A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.
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GLASS, a parish, chiefly in the district of Strathbogie, county of Aberdeen, but partly in Banffshire, 5 miles (W.) from Huntly; containing 886 inhabitants, of whom 321 are in the county of Banff. This parish, of which the name, in the Gaelic language, signifying "grey," is descriptive of the uncultivated portion of its surface, is about eight miles in extreme length, and five miles in extreme breadth, comprising an area of nearly 19,000 acres, of which 4500 are arable, and the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. The surface is diversified with hills, which, towards the west, increase in elevation, forming its boundary in that direction; and it is also bounded on the south by a range of hills, which separate it from Gartly and Rhynie. The vale of Strathbogie forms part of the eastern portion; and there are several other fertile straths between the hills, of which the vale of the Doveran is the most important, and is inclosed by hills on each side, which vary from 1200 to 2000 feet in height above the level of the sea. The river Doveran, which has its source in the hills of Cabrach, flows in a serpentine course through this vale, and, leaving the parish, eventually falls into the Moray Frith at Banff. From the hills issue numerous springs, of which those near the summit are frequently dry during the summer, while those at the base flow without interruption through the lower grounds.
The soil generally is a light loam, yielding chiefly oats and bear, with potatoes and turnips; wheat has been sown, but has not been productive of remunerating crops. The system of husbandry is improved; the farms are of moderate extent, not many exceeding 150 acres; and the farm-buildings, usually of stone, with thatched roofs, are substantial and commodious. Considerable numbers of sheep were formerly reared in the pastures; but, from great losses frequently sustained during severe seasons, a few hundreds only, of, the Highland black-faced breed, are now kept; and the pastures are more profitably stocked with cattle. There are a few acres of natural wood; and 100 acres of land have recently been planted with pine, larch, and forest trees, to which very large additions are in contemplation. The rateable annual value of the parish is £1877. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Strathbogie and synod of Moray. The minister's stipend is £197. 17., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; patron, the Duke of Richmond. The church, situated in a green, near the river, is a neat plain structure containing 550 sittings; it was built in 1782, and is in good repair. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and an allowance in money in lieu of garden, and the fees average about £28 annually.
GLASSERTON, a parish, in the county of Wigton, 1¾ mile (S. W.) from Whithorn; containing, with the village of Monrieth, 1253 inhabitants. The name of this place is thought to signify, in the Saxon language, "a bare hill;" and it is supposed that the term was adopted from the number of bare hills in the vicinity. Very little is known of the early history of the parish. It is said, however, that St. Ninian, here usually called St. Ringan, the founder of Whithorn Priory, and first bishop of Galloway, resided for a time in a cave on the shore, at Physgill, for the purpose of mortification or penance; and the cave, which is arched with stones, is still vulgarly called St. Ringan's cave. The present parish was formed by the union of the lands of Glasserton and Kirkmaiden. The walls of Kirkmaiden church are yet in existence, on the shore, near Monrieth; and it is clear that it was formerly a distinct parish; though when it was united with Glasserton cannot now be ascertained. The parish is about eight miles in length, varying in breadth from one to three miles, and contains 13,477 acres. It has the parish of Mochrum on the west; Sorbie and Kirkinner on the north; Whithorn on the east; and the bay of Luce on the south. Its coast, which is bold and rugged, and broken by numerous headlands and green peaks, lies parallel with the north coast of the Isle of Man, the island being between sixteen and eighteen miles south of Glasserton. The general appearance of the country is unequal, the ground presenting a succession of heights and hollows. There is a small lake near Castle-Stewart house, in the north, in which are found eels, trout, pike, and perch: the loch of Dowalton, also, forms a small part of the boundary of the parish; and the road from Stranraer to Newton-Stewart intersects it.
The soil varies very considerably in different parts. On the lands in the north it is damp and poor, having a tenacious subsoil of till, which holds the moisture too near the surface; in the more southern parts it is a gravelly loam, frequently mixed with clay and moss. Between 7000 and 8000 acres are under cultivation; the waste extends over about 3000, and from 200 to 300 are planted. The crops follow the rotation of oats; potatoes or turnips; rye-grass and clover, with wheat and barley; and a crop of hay; after which the ground returns to pasture. Agriculture has been much improved within the last thirty years, especially since the practice of raising green crops became general. Much moss and heath have been brought into cultivation; and the natural obstacles to good farming arising from the nature of the soil have been successfully treated by skill and perseverance. The proper application of manure, and the attention paid to divisions and inclosures, have also contributed to produce a highly-advanced state of husbandry, and have amply rewarded the labour of the cultivator. Dairy-farming is pursued in many parts in preference to breeding, on account of its greater profit; the cows are chiefly the Ayrshire. The sheep in most repute are the Leicesters and the Highland breed; a few, purchased at Falkirk, are fattened on turnips during the winter. The cattle are the black Galloways, for which the parish has always been famous. The rateable annual value of Glasserton is £8519. The subsoil of the lands is for the most part strong till and rock, clay, and gravel, presenting many impediments to agricultural improvement, which can only be successfully met by a highly-efficient system of husbandry: the strata are the greywacke rock, among which a piece of granite is occasionally found. In the parish are the mansions of Glasserton and Physgill, both handsome modern erections.
The ecclesiastical affairs are governed by the presbytery of Wigton and synod of Galloway, and the patronage is in the Crown: the stipend of the minister is £202, with a good manse, built in 1818, and a glebe of fifteen acres, valued at £20 per annum. The church is remarkable for the beauty of its situation, in Glasserton park, a tract of 150 acres thickly spread with ornamental plantations, among which, in different directions, a variety of single trees majestically rise, giving a bold relief to the picturesque scenery. The edifice, erected in the early part of the eighteenth century, was repaired, and enlarged by the addition of an aisle and a handsome tower, in 1836, and now contains 400 sittings. There is a parochial school, the master of which has a salary of £34, and about £20 fees, with a good house, built in 1825. Another school is supported, the master of which has a salary of £15, and fees; the salary arises from the gratuities of two ladies, and the school and master's house stand on land granted by the Earl of Stair rent-free. The poor have the interest of two sums, one of £100, and the other of £60. Not long since was discovered, in a marl-pit on the estate of Castlewig, in Whithorn parish, but near the border of Glasserton, the head of a urus, which was sent to Sir Walter Scott, and is yet to be seen at Abbotsford.
GLASSFORD, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 2½ miles (N. E.) from Strathaven; containing, with the villages of Westquarter and Chapelton, 1736 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the south by the river Avon, is not distinguished by any events of historical importance. It is about eight miles in length, and of very irregular form, varying in breadth from nearly four miles to two at its extremities, and to half a mile at the centre; it comprises 5598 Scottish acres, which, with the exception of about 500 acres, are generally arable, and in a state of profitable cultivation. The surface is uniformly level, though having a gradual ascent to a considerable elevation; and consists partly of dales extending along the lower parts of the parish, towards the south, and partly of moors. The soil is various, being in different parts moss, clay, and light loam: of the moss some small portion has been improved, and of the remainder it is probable that, from the rapid advance of agriculture, the greater part will be brought into cultivation. The principal crops are, oats, potatoes, and turnips; attempts have been made of late to raise wheat, and with tolerable success, but hitherto a small tract only has been sown for that purpose. A considerable portion of land is in pasture, and great attention is paid to the rearing of sheep and cattle, of which the latter are mostly of the Ayrshire breed. There is but little wood; the plantations are chiefly of beech, ash, and fir. The lands are in general well inclosed, except in the moorland districts; and the fences, which are usually of thorn and beech, have of late been much attended to, and are well kept up: the farmhouses, also, many of which are of recent erection, are substantial and comfortable. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6700.
Freestone is found in different parts; near the village of Westquarter are three quarries of excellent quality, and there is also one at a place called Flatt, all of which are in operation, affording employment to several men, and supplying abundant material for building. Limestone is also prevalent, and lime-kilns on an extensive scale have been established in the moors, providing plenty of lime for manure: coal is found in some parts, and at Crutherland works have been opened on a limited scale, for the supply of that estate. A considerable number of females are employed in weaving, and on the bank of the river Avon are a flour and an oat mill. Communication is maintained with Strathaven and other market-towns by means of good turnpike-roads, of which one, from that town to Glasgow, by East Kilbride, and also one to Hamilton, pass through the parish. Glassford is in the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and patronage of Lady Mary Montgomerie; the minister's stipend is £256. 17. 11., with a manse, and a glebe of nine acres of rich land. The parish church, situated in the village of Westquarter, nearly at one extremity of the parish, was erected in 1820, and is adapted for a congregation of 560 persons. A handsome church, with a spire, was erected on the Church-extension principle in 1839, in the village of Chapelton, about three miles from the parish church. There is also a place of worship for the Free Church. A female society for the promotion of religious objects was formed in 1835, and a parochial library has been established. The parochial school, situated at Westquarter, affords education to a considerable number; the salary of the master, of which a portion has been assigned to the masters of two branch schools, is £25. 13., with £35 fees, and a house and garden. The branch schools are in the village of Chapelton and at Millwell: the former is endowed with £5. 11.; and the latter with £2. 15. 6., a house and garden given by Lady Montgomerie, and the sum of £3 from the parish. About 300 children attend three Sabbath schools, of which one is at Westquarter, and another at Chapelton; and there is also a class of adults. On the lands of Avonholm are the remains of a cromlech, consisting of three upright stones. Within the last few years there were, near Hallhill House, some ruins of an ancient castle, which have been wholly removed by the proprietor; it appears to have been a very strong fortress, capable of containing more than 100 men, and was probably a safe retreat in times of danger. There are still some remains of the original church and steeple in the grave-yard, in which is also a tomb inscribed to William Gordon, of Earlston, in Galloway, who was shot by a party of dragoons on his way to Bothwell Bridge, in 1679.
GLEMSHOLM ISLE, in the parish of South Ronaldshay, county of Orkney. This is a small islet lying northward of the island of Burray, from which it is distant about half a mile: it is nearly a mile in length and half a mile in breadth, and is appropriated to the pasturage of cattle and sheep.
