 6605 are arable, 3652 meadow and pasture, 724 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill pasture, moor, and waste. The surface, which is generally hilly, is intersected with two beautiful and fertile vales; one extending from Rothesay bay, on the east, to the bay of Scalpsie on the west; and the other, to the north of the former, from Kames bay to the bay of Etterick. The highest of the hills is Kames hill, which has an elevation of 875 feet above the level of the sea; the only others of any importance are Barone and Common hills, respectively 530 and 430 feet high. They all command extensive and richly diversified prospects. There are no rivers; but several lakes are scattered over the surface, whereof the largest is Loch Fadd, of which the western shore is richly wooded, and on which is a picturesque house called Kean's Cottage, built by the tragedian of that name. The coast, about thirty miles in circuit, is indented with several bays: the principal are, Rothesay and Kames bays on the east; and Scalpsie, St. Ninian's (opposite to which is the island of Inch-Marnock), and the bay of Etterick, all three on the west. The shore is chiefly shelving rock, and gravelly.
The soil on the more elevated lands is generally shallow, in some places light, and in others a stiff retentive clay alternated with moss; in the valleys, a rich alluvial loam of great fertility; and in other parts, moor and moss. On the shore of St. Ninian's bay is a valuable bed of rich marl. The crops are, grain of all kinds, potatoes, turnips, and the various grasses: the system of husbandry has been carried to great perfection under the auspices of the Marquess of Bute, and through the stimulus afforded by the Bute Farmers' Society, who hold regular meetings for the distribution of prizes. The lands have been drained and inclosed, and much of the waste brought into cultivation; the farm houses and offices are substantial and well arranged, and numerous neat cottages have been built by the marquess on the farms of his tenants, for the labourers, each of whom has attached an allotment of land. Great attention is paid to the dairy, and the cheese made here is equal in quality to the best Dunlop, and brings an equal price in the market; the cows are chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, and considerable numbers of cattle and sheep are reared in the pastures. The plantations are mostly oak, ash, elm, beech, larch, and fir; and in the grounds of Kames Castle are some stately planes and chesnut-trees. The rocks are composed of red sandstone and conglomerate; and the substrata, to the north of Rothesay bay, are mica, clay, and chlorite slates, traversed by veins of trap and quartz. The rateable annual value of the parish, including North Bute, is £13,823. Kames Castle, the seat of James Hamilton, Esq., consists of an ancient and lofty tower to which a handsome modern mansion has been added, and is finely situated at the head of the bay of that name, in grounds richly embellished. Mount Stuart, the splendid seat of the Marquess of Bute, is not more than about five miles distant, in the parish of Kingarth.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dunoon and synod of Argyll. The minister's stipend is £276. 1. 3., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum; patron, the Marquess. The parish church, a plain structure erected in 1796, is in good repair, and contains 955 sittings. A second church, to which a district comprising a population of 2457 persons was assigned as a quoad sacra parish, by act of the General Assembly, in 1834, under the designation of New Rothesay, was built in 1800 at a cost of £1300, raised by subscription; it is a neat structure containing 830 sittings. The minister's stipend was £180, derived from seat-rents, and of which £100 were secured on bond; with a good manse, but no glebe. A Gaelic chapel in connexion with the Free Church has been likewise erected, at an expense of £550, by subscription, and contains 600 sittings. An elegant church for the accommodation of the northern district of the isle, was erected and endowed by the Marquess of Bute in 1836; and a civil parish, by the designation of North Bute, has been assigned to it out of Rothesay. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the United Secession, Reformed Presbyterians, and Independents; and an episcopal chapel. The parochial school is conducted by a master and assistant: the master's salary is £38., with a house, and two spacious school-rooms partly built by the marquess; the school is well attended, and the fees are considerable. There are eleven other schools, of which one is partly endowed by the marquess; two have houses rent free, and the others are supported exclusively by the fees. Several friendly societies, and a savings' bank in which are deposits to the amount of nearly £8000, have tended to diminish the number of applicants for parochial relief. Near Etterick are the remains of a Druidical temple, in tolerable preservation; and in various parts of the parish are others in a less perfect state. Numerous ruins of hill fortresses are still left, though many have been removed for the use of the materials; there are vestiges of various ancient chapels or oratories; and of several tumuli, one has been opened and found to contain a great number of human bones. Among the most distinguished persons identified with this place are, Robert III., King of Scotland, who died here in 1406; Robert Wallace, Bishop of the Isles, who died in 1669, and was interred in the church; and the celebrated John, Earl of Bute, prime minister to George III., who was also buried here. Matthew Stewart, professor of mathematics in the university of Edinburgh, son of Dr. Dugald Stewart, minister of this parish, and father of the late professor Dugald Stewart, of Edinburgh, was born here in 1717. The place gives the title of Duke of Rothesay to the Prince of Wales, born on the 9th of November, 1841.
ROTHIEMAY, a parish, in the county of Banff, 5½ miles (N. by E.) from Huntly; containing, with the village of Milltown, 1227 inhabitants, of whom 1148 are in the rural districts. This place, of which the name is of uncertain derivation, belonged in the reign of Malcolm IV., to the family of the Abernethys, afterwards Lords Saltoun, who retained possession of it till towards the commencement of the 17th century, when it passed, by marriage with the daughter of William, the eleventh lord Saltoun, to the Gordons. Early in the next century, the lands were purchased from the Gordons by Sir John Ogilvie, whose son, afterwards of Inchmartin, in the county of Perth, sold them to William, Lord Braco, ancestor of the present Earl of Fife, who is the principal landed proprietor. During the possession of the lands by the Abernethys, Mary, Queen of Scots, according to Buchanan, passed a night in the ancient house of Rothiemay; and the apartment in which she slept is still preserved in the present mansion. The parish is bounded on the north-west by the burn of Knock, which separates it from the parish of Grange, and on the west by the river Isla, which divides it from the parish of Cairnie; and is from seven to eight miles in length and from five to six miles in extreme breadth, comprising 5000 acres, the greater number arable. The surface is varied, mostly rising by gentle acclivities from the banks of the rivers to a considerable height, and commanding extensive and interesting views of the adjacent country, which is richly cultivated; but in some parts subsiding into a wide tract of table-land, part of which is a peat-moss affording an abundant supply of fuel. The burn of Knock flows into the river Isla near Coldhome; and the Isla, which has its source in Botriphnie parish, runs in a south-eastern direction, and, after a course of sixteen miles, falls into the Doveran near the church. The Doveran has its source in the hills of Cabrach, in the county of Aberdeen, and flowing past the town of Huntly, enters this parish on the south, and taking an eastern direction through the interior, divides it into two very unequal portions: afterwards passing northward, it falls into the Moray Frith, at the town of Banff. In its course through the parish, the Doveran winds between richly-wooded banks, enlivened with much beautiful scenery; and it abounds with salmon, eels, and common trout, affording excellent sport to anglers, by whom it is much frequented.
