A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.
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HAWKSTONE, a hamlet, in the parish of St. Madoes, county of Perth, 2½ miles (W. S. W.) from Errol; containing 51 inhabitants. It lies in the eastern part of the parish, and is one of the only two hamlets, or, as they are sometimes designated, villages, it contains. Here is a large stone, which tradition says is the stone whereon the hawk of the peasant Hay, the ancestor of the noble family of that name, alighted, after it had performed its flight round the land that was, consequently, given to that gallant rustic, in reward of his services performed at the battle of Luncarty. Hence the name of the place.—See Redgorton.
HAZELBANK, a village, in the parish of Lesmahago, Upper Ward of the county of Lanark, 4 miles (N. by E.) from Lesmahago; containing 238 inhabitants. It is situated in the north-eastern part of the parish, on the road from Lanark to Larkhall, and on the west bank of the Clyde, which here separates Lesmahago from the parish of Lanark.
HEBRIDES, or Western Islands, a series of islands in the Atlantic Ocean, about 300 in number, of which 86 are inhabited; lying at various distances from the western coast of the Highlands; and chiefly pertaining to the counties of Argyll, Inverness, and Ross. Of the early history of these islands but very little is known; they appear to have been anciently under the jurisdiction of petty chieftains, sometimes independent, and at others tributary to the kings of Norway. About the 12th century, these chieftains began to meditate inroads on the main land: in 1153, Somerled invaded Scotland, and made an attempt to dethrone Malcolm IV., in which he was defeated by the Earl of Angus; and on a subsequent occasion he was slain in a battle near Renfrew. After the death of Magnus, son of Olave, the last of the independent chieftains, the sovereignty of the isles was ceded to Alexander III., by treaty signed at Perth in 1266; but, notwithstanding that treaty, the descendants of the old chieftains assumed the title of lords of the isles, and exercised a jurisdiction irrespective of the crown. Of these, John, lord of Cantyre, married a daughter of Robert II.; and from this alliance, his family derived a great accession of power and influence, Donald, his son, at the head of 10,000 men, ravaged the county of Ross, but was eventually defeated, in 1411. James I. waged incessant war against these turbulent chiefs, many of whom he took prisoners, and hanged; and Donald, lord of the isles, was put to death in Ireland; but it was not till the reign of James V. that the lords were brought into complete subjection to the Scottish crown. Of these various isles, of which the principal are separately described, that of Lewis, with its adjacent islands, chiefly belongs to the county of Ross; Barra, Eig, North Uist, South Uist, Skye, and smaller isles, to the county of Inverness; and Canna, Muck, Rum, Gigha and Cara, Colonsay and Oronsay, Tiree and Coll, Mull, Jura, and Islay, with the circumjacent isles, to the county of Argyll.
HECK, a hamlet, in the parish of Lochmaben, county of Dumfries, 2¼ miles (W. S. W.) from Lockerbie; containing 57 inhabitants. It lies on the west side of the Annan, which river forms the eastern boundary of the parish. The village is ancient, and is one of several the holm ground around which is extremely rich and fertile. Mention is made of the place in royal warrants under the sign-manual of James VI. and of Charles II.
HEISKER, an isle, in the parish of North Uist, county of Inverness; containing 39 inhabitants. It is one of the Hebrides, lying about two miles westward of North Uist; and is two miles in length, but very narrow. The soil is sandy, yielding very scanty pasture at any time, and but a small quantity of grain. The isle has hitherto derived its chief value from its kelp shores.