GLENBERVIE, a parish, in the county of Kincardine, 7 miles (W. S. W.) from Stonehaven; containing 1296 inhabitants, of whom 397 are in the village of Drumlithie. This parish, which obviously derives its name from the situation of its church in a small glen on the north-eastern bank of the river Bervie, is totally unconnected with any event of historical importance. It is bounded on the north by the hills of Strachan and Durris, forming part of the lower range of the Grampians; and is about six miles and a half in length and five in breadth, comprising an area of 13,000 acres, of which 5000 are arable, 185 woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow, pasture, high moorland, and waste. The surface is varied, and naturally divided into three districts, of which that on the banks of the river is level, and separated from the middle district by a deep ravine; the northern district includes a low and narrow ridge of the Grampians. The rivers are, the Bervie, which has its source in the hills to the north-west, and, taking an eastern course, flows along the southern boundary of the parish into that of Arbuthnott; the Carron, which rises in the hills near the west of the glen of Bervie, and runs eastward towards Fetteresso; and the Cowie, which has its source in the hills to the north of the parish, and flows through Fetteresso into the bay of Cowie, near Stonehaven.
The soil is various; in the district along the Bervie, early, and pretty fertile; in the middle district, light and cold towards the west, but more productive towards the east; and in the northern district are some tracts of good arable land, with a large extent of heath and moor. The crops are, oats, barley, and bear, with potatoes and turnips; the system of husbandry is in a very advanced state, and all the improvements in the construction of agricultural implements have been adopted. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5147. There is but little wood; and the few plantations that have been formed are of recent growth, and of very limited extent. Glenbervie House is a plain, ancient building. The only village in the parish is Drumlithie, which is chiefly inhabited by weavers, and persons employed in the usual handicraft trades requisite for the supply of the neighbourhood. The linens woven here are principally of the coarser kinds, mostly Osnaburghs and sheeting, in which about eighty persons are engaged. A fair is held in the village, for the sale of cattle, generally about the second week in October. Facility of communication is maintained by good roads, of which the high road from Perth, through Strathmore, to Aberdeen passes near the village; and at Stonehaven agricultural produce is shipped for the London market. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Fordoun and synod of Angus and Mearns. The minister's stipend is £231, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £7. 5. per annum; patrons, the family of Nicholson. The church, a neat plain structure erected in the year 1826, contains 700 sittings. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £30, with a house, and £2. 2. in lieu of garden, and the fees average £15 per annum. This place gave the title of Baron, in the peerage of Ireland, to the Right Hon. Silvester Douglas, created Lord Glenbervie in 1800; but it became extinct at his lordship's death.—See Drumlithie.
GLENBUCK, a village, in the parish of Muirkirk, district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 3½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Muirkirk; containing 237 inhabitants. This place, which is situated in the extreme east of the parish, and north of the high road from Muirkirk, was an appendage to considerable iron-works, erected in 1794, by an English company; but these works having been discontinued in 1813, the village has since fallen greatly into decay. The Ayr river flows at a short distance on the south; and connected with it are two artificial lakes or reservoirs, which were formed about 1802, by the Messrs. Finlay, of Glasgow, to supply their cotton-factories at Catrine, in the parish of Sorn. In the village is a school.
GLENBUCKET, a parish, in the district of Alford, county of Aberdeen, 2 miles (N. E.) from Strathdon, on the road to Aberdeen; containing 542 inhabitants. This place is supposed to derive its name from the stream of Bucket, which, rising among lofty mountains, intersects the parish, and falls into the Don near the castle of Glenbucket, the seat of the Gordons of Glenbucket. The last laird of this ancient family espoused the cause of the Stuarts, and held a distinguished command in 1715 and 1745: he was consequently compelled to make his escape to France, when a very aged man, after the fatal battle of Culloden. The length of the parish is about ten miles, and its breadth about two and a half; it contains upwards of 12,000 acres, of which 1000 are arable, 200 planted, and there is some good pasture and meadow land. It is bounded on the north-east by the parish of Cabrach; on the north-west by Banffshire; on the south-east by the parish of Fowie; and on the south by Strathdon. The district is altogether mountainous, and is entered from the east by only a narrow and romantic pass, commencing at the confluence of the rivers Don and Bucket below the castle, which stands on the acclivity of the hill of Benneaw, rising 1800 feet above the level of the sea. The greatest elevation is the hill of Craigenscore, on the north, the height of which is about 2000 feet. The climate is subject to the extremes of heat and cold, the summers being sometimes intensely hot, and the winters bringing keen north winds, deep snows, and sharp and longcontinued frosts. The soil is in general good, and the improved system of husbandry is adopted; yet the deficiencies in draining, inclosing, and planting, and the want of roads, form great obstacles to rapid advances in prosperity. The produce of the farms is usually sent to the markets of Aberdeen. The rocks consist of granite, gneiss, &c., with several others of the primitive formation: there is a good supply of superior limestone, which is wrought to advantage by the tenants, both for their own use and for sale. The inhabitants are all employed in agriculture: the parish is the property of the Earl of Fife, and its rateable annual value amounts to £989. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Alford and synod of Aberdeen; patron, the Crown. The stipend is £158, of which £125 are drawn from the exchequer; there is an excellent manse, with a glebe of about £10 value. The church, built about fifty-five years since, is a plain commodious edifice. There is a parochial school, the master of which has the medium legal salary, school fees, a house and garden, with three acres of land. The parish also contains a parochial library. Burnett's mortification, shared in by all the parishes in the synod, and of which no parish can receive more than £50, nor less than £20, comes to Glenbucket about once in eight years. The old castle, now nearly in ruins, is a highly picturesque object.
GLENCAIRN, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 13½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Dumfries; containing, with the villages of Dunreggan, Kirkland, and Minnyhive, 2094 inhabitants. The parish is about fifteen miles long, and three and a half broad, and contains above 35,000 acres; it is bounded on the north by Tynron parish, on the south by Dunscore, on the east by Keir, and on the west by Balmaclellan and Dairy. The surface is diversified by numerous hills and valleys, by wood and water. The hills extend in ranges from east to west, rising from 1000 to 1500 feet above the level of the sea; the higher parts are covered with heath, but the rest is generally spread with good green pasture. The valleys are highly cultivated, and produce crops of grain. On account of its proximity to the high hills on the west, the parish has a moist atmosphere; and it suffers frequently from violent inundations caused by copious rains, which bring great mischief to the low grounds. There is a lake about three miles in circumference, and four or five fathoms deep, abounding with pike and a large kind of trout; the water has a black hue, on account of the mossy ground in the neighbourhood. Three streams, named Castlefairn, Craigdarroch, and Dalwhat, rise in the western hills, and, meeting a little below the village of Minnyhive, form one stream, which takes the appellation of Cairn. This river has a course of sixteen miles, and then joins the Nith, about a mile above Dumfries, and seven miles distant from the Solway Frith.
The soil in general is light and gravelly, and adapted in a superior degree for turnip husbandry. About 7000 acres are cultivated, or occasionally in tillage; 26,600 have never been cultivated; and 800 are under wood. The crops of grain raised in the valleys are very fine, and the grounds are under the most improved system of agriculture. Great benefits have resulted from efficient draining, and the construction of embankments; and by the spirited and liberal support of some of the proprietors, much moss has been reclaimed, and excellent farm houses and offices erected. The quantity of arable land has, indeed, been quadrupled within the last fifty years; and the rateable annual value of the parish now amounts to £11,138. The rocks are chiefly of the transition class: there is a slate-quarry which was formerly wrought to some extent, but which has since been neglected. The mansions are Maxwellton House and Craigdarroch House. Fairs are held at Minnyhive, in March, July, and October, for the hiring of servants; and a market for lambs has recently been established. There is a daily post; and about eighteen miles of turnpike-road run through the parish, upon which the Glasgow and Dumfries coach travels three times a week: there are four bridges on this road, and six upon the parish roads, and all are kept in good order.
The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Penpont and synod of Dumfries; patron, the Duke of Buccleuch. The stipend is £280; and there is a manse, with a glebe of twelve acres, valued at £18 per annum. The old church contained only accommodation for 500 or 600 persons, and was an uncomfortable building; a new one has been lately erected to seat upwards of 1000 persons. There are also a place of worship for members of the Free Church, and one belonging to the United Secession. Three parochial schools are supported, in which the classics, with the usual branches of education, are taught; the respective salaries are £25. 13., £17. 2., and £8. 11., and the joint fees amount to about £54. There are likewise two subscription libraries at Minnyhive, and a congregational library belonging to Seceders. The chief relic of antiquity is a tumulus generally called the Moat, but sometimes the Bow Butts, situated about a mile and a half from the church, and supposed to have been formerly employed as a place for the exercise of archery. In the village of Minnyhive is a cross, erected about 1638, when a charter was granted, constituting the village a burgh of barony, with power to hold a weekly market.
GLENCAPLE-QUAY, a village, in the parish of Caerlaverock, county of Dumfries, 4½ miles (S. S. E.) from Dumfries; containing 268 inhabitants. The village is situated on the eastern bank of the Nith, and has a small harbour, of which the water is twelve feet deep at spring tides. Vessels bound for Dumfries, to which town this port is subsidiary, unload here when unable, from their burthen, to reach the place of their destination; and much employment is afforded to the male population, as carriers, in consequence. A road from the village runs in a northern direction, and partly along the shore, to Dumfries. A short distance hence, close by the river, was a cell or chapel, dedicated to St. Columba; and near it is a well, where persons who drank of its water usually deposited alms.
GLENCOE, a district, in the parish of Lismore and Appin, district of Lorn, county of Argyll, 17 miles (N. E. by E.) from Appin. This singularly wild and celebrated Highland vale is situated nearly at the head of an arm of the sea called Loch Etive, and extends in a north-western direction to Ballichulish, on Loch Leven, a distance of about ten miles. From the latter point, the western line of the Highland military road passes through the extensive and valuable slate-quarries in that quarter, and then turns up the dark vale of Glencoe. The scenery of this vale is in many respects different from that of other Highland glens. It forms a narrow strip of rugged territory, along which flows the wild and rapid stream of the Coe; and on each side of the banks of this stream, stupendous hills shoot almost perpendicularly upwards to the height of perhaps 2000 feet, terminating either in cragged summits or in spires and cones; while numerous torrents descend from the heights at intervals, increasing the awful grandeur of the scene. The mountainous elevations seem as if composed of huge disjointed rocks heaped one upon another, and appear to be in danger of falling every moment, and of filling the dismal chasm below with their crumbling materials. In some places, the opposite ranges approach so near as almost to exclude the sun from the vale, even when at its greatest height in June. Where accessible, the hills afford tolerable pasture for sheep; but in various parts, particularly on the south side of the glen, no foot has ever trod, and the eagle and his feathered subjects are the only visitants. At its south-eastern extremity, the vale is bounded by the mountain called Buchael-Etive.