The northern district of the parish is less fertile than the lands towards the south, near the Doveran, which are chiefly arable, and in a state of high cultivation, the soil here being luxuriantly rich. The pastures bear but a small proportion to the arable land, but are still sufficient for the support of a few sheep and black-cattle. The system of husbandry is in an improved state; the lands are mostly drained, and inclosed partly with hedges of thorn, and partly with stone dykes kept in good repair; and some portions of waste land have been brought into profitable cultivation. There is no part of the parish in undivided common. The farm houses and buildings are generally substantial and well arranged; and all the more recent improvements in the construction of agricultural implements are gradually coming into use. The plantations have been greatly increasing within the last few years, and are now very extensive: they consist of ash, elm, birch, alder, oak, beech, larch, and the various kinds of firs, for all of which the soil is adapted; and, under careful management, are in a thriving state. There are also some remains of natural wood. The substrata are partly limestone, for the preparation of which for manure there are several kilns; and stone is found, of good quality for the roads, but is not quarried to any considerable extent. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3740.
Rothiemay House, one of the seats of the Earl of Fife, is beautifully situated below the confluence of the Doveran and Isla rivers. A part of the ancient mansion was rebuilt, and the remainder greatly improved and enlarged, by the late earl, as an occasional residence; and the grounds attached to it are tastefully laid out, and embellished with some timber of stately growth and with thriving plantations of more recent formation. The only other seat in the parish is Mayen House, the property and residence of John Gordon, Esq., an elegant mansion beautifully situated on the west bank of the Doveran, in grounds comprehending much picturesque scenery. The village of Rothiemay, or Milltown, as, since the establishment of an excellent meal-mill, it has been more generally called, stands on the north bank of the Doveran, near its junction with the Isla, and is described under its own head. Fairs are held annually; and facility of communication is maintained by the turnpike-road from Huntly to Banff and Portsoy, which passes through the parish, and by commutation roads, of which about fifteen miles intersect the parish in various directions, and are kept in good repair. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Strathbogie and synod of Moray. The minister's stipend is £175. 3. 6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10. 10. per annum; patron, the Earl of Fife. The church, which is situated near the village, is a neat and substantial structure erected about the beginning of the present century, and is well adapted to the accommodation of the parishioners. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords instruction to about 130 children: the master has a salary of £30, with a house, and an allowance of £2 in lieu of garden; the fees average £20 annually, and he also receives a sum from the Dick bequest. Near Rothiemay House are the remains of a Druidical circle, situated in the centre of a cultivated field, and in a state of good preservation; and in the north-western part of the parish are vestiges of what is supposed to have been a Roman road. James Ferguson, the eminent astronomer, was a native of this parish.
ROTHIEMURCHUS, anciently a civil parish, but now a quoad sacra parish in the parish of Duthil, county of Inverness, 2 miles (S.) from Aviemore; containing 521 inhabitants. This place was formerly shrouded in wood, whence its name, which is derived from the Gaelic term Ràth á mhòr-ghiuthais, signifying "the plain of the great pines." The parish was united civilly and ecclesiastically to that of Duthil in 1630, and thus remained until 1824, when by act of parliament of the 5th of George IV., it was formed into an ecclesiastical parish. It is situated in a district in ancient times the property of the Cumyns, who for a long period held the superiority over rival clans, but were at last succeeded by the Grants, with whom the property has continued to the present time. The river Spey forms the northern boundary, separating Rothiemurchus from the rest of Duthil and from Alvie; while on the south and south-east is the united parish of Crathie and Braemar, in Aberdeenshire. The surface comprehends a tract nearly square, the sides of which measure between seven and nine miles; it is hilly and mountainous, and principally covered with waste, forest, and plantations, a few portions of level ground only being under cultivation. The scenery, though for the most part of a sombre character, is considerably diversified, and presents an assemblage of interesting features, comprising lofty mountain ranges, insulated hills, forests and plantations of birch, Scotch fir, and larch, and lochs, and streams, with a few cultivated plains, so disposed as to constitute on the whole an imposing picture.
The Brae Riach, a portion of the Grampian range, rises 4100 feet above the level of the sea, presents numerous precipices, and is a resort for red deer and ptarmigan. It forms, together with a branch mountain named Inch-Riach, the pleasant tract of Glen-Ennich, which has good pasturage for sheep, and contains several lakes, the principal being Loch Ennich, nearly surrounded by lofty and romantic precipices. Loch-an-Eilean, or "the lake of the island," stretches along the base of Ord-bàn, "the white hill," an insulated eminence near the western boundary, clothed to the summit with verdant foliage. In addition to the picturesque beauties of the weeping-birches and the lofty sable pines upon its banks, this lake is ornamented with an island, rendered interesting by a remarkably fine echo, but especially by the ruins of a castle traditionally reported as one of the strongholds of the Wolf of Badenoch, celebrated for his burning Elgin cathedral. Half a mile to the south of this is Loch Gamhuinn, also encircled by dark towering pines, and famous for the Rathad-nameirlich, or "thieves' road," running along its margin, which was the usual pass of the Lochaber reivers in their visits to Moray. About the middle of the parish, to the east of Glen-Ennich, is a pass through the mountains called Laraig-ruadh (red pass), in which a path has been made, with great difficulty, for the purpose of a nearer transit than by the great Highland road to and from the southern markets, for cattle and other produce. One of the most conspicuous objects and most valuable portions of the parish is the great pine-forest near the base of the lofty Cairngorum range. At the commencement of the present century, the proprietor obtained an act of parliament for the unlimited "manufacturing" of the timber, and derived from this source for many years an annual income varying from £10,000 to £20,000. In consequence, a large part of the wood was cut down; and after the operations of sawing carried on by machinery on the spot, setting in motion ten circular and eight plain saws, the timber was conveyed on rafts down the Spey to the village of Garmouth, upon the Moray Frith, where an agent resided to superintend the sale. The works are at present suspended on account of the proprietor's absence. Besides the lochs scattered in every direction, there are numerous streams, all found highly serviceable in floating the timber to the Spey; the Spey abounds in salmon, trout, eels, and pike; and all these, with the exception of salmon, are found also in the lochs.