HELENSBURGH, a town, and a burgh of barony, chiefly in the parish of Row, but partly in that of Cardross, county of Dumbarton; containing 2229 inhabitants, of whom 1672 are in the burgh, 8 miles (N. W. by W.) from Dumbarton. This place is situated on the north shore of the Frith of Clyde, at the entrance of the Gareloch, and nearly opposite to the port of Greenock, on the other side of the Frith, which is here about four miles in width. It was founded in 1777, by Sir James Colquhoun, in honour of his wife, Lady Helen Sutherland, from whom it derives its name; and has rapidly grown into importance as a fashionable watering-place, and a favourite resort of families of distinction during the summer months. The town is regularly built, and consists partly of one principal street, extending along the shore for more than a mile, and intersected at right angles by numerous other wellformed streets. The houses are of handsome appearance, and interspersed with pleasing villas having grounds tastefully laid out; the surrounding scenery, also, is agreeably diversified. On the opposite shore of the Gareloch are the elegant mansion and pleasure-grounds of Roseneath; and at the western extremity of the town is Ardincaple, the beautiful seat of the Duke of Argyll, who is also proprietor of Roseneath. Along the banks of the Gareloch are various interesting promenades; and to the north, the scenery is boldly marked with rugged mountains of Highland character. A public library, containing more than 1000 volumes, and a news-room amply furnished with daily journals and periodical publications, are supported by subscription; there are two commodious hotels, with several inns, and also numerous lodging-houses for the accommodation of visitors. On the shore, at the east end of the town, is a spacious and well-arranged building, containing hot and cold baths, with every requisite appendage.
Facility of intercourse is provided by steamers to Greenock, which make nine trips daily; and from Greenock steamers run to Glasgow, touching at all the intermediate places on both banks of the Clyde. Between Greenock and Glasgow are also six railway trains, in connexion with the Helensburgh boats; and persons leaving Glasgow by these trains reach Helensburgh in one hour and a half. The passage, by steamboat, to Glasgow, is about three hours, and to Greenock a quarter of an hour. The quay, constructed in 1817, and which, at high water, was partly obstructed, has been greatly improved; and a very substantial and commodious quay has been made about a mile to the west of the town, at the entrance of the Gareloch. The town was erected into a burgh of barony by charter granted in 1802 to Sir James Colquhoun, under whom, as superior, the government is vested in a provost, two bailies, and four councillors, elected annually by the burgesses from their own body, consisting of all inhabitants who are leaseholders of houses and lands under the superior. A weekly market on Thursday, and four annual fairs, of two days each, for horses, cattle, and other merchandise, on the second Tuesday in February, the 1st June, the 6th August, and the 12th November, are allowed by charter; but they are not much frequented. The late quoad sacra parish of Helensburgh was separated from the parish of Row, by act of the presbytery, in 1839, and contained a population of 1899. The church was originally built for a congregation of Seceders, in 1824, and, on their re-union to the Established Church, was made parochial; it passed, however, in 1843, into the hands of members of the Free Church, the minister and congregation joining in the great secession of that year. The building contains 600 sittings; and there is also an Independent meeting-house in the town. A school is partly supported by the Kirk Session; and a grant has been given by government towards the erection of a parochial school. Mr. Henry Bell, who first successfully applied the steam-engine to navigation, resided at this place from 1804 till his decease in 1830; he built his first steam-boat, the Comet, at Port-Glasgow, in 1812, and made his first passage across the Clyde to Helensburgh.
HELESAY, an island, in the parish of Barra, county of Inverness; containing 108 inhabitants. It is one of a numerous group of isles that lie in the strait between Barra and South Uist, from the former of which it is about five miles distant. On the west of the island is Ottervore Sound.
HELMSDALE, a fishing-village, in the parish of Loth, county of Sutherland; 17 miles (N. E.) from Golspie; containing 526 inhabitants. This village is situated on the north bank of the river Helmsdale, near its influx into the Moray Frith. It consists chiefly of neatly-built houses inhabited by persons engaged in the fisheries, and is connected with the western portion of the parish by a handsome bridge of two arches, erected over the Helmsdale, at an expense of £2200, by the parliamentary commissioners, in 1811. It has long been celebrated for its valuable salmon-fisheries on the river, belonging to the Duke of Sutherland, and which are carefully managed under the superintendence of the proprietor's agents: the fish, which are of superior size and flavour, are sent packed in ice to the London market, where they are purchased by contract. The herring-fishery, in the Frith, is also very extensive; houses for curing the herrings have been built on a principle well adapted for the purpose; and since the year 1815, the quantity cured at this place has gradually increased from about 5000 to 46,000 barrels annually, of which the whole are exported to the continent and to Ireland. The harbour was greatly improved by the erection of a substantial pier by the proprietor, at a cost of £1600, in 1818, since which time additional sums have been expended; and still further improvements are in contemplation. The fishery affords employment to a very considerable number of coopers, and a steam-mill has been erected for sawing the staves of the barrels; there are also several boat-builders; and various handicraft traders are carried on for the supply of the inhabitants. A post-office has been established, which has a daily delivery; and facility of communication is afforded by the parliamentary road from Dunrobin, in the parish of Golspie, to the Ord of Caithness; by a good road from the village, through the strath of Kildonan, to the North Sea; and by vessels from different ports of England and Ireland, which touch at the harbour. A handsome church has recently been erected in the village by the Duke of Sutherland, in which a minister of the Establishment officiates occasionally; and there is a school supported; also a large place of worship in connexion with the Free Church, opened in February, 1845.