Glencoe is famous as the birthplace of the poet Ossian, by whom many of the mountains, and the wild scenery of the district, are accurately described; and it were to be wished that the celebrity of the vale were confined to the martial deeds of Fingal and his heroes. But the place is also memorable for one of the most barbarous and bloody crimes that have been committed in a modern age, or have ever been sanctioned by any regular and civilized government; that known as the "massacre of Glencoe." It appears that William III., of England, had published a proclamation inviting the Highlanders who had been in arms for James VII., to accept of a general amnesty before the 1st of January, 1691, on pain of military execution after that time. Mackian Macdonald, laird of Glencoe, in accordance with this invitation, repaired to Fort-William on the very last day of December, and offered to surrender to the governor of that fortress, by whom, however, he was informed that he should apply to the civil magistrates. Upon this intimation, he set out with all possible haste to Inverary, the county town, and there surrendered himself to the sheriff, the time prescribed for submission having been exceeded by only a single day. The sheriff, in consequence of his previous offer to the governor of Fort-William, and moved by Macdonald's entreaties and suppliant manner, agreed to accept his oath of allegiance, and to certify to the unavoidable cause of the delay from the snows and other interruptions on the road; and the confiding laird returned to Glencoe, assured of security and protection. But an extensive combination was, it would appear, formed for his destruction; the fact of his having sworn allegiance was altogether suppressed, at the instance, chiefly, of the president Stair and the Earl of Breadalbane; and the certificate of the magistrate was erased from the minutes presented to the privy council. Early in the month of February, therefore, a party of military under the command of Captain Campbell, of Glenlyon, entered the vale on pretence of levying taxes and hearth-money; the clan became alarmed at their appearance, but on Macdonald inquiring of this officer, if his intentions were friendly, he assured him upon his honour that they were. All apprehension was allayed in consequence; and for nearly two weeks, the unsuspecting inhabitants treated their visiters with every mark of attention and hospitality. The soldiers were comfortably quartered among them; civilities were interchanged on both sides, and even on the night of the dreadful massacre, the 13th of February, Macdonald and Campbell had played at cards, the latter renewing, when retiring, his frequently-expressed protestations of the warmest friendship for his host.
The fatal order from the executive in England arrived in the night. It directed an immediate and sudden attack upon the defenceless villagers while asleep, commanded the passes to be securely guarded, to prevent escape; and exhorted the military not to suffer a man under the age of seventy to be spared by their swords. From some suspicious circumstances, the sons of Macdonald were impressed with a presentiment of danger; but this was not the case before they discovered the approach of the soldiery; and ere they could alarm their father, the massacre was spreading through the vale. A party entering the house as friends, shot the laird as he rose from his bed. His wife was stripped naked by the assassins, who tore the rings with their teeth from her fingers; and she expired in the morning from the effects of grief and horror. A guest of the family, Macdonald of Achtrichatain, who had submitted three months before, and who had the royal protection in his pocket, was among the victims. Nine men were bound, and deliberately shot, at Campbell's quarters; his landlord was shot by his orders; and a youth, who had clung to his knees for protection, was stabbed to death. At another part of the vale, the inhabitants were shot while sitting round their fires; several women perished with their children in their arms; a man eighty years of age was put to the sword; and another, who had escaped to a house for concealment, was burnt alive. Thirty-eight persons were thus inhumanly butchered by their own inmates and guests. The rest, alarmed by the report of musketry, mostly escaped to the hills, and were preserved from destruction by a tempest that added to the horrors of the night, and which was so terrific as to prevent a detachment from Fort-William, of 400 men, under Colonel Hamilton, from advancing in sufficient time to complete the massacre. The women and children were spared from the stroke of death; but it seemed as if only to render their fate more cruel. Such of them as had not died from fright, or escaped, were turned out naked at the dead of night, in a keen frost, into a waste covered with snow, six miles distant from any inhabited place; and many of them were found dead or dying under rocks and hedges. The carnage was succeeded by rapine and desolation; the houses in the vale were demolished, and the cattle became a prey to the murderers.
According to Smollett, the Earl of Breadalbane had borne a personal enmity to Macdonald, and had, from this motive, concealed from the ministry the fact of his submission: the order for the extermination of the whole clan, countersigned, it is said, by the king himself, was thus transmitted to the secretary of state in Scotland, and but too fatally executed. The outcry against the massacre was not confined to these kingdoms; but resounded, with every aggravation, throughout Europe. Yet the secret circumstances relating to it were never sufficiently examined; no inquiry was instituted at the time, nor was any punishment inflicted subsequently upon its authors. On the contrary, it is asserted that the officers who were most active in the sanguinary deed were promoted. The place where the massacre was chiefly committed is at the north-west end of the vale; and the old house of Glencoe, still an object of horror, is now a ruin. Near the slate-quarry in Glencoe is an Episcopalian chapel, served by the minister that officiates at Portnacroish, in the Strath of Appin.
GLENCROSS, or Glencorse, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh, 2½ miles (N. by E.) from Penicuick; containing 708 inhabitants. This parish, which consists of portions severed from the parishes of Lasswade and Penicuick, in 1616, derives its name from an ancient cross in the cemetery of the old church of St. Catherine, now covered by the water of the Compensation reservoir. The battle of the Pentland hills, between the Covenanters under Colonel Wallace and the king's troops commanded by General Dalziel, took place on Rullion Green, in this parish, on the 28th of November, 1666, and terminated in the defeat of the former, with considerable slaughter. Glencross is bounded on the north by the parish of Colinton, on the east and on the south by that of Lasswade, and on the west by Penicuick; it is three miles in length, and nearly the same in breadth, comprising an area of about 1920 acres, of which 1680 are arable, and the remainder hilly moorland. The surface is beautifully diversified with hill and dale, and abounds with scenery of strikingly picturesque character; in the northern district is a considerable portion of the Pentland hills, and throughout the parish the land is irregularly undulating. The Glencross, or Logan, water has its source in the Pentlands, and, winding in an eastern direction through the parish, flows into the river Esk in the parish of Glencross. This tributary stream, in its course along a valley between the Pentland hills, has been formed, by the Edinburgh Water Company, at an immense expense, into a reservoir for the supply of the numerous mills upon the Esk, in consideration of their having diverted from that river, for the supply of Edinburgh, the powerful spring of Crawley, which rises near the manse, and discharges sixty cubic feet of water per minute.
The soil varies from a fine rich loam to a gravelly and stiff clay, and is adapted for crops of every kind; the principal are, wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips, with the various grasses. The system of agriculture is in a very forward state; the lands have been well drained and inclosed, in the lower parts with hedges of thorn, and in the higher with stone dykes. The farm houses and offices are greatly improved in appearance; they are substantial and commodiously arranged, and on most of the farms are threshing-mills. Much waste has been reclaimed and brought into cultivation, yielding fine crops of grain by the judicious use of lime formed into a compost for manure. The hills afford good pasturage for sheep, which are chiefly the black-faced, with some of the Cheviot breed, and a few of a cross between the black-faced and the Leicestershire. Plantations have been formed on an extensive scale, and are well managed, and in a thriving condition; they consist of almost every sort of trees, both of hard and soft wood. There are some remarkable specimens of Portugal laurel in the gardens of Logan Bank, and of variegated holly at Woodhouselee, some of which latter are more than thirty-five feet in height; also a silver fir at Woodhouselee, which measures thirteen feet and a half in girth, at three feet from the ground. The chief substrata are, coal, limestone, sandstone, clay-slate, greenstone, and conglomerate; and the rocks are principally of porphyritic formation, containing fine specimens of compact felspar, calcareous and heavy spars, and agate. Coal was formerly wrought in Glencross muir; and the heavy spar was also worked for some time, in the hope of finding copper or silver, but not to any great extent. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5391.
Woodhouselee, the seat of James Tytler, Esq., is an elegant mansion beautifully situated in an ample demesne tastefully laid out, and embellished with plantations: Bush, Glencross House, Logan Bank, Castlelaw, and Bellwood, are also good mansions. The ancient house of Greenlaw was converted by government into a depot for French prisoners of war, in 1803, and in 1813 was enlarged for the reception of 7000 men; but, from the termination of the war before the buildings were completed, they were not applied to that purpose; and they are at present occupied by a small detachment of troops from the castle of Edinburgh. There is no village in the parish, except a few clusters of houses at Milton-Mill; the population is entirely agricultural. There was formerly a distillery in the parish; but a paper-mill, lately erected, and one single meal-mill, are the only works at present: a market for sheep is held on the first and second Mondays in April, at House of Muir. Facility of communication is afforded by good roads, kept in excellent repair, and by bridges over the Glencross water and the river Esk: the turnpike-road from Edinburgh to Dumfries intersects the parish. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the synod of Lothian and Tweeddale and the presbytery of Dalkeith. The minister's stipend is £156. 17., of which £88 are paid by government; patron, Mr. Tytler. The manse, about a mile from the church, was built in 1816; the glebe comprises nine acres, including garden, and is valued at £19. 15. per annum. The church, situated on the summit of an isolated hill, in the centre of the parish, was erected in 1665, and partly rebuilt after sustaining damage from fire, and enlarged by the addition of transepts, in 1699; it was repaired in 1811, and contains 180 sittings, a number very inadequate to the population of the parish. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of £34, with a good house and garden, and the fees average about £20 annually. There are vestiges of an ancient camp at Castlelaw, from which that estate most probably took its name; and on an eminence near Marchwell were, till within the last few years, some very perfect remains of a Druidical circle; but they have been removed for the sake of the materials, which have been used in the erection of a wall. The late William Tytler, Esq., author of an inquiry into the evidence against Mary, Queen of Scots; his son, Lord Woodhouselee, author of the Life of Lord Kames; and Patrick Fraser Tytler, Esq., youngest son of Lord Woodhouselee, and author of the History of Scotland, all resided on the estate of Woodhouselee. The late Rev. Dr. Inglis, author of a vindication of ecclesiastical establishments, likewise lived for many years in the parish.