The soil in the vicinity of the river is alluvial and rich, producing heavy crops, which are, however, sometimes injured by floods: that on the higher grounds is various, frequently partaking of the character of the mosses spread over the district, and which afford an inexhaustible supply of fuel. Oats, bear, potatoes, and turnips are the chief crops, but are raised only for home consumption; the last have not been very long introduced, but are now much attended to, and are likely to be cultivated extensively. Numerous improvements in husbandry have been adopted; and much benefit has been derived from the use of lime, the extensive quarries here affording a good supply of limestone. The rocks are of the same nature as those usually found among the Grampians, being of the granitic formation; and crystallized quartz of all shades, but more frequently blue, is abundant in the Cairngorum range, whither many persons resort in order to collect it. The only mansion is that at the Doune, the property of Sir J. P. Grant, Knt., puisne judge at Calcutta; it is a plain modern building, situated on the bank of the Spey, in the midst of beautifully laid out grounds and thriving plantations comprising oak, lime, beech, and ash. These kinds of wood are also found in some other parts, with larch, alder, birch, and pine, the two last of which appear in an especial manner to thrive on this soil. A road traverses the parish, along the southern bank of the Spey, reaching from Craigellachie bridge, near Rothes, to the bridge of Spey near Kingussie; and there is a ferry across the river at Inverdruie, distant from the road about a furlong, by which a communication is kept up with the great Highland road. The sub-post office at Lynevilg, two miles off, on the north bank of the Spey, is the receiving-office for this district: and letters are conveyed to it by mail from Perth, Inverness, Carr-Bridge, and Kingussie. The nearest market-town is Inverness, thirty-three miles distant; but the farmers take their cattle for sale to Grantown, Kingussie, and Castletown of Braemar, distant respectively only sixteen, twelve, and thirty miles. The parish is in the presbytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray, and in the patronage of the Crown: the minister's stipend is £120, with a manse, and a glebe of four acres, valued at £5 per annum. The church, to the west of the mansion-house of the Doune, and ornamented with a belt of plantation, was rebuilt by Sir J. P. Grant, at the cost of £395. A school, situated about the centre of the parish, is supported partly by a payment of £10 per annum from the proprietor; the fees are about £10. The Gaelic is the prevailing language, but it is gradually yielding to the English.
ROUCAN, a village, in the parish of Torthorwald, county of Dumfries, 3¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Dumfries; containing 205 inhabitants. It lies in the western part of the parish, on the high road from Dumfries to Lochmaben; the population is variously employed, in agriculture, weaving, and handicraft trades. The river Lochar flows at a short distance westward of the village.
Rousay and Eagleshay
ROUSAY and EAGLESHAY, a parish, in the North Isles of the county of Orkney; containing, with the islands of Eagleshay, Enhallow, and Wier, 1294 inhabitants, of whom 982 are in the island of Rousay, 9 miles (N. by W.) from Kirkwall. This parish, which is situated to the north-east of the Mainland, comprehends the four islands just named, with two small holms or uninhabited isles. Rousay, the largest, is about nine miles in length and four in breadth, and consists chiefly of ranges of hills abounding with game, and watered by numerous springs of excellent quality. Eagleshay, situated about a mile to the east of Rousay, is three miles in length and one in breadth; the surface is level, but enlivened with a beautiful lake of fresh water, and the soil is fertile except on the north side, which is chiefly sand, and a rabbit-warren. The island of Wier, to the south of Rousay, from which it is divided by the sound of Wier, about half a mile wide in the narrowest part, is little more than a fourth part of the extent of Eagleshay. The still smaller island of Enhallow is situated in the middle of the sound between Rousay and the Mainland. The several islands comprise together an area of about 20,000 acres, of which 2200 are arable, 10,400 pasture, and the remainder undivided common and waste. There is neither any natural wood nor any plantation, and the scenery consequently is rather of bold and romantic than of pleasing character. The crops are, oats, bear, barley, wheat, potatoes, turnips, and other vegetables. The substratum of the various isles is nearly similar; in that of Eagleshay is obtained a kind of shell-sand which makes good manure, and limestone is found in small quantities, of a very compact quality. Peat and turf, with which the islands abound, constitute the fuel, with a little coal used by the chief families. Westness, the residence of William Traill, Esq., of Woodwick, is a handsome modern mansion, beautifully situated on the south-west coast of Rousay. The inhabitants are mostly employed in agriculture, and in the cod, herring, and lobster fishery, which is carried on to a considerable extent, affording employment to nearly twenty boats of one hundred tons' aggregate burthen.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of North Isles and synod of Orkney. The minister's stipend is £150, with an allowance of £8. 6. 8. for communion elements, a manse, and a glebe valued at £9 per annum; patron, the Earl of Zetland. The church is a neat modern structure. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, and the United Associate Synod. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £26, with a house and a small garden, and the fees average about £6 annually. A school is supported by the General Assembly; and there are two other schools in the parish, maintained exclusively by the fees. The island of Eagleshay is said to have been the place where St. Magnus was murdered, and the church which was erected to his memory on the spot is still in a tolerably entire state; it is in the early English style, with a tower at the west end, is surmounted by a low pyramidal roof, and consists of a nave and choir, the roof of which latter is groined. Several of the ancient earls and bishops of Orkney made this island their residence; and from the beauty of its situation, it was for many generations the seat of its proprietors, the families of Douglas and Monteith. In Rousay are the remains of a small church; and on the shore, a little to the west, is a large pile of stones, around which are numerous graves formed with stones set edgewise. This spot, called Swendrow, is supposed to have been that where Earl Paul was taken prisoner, and his numerous attendants slain by Swein.