HERBERTSHIRE, a village, in the parish of Dunipace, county of Stirling, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from Falkirk; containing 761 inhabitants. This village, sometimes called Milton, is situated on the north bank of the Carron, over which is a handsome bridge of three arches, connecting it with the village of Denny. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the printing of calico, which was first established here in 1783, and is conducted on an extensive scale, in works belonging to Charles Carnie, Esq., who has a residence near the village. The number of persons employed in this establishment is about 400, of whom 120 are females; the process is partly carried on by machinery of ingenious construction, and some of the machines will imprint four different colours at the same time.
HERIOT, a parish, in the county of Edinburgh; containing, with the hamlets of Fala-Hill Inn, Robertson, and Broomieknowe, 355 inhabitants. The history of this parish is of little interest, except as connected with the various proprietors of its lands and ecclesiastical revenues. The church was formerly of considerable value; and its patronage, in the 12th and 13th centuries, belonged to Roger de Quincy, then lord of the manor, and constable of Scotland, who is supposed to have derived it from the lords of Galloway, and these latter from the Morvilles. In portioning out his estates among his three daughters, De Quincy gave Heriot to Elena, the youngest, who married La Touche, an English baron, and who afterwards granted the church of "Heryeth," as it was then called, to the monastery of Newbottle, which gift was confirmed by a bull of pope Nicholas, and by Fraser, Bishop of St. Andrew's, the diocesan. In 1309, William Blair, the incumbent, resigned his vicarage to Bishop Lamberton, who immediately gave the vicarage revenues to the monks of Newbottle, who already possessed the rectory. At the time of the Reformation, these monks held both the church and lands of Heryeth. The property soon afterwards came into the hands of Mark Kerr, commendator of Newbottle, to whose heir it regularly descended; and the lands then successively passed to Robert, second earl of Lothian, by whom they were sold to Walter Hay, to whose son they fell in 1643. On the failure of this family in 1692, by the death of lord Borthwick, the barony of Heriot came to a son of Lord Stair, from whom it descended, through the late dowager lady Dalrymple, to her eldest son, the Earl of Stair, present proprietor of the lands.
The parish, which is of oblong form, is about six and a half miles long, and three and three-quarters broad, and contains 15,000 acres. It is bounded on the north-west by Temple and Borthwick parishes; on the east by Stow, and part of Fala; and on the south by Innerleithen, in Peeblesshire. It is altogether hilly, and a pastoral parish, only about one-tenth of the land being arable. The ground rises in some parts to a great elevation, particularly in the south-east, where is the hill of Dewar, about 1654 feet above the level of the sea; and also in the south-west, where Blackup Scars, which is the highest hill, rises 1000 feet above the sea at its base, and 2193 at its summit. These hills are part of the Moorfoot range, which is a branch of the Lammermoor and Soutra, stretching from the north-east towards Peebles on the south-west. A great variety of rare plants is to be found, affording, especially in the months of August and September, a rich field for botanical research. The higher grounds are mostly bare of trees, there being, indeed, a great want of plantations in every part of the parish. The climate, from the elevated situation of the district, and the hilly character of the surface, is bleak and piercing, though salubrious. The Heriot water rises in the south-west extremity of the parish, and, after winding in its course for five miles, unites with the Gala at the eastern boundary, about a mile and a half below the church. This stream, which is subject to frequent swellings, rose in August 1837 to an unusual height, destroying dykes and walls, and bringing desolation to the property within the range of its violence. The Gala water has its source in the north, and, after a course of about two miles, quits the parish near its junction with the Heriot.