GLENDOVAN, or Glendevon, a parish, in the county of Perth, 8 miles (S. S. E.) from Auchterarder; containing 157 inhabitants. This parish, which is about six miles in length and four in breadth, derives its name from the river Devon, which runs through it in a direction from west to east, taking its course along a narrow and verdant glen, and being inclosed by banks of considerable elevation. It lies in the midst of the Ochil hills, and is bounded on the north by the parishes of Blackford and Auchterarder, on the east by Fossaway, on the south-east by Muckart, and on the west and south by Clackmannanshire; it comprises about 6000 acres, of which not more than 100 are arable, and the whole of the remainder rich meadow and pasture land. The surface is varied by the hills, clothed to their summits with luxuriant verdure; and except about thirty persons employed in the woollen manufacture, for which a mill has been established at Burnfoot, the population is wholly pastoral. The dairy-farms are well managed; and the produce is sold in the markets of Alloa and Stirling, where it finds a ready sale. The rateable annual value of Glendovan is £1500. A good road has been constructed for about three and a half miles through the parish, at an expense of £5257, and has been of great benefit in facilitating a supply of coal, which is plentiful in the immediate vicinity: peat-moss is also abundant, and is used to a considerable extent for fuel. The Devon, a fine copious stream, abounds with excellent trout, and flows through a tract enriched with pleasingly picturesque scenery: on the south bank is Glendovan House, a handsome mansion commanding a good view of the glen. The parish is in the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth and Stirling, and patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £158, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34, with £15 fees, and a house and garden.
GLENDUCKIE, a hamlet, in the parish of Flisk, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 3 miles (E.) from Newburgh; containing 53 inhabitants. It is seated in the extreme south of the parish, a short distance north of the high road from Newburgh to Cupar. The hamlet is appendant to the farm of Glenduckie, and consists of the farm-house and twelve or fourteen cottages.
GLENELG, a parish, in the county of Inverness, 188½ miles (N. W.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the island of Rassay, 2729 inhabitants. The name of this place, according to some, signifies "the valley of hunting," and according to others, "the valley of the roe," each of which descriptions is appropriate to the character of the district. The parish is about twenty miles in length, and of nearly the same breadth. It is bounded on the north-east and east by the parish of Glenshiel, in the county of Ross; on the south-east and south by Glengarry and Lochaber; on the south-west by the lake of Morir, dividing it from Ardnamurchan; and on the west and north-west by the Sound of Sleat, separating it from the Isle of Skye. The coast is abrupt and rocky, except in the bay of Glenelg and in the lochs, where good anchorage may be obtained. The interior consists of three districts, named Glenelg Proper, Knodyart, and North Morir, which are formed by the intersection of two arms of the sea, called Loch Hourn and Loch Nevis. The surface is diversified with hill and glen. In the district of Glenelg are two valleys, through each of which a river runs; and the inhabitants reside partly in villages on each side of the streams, their arable land extending along the banks, and on the acclivities of the hills. In Knodyart the people live near the sea: North Morir is but little inhabited, being rocky and mountainous, and chiefly adapted for pasture. Loch Hourn and Loch Nevis are about four miles wide at the entrance, and are navigable for twenty miles; the former is celebrated for the beauty of its scenery and the well-wooded mountains rising from its margin. There are also several fresh-water lakes, which, as well as the rivers, contain a tolerable supply of fish.
The soil in Glenelg proper is loamy and fertile; that in the district of Knodyart is much lighter, but, when well cultivated, produces good crops. The parish, however, is chiefly pastoral, being rendered unfit for extensive agricultural operations by the rockiness of the surface, and by the great quantity of rain to which the lands are subject at all seasons, exposing the farmer to considerable loss. Sheep are the staple live stock, the arable land not being able to supply a sufficiency of winter provender for any other; the few cattle kept are of the pure Highland breed, and the sheep the black-faced and Cheviots. About 2000 acres are under wood; and the rateable annual value of the whole parish amounts to £6642. The rocks are chiefly gneiss, with mica-slate, quartz, hornblende, granite, syenite, and serpentine. There are also several beds of limestone; but it is not wrought, as the scarcity of proper fuel renders the operation too expensive, and as the shells which abound on the coast are found to be a good substitute. Plumbago is met with in considerable quantities. The only mansion-house in the parish is that of Inverie, on the property of Glengarry, in the district of Knodyart; it is beautifully situated on the banks of Loch Nevis. The chief village is Kirkton, which, with its circumjacent scenery, has excited the admiration of most visiters to this part of the country, and is conveniently seated upon a bay affording good anchorage with the wind south-east, north-east, or east. Its principal street consists of slate-roofed houses, having some good shops, with numerous cottages in the vicinity, these last, however, being of a mean description, and extremely dirty: it is also the site of the parish church. The roads leading from the village are beautified with rows of trees; and these, together with the extensive bay and the interesting back-ground, form a very agreeable and striking picture. The village of Arnisdale, situated at the southern extremity of the district of Glenelg proper, on the banks of Loch Hourn, is also rendered attractive by its imposing Alpine scenery. There is a herringfishery connected with the parish, which produces about £250 a year; and annual fairs are held in the months of May, July, and September, respectively. The inhabitants enjoy good means of communication. The parliamentary road towards the Isle of Skye passes through the principal glen to the ferry of Kyle Rhea; it is kept in good order, and has excellent bridges over the mountain streams. A steam-boat, also, visits the parish weekly, except in the most stormy weather; and postoffices have been established under Lochalsh and Fort-Augustus.
The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Lochcarron and synod of Glenelg; patrons, the family of Baillie, of Kingussie. The stipend is £237: the manse, which was built recently, more than a mile from the church, is a large and handsome edifice, beautifully situated. The glebe is valued at £40 per annum, and is of great extent, comprehending 360 acres, nearly thirty of which are arable, the rest being pasture: this tract was received in lieu of the old glebe, which was comprehended in a portion of land sold to government for building a fort and barracks, subsequently to the rebellion of 1715. The church contains about 400 sittings, and is in good condition, having been repaired and re-seated about 1827. In the districts of Knodyart and Morir, the population of which is almost entirely Roman Catholic, a missionary labours under the patronage of the General Assembly, also preaching every third Sunday at Arnisdale, on account of its distance from the parish church. Two Roman Catholic priests officiate in Knodyart and Morir. The parochial school affords instruction in English and Gaelic reading, and sometimes in Latin, with the common branches of education; the master has £30 a year, with £9 in lieu of a house and garden, and about £5 fees. Other schools are supported by the General Assembly's Committee and the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. The chief relics of antiquity are two duns or Pictish towers, situated in Glenbeg; they are the finest specimens of their class in this part of the Highlands, and are supposed by many, not to be the workmanship of any purely Celtic tribe, but to have been raised by the Danes or Norwegians. Glenelg gives the title of Baron to the family of Grant, a dignity created in 1835, in the person of the Hon. Charles Grant, who had been representative in parliament of the county of Inverness for some years previously, and was at that time secretary of state for the colonies.
GLENHEAD, a village, in the parish of Lochwinnoch, county of Renfrew, 2½ miles (N. N. E.) from Beith; containing 53 inhabitants. This small village is chiefly inhabited by persons employed in agriculture; it is pleasantly situated on the south side of Castle-Semple loch, and contains a school, of which the master has a salary of £5 per annum, paid by the master of the parochial school, and also a house and garden rentfree.
GLENISLA, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 10 miles (N. by W.) from Alyth; containing, with the hamlet of Kirkton, 1134 inhabitants. This very extensive parish, which comprehends the north-western portion of the county, derives its name from its situation in a spacious and picturesque valley watered by the river Isla. It is about eighteen miles in length, and nearly six in extreme breadth, comprising an area of 39,776 acres, of which 3960 are arable, 4500 undivided common, about 500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder mountain pasture and waste. The surface is strikingly diversified: on the north, the parish is separated from the county of Aberdeen by a barrier of mountainous elevation, from which extend, towards the south, two ranges of nearly equal height, that bound the parish on the east and west. Between these ranges, for a short distance from the northern boundary, the surface is divided into three small vales by intervening ridges; and farther towards the south is the height of Kilry, which intersects the parish from west to east, leaving only a narrow interval, through which the Isla pursues its course. The range of mountains forming the eastern boundary divides, for some few miles, into three nearly parallel ranges, inclosing two small vales watered by the rivulets of Pitlochrie and Glenmarkie. The lowest of the mountainous ranges of Glenisla has an elevation of 1400 feet above the level of the sea: towards the north, they greatly increase in height, terminating in the mountain of Glassmile, 3000 feet high, on the western verge of which is raised a heap of stones, whereof the base lies in the three parishes of Glenisia, in the county of Forfar, Kirkmichael, in that of Perth, and Crathie, in the county of Aberdeen. Mount Blair, on the western boundary, has an elevation of 2260 feet; and from the summit is obtained a commanding view over the adjacent district, with the Lammermoor, Pentland, and other hills of almost infinite variety. The river Isla, which has its source in the heights of Caanlochan, flows in a south-easterly direction, through an extensive tract abounding with truly romantic scenery. It forms some picturesque cascades; and near the bridge of Milna Craig, being arrested in its course by immense masses of projecting rock, it rushes with impetuous violence through its contracted channel, and falls from a height of eighty feet into a wide gulph beneath. About two miles from this, again confined within a narrow channel, scarcely three yards in width, by towering cliffs of precipitous rock, it forces its way through a frightful chasm, and descends in a torrent into a deep and spacious ravine lined on both sides with walls of perpendicular rocks, crowned with trees of every variety of foliage. This pass, which is called the Slug of Auchrannie, is much admired for the grandeur of its scenery.