ROW, a parish, in the county of Dumbarton, 12 miles (W. N. W.) from Dumbarton; containing, with nearly the whole of the late quoad sacra parish of Helensburgh, and the villages of Gareloch-Head and Row, 3717 inhabitants, of whom 226 are in the village of Row. This place is said to have derived its name, in the Gaelic spelled Rhue, and signifying "a point," from a narrow slip or tongue of land which projects from its south-western coast nearly into the centre of the Gareloch, and from the extremity of which is a ferry to Roseneath, on the opposite shore. The lands at an early period formed part of the territories of the earls of Lennox, of whose baronial residence, the castle of Faslane, the foundations may still be partly traced among the copse-wood with which the site has been long overgrown. That part of the parish extending from the shore of the Gareloch to Glenfruin was given by Alwyn, the second earl of Lennox, to his younger son, Amelec, in the 12th century, and regularly descended to his great-grandson, Walter, who became the representative of the family. According to tradition, Wallace, after he had ravaged Dumbarton, and set fire to the castle of Roseneath, being closely pursued by his enemies, leaped into the Gareloch, and, swimming to the opposite shore, was hospitably entertained in the castle of Faslane by Earl Malcolm. From the accession of the Faslane branch of the family to the lordship of Lennox, little of the history of the castle is known; it appears to have been suffered to fall into decay, and the lands attached to it seem to have been gradually granted on lease, in small portions, to several of the vassals. These lands subsequently were occupied by the chiefs of the clans of the Macfarlanes, Macaulays, and Colquhouns; and during the greater part of the 15th and 16th centuries, the district was the scene of continued conflicts between these and the rival clans of the Macgregors, Campbells, Camerons, and others. In 1603, a sanguinary battle took place in Glenfruin, between Alister Macgregor with 400 of his vassals, and Alexander Colquhoun assisted by some of the neighbouring lairds and the citizens of Dumbarton: it terminated in the defeat of the latter, who with much difficulty effected his escape, leaving 140 of his men dead on the field. On this occasion the Macgregors carried off 600 head of cattle, 800 sheep and goats, and 280 horses. The clan was, however, soon afterwards suppressed by the arm of the law, and the whole race proscribed; their children were driven into exile, and their very name extinguished. Nor were these severe penalties relaxed till towards the close of the 18th century. The clans Macfarlane and Macaulay, also, gradually became less powerful, and finally unable to levy contributions on the neighbouring estates; while on the other hand, the Colquhouns, of Luss, who were increasing in influence, obtained possession of all the lands in the parish, which, with the exception only of the Ardincaple estate, are still the property of Sir James Colquhoun, Bart.
The parish is bounded on the north-west by Loch Long, on the south-west by the Gareloch, and on the south by the Frith of Clyde; and is about sixteen miles in length, and nearly four miles in mean breadth, comprising rather more than 40,000 acres, of which the relative proportions of arable and pasture have not been distinctly ascertained. The surface is hilly and mountainous, rising from the shore of the Frith in two continuous ridges increasing in height towards the north, and between which lies the beautiful vale of Glenfruin. The western ridge, extending along the shores of the Gareloch and Loch Long, is partly cultivated, but chiefly covered with heath interspersed with plantations; and attains at the highest point, the hill of Finnart, an elevation of 2500 feet above the level of the sea. The eastern ridge, which stretches along the border of the adjacent parish of Luss for several miles, terminates in the western range at the head of Glenfruin; its mean elevation is perhaps superior to that of the western ridge, but its acclivities and summit are nevertheless clothed with verdure, affording excellent pasture for sheep and cattle. The strath of Glenfruin, of which the name is supposed to signify "the cold glen" or the "glen of sorrow," is about five miles in length, and varies from one quarter to three-quarters of a mile in breadth. With the exception of a little copse-wood towards the south, and a few spots of plantation, it is destitute of timber; and though the soil in some parts is tolerably fertile, it has been but little cultivated. Still, in all its natural wildness, it displays many features of romantic beauty. There are no rivers in the parish, properly so called; the only stream of importance is a small rivulet which flows through Glenfruin, and, after a course of about seven miles, falls into Loch Lomond, in the parish of Luss. Some brooks, also, descend from the higher grounds, but they are generally dry in summer: and there are numerous springs in the sides of the hills.
The quantity of land either in cultivation or capable of being cultivated, exclusively of the valley of Glenfruin, is small. The soil is in some parts tolerably fertile, and, from the facility of obtaining lime, the arable lands have been rendered productive; but, with the exception of a little barley which is sent to distant markets, scarcely more grain is raised than what is requisite for the consumption of the inhabitants. The other crops are chiefly turnips and potatoes, of which latter considerable quantities are forwarded to Greenock and Glasgow, to the amount of £1000 annually, and also hay to the average amount of £500. The system of husbandry has been gradually advancing under the auspices of an agricultural association, recently established, and including the parishes of Row, Luss, and Arrochar; the lands have been partly drained and inclosed, and many of the farm-houses have been rendered more substantial and commodious. Great attention is paid to the management of the dairy-farms, on all of which Ayrshire cows have been introduced: of the produce, which is of excellent quality and abundant, the greater portion is consumed within the parish, and the remainder sent to the Greenock and Glasgow markets. The cattle reared are generally of the West Highland breed, and much care is bestowed upon their improvement; the sheep are all of the black-faced breed, with the exception of a few of the Cheviot recently introduced on some of the farms. Considerable numbers of both are sent to distant markets. The plantations have been within the last few years very greatly extended, especially on the lands of Ardincaple; they are regularly thinned, and under careful management. The rocks in the northern part of the parish are chiefly composed of greywacke, clay-slate, and transition limestone; and the principal substrata are, sandstone, limestone, and micaslate. Freestone of a coarse texture is sometimes quarried for ordinary building purposes, and the limestone is occasionally wrought; but from the facility of procuring lime from Ireland at a cheaper cost, the limestone quarries are not in constant operation. Slatequarries have been also opened; though, from its inferior quality, the slate is not much used. Coal, likewise, is supposed to exist in the parish; but although attempts have been made in two different places by boring to the depth of fifty fathoms, none has been yet discovered of sufficient thickness or quality to warrant the sinking of a pit. The rateable annual value of the parish is £15,439.
Ardenconnel, the property of Sir James Colquhoun, of Luss, is a spacious mansion in the pavilion style of architecture, situated on rising ground to the north of the church, and commanding a fine view of the Gareloch. Ardincaple Castle, the property of the Duke of Argyll, is a handsome castellated mansion beautifully situated to the south-east of Ardenconnel, in a demesne richly embellished with thriving plantations, and containing some strikingly picturesque scenery. Along the shores of the Gareloch are numerous pleasing villas and cottages of modern erection, inhabited by families during the summer months. The town of Helensburgh and the village of Gareloch-Head are separately described. The village of Row is situated on the shore of the Gareloch, about two miles and a half from its entrance, and near the tongue of land already mentioned; the scenery in the immediate vicinity of the village, which has a pleasingly rural aspect, is almost unrivalled for beauty and variety; and the views obtained from it in every direction are extensive, and diversified with features of the most romantic character. A post-office, under that at Helensburgh, has a tolerable delivery; and facility of communication is maintained by the turnpike road from Dumbarton to Arrochar, which passes for nearly sixteen miles through the parish, by the road from Helensburgh to Luss and Balloch ferry, by the Row ferry, and by steamers from the pier at Helensburgh to Glasgow, which ply daily.