The soil on the banks of the rivers is rich and fertile, and capable of producing the finest crops, though the severity of the climate is a great obstacle to the operations of husbandry. The wheat grown is inconsiderable, and barley is now substituted in the place of bear. The number of acres under pasture is upwards of 12,000, of which about 1600 are considered susceptible of profitable cultivation. Besides the grain, potatoes and turnips of good quality are raised. The parish, however, is chiefly celebrated for its sheep and cattle, the former, which are partly of the Cheviot kind, being reared in very large numbers; about 7660 sheep are regularly kept, and the lambs fetch the highest prices. Of the small quantity of wood grown, the beech, larch, and plane seem best adapted to the soil. There are numerous enclosures, and these of a very superior kind; and the farm-steadings throughout the parish are generally in a pretty fair state. The farms vary in extent from 50 to 2000 acres. There is no village: the chief communication of the inhabitants is with Dalkeith, nine miles distant. About three miles of good turnpike road run through the parish; but the other roads belonging to the locality are indifferent, and there are no facilities of this kind in the higher lands for the purpose of transporting lime and other manure, the extensive application of which, for the improvement of the poorer grounds, is thus prevented. The rateable annual value of Heriot is £3854. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dalkeith and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and the patronage is vested in the Earl of Stair. The stipend of the minister is £158, of which about a fifth is received from the Exchequer, with a manse, built in 1793, and repaired in 1829, and a fine garden of the best soil; adjoining it is a glebe of twenty acres of land, valued at £30 per annum. The church is situated about the centre of the parish, and accommodates 200 persons with sittings; it was rebuilt in 1804, and has since undergone extensive repairs, by which it has been rendered convenient and comfortable. A parochial school is supported, the master of which has a salary of £34, with a house, and about £25 fees. There is also a parochial library. The relics of antiquity merely comprise some camps, consisting of two or three concentric circles, and a gateway, the history of which is unknown.
HERMISTON, a village, in the parish of Currie, county of Edinburgh, 1¾ mile (N. by W.) from Currie; containing 164 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Edinburgh to East Calder, which intersects the northern part of the parish; and is the third village of Currie in extent and population.
HERMITRAY, an isle, in the parish of Harris, island of Lewis, county of Inverness; containing 8 inhabitants. This is one of a group of isles situated in the sound of Harris, and east of the island of Bernera. A fishing station was established here by Charles I.
HESTON, an isle, in the parish of Rerrick, stewartry of Kirkcudbright. It is a small island, situated at the mouth of the river Urr, which discharges itself into the Solway Frith. Standing high out of the water, it affords good shelter to Auchencairn bay, where is a safe and commodious anchorage for small shipping. The island is of smooth surface, and pastures sheep.
HIETON, a village, in the parish of Roxburgh, district of Kelso; county of Roxburgh, 1 mile (E. by S.) from Kelso; containing 214 inhabitants. This village is pleasantly situated on the turnpike-road leading from Kelso to Jedburgh, and is inhabited chiefly by persons employed in agriculture; the surrounding scenery is varied, and the adjacent lands in a good state of cultivation. There is a parochial school here.
HIGHTAE, a village, in the parish of Lochmaben, county of Dumfries, 2½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Lockerbie; containing 436 inhabitants. It is situated in the eastern part of the parish, and a short distance from the river Annan, which separates Lochmaben from the parish of Dryfesdale. This is one of the villages denominated the "Four Towns," the lands around which being portions of the original royal domains granted by Robert Bruce in small plots to the domestic servants of Lochmaben Castle, are still held without any written title other than a transference, by a tenant, of his right to a successor. The holm ground attached to these villages, of which this is the largest, is uncommonly rich and fertile. Loch Hightae, in the vicinity, is a fine lake of fifty-two acres, abounding in perch, pike, trout, bream, roach, and other fish. The Cameronians have a place of worship, built in 1796, originally for a Relief congregation; and a school is endowed with the interest of £100, left by Mr. James Richardson in 1726.—See Lochmaben.
HILLEND, a village, chiefly in the parish of Inverkeithing, and partly in that of Dalgety, district of Dunfermline, county of Fife, 1¼ mile (N. E. by E.) from Inverkeithing; containing 281 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Inverkeithing to Aberdour, and is of neat appearance. A small stream flows a little to the north of the village.