The soil is partly clay alternated with gravel, and, though tenacious of moisture, is, when properly drained, productive of grain of every kind; the upper lands are chiefly moss, with some portions of gravel. The crops are mostly oats and barley, with the various green crops, and the hills afford good pasturage for sheep and cattle; the system of agriculture is improved, and the rotation plan of husbandry generally prevalent. The lands are well drained, and partly inclosed; and the farm-buildings, many of which are of modern erection, are substantial and convenient. The cattle, of which the annual number is about 1800, are of the Angus and Highland breeds; and the sheep, of which nearly 10,000 are pastured on the hills, are chiefly of the black-faced kind. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4009. The plantations, which are of modern growth, are larch and Scotch fir, and thrive well. The substratum in the south is of the old red sandstone formation, with some portions of trap rock; the sandstone is well adapted for building, and there are quarries of blue limestone, which is burnt for manure. Communication is afforded by roads kept in repair by statute labour, of which one leads to Alyth, where is a branch post-office, and another forms the Kirriemuir and Castletown road; and there are several bridges over the river, two of which are of stone, one of iron, and another of wood, the two last for foot passengers only. Fairs for cattle, sheep, and horses are held on the first Wednesday in March and the first Wednesday in August, O. S. The Ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Meigle and synod of Angus and Mearns; the minister's stipend is £159. 12., of which about one-third is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum: patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1821, and situated nearly in the centre of the parish, is a neat structure containing 700 sittings. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £29. 18. 10., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £10 per annum. Another school is supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge, who allow the master a salary of £16 per annum. There are some small remains of the castles of Fortar and Newton, ancient baronial seats of the earls of Airlic; the former was destroyed in 1640, by the Marquess of Argyll. In 1841, a silver coin or medal, with a half-length figure of Anselm Casimer, Archbishop of Mentz, and silver coins of Elizabeth and James VI., were found in a field on the farm of Bellaty.
GLENLYON, lately a quoad sacra parish, chiefly in the parish of Fortingal, and partly in that of Weem, county of Perth, 12 miles (W.) from the Kirktown of Fortingal; containing 570 inhabitants. This district extends in a western direction, from the head of Fortingal, nearly to the stage-house of Tyndrum, upon the western military road, a distance of about thirty-two miles. It consists of a very narrow glen, the sides of which are formed of some of the loftiest mountains in the county. What is termed its general level ground, by the river Lyon, is seldom more than a furlong broad; and the mountains on the north approach so closely in some places to the opposite range, on the south, as to confine the struggling river to a bed not much more than eight yards wide. Numerous streams, some of them four miles in length, descend from the mountains and swell the Lyon; and this river, of which the source is a lake of the same name, after flowing in nearly an eastern direction for upwards of forty miles, its tributaries rendering it more rapid at each confluence, falls into the Tay below Taymouth Castle. In the head of the district the soil is good; but the seasons are inclement, and the crops seldom attain to perfection. The hills, however, afford excellent pasturage for sheep; and in this respect Glenlyon is exceeded by few, if any, of the glens in the Perthshire Highlands. In different parts along the vale are small hamlets, so secluded amidst Alpine scenery as to be deprived of the rays of the sun for a third part of the year. The means of communication are but indifferent: a carrier or runner passes and repasses between Aberfeldy and the extremity of the glen three times a week. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the presbytery of Weem and synod of Perth and Stirling, and the patronage is vested in the Crown: the stipend of the minister is £120, with a manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £2. 10., a privilege of cutting peat, and the summer grazing of two cows. The church, situated in the hamlet of Innerwick, was built by the heritors, in 1828, at a cost of £673, and contains between 500 and 600 sittings. A district box for the poor yields per annum about £16. This place gave the title of Baron, in the peerage of the United Kingdom, to James, second son of John, fourth duke of Atholl, who died in 1837, and was succeeded by his son George, as second lord, now the presumptive heir to the dukedom.—See Fortingal.
Glenmuick, Tullich, and Glengairn
GLENMUICK, TULLICH, and GLENGAIRN, a parish, in the district of Kinchardine O'Neil, county of Aberdeen', 16 miles (W.) from Kincardine O'Neil; containing, with the village of Ballater, 2118 inhabitants. The compound Gaelic term Glean-muic, expressive of "a valley frequented by swine," is supposed to have been applied to this place from some part of it having been formerly celebrated for its breed of swine. The word Tullich is corrupted from tulach, signifying "rising grounds, or hillocks," and is descriptive of the vicinity of the village of Tullich. Glengairn is derived from the three words glean-garbh-amhain, meaning "the hollow or glen of the rough water," a term properly applied to the water of Gairn, on account of the rocky channel through which it pursues its course. The outline of the parish is very irregular, the length in several places being eighteen miles and the breadth fifteen miles, and the average length about fourteen and a half and the breadth twelve and a half. Glenmuick measures in average length fifteen miles, from east to west, and five and a half in breadth; Tullich, fourteen miles in length, from east to west, and seven miles in breadth; and Glengairn, eight miles in length, and four in breadth. They comprise together about 115,200 acres, of which 3643 are under cultivation, 3185 in woods and plantations, and the remainder hills, moss, and moor, affording pasture, fuel, and game. The surface in most parts is mountainous and hilly; the small portion under tillage is chiefly in fertile straths, and on the banks of the rivers. In addition to several rivulets or burns, the lands are watered by the Dee, the Muick, and the Gairn; the first divides the parish throughout its whole length, the district of Glenmuick being nearly all on its southern side, and Tullich and Glengairn on the northern.
The chief mountains, which are partly in contiguous parishes, are, Lochnager, Cairntaggart, Mountkeen, and Morven, rising respectively to the height of 3814 feet, 3000 feet, 3126 feet, and 2934 feet. The most considerable HILLS are in ranges, varying from 1000 to 2500 feet: that of Culblean, at the east of Tullich, extends from Morven, in a southern direction, for six miles, as far as the river Dee. From the centre of this, another range runs westward, along the north bank of the Dee, to the valley of Gairn; and, though interrupted here, it rises again on the west side of the valley, and stretches parallel with the Dee to the church of Crathie. A third chain, on the south side of the Dee, extends in a line with the former, for about six miles, towards the west; and, after often changing its direction, and bounding several lochs, it reaches the parish of Braemar, at the mountain of Carintaggart. There are also some insulated hills, of which that called Craigandarroch, 400 yards north of the church, rises to the height of 1400 feet, and another, named the Cnoc, a mile west of the church, attains an elevation of 1150 feet. The ground rising from the streams, where the ascent is not too abrupt or rocky, is cultivated to the height of between 100 and 200 feet.
The wild and romantic mountain scenery of the district is blended with many beautifully picturesque features, for which it is much indebted to its rivers and lakes. The Dee, rising in the mountains of Braemar, flows into this parish, and receives, on its northern side, at about one mile and a half north-west of the church, the river Gairn, which has passed through the district of Glengairn; and half a mile west of the church, on its southern side, it is joined by the Muick, a stream remarkable for the beautiful cascade called the Linn of Muick. It then proceeds in an easterly course to Aberdeen, where it falls into the sea. Among the lochs, that of Dhuloch, at the south-western extremity of Glenmuick, is celebrated for its impressive scenery; and its water, which is deep and cold, derives a sable hue from the stupendous overhanging cliffs of Craigdhuloch, which rise on its southern shore above 1000 feet in height. A mountain rivulet falls into it from a considerable elevation, over a rock, on the north; and a small stream, called by its own name, runs out of it, in an eastern course, forming several cascades, and, at the distance of a mile and a half, losing itself in Loch Muick. This lake is situated in the midst of romantic scenery, and is closely girt by the mountain of Lochnagar on the north, and a lofty range of the Grampians on the south and west. The loch of Cannor, about three miles round, and lying at the base of Culblean, in the district of Tullich, is also a beautiful sheet of water, richly ornamented with birch-wood, and interspered with small islands. On one of these once stood a fortress, supposed to have been built as a hunting-seat by Malcolm Canmore; and not far from the loch is a curious excavation, called "the Vat" on account of its shape, it being nearly circular, measuring at the bottom about twelve feet in diameter, and gradually increasing to the top. A stream falls into it from the height of thirty feet; and the hollow is supposed to have been gradually wrought by the pebbles driven round it, for ages, by the rapid and incessant action of the water. Salmon are found in the rivers; and the lochs are well stocked with eels, pike, par, and trout.
The soil is in general shallow and dry, in some parts sandy, in others gravelly: the grain chiefly cultivated is oats and bear, and most kinds of green crops are raised. The sheep are the black-faced, occasionally crossed with other sorts; the cattle are the small native breed, mixed with the Galloway and others. The larger agriculturists are gradually introducing the rotation of crops, and other approved usages; the farm-buildings are tolerably good, and some tracts of waste land have been trenched, drained, and brought under tillage, within the last ten or twelve years. Embanking has also been carried on to some extent; but the inclosures are still deficient, and much is yet required to raise the parish to a level with many of the neighbouring districts. The rateable annual value of Glenmuick, Tullich, and Glengairn is £5745. The prevailing rocks are, primitive limestone, gneiss, and trap, of the first of which three quarries are in operation; and these rocks are frequently intersected with veins of quartz and porphyry. Granite occurs in numerous boulders; and ironstone and bog-iron are abundant. The natural wood consists chiefly of Scotch fir; the plantations are of the same wood, mixed with larch, pine, mountainash, and others; but plane, elm, and ash are not found to thrive. The mansion of Birkhall, built in 1715, and thoroughly repaired and enlarged in 1839, is a beautiful residence, romantically situated; Monaltrie House is a modern structure, in the vicinity of the village, and has very superior flower and fruit gardens attached to it.
The inhabitants are engaged chiefly in agriculture; but many females are employed in flax-spinning and the knitting of stockings. A post-office, in Ballater, communicates daily with Aberdeen; and there is a good commutation road, on the north side of the Dee, to Charlestown of Aboyne, where it meets the Aberdeen turnpike-road. A substantial wooden bridge of four arches was erected over the Dee in 1834, two excellent stone ones having been previously carried away by the floods, the first in 1799, and the other in 1829: the present structure was raised at a cost of more than £2000, defrayed partly by subscription, and partly by a grant from the Parliamentary Commissioners for Highland roads and bridges. The farmers usually send their corn and dairy produce to Aberdeen, and the live stock to the Scotch or English cattle-markets. Fairs are held on the first Tuesday in May, O. S., the last Tuesday in June, the second Monday and Tuesday in September, O. S., and the Saturday before the 22nd of November: those in May and September are for the sale of cattle, horses, sheep, and general wares; that in June for the sale of wool; and that in November for hiring servants. The parish is in the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Marquess of Huntly. The minister's stipend is £237, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £7. 10. per annum. The church, built in 1798, is a neat substantial edifice, with a spire; it is situated in the middle of a square in the village of Ballater, and has accommodation for about 800 persons. A missionary, in connexion with the Established Church, officiates in a chapel at Rinloan, in Glengairn, seven miles from Ballater, and, besides the usual accommodations, receives £60 per annum from the Royal Bounty Committee. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and there is a Roman Catholic chapel on Gairnside, five miles distant from the church, and a second, a very small one, in another part. The parochial school, situated in Ballater, affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £34, with a house, and £15 fees, and participates in the Dick bequest. There is also a school near the chapel in Glengairn, the master of which, in addition to accommodations, has £15 per annum from a bequest by Miss Farquharson. The parish contains a subscription library and a savings' bank. On the moor near Culblean are several cairns, said to cover the graves of those who fell in flight after the battle of Culblean, fought between the followers of King David Bruce, and those of Cummin, Earl of Atholl, in 1335. The Marquess of Huntly derives his title of Baron Meldrum, of Morven, from a place in this parish.—See Ballater.