The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish, which was detached from the parishes of Roseneath and Cardross in 1648, are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £136, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Duke of Argyll. The church, situated in the village of Row, was built in 1763, and repaired in 1835; it is a neat plain structure, and contains about 700 sittings, of which nearly the whole are free. Churches have been erected at Gareloch-Head and Helensburgh; in the latter place are also meeting-houses for Independents, the Free Church, and Baptists; and an episcopal chapel is about to be built. The parochial school is in the village of Row, and is well attended; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house, an allowance in lieu of garden, and the fees, averaging about £30 annually. There are several other schools, of which two have an endowment of £10 per annum each, arising from a bequest of land in Glenfruin by Mr. Glen, of Portincaple. The chief remains of antiquity are some faint vestiges of the old castle of Faslane, and part of the walls of a chapel said to have been dedicated to St. Michael, and which is supposed to have been the domestic chapel of the family of Lennox, while resident at the castle. Attached to it is a burial-ground which has almost ceased to be used. Some few traces of a castle are also found on the hill of Shandon: from its name, "the old Dun," it would appear to be of greater antiquity than the castle of Faslane; but nothing of its history has been preserved. There are likewise some relics of ancient chapels in Glenfruin and on the lands of Kirkmichael and Millig. Henry Bell, Esq., civil engineer, and the successful promoter of steam navigation, was for some time a resident of this parish; and his remains are interred in the churchyard.
ROXBURGH, a parish and village, in the county of Roxburgh; containing, with the village of Hieton, 979 inhabitants, of whom 123 are in the village of Roxburgh, 4 miles (S. W.) from Kelso. This place, which in old documents is written Rochesburgh and Rokesburgh, appears to have been formerly a town of considerable importance; and there are still some remains of its ancient castle overhanging the river Teviot, but affording only a very inadequate memorial of its original strength and magnificence. The town was burned in the 14th and 15th centuries, and having been each time rebuilt chiefly of wood, very little of it is left: only a few indistinct traces of its former existence are occasionally found in the present village. The castle was taken and destroyed by Robert Bruce in 1312, and again in 1460, when James II., who was present at the siege, was killed by the bursting of a cannon: the spot on which the king fell is marked out by a yew-tree planted by the Duke of Roxburghe. The queen, after the death of that monarch, assumed the government in the name of her son, and continuing the siege, the castle, which had for years been the seat of lawless violence, was reduced and utterly demolished. In 1547, the Duke of Somerset, whose army was stationed in the neighbourhood, repaired a portion of the castle, sufficient for the reception of an English garrison; traces of these repairs may be discovered among the ruins, but of the original castle, the site of which is overgrown with trees, nothing of any importance remains. Adjoining the village are the ruins of Roxburgh Tower, called also Wallace Tower, and Sunlaws Tower, situated near the river; it formed part of a chain of communication between Roxburgh Castle and others on the rivers Kale and Jed. These were all demolished in 1545; and of that of Roxburgh only the ground-plan can be traced, and some of the apartments on the basement, strongly arched over as a place of shelter for cattle.
The parish is bounded on the north for several miles by the river Tweed, and is of very irregular form, about eight miles in length, varying from one mile to five miles in breadth, and comprising 7573 acres, of which 5617 are arable, 1735 meadow and pasture, and 200 woodland and plantations. The surface is generally flat, though in some parts undulating, and rising into eminences of considerable elevation, of which two at the south-western extremity, the Dunslaw and the Penelheugh, the latter bordering on Crailing parish, rise to the height of 500 feet above the level of the sea. The river Teviot flows through the parish; and there are numerous excellent springs affording an abundant supply of water. The soil varies very much, being in some parts sandy and gravelly, and in others a fine rich loam. The prevailing systems of husbandry are the four and five shift courses, which are found to be well adapted to the nature of the soil; and the crops are usually favourable, having, since the more extensive use of lime as manure, rapidly improved. The plantations are well managed; the trees are chiefly oak, ash, elm, birch, and beech, with various kinds of pine. A remarkable elm, called the Trysting-tree, appears to have been more than two centuries in attaining its present growth, but it has lately begun to decay. The different grasses thrive in the parish, especially the red clover, of which a sample of the seed exhibited at a meeting of the Highland Society at Glasgow, some years since, was much admired. The farm houses and buildings are generally substantial and in good condition; the lands are well inclosed, and the fences kept with great care. The substratum is chiefly sandstone of the secondary formation, varied with rocks of basalt, greenstone, and greywacke: under the sandstone is a large mass of rock called the Trow Craigs, about 450 feet in breadth, extending into the Tweed, and forming an immense dam over which the water is precipitated in a fall of sixteen feet. The sandstone is not much valued for building purposes, and few of the quarries are regularly worked. There are fisheries on the rivers; but the quantity of fish taken of late has been inconsiderable, and the rental of the whole does not exceed £60 per annum. Fairnington, a plain ancient mansion, and Sunlaws, a handsome modern house in the Elizabethan style, are the chief seats.