HILLHEAD, a hamlet, in the parish of Cockpen, county of Edinburgh, ½ a mile (S. E.) from Lasswade; containing 76 inhabitants. It lies in the northern extremity of the parish, on the road from Lasswade to Cockpen; and in its neighbourhood are several coalmines. The scenery around is embellished with some good mansions.
HILLSWICK, a village, in the parish of Northmavine, county of Shetland; containing 211 inhabitants. It is situated near Hillswick ness, and westward of Hillswick creek, which opens into St. Magnus' bay, on the north side of Shetland. The creek affords safe and excellent anchorage for any number of vessels, and of any burthen, having good moorings of from seven to twenty fathoms; there is also a large and convenient beach for drying fish, with warehouses, and salt and fish cellars. Numerous voes indent this part of the coast.
HILTOWN, a village, in the parish of Fearn, county of Ross and Cromarty, 10 miles (E. S. E.) from Tain; containing 310 inhabitants. This is a fishing village, lying on the eastern shore of the Moray Frith: the fishing is chiefly of grey fish and herrings, and is carried on to a considerable extent, in connexion with the village of Balintore, about half a mile southward. The coast between the two places is level and sandy; at Hiltown, however, it becomes high and rocky.
Hobkirk, or Hopekirk
HOBKIRK, or HOPEKIRK, a parish, in the district of Jedburgh, county of Roxburgh, 8 miles (E. S. E.) from Hawick; containing 776 inhabitants. This parish, which is not distinguished by any events of historical importance, appears to have derived its name from the situation of its church. It is eleven miles in length, from north to south, and about three miles in breadth; and is bounded on the north by the parishes of Cavers and Bedrule, on the east by the parish of Southdean and a small part of that of Castleton, on the south by Castleton, and on the west by Kirkton and Cavers. The surface is strikingly varied; in the southern extremity is a chain of hills forming part of the Cheviot range, and on the northern boundary is the Rubberslaw hill, which has an elevation of 1420 feet above the level of the sea. Between this hill and the southern range is the level valley of the river Rule, on the east bank of which is the beautiful hill of Bonchester, rising in a spherical form to a height of 1260 feet, and covered with rich verdure to its summit. The river rises in the southern range of hills, and, flowing through the whole length of the parish, falls into the Teviot about two miles from its northern extremity, after a course of nearly thirteen miles, in which it has been augmented by many streams descending from the higher grounds. There are numerous springs in various parts, affording an abundant supply of excellent water; and some few patches of marsh and bog. The river, with its valley, is one of the prettiest and most sequestered in the south of Scotland; it abounds with trout, and is much frequented by anglers; and the smaller streams also contain trout and other fish, but they are generally swept with nets.
The soil in some parts is a reddish clay, in which are found numerous boulders of stone; in some places heathy, and in others moss. The whole number of acres is estimated at 19,000, of which nearly 3500 are arable, about 900 in wood and plantations, and the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste land. The crops are, oats, peas, wheat, barley, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is improved; the lands have been drained and partly inclosed, and a considerable portion of waste has been reclaimed and brought into cultivation. The fences are partly of paling, for which the thinnings of the woods afford ample materials, and partly of thorn hedges, &c.; the old farm-houses are indifferent, but improvement is rapidly advancing, and all the buildings of modern erection are substantial and commodious. Much attention is paid to the rearing of live stock. About 10,000 sheep, mostly of the Cheviot, with a cross of the Leicestershire breed, are fed in the pastures; and there are also a few of the Merino breed: the quantity of wool produced annually is 1500 stones. Above 300 head of young cattle, also, are reared every year, chiefly of the short-horned breed. The woods consist of birch, hazel, alder, beech, oak, and elm, which on some of the lands are regularly thinned; but in the other lands less attention has been paid, and considerable quantities of valuable timber might be cut down, with great benefit to the remaining trees. The plantations, which are chiefly larch and Scotch and spruce firs, are in a flourishing condition, and are rapidly increasing in extent. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6269. The substrata are mainly greywacke, sandstone, and limestone, and, on the higher parts of the hills, greenstone of several varieties. The sandstone and limestone are quarried for building purposes and for manure; and a stratum of agate or coarse jasper is found at Robertslin, of which various ornaments are made. There are no villages in the parish, and but two small hamlets, each of six or eight dwellings. Facility of communication is afforded with the neighbouring market-towns by roads kept in excellent order, and by the turnpike-road from Hawick to Newcastle, and that from Jedburgh to Castleton, both which pass for several miles through the parish.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Jedburgh and synod of Merse and Teviotdale; and the patronage is in the Crown. The stipend of the incumbent is £206: the manse, which has been thoroughly repaired within the last few years, is a tolerably good residence, and the glebe comprises fifteen acres, with half the glebe of the suppressed parish of Abbotrule, together about twenty-four acres, valued at £40 per annum. The church, erected in 1700, and repaired in 1777, and in other years, is well situated, but a very inconvenient edifice, adapted for a congregation of 400 persons: the floor, as in most ancient churches, is below the level of the churchyard. The parochial school affords education to about eighty children; the master has a salary of £32. 10., with an allowance for deficiency of garden ground, and a house, and the fees average £24 per annum. A subscription library has been established, and meets with due encouragement. A bequest of £100 was made some time since by Lady Yester; the interest is divided between the heritors for charitable purposes, and the schoolmaster. On Bonchester hill are considerable remains of ancient fortifications, of which some are square, and others of circular form, intersected also by lines of more modern construction. This hill, which is admirably adapted for the site of a camp, is supposed to have derived its name from its having been occupied by the Romans for that purpose. Querns, arrow heads, and various other relics of antiquity have been found here. On Rubberslaw and other heights are also traces of camps; and ashes and human bones, and urns, have been frequently discovered. Two cairns were lately removed, which are thought to have been raised over the remains of warriors slain in some battle that occurred near the spot; one of these was situated on the eastern side of Rubberslaw, and the other at Fodderlee. Of a battle at the latter place, there are some traditionary records; but nothing is recorded respecting the former. At Langraw, a great quantity of burnt bones and ashes have been discovered, within a circular inclosure about eighteen feet in diameter. On their removal, were found, in the sandstone underneath, four holes, in which upright poles had been fixed, and secured by stones wedged in from above; but of the purpose of the erection of these, or the use to which they were applied, nothing is known. Mary, Queen of Scots, passed through this parish on her route from Jedburgh to Hermitage Castle, and, near its extremity, was obstructed by a bog, which has been ever since called the "Queen's Mire." Thomson, the poet, resided, or frequently visited, here, and wrote his first sketch of Winter from the view of Rubberslaw.
HODDAM, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 6 miles (N.) from Annan; containing, with the village of Ecclesfechan, 1627 inhabitants. This parish comprehends the ancient parishes of Hoddam, Luce, and Ecclesfechan, which were united in 1609. Hoddam, in ancient charters, is spelt Hodholm and Hodolm, signifying "the head of the holm," and is supposed to have derived that appellation from its situation on the bank of the river Annan, where the ground is flat and rich, and what is usually called holm land. The name of Luce is said to be derived from the luxuriance of the herbage; and that of Ecclesfechan from the Latin word Ecclesia, "a church," and an Irish abbot called Fechan, who is thought to have lived in this part about the seventh century. When the three parishes were united, a new church was built in a central situation, and the old churches gradually fell to decay. Hall-Guards, in the parish, was the site of the old castle of Hoddam, which is considered to have been the seat of a branch of the family of Bruce; but the fortress was demolished some centuries ago, in compliance with the terms of a border treaty. It was rebuilt by John, Lord Herries; but one of that family afterwards erected a castle in a more favourable situation, at Cummertrees, on the other side of the Annan, and the seat in this parish was then neglected.