Glenorchy and Inishail
GLENORCHY and INISHAIL, a parish, in the districts of Lorn and Argyll, county of Argyll, 14 miles (N. by E.) from Inverary; containing 1644 inhabitants, of whom 247 are in that portion of the parish which was till lately annexed, quoad sacra, to Strathfillan church. These two ancient parishes, which were united in the year 1618, derive their names from the situation of their respective churches, the former in a picturesque glen watered by the river Orchy, and the latter on the beautiful island of Inishail, in Loch Awe. The lordship of Glenorchy was granted in the fifteenth century, by James II., to an ancestor of the Breadalbane family, whose descendant, the marquess, is the present proprietor; the lands of Inishail are divided among several owners, of whom Mr. Campbell, of Monzie, is the principal. The Parish, which is partly bounded on the west by Loch Etive, is twenty-four miles in length, varying from five to twenty miles in breadth, and comprises an area of nearly 300 square miles. The surface, with the exception of the vale of Glenorchy and the district of Inishail, is hilly and mountainous, abounding in boldly romantic scenery. Of the mountainous ranges, the most conspicuous is that of Cruachan, on the north and north-eastern boundary, separating the parish from those of Ardchattan and Appin, and in which are the heights of Beinabhuiridh, Stob-an-Daimh, Beinmacmonaidh, and Beindourain. The range extending from the western to the eastern extremity of Loch Awe, along the south side of the vale of the Orchy, terminates at the bases of the mountains Tighearnan and Beinachleidh, near Beinlaoidh, the highest mountain in the parish. These ranges are in several places broken by intervening glens, through which run the rivers Orchy and Awe, which in their course form some pleasing cataracts, flowing between banks densely wooded and marked with features of strikingly romantic character. Both rivers abound with salmon and trout, and are much frequented by anglers. The chief lakes are Loch Awe and Lochtolla, which contain salmon, trout of large size, eels, char, perch, and pike, the last of recent introduction. Of the former lake, only the eastern extremity is in this parish; but, from the beauty of the scenery on its shores, it forms a very interesting feature. Lochtolla, which is situated among the hills of Glenorchy, is about four miles in length, and a mile in average breadth: on the north bank is a picturesque shooting-lodge belonging to the Marquess of Breadalbane, surrounded with thriving plantations. There are also several smaller lakes in the parish.
The soil on the banks of the rivers is a mixture of light earth and sand, and on the sides of Loch Awe a deep and rich loam resting on a gravelly subsoil; the crops are, oats, barley, bear, potatoes, and turnips. The system of husbandry has made considerable progress; the farm-houses are generally substantial and well built; but the offices are of rather inferior order, and the lands only partially inclosed. Embankments have been raised on the Orchy, and the channel of the river Awe deepened. The upland portion of the parish is purely pastoral, and great numbers of sheep and black cattle are reared on the hills. The sheep are, with the exception of a few of the Cheviot and Leicestershire, all of the black-faced breed; and the cattle of the pure Argyllshire breed, except some Ayrshire cows on the dairy-farms. The sheep and cattle are sent principally to Falkirk and Dumbarton, and the wool to Liverpool. Though comparatively little remains of the ancient woods with which the parish formerly abounded, the lands are still far from being destitute of timber, and various modern plantations have been formed, which are in a thriving state, and add much to the beauty of the scenery. The prevailing rocks are mica-slate and gneiss, with granite and porphyry; and the substrata chiefly clay-slate, whinstone, and limestone, much mixed with mica and quartz. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8886.
Among the seats is Inishdrynich House, a handsome mansion beautifully situated on the north side of Loch Awe, in a demesne richly wooded, and laid out with great taste. New Inverawe, about a mile from Inishdrynich, and also on the banks of the loch, is a modern mansion, surrounded with plantations; and Rockhill is likewise a pleasant residence, on Loch Awe, of which it commands an extensive and interesting view. There is no village of any importance. At Dalmally is a posting inn, affording every accommodation; and facility of communication is maintained by good roads which have been formed in various parts of the parish, and are kept in excellent order. Fairs are held on the third Wednesday in March, and the fourth Tuesday in November. The Ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Lorn and synod of Argyll; patrons, the Duke of Argyll and the Marquess of Breadalbane. The minister's stipend is £206, with a manse, a glebe valued at £22 per annum, and the privilege of depasturing; eight cows on four farms in the neighbourhood, which is equivalent to £10 more. The church of Glenorchy, erected in 1811, is a handsome structure in the later English style of architecture; it is beautifully situated on an islet formed by the windings of the river Orchy, and contains 500 sittings, all of which are free. The church of Inishail, formerly on an island of that name in Loch Awe, but rebuilt on the shore of the lake, is a plain structure containing 250 sittings. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. Two parochial schools are supported in Inishail, the masters of which have each a salary of £25. 13., and fees averaging £5 per annum: there is also a parochial school at Glenorchy, of which the master has a salary of £34, with fees amounting to £20, and a house and garden. The parochial library contains about 300 volumes.
There are some remains of ancient castles, among which are those of Fraocheilein, situated on a rock in Loch Awe, and erected in the reign of Alexander III. by the chief of the clan Mac Naughton. The castle of Caolchurn, at the eastern extremity of the lake, was for many centuries the stronghold of the Breadalbane family; the great tower or keep was built by the lady of Sir Colin Campbell, ancestor of the family, during his absence in the Holy Land, in 1440. This castle, after the removal of the owners to their seat at Taymouth, fell into decay, which was greatly accelerated by the appropriation of the materials to the building of farm-houses in the parish. There are slight remains, also, of the castles of Achallader, Duchoille, and others. On the island of Inishail are the ruins of a convent for nuns of the Cistercian order, of which the chapel was, after the Reformation, used as the parish church of Inishail, till the erection of the present structure in 1736. Upon a small islet in the lake, called the Priest's Isle, are the remains of the house of the priest of Inishail, surrounded with a wall of dry stones; and from the south shore of the lake, may be traced some huge blocks of stone intended for the foundation of a bridge, and still called the Druid's Bridge. On opening a cairn on the farm of Stronmilchan, a few years since, was found a stone coffin containing an urn. The Rev. Dr. John Smith, the translator of the Bible into the Gaelic language, and Duncan Mc Intyre, an eminent Highland bard, were natives of the parish. The place gives the title of Viscount Glenorchy to the Marquess of Breadalbane.
GLENSHIEL, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cromarty, 16 miles (S. E.) from Balmacara, in Lochalsh; containing 745 inhabitants. The derivation of the name of Glenshiel is involved in obscurity, the original word being equally applicable to a "glen of cattle," "of hunting," or "of rain." The history of the parish, till about the middle of the thirteenth century, is also uncertain. At this time the Mc Kenzies, whose founder had been rewarded by Alexander III. for his bravery at the battle of Largs, expelled from Glenshiel several tribes known by the names of Macbheolan, Macaulay, and others, and made themselves possessors of the land. In the beginning of the next century, however, the Mc Raes, a clan supposed to be of Irish origin, settled in the parish, and shortly became almost the sole proprietors. The descendants of this ancient tribe, with some adherents of the Mackenzie family, and 400 Spaniards headed by William, Earl of Seaforth, engaged the royal troops in the narrow pass of Glenshiel, in the cause of the dethroned family of Stuart; but, after several severe engagements, the Highlanders were repulsed, and retired, carrying with them the earl, who had been dangerously wounded. The celebrated Rob Roy was concerned in this battle, against the king's troops. The Mc Raes fought on the same side also at Auldearn and Sheriffmuir, but did not interfere in the rebellion of 1745.
The parish is about twenty-six miles in length, varying in breadth from two to six miles, and contains 72,000 acres. It is bounded on the north by Loch Duich, which divides it from the parishes of Lochalsh and Kintail; on the south by the parish of Glenelg; on the east by the parishes of Kiltarlity, Urquhart, and Kilmonivaig; and on the west by the strait of Kylerea, which separates it from the Isle of Skye. The surface is formed of two divisions, the Eastern and Western. The eastern consists of three ranges of lofty mountains, divided by narrow valleys, and rising in a bold and precipitous manner at the western end, to an elevation of nearly 4000 feet above the level of the sea: among the many peaks by which they are distinguished, Scùr-ùran is the most conspicuous. The celebrated valley of Glenshiel lies between two of these ridges; it is about fifteen miles in length, of various breadth, and narrows so much at the middle, by the approach of the mountains, as to leave only sufficient space for the stream of Shiel to pass along. In a more expansive portion, it forms a bed for the waters of the lake of Cluonie. The scenery is altogether of a bold and romantic cast. The western division of the parish, called Letterfearn, implying "the alder side," is of a different character from the other division, consisting of a verdant tract gradually rising from Loch Duich, and marked by rocky projections and headlands, diversified with well-cultivated fields and interesting copses. Good springs are numerous in the parish; and in the eastern division are two considerable rivers, of very clear water, stocked with salmon and trout, and which flow for about twelve miles, and then empty themselves into Loch Duich, at the south and east extremities. One of these is the Shiel, running through the valley of Glenshiel. The principal inland lakes are, Loch Cluonie, Loch Luin, and Loch Shiel, all of which abound in excellent trout.