A fair is held on the 5th of August on St. James' Green, and is well attended; it is chiefly for horses and cattle, and for the hiring of shearers and other servants. Considerable sales of wool are made by the farmers of the surrounding district, and generally to English dealers. Near the village of Roxburgh is a ferry over the Teviot; and it was lately in contemplation to construct a railway to Berwick, for the greater facility of obtaining coal, lime, and other articles, and for opening a more profitable market for the surplus produce of the parish. There are some good roads, of which one, leading from Kelso to Melrose, commands a beautiful view of the surrounding country, of the windings of the Tweed, and of the Teviot, over which is a bridge of handsome character, uniting this parish with that of Kelso. The principal fuel is coal, brought from Northumberland at a considerable expense; but in the western parts of the parish is abundance of peat. The rateable annual value of Roxburgh is £9248. It is in the presbytery of Kelso and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and patronage of the Duke of Roxburghe: the minister's stipend is £225. 2. 7., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £20 per annum. The church, situated in the village of Roxburgh, was built in 1752, and substantially repaired in 1828, and gives accommodation to 500 persons. The members of the Free Church have no place of worship. There are two parochial schools, one in Roxburgh and one in Hieton, both affording a liberal education; the master of the former has a salary of £34. 4., and of the latter, one of £17. 2.; and the fees on the average, for each, vary from £12 to £15 per annum. Each of the masters has also a house and garden rent-free. About half way between the towers of Roxburgh and Ormiston are the remains of a camp, two miles up the river Teviot; its origin is unknown, but it is generally supposed to have been an out-post for the better defence and security of those fortresses. Part of the Roman road from the Frith of Forth to York passes through the south-west of the parish. There are three caves at Sunlaws, which appear to have been excavated at a very remote period, probably as places of refuge, or for the concealment of cattle and other property, during the frequent incursions that took place in the earlier periods of Scottish history.
ROXBURGHSHIRE, an inland county, in the south of Scotland, bounded on the north by Berwickshire, on the east by Berwickshire and the English county of Northumberland, on the south by Dumfries-shire and the counties of Cumberland and Northumberland, and on the west by Dumfries-shire, Selkirk, and Edinburgh. It lies between 55° 6' 40" and 55° 42' 52" (N. Lat.), and 1° 39' and 2° 36' (W. Long.), and is 38 miles in length and twenty-eight miles in breadth; comprising an area of 696 square miles, or 445,440 acres; and containing 9019 houses, of which number 8661 are inhabited; and a population of 46,025, of whom 21,941 are males, and 24,084 females. This county, including Teviotdale and Liddesdale, was originally inhabited by the Gadeni and Ottadini, of whom the former possessed the western portion, and the latter the eastern, which was of inferior extent. Of the numerous fortresses erected by those warlike tribes on the heights, the chief, on the Eildon hills towards the north, was subsequently converted by the Romans into a station near the line of their military road, which passed along the eastern base of these hills to the river Tweed. During the border warfare, the county participated greatly in the frequent hostilities that took place, and was alternately in the possession of the English and the Scots; and the continued battles in which they were engaged appear to have fostered a warlike spirit in the inhabitants, many of whom fought under the banner of David I. at the battle of the Standard in 1138, in which the men of Teviotdale were distinguished for their valour. The county was anciently included in the diocese of Lindisfarne, and subsequently in that of Glasgow; it is at present mostly in the synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and comprises several presbyteries, and thirty-two parishes. For civil purposes, it is divided into the four districts of Jedburgh, Kelso, Melrose, and Hawick, in each of which the magistrates hold courts quarterly, or oftener, as occasion may require; and it contains the royal burgh of Jedburgh, which is the county-town, and the market-towns of Hawick, Kelso, and Melrose. Under the act of the 2nd William IV., the county returns a member to the imperial parliament; the number of persons qualified to vote is 2036.
The surface, though containing some fine tracts of level land, is mountainous towards the south, and is throughout strikingly diversified with hills, generally of pleasing aspect, and covered with verdure to their summits. The principal heights in the north and centre are, Ruberslaw, which has an elevation of 1419 feet; the Eildon hills, terminating in three conical summits, whereof the highest has an elevation of 1330 feet; the Dunian hills, which rise to the height of 1021 feet; and the Minto, of which the two summits are flat, and 858 feet high. There are various other hills of inferior height: the Carter Fell, on the confines of Northumberland, has an elevation of 1602, and the Millenwood Fell and the Windhead rise to 2000 feet. About two-fifths of the land are arable, and the remainder chiefly sheep pasture, with about 8000 acres in woodland and plantations. Among the rivers are the Tweed and the Teviot. The Tweed enters the county at Faldanside, and, forming part of its northern boundary, flows eastward through the remainder to Redden, where it leaves it; it receives the streams of the Gala, the Liddel, the Allan, the Eden, and the Ettrick. The Teviot, after winding along richly cultivated valleys for nearly fifty-four miles, falls into the Tweed between Roxburgh Castle and Kelso; it receives the streams of the Ale, the Slitrig, the Borthwick, the Kale, the Oxnam, the Rule, the Allan, and the Jed. The Hermitage, which has its source near the Millenwood Fell, flows into the Liddel near Castleton. There are no minerals peculiar to the county; the substrata are mainly greywacke, the coal formation, red sandstone, and trap. The greywacke and greywacke-slate prevail in the whole of the western portion, except in Liddesdale, and form most of the hills in that district; the coal formation occupies all Liddesdale, and near Jedburgh some works have been commenced with a probability of success. The red sandstone is found in the middle and northern parts of the county; sandstone, also, of white colour, occurs in some places; and both are extensively quarried. The trap-rocks, which form the higher hills, consist of greenstone, basalt, trap-tuffa, amygdaloid, and porphyries of various kinds, of which the felspar, usually of a reddish brown colour, is the most prevalent. The principal manufactures are those of carpets, woollen cloth, flannels, blankets, and stockings and worsted pieces; the carpets and woollen cloth are chiefly made at Hawick, the flannels and blankets at Kelso and Jedburgh. Tanning and skinning are also carried on to some extent, and there is a manufacture of coloured thread at Kelso. The rateable annual value of the real property in the county, as assessed to the income-tax, is £284,204, of which £235,041 are returned for lands, £48,684 for houses, £298 for quarries, and the remainder for fisheries. Facility of communication is maintained by good roads, which have been much improved, and are kept in excellent repair. British forts and Roman camps are numerous in various parts of the county, which is intersected from north to south by the Roman road into North Britain, called the Watling-street.