The parish is about five miles long, and three and a half broad, and contains 7158 acres. It is bounded on the north by Tundergarth; on the south and south-west by the river Annan; on the east by Middlebie parish; and on the west by St. Mungo. It is included in the district of Annandale, and is remarkable for the beauty of its scenery, which is interestingly diversified with good grounds, wood, and water. The surface consists for the most part of an extensive plain, surrounded by gently swelling hills in the highest state of cultivation, the whole intersected by thriving hedges, and ornamented with groups of flourishing plantations. The highest land is the hill of Burnswark, 740 feet above the level of the sea, and which commands views of several English counties, of the Isle of Man, and, in very fine weather, of the mountainous part of Yorkshire. The streams are, the Annan, the Milk, and the Mein, the last of which, however, is only a rivulet. The Annan is about 100 feet wide, and has numerous pools fifteen or sixteen feet deep; it contains salmon and trout, but the fish have become much less plentiful since the use of lime manure, which, when washed off the lands by floods or rains, strongly impregnates the waters. The Milk, touching the parish on the south-west, is a good trout stream, and also abounds with small fish. The Mein, which is a tributary to the Annan, frequently changes its channel, bringing considerable havoc to the lands through which it takes its course.
The soil on the holm lands is a deep loam, and exceedingly fertile; the great plain in the heart of the parish is of a light gravelly soil, and also yields fine crops. The high ground in the north, however, is clayey, resting upon a cold tilly subsoil and a copper rock, and is very inferior to the lands below. About 6430 acres are under cultivation; 730 are hill pasture, and upwards of sixty wood. All kinds of grain are produced, though the quantity of wheat bears no proportion to the oats and barley; a few turnips and large quantities of potatoes are raised, and almost, every cottager keeps one or two hogs, which are fed to some extent upon the latter root. The best system of husbandry is adopted; and all the arable land being good, and a considerable proportion of superior quality, the crops are in general very valuable. The lands have been entirely inclosed, within the last fifty years, with good fences. The substrata consist chiefly of sandstone and limestone, with slate-clay, clay-ironstone, and amygdaloid. No workable coal has yet been discovered; but some attempts recently made have excited a hope that it will eventually be found. The rateable annual value of Hoddam is £5209. The turnpike-road from Lockerbie to Longtown runs through the parish, in addition to which there are five cross roads. A large and beautiful stone bridge has been erected over the Annan, and several over the Mein: these, as well as the roads and fences throughout the parish, are kept in good order. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Annan and synod of Dumfries; alternate patrons, the Duke of Buccleuch and the Sharpe family. The stipend of the minister is £259, with a superior manse, and three glebes valued at £43. 10. a year. The church, built in 1817, and standing about a mile from Ecclesfechan, is comfortably fitted up, and seats 561 persons. The United Secession have a place of worship; and there is a parochial school, the master of which receives £35 per annum, with about £12 fees. At Burnswark, in the northern extremity of the parish, is one of the most entire Roman encampments in the kingdom; it was formed by Agricola; and a number of altar-pieces, arms, &c., have been found in its vicinity. Carlyle, author of the History of the French Revolution, was born in the parish.—See Ecclesfechan.
HOLBURN, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Old Machar, city, district, and county of Aberdeen; containing 3757 inhabitants. This is partly a rural, and partly a town, district. A considerable portion of the rural population may be said to be congregated in three villages, the rest being dispersed over the district generally, which comprises an extent of more than two and a half square miles. The church, which was built by subscription, in 1836, at a cost of £1858. 18. 9., and opened for divine service in September, 1837, stands at the junction of the principal roads in this portion of Old Machar, and is a neat edifice containing 1332 sittings. The stipend of the minister is £180, derived from seat-rents, and of which £100 are secured by bond. Holburn is one of four quoad sacra parishes which were formed by an act of the General Assembly, in 1834, out of the parish of Old Machar, and were lately abolished.
HOLEKETTLE-BRIDGE, a village, in the parish of Kettle, district of Cupar, county of Fife, 1 mile (S. W.) from Kettle; containing 288 inhabitants. It lies in the north-western part of the parish, on the high road from Pitlessie to Leslie; and is a village of comparatively recent growth, and neatly built.
Holm and Paplay
HOLM and PAPLAY, a parish, in the county of Orkney, 8 miles (S. E. by E.) from Kirkwall; containing, with the island of Lambholm and the village of St. Mary, 866 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the south-eastern portion of the main land, is bounded on the north by the parishes of Kirkwall and St. Andrew's, on the east by the German Ocean, on the west by Scalpa Flow, and on the south by Holm Sound. It is about six miles in length, and varies from one mile to two miles in breadth. The coast is not very elevated: the principal headlands are, Roseness, on the southern extremity of Paplay