The soil near the shore is gravelly, and, if well manured, produces good crops of potatoes; in several of the valleys a rich vegetable mould is found, partially mixed with sand or gravel, and admitting of superior cultivation. About 280 acres are employed in tillage, and 71,600 are under pasture: about seventy acres are wood, considerable portions of which consist of ash and alder. There are a few good farms, but the tillage is principally confined to yearly tenants who hold from one to two acres of land, which is turned with the spade, and sown with barley or oats, or planted with potatoes: the manure used is sea-weed. The houses on the superior farms are convenient and substantial buildings: those inhabited by the small tenants, however, are of a mean description, built of common stones, without cement, and containing only one apartment with partitions. Black-cattle, which formerly comprised the whole live stock, have been gradually yielding, since the beginning of the present century, to sheep. The breed of these, which has been much promoted, is the black-faced, or the Cheviot, with the cross of the two: the cattle are chiefly the native Highland, celebrated for their beauty and their hardiness, but a few Ayrshire cows are kept on some of the farms for their milk. The subsoil is a stiff and tenacious till, rendering draining difficult and expensive, and impeding the efforts of cultivation. The prevailing rock is gneiss, sometimes receiving a tinge of red from iron-ore; limestone, also, is found in several parts. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3014.
There is no village within the parish: fairs are held at Shielhouse, for the sale of black-cattle, at Whitsuntide, in July, and September. Communication between Glenshiel and Inverness is maintained by means of a parliamentary road running for eighteen miles through the parish. There is a good harbour, named Ob-inag, at the point where Loch Duich joins Loch Alsh; it is capable of sheltering the largest vessels. The bays, also, of Ardintoul and Craigan-roy, at the southern extremity of Loch Duich, afford secure anchorage. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Lochcarron and synod of Glenelg, and the patronage is in the Queen: the minister's stipend is £158, with a manse, built in 1834, and a glebe of about twenty-four acres, valued at £16 per annum. The church, which is the first erected in the parish, was built in 1758, and is situated in the eastern part of Letterfearn; it was repaired, enlarged, and new-roofed in 1840, and accommodates 300 persons with sittings. There is a parochial school, in which Latin, Gaelic, and English are taught; the master has a salary of £28, and about £2 fees. The only relic of antiquity is a strong circular fort on the estate of Letterfearn, called a Picts' house. In the parish are some chalybeate springs; but they have not been used for medicinal purposes.
GOGAR, a hamlet, in the parish of Corstorphine, county of Edinburgh, 2 miles (W.) from Corstorphine; containing 32 inhabitants. The lands of Gogar anciently formed a parish, which merged, after the Reformation, into the adjoining parishes of Corstorphine, Kirkliston, and Ratho. The estate was given by King Robert Bruce to Alexander Seton, one of his companions in arms; and for a long series of years subsequently, it was a possession of successive influential families. The hamlet is in that division of the ancient parish incorporated with Corstorphine, and, though now very small and unimportant, is said to have been a considerable village, which, at one time numbered 300 inhabitants: the road from Corstorphine to Brocksburn passes through it, and the Gogar burn flows in its vicinity, on the south and west. A small portion of the church still exists; and there is a school, supported by subscription.
GOLSPIE, a parish, in the county of Sutherland, 8 miles (N. N. E.) from Dornoch; containing, with the village of Bachies, 1214 inhabitants, of whom 491 are in the village of Golspie. This place, anciently called Culmallie, and of which the present name is of doubtful etymology, formed part of the ample territories of the thanes of Sutherland, of whom William was created Earl of Sutherland by Malcolm Canmore, in 1067. Robert, or Robin, the second earl, in 1100, erected here the castle of Dunrobin, which has since that time been the residence of many of his successors, and is now a seat of his descendant, the Duke of Sutherland, who is proprietor of nearly the whole county. In 1746, a battle took place on the north side of the Little Ferry, between the militia of the county and a party of the adherents of the Pretender, in which the latter were defeated with great slaughter, and the Earl of Cromarty and several other men of rank were made prisoners. The Parish, which is bounded on the east by the Moray Frith, and on the south-west by Loch Fleet, which separates it from the parish of Dornoch, is about eight miles in length, and six miles in extreme breadth. The surface, though generally level, is diversified with hills, of which those in the direction of the coast are, Bein-a-Bhragidh, having an elevation of 1300 feet above the level of the sea, and Silver Rock and Morvich, which are of inferior height; in the interior are, Bein-Horn, 1712, and Bein-Lundie, 1464 feet high. In the centre of the parish is the valley of Dunrobin, which is richly wooded, and abounds in picturesque scenery; and towards the coast, and between the bases of the hills, are some level tracts of fertile land. On the summit of Bein-a-Bhragidh, a monument was erected by his tenantry in 1836, to the memory of the late Duke of Sutherland, who died in 1833. The rivers in the parish are, the Fleet, forming part of its western boundary; and the Golspie burn, which intersects the eastern portion of it, flowing through the picturesque glen to which it gives name, into the frith, at the village. There are several small inland lakes, of which the principal are, Horn, Lundie, Farralarie, and Salachie; but none are more than half a mile in length, and about one-third of a mile in breadth. The coast is indented by some small bays, and by Loch Fleet, an inlet from the Frith, across which was erected, in 1815, a strong mound of earth, connecting this parish with that of Dornoch, on the opposite shore. This mound, which was completed at an expense of £9600, towards which the duke contributed £1600, is nearly 1000 yards in length, sixty yards broad at the base, and twenty on the summit; and terminates in a bridge of four arches, forming an excellent road, over which the mail passes.
Of the lands in the parish about 2040 are arable, 800 in woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill moorland and waste; the soil is in general light, but of good quality and fertile, and in some parts a deep loam mixed with clay. The crops are, grain of all kinds, with potatoes, turnips, and vegetables. The system of husbandry has been brought to great perfection; the lands have been drained, and inclosed chiefly "with stone dykes; and the farm-houses and offices are substantial and commodious. The cattle principally reared are of the Dunrobin breed, originally introduced from Argyllshire. On some farms, however, the Highland black breed is preferred; upon one farm is a stock of the black-polled Galloway, and on the dairy-farms the cows are chiefly the Ayrshire. The sheep, to the improvement of which great attention is paid, are of the Cheviot breed, and obtain a decided preference in the markets: a few horses, chiefly for agriculture, are also reared. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8959. The plantations have been greatly extended; and among the trees most prevalent in the Highlands, large numbers of forest trees of every kind have been recently introduced with success. The principal rocks are porphyritic granite and mica-slate; and the substrata, red and white sandstone, and limestone. The sandstone varies much in texture, some veins being much more durable than others, and better adapted for building, for which the stone is extensively quarried. There are also indications of coal within the limits of the parish.
Dunrobin Castle, occasionally the residence of the duke, is a spacious massive structure, situated on the summit of a rock rising from the sea: it occupies a quadrangular area, inclosed by walls of great thickness, and flanked at the angles by circular towers with conical roofs; and is surrounded with strikingly romantic scenery. The village of Golspie, which is pleasantly seated on the coast, is neatly built, and contains an excellent inn, a post-office which has a daily delivery, a branch bank, and numerous shops well stocked with various kinds of merchandise. Many of the inhabitants are employed in the usual handicraft trades; a fair for cattle and pedlery is annually held here, in October; and during the fishing season the village is much frequented, the small harbour affording good shelter for the boats engaged off the coast. There is also a pier in the bay of Dunrobin. Great facilities are likewise afforded by the Fleet loch, in which is a secure harbour of considerable extent, having eighteen feet depth of water at ebb tides, about a mile to the south of the Little Ferry; it is frequented by vessels importing coal, lime, bone-dust, and various kinds of merchandise for the supply of the district, and which return with cargoes of grain, wool, and whisky. A smack plies regularly once a month between the Little Ferry and Leith, touching at Helmsdale and Aberdeen; and there is also a steamer from the Moray Frith to London, which calls at this place. The Ecclesiasticall affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Dornoch and synod of Sutherland and Caithness. The minister's stipend is £204, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £6 per annum; patron, the Duke of Sutherland. The church, erected in 1738, and enlarged in 1751, is a neat structure, situated in the village, close to the sea-shore, and containing 565 sittings. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £26 per annum. There are some remains of two Pictish castles, one at a short distance to the east, and the other to the west, of Dunrobin Castle: in the western ruin, the central circle and the gallery between it and the outer walls are still distinctly apparent. Near Morvich are some Druidical remains. A portion of the ancient church is yet standing, as well as part of the wall that inclosed the cemetery in which were interred many of the earls of Sutherland: near these ruins have been found several brass rings and other relics, which are preserved in Dunrobin Castle.
GOMETRAY ISLE, in the parish of Kilninian, county of Argyll. It is a small basaltic island of the Hebrides, lying between the isles of Mull and Staffa, and separated from Ulva by such a narrow sound that, from most points of view, they appear as if one island. There is a harbour on the north, and another on the south side, both of which are safe and tolerably commodious. The inhabitants rear cattle and horses, and manufacture kelp.
GONOCHAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Fintry, county of Stirling, ½ a mile (E. by S.) from Fintry; containing 44 inhabitants. It is situated on a burn of the same name, and on the high road from Fintry to Campsie: the burn is a tributary to the river Endrick, and both have their source in the parish. In the hamlet is the parochial school, with the dwelling of the master, the latter a neat building, erected by himself.
GORBALS, a parish, in the suburbs of the city of Glasgow, chiefly in the county of Lanark, but partly in the Upper ward of the county of Renfrew; containing 39,263 inhabitants. This place, originally called Bridgend, from its situation at the extremity of a bridge over the Clyde, connecting it with Glasgow, was anciently part of the parish of Govan, from which it was separated in 1771. At that time it comprised only about fourteen acres, to which were subsequently added the lands of Rea, Little Govan, and the prebend of Polmadie, containing about 600 acres, and also that part of Govan called the Barony, a tract of 400 acres, belonging to the corporation of Glasgow, the patrons of Hutcheson's hospital, and the Trades' house. The whole of the rural district is arable land, with a small proportion of meadow and pasture; the soil is rich, and the moors have been brought into profitable cultivation. The crops are, wheat, oats, potatoes, and turnips; abundance of manure is obtained from the city and suburbs, and every recent improvement in agriculture has been adopted. The population is partly agricultural, but chiefly employed in the various manufactures of Glasgow. The parish, with the adjacent lands, was formed into a burgh of barony and regality at a very early period, and in 1607 was bestowed by the Archbishop of Glasgow upon Sir George Elphinstone, who, in 1611, obtained from James VI. a charter confirming the grant. In 1647, his successor conveyed it to the magistrates and town council of Glasgow, who are still superiors of the burgh and barony, of which the former includes the old parish of Gorbals and part of the parish of Govan, and the latter has been divided into the districts of Hutchesonton, Laurieston, Tradeston, and Kingston, which are described under their respective heads.