RUM, one of the Hebrides or Western Islands, forming part of the parish of Small Isles, in the district of Mull, county of Argyll, 12 miles (N. W.) from Arisaig, and 20 (N.) from the island of Mull; containing 124 inhabitants. This island, which is the largest of the four islands that constitute the parish, is supposed to have derived its name, in the Gaelic language signifying "room" or "capacity," from its superior extent. It is situated in the Atlantic Ocean, between the islands of Eigg and Canna, from which it is nearly equidistant; and is of circular form, and from eighteen to twenty miles in circumference, comprising 26,000 acres, of which a very small proportion is arable and in cultivation, and the remainder hill-pasture, moss, and waste. The surface is generally elevated, and in parts mountainous; and though the hills in some few places are of verdant aspect, yet the far greater number are abrupt and of rugged character. On the eastern and north-eastern borders of the island, the lands are overspread with heath and coarse grass; on the west and north-west the surface is covered with fine soft and luxuriant verdure, affording rich pasturage for sheep, and displays a beautiful contrast to the less fertile portions. Amidst the mountainous districts in the interior are numerous fresh-water lakes of considerable extent, in some of which trout of small size are found in great abundance, and of good quality. The moors are frequented by numbers of grouse; and on some of the higher hills, ptarmigans, curlews, snipes, herons, and various other birds are to be seen. Deer were formerly abundant; but since the destruction of the woods they have altogether disappeared. The coast is bold and rugged, more especially on the south and west sides, where it is lined with one continuous rampart of precipitous rock; and the island is indented with several small bays, of which the principal is Loch Seresort, on the eastern coast, at the head of which is the small hamlet of Kinloch, originally belonging to the Clanranalds, but now the property of the Macleans. A harbour has been formed here, which is easy of access, and affords good anchorage for vessels of any burthen. The bay is about two miles and a half in length, and from five to seven fathoms in depth; it is open only towards the east, and defended on the north and south by lofty hills rising from the extremities of the loch, and affording secure shelter from the prevailing winds. A commodious pier has been constructed, which gives every facility to vessels in loading and unloading their cargoes, and to the boats employed in the fisheries, the principal of which is the herring-fishery, carried on, however, only to a moderate extent; the herrings appear in the loch generally in the month of August, but the inhabitants seldom take more than is sufficient for the consumption of their own families. There is a great variety of other fish.
The soil of the arable grounds is tolerably fertile, producing crops of oats, barley, and potatoes; but from the great inequalities of the surface, the lands are better adapted for pasture than for tillage, and the inhabitants place their principal dependence on the rearing of sheep and cattle. The sheep, of which about 8000 are pastured, are of the black-faced breed, and, though small in stature, are much prized for the delicacy of their flavour and the peculiar fineness of their wool, of which much is forwarded to Inverness, where it obtains a very high price. The cattle are all of the Highland blackbreed, and are chiefly purchased by drovers for the markets of the south; considerable numbers of horses of the native breed are reared in the island, and also numerous herds of swine, the latter for the Glasgow market. There are no plantations except on the lands of the principal heritor. The island is of the old red sandstone formation, and the cliffs on the western coast are amygdaloid, in which occur beautiful specimens of chalcedony, heliotrope, and other minerals; the principal strata are, red sandstone, and clay-slate of a reddish colour. The only seat is the residence of Dr. Maclean, a neat mansion with extensive offices, erected by him as tenant in 1826, at the head of Loch Seresort, and situated in a highly improved demesne embellished with thriving plantations. There is no village; and the sole means of communication with the post-office of Arisaig, on the main land, or with the adjacent islands in the parish, is by small boats, of which every family keeps one for its own accommodation. Steamers between the Clyde and Inverness pass and repass along the channel several times every week. A missionary who received £75 per annum from the Royal Bounty, and for whom a house was built by the heritor, formerly resided here, and officiated in his own house, in which a large room was appropriated as a place of worship, and also in the island of Canna; but the mission was suppressed in 1835, since which time there has been no minister.
RUSKHOLM, an isle, in the parish of Stronsay, county of Orkney. This is a very small islet situated to the west of the island of Faray, from which it is distant about a mile. Kelp was at one time largely manufactured on it.
RUSKIE, a hamlet, in the parish of Port of Monteith, county of Perth, 3 miles (N. E.) from the village of Port of Monteith; containing 57 inhabitants. It lies in the north-east quarter of the parish, in the vicinity of a lake of the same name, one of a chain of six lakes, of which one, Loch Drunkie, is partly in the adjoining parish of Aberfoyle. On the lands of Ruskie, which anciently formed a barony possessed by the Stewart family, is a house named Keirhead, situated on an eminence, and supposed to have been a military post overlooking the plain on the south.
RUTHERFORD, a hamlet, in the parish of Maxton, district of Melrose, county of Roxburgh, 1½ mile (E. by N.) from the village of Maxton; containing 71 inhabitants. This, though now a small and unimportant, was anciently a considerable place, and had a church and hospital. The patronage at one time belonged to the earls of Douglas, and was granted, previously to the year 1483, to James Rutherford of that ilk; but the church being afterwards suffered to go to decay, the parish was united to that of Maxton, and the advowson fell into oblivion. The hospital was dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen, and was appropriated for the reception of strangers and the maintenance of poor and infirm persons. The family of Rutherford had the title of baron, now dormant, from this place.
RUTHERGLEN, a parish, burgh, and market-town, in the Lower ward of the county of Lanark, 2½ miles (S. by E.) from Glasgow, and 43 (W. by S.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the West late quoad sacra district, 6513 inhabitants, of whom 5623 are in the burgh. This place is popularly supposed to have derived its name from Reutherus, King of Scotland, the fifth in descent from Fergus I., founder of the Scottish monarchy, and who, after a retirement of some years, during which time he greatly augmented and concentrated his forces, made a successful attack upon the Britons, from whom he wrested a considerable portion of his territories, of which they had gained possession. From the reign of this monarch, about two centuries before the Christian era, little is recorded of the history of the place till the year 1126, when the inhabitants obtained from David I. a charter conferring upon the town the privileges of a royal burgh. It appears to have been at that time superior in importance to Glasgow as a place of trade, and to have included within its limits the ecclesiastical demesnes of that city till the year 1226, when Alexander II. granted to the Bishop of Glasgow a charter of exemption from certain services due to the corporation of Rutherglen. From this period its trade and consequent prosperity continued to decline, and that of Glasgow to increase, till in 1692 the business was almost wholly transferred to the latter place, which has since been progressively advancing in population and wealth. The castle of Rutherglen was remarkable for its strength, and in 1306 was seized by Edward I., King of England, who had taken upon him to arbitrate between Bruce and Baliol, then competitors for the Scottish crown; but it was retaken by Bruce in 1313, and continued to exist as a fortress of importance till after the battle of Langside, when it was burned by the Regent of Scotland. The building was however afterwards repaired and enlarged, and became the seat of the Hamiltons, of Elistoun, on whose decline it was suffered to fall into decay; and it has by subsequent dilapidations been levelled with the ground. During the disturbances in the reign of Charles I., considerable excitement prevailed in this place; and on the celebration of the restoration of Charles II., a party of the inhabitants, in resentment of the severities practised on the Covenanters, committed some excesses, which appear to have originated the battle of Bothwell-Bridge, when they were defeated by the Duke of Monmouth.
The town is pleasantly situated on the Clyde, over which is a stone bridge of five arches, communicating with the suburbs of Glasgow on the opposite shore, and towards the erection of which the inhabitants contributed £1000, in consideration of its being tollfree. Over the same river, a bridge of timber has recently been constructed, opening a new line of road from the collieries in the parish, and facilitating the conveyance of the produce to Glasgow. The town consists chiefly of one spacious street extending in a direction from east to west, regularly formed and wellpaved, and of a smaller range of buildings parallel with the former, and called the Back-row, from both of which diverge several lanes leading to the principal farms in the parish. Towards the east are vestiges of ancient foundations, from which it is supposed that the town was once of greater extent than at present. The trade formerly consisted, to a considerable extent, in the supply of salmon for the French ports, in exchange for which brandy was received; but this branch has declined in consequence of the construction of a weir lower down the river, which interrupts the navigation above the bridge of Glasgow. The principal trade at present is in coal, from the several mines in the parish; in cotton spinning, weaving, and printing; and the weaving of muslins for the Glasgow manufacturers. The market is on Saturday; and fairs are held on the first Friday after March 11th, first Friday after May 4th, first Tuesday after June 4th, first Friday after July 25th, and first Friday after August 25th; the Wednesday before the first Friday in November, and on that Friday; and the first Friday after November 25th. The charter bestowed on the inhabitants by David I. in 1126 is recited by several grants of his successors down to the reign of James VI., who in 1617 confirmed all previous gifts, and clearly defined the boundaries and the privileges of the burgh. The government was vested by these charters in a provost, two bailies, a treasurer, and a council of eleven, to which last an addition of thirty others, to be elected by the council, was prescribed by an act in 1670, all of whom should vote in the election of the magistrates. The town is now subject to the provisions of the Municipal act, and the number of councillors is eighteen: the provost and bailies are chosen annually by the council; and the town-clerk is appointed in the same manner, but holds his office for life, and acts likewise as assessor. The magistrates exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction; and during the last twenty years, the average has been annually about fifty cases of the former, and twenty of the latter. There are four incorporated trades, the smiths, wrights and masons, tailors, and weavers; and all of them have the privilege of exacting a fee on the admission of a member. The burgh at the Union was allowed to send one member to the English parliament, in conjunction with those of Glasgow, Renfrew, and Dumbarton; but on the passing of the Reform act, Glasgow was separated from the number, and Kilmarnock and Port-Glasgow added. The right of election is vested in the persons occupying houses of the annual value of £10 and upwards; the number of voters is 180.
The parish extends for about three miles along the southern bank of the Clyde, and is something more than a mile and a quarter in average breadth; the surface towards the river is generally level, forming plains of very considerable fertility, but in other parts is intersected with hills and narrow glens. The soil is on the whole good, and the system of agriculture improved; manure is plentifully used, and the lands are chiefly arable, but there are some extensive dairyfarms, and much attention is paid to the breed of livestock. Considerable progress has been made in draining and inclosing the lands, which are divided among numerous proprietors, whose handsome mansions and grounds add greatly to the scenery and interest of the parish. Of these, Farme, the residence of Mr. Farie, once the property of some of the earls of Selkirk, and subsequently that of the Flemings, and Hamiltons, is a very ancient castle of much strength, the embattled walls of which still remain as a memorial of the baronial castles of former times; it has been recently enlarged by its proprietor, who has raised an embankment to preserve his land from the inundation of the Clyde. Coal is abundant in the parish, and eleven mines have been opened, of which one is wrought by Mr. Farie on his estate at Farme, two at Eastfield, one at Stonelaw, and one at Hamilton-Farme; together they afford employment to more than 500 persons. Ironstone, but in very small quantities, is found in some of these mines; and there are also some quarries of good freestone, in which nearly a hundred persons are engaged. About 200 persons are employed in printing cotton, for which there are two establishments, one in the town, and one at Shawfield, at which latter place, also, is a bleachfield that became the property of Messrs. Gowdie, who converted it into an establishment for dyeing Turkey-red; it is now occupied by Messrs. White as a chemical laboratory. A cotton-mill was erected in 1800, which has been enlarged, and is now conducted by Mr. Mc Naughton; and on the lands of Farme are two extensive concerns for dyeing Turkey-red, conducted with much success. In addition to those employed in the several works, about 300 of the inhabitants are occupied in weaving muslin for the Glasgow manufacturers at hand-looms in their own dwellings. The rateable annual value of the parish is £21,295. It is within the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Corporation and certain heritors and feuars. The minister's stipend is £280. 8. 5., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £14 per annum. The old church was of great antiquity, and prior to the year 1199 was, together with the churches of Cathcart and Mearns, given to the abbey of Paisley by Jocelyne, Bishop of Glasgow. It was connected with some transactions of importance in Scottish history, being celebrated as the scene of a negotiation of peace between England and Scotland, concluded within its walls in 1297, and also as the place in which Sir John Monteith entered into a convention for betraying Sir William Wallace into the power of the English. Of this building, however, nothing remains but the tower, near which is the present church, erected in 1794, in good repair, and adapted for a congregation of 800 persons. There is a chapel of ease also containing 800 sittings, to which an ecclesiastical district was till lately annexed called West Church, having a population of 2483: the minister receives a salary of £100 per annum. In the town are likewise a Free and a Relief church, the latter capable of receiving a congregation of 950. The burgh school affords a liberal education to the children of the parish; the master, who is appointed by the town-council, has a house and garden rent-free, and a salary of £16. 13. 4. from the funds of the burgh, in addition to the fees. There are also Sabbath schools, in which nearly 400 children are instructed; and several benefit societies. Traces may be seen of a tumulus at Gallowflat, which was anciently surrounded by a ditch, and to the summit of which was an ascent by a paved road about six feet wide. Near it were found two copper vessels, on the handles of which was inscribed the word "Congallus;" a stone coffin was also found in a tumulus on Hamilton-Farme, long since levelled with the ground. The cross of the burgh, ornamented with sculptured devices, of which the most conspicuous was one of our Saviour riding upon an ass, was demolished by a mob during the reign of Charles I. Rutherglen gives the title of earl to the ducal family of Hamilton.