The burgh is governed by four bailies, who are annually appointed by the inhabitants, and of whom two may be continued in office for a second year. Their jurisdiction is exercised chiefly in matters of police, in which they are assisted by commissioners under the police statute; they have no corporate rights or exclusive privileges. The police buildings comprise a spacious hall and court-house. A court for the trial of civil causes not exceeding thirty shillings, in which the process is either ordinary or summary, and a court for the recovery of debts not above forty shillings, are held before the bailies occasionally, the town-clerks of Glasgow acting as assessors. The burgh and barony are wholly within the parliamentary boundary of the city; the number of £10 householders is 1635. The rateable annual value of the parish is £150,202. Gorbals is in the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the heritors and the Kirk Session: the stipend is £250; there is neither manse nor glebe, in lieu of which the minister has an allowance of £25 per annum. The church erected in 1771 was subsequently purchased for the district of Kirkfield, and a larger and more commodious edifice built for this parish in 1813, at an expense of £7350; it is a handsome structure, and contains 1460 sittings. There are also places of worship for members of the Free Church, United Secession, Relief Church, and Wesleyans. A school, in which are about 140 children, is supported by the Kirk Session, who pay the master a salary of £50, for the gratuitous instruction of the children of the parish; and there is a school for girls, established in 1833, under a bequest of £2000 by Mrs. Waddell, of Stonefield. The patronage of the girls' school is vested in the magistrates, and the minister and elders of the Kirk Session of Gorbals, with preference to children of the name of Macfarlane; the mistress has a salary of £20, with a house, coal, and candles.
GORDON, a parish, in the county of Berwick, 8½ miles (N. W.) from Kelso; containing 903 inhabitants. The name of this place is derived from the Gaelic word Goirtean, signifying "a little farm or field," probably in reference to a particular tract appropriated to the growth of corn, or under some kind of superior cultivation. The territory of Gordon, which was formerly of great extent, is said to have been granted, in the reign of Malcolm Canmore, or of David I., to an Anglo-Norman settler who assumed from it the surname of Gordon. One of his descendants, Sir Adam Gordon, who was killed at the battle of Halidon-hill in 1333, changed his residence to the shire of Aberdeen, in consequence of obtaining considerable possessions in the north; but the family derived the title of duke from this district until the year 1836, when the dignity became extinct. A small distance to the north of the village of West Gordon, an eminence still called the Castle is pointed out, as the spot on which the ancestors of the dukes had their seat; it is now entirely covered with plantations, and nothing remains but the vestiges of a moat or ditch. The parish was in remote times of much greater extent than at present. Part of it, called Durrington-Laws, has been annexed to Longformacus, twelve miles distant; and another portion, called Spottiswoode, was united, with the parish of Bassendean, to the lands of Westruther, about 1647, in order to form the modern parish of the latter name. Religious foundations were established here at a very early period: at Huntly-wood, in the parish, was a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, the advowson of which came into the family of Home in the reign of James IV. There was also a chapel, called White-Chapel, at the hamlet of Spottiswoode, the ruins of which but recently disappeared; it was built by John de Spottiswoode, during the reign of David II. The parish church was formerly an appendage to that of Home; the monks of Kelso obtained the patronage about the year 1171, and held it in their possession till the time of the Reformation.
The Parish, which lies in the western portion of the Merse, and is of oval figure, is about seven miles long, varying in breadth from two to four miles, and contains 8900 acres. It is bounded on the north by part of Legerwood, by Westruther, and part of Greenlaw; on the south by Hume, now joined to the parish of Stitchell, and by Earlstoun; on the east by Greenlaw; and on the west by the parish of Legerwood. The site of the parish is elevated, and the surface uneven and hilly, though there are no mountains. The small river Eden runs through the whole extent, from north to south, dividing it into two nearly equal parts; and the north-eastern boundary is washed, for about two and a half miles, by the Blackadder, which separates it from Greenlaw. The soil in general is light and sandy, but in some places it approximates to clay: there are several extensive tracts of moor and moss. About 500 acres are planted with fir, beech, oak, and elm, the first of which greatly predominates; 4296 acres are cultivated, or occasionally in tillage, and 4100 are constantly waste, or in pasture. Grain of all kinds is raised; good crops of turnips and potatoes are also produced, as well as of hay. The best system of husbandry is followed, and the rotation is the five years' change; the farm-buildings are usually substantial and convenient, and all the arable land is inclosed with stone dykes or thorn hedges. Much waste has been reclaimed and cultivated; and draining has been carried on to a considerable extent. The prevailing rock is whinstone, which lies scattered over the surface of the uncultivated moors in blocks of from a few pounds to two tons in weight: in some parts, small beds of red sandstone are seen, but it is so friable as to be almost useless. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5495.
The only village is West Gordon; containing about 300 inhabitants. The road from Kelso to Edinburgh crosses the parish at the widest part, and another road, from Earlstoun to Greenlaw, runs through its whole length; these, together with the numerous parish roads, are kept in good order. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Lauder and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and the patronage is in the Crown: the stipend of the minister is £164, with a manse, built in 1803, and a glebe of twelve acres of arable land, valued at £30 per annum. The church, built in 1736, and repaired in 1834, is conveniently placed in the centre of the parish; it contains 400 sittings. There is a parochial school, in which Latin, mathematics, and all the usual branches of education are taught; the master has the maximum salary, with a house and garden, and about £21 fees. A parochial library was established about the year 1823, and has been of great service. No important relics of antiquity remain in the parish; but there are two farms called Rumbleton and Rumbleton-Law, which names are said to be corruptions of the terms Roman-Town and Roman-Town-Law. At the latter of these places were recently appearances of extensive fortifications on a law or hill, which have been ploughed up, and inclosed; they are supposed to have been Roman works. At Huntly, also, are the remains of some walls that appear to have been part of a fortified place.
GORDONSTOWN, a village, in the parish of Auchterless, district of Turriff, county of Aberdeen, 7 miles (S.) from Turriff; containing 98 inhabitants. It lies in the eastern part of the parish, a short distance east of the Ythan river; and is a small straggling village.
GOREBRIDGE, a village, in the parish of Temple, county of Edinburgh, 3 miles (N. E.) from Temple; containing 240 inhabitants. It is situated in a detached portion of the parish between the parishes of Borthwick and Newbattle, and derives its name from a bridge over the Gore burn, a tributary to the South Esk. A considerable increase in its population has latterly taken place, caused by the establishment of the manufacture of gunpowder, mills for which were built at Stobhill, in the vicinity of the village, in the year 1794, these being the first mills of the kind erected in Scotland. The inhabitants generally attend the church at Borthwick, which is somewhat nearer than that of Temple. Two small schools are supported by subscription.
GOURDON, a village, in the parish of Bervie, county of Kincardine, 1½ mile (S. by W.) from Bervie; containing 390 inhabitants. This is a fishing-village on the eastern coast, having a small harbour, which, however, is neither convenient nor safe, and is difficult of entrance, and much exposed to the violence of the south and east winds. There are seven boats belonging to the place, each manned, commonly, by six or seven men, engaged in the cod and haddock fishery; and about ten larger boats, manned each by five men, are employed in the herring-fishery for two months in the year. Here are large and commodious granaries, from which upwards of 30,000 quarters of grain are annually shipped at the port, which is subsidiary to that of Montrose. There are also convenient sheds for coal, lime, and other articles.
GOUROCK, lately an ecclesiastical district in the parish of Innerkip, Lower ward of the county of Renfrew, 2 miles (W. N. W.) from Greenock; containing 2448 inhabitants, of whom 2169 are in the village. This district, which was formed for ecclesiastical purposes, in 1832, by act of the General Assembly, is situated on the Frith of Clyde, by which it is bounded on the north; and is about three and a half miles in length, and three miles in breadth. The surface near the shore of the bay of Gourock is tolerably level; but the ground rises thence gradually towards the south and east, and the higher parts command pleasing views over the Frith, and of the adjacent country, in some directions richly cultivated, and in others boldly romantic. The soil is of moderate fertility; in several places light and sandy, and in others of better quality. The total number of acres is not precisely known; about 2000 are arable, 2500 uncultivated moor, of which nearly one-half might be rendered profitable, 200 undivided common, and about thirty acres woodland and plantations. Considerable improvements have been made in the system of husbandry, furrow-draining has been extensively practised, and the crops are generally favourable and abundant. The scenery is enlivened with some agreeable seats and villas. Gourock House is a handsome mansion, erected on the site of an ancient castle, of which the remains were taken down in 1747; it is beautifully situated, and the grounds are tastefully laid out, and embellished with flourishing plantations. Several headlands mark this part of the coast, of which Ironotter Point, on the eastern, and Kempoch Point, on the western shore of the bay, are the principal; the bay has depth of water sufficient to render it accessible to vessels of the largest class, and a small pier has been constructed for the landing of goods.
The village, situated on the bay, is said to have been the first place in Scotland where the curing of herrings was practised, and which was introduced in 1688, by Walter Gibson, provost of Glasgow, who built salt-pans for the purpose; but that trade has long been discontinued, and the inhabitants, though during the season employed in the herring-fishery, are now chiefly engaged in the fishery off the coast. The fish taken are, cod, ling, haddock, and whiting, with some few salmon and trout, the proceeds of all which are estimated at £300 per annum. There are two sloops, and several smaller boats, belonging to the fishermen of the place. The beach affords great facilities for bathing; and numerous families from Glasgow and Paisley consequently frequent the village in summer, for whose accommodation there are several handsome houses. The manufacture of ropes is carried on extensively by a company, who employ about thirty-five persons; the quantity of cordage averages 180 tons annually, and the proceeds amount to more than £7500. The church was built in 1832, at an expense of £2286, of which sum £1731 were raised by subscription, and £535 given by General Darroch, who also presented the site; it is a handsome structure, containing 947 sittings. The minister's stipend is £120, paid from the seat-rents and by General Darroch. The members of the Free Church have also a place of worship. Connected with the church is a parochial library of nearly 600 volumes; but it appears to be altogether in disuse. A parochial school is supported by the chief landed proprietors; the master has a salary of £20, but no dwelling-house, and the fees average £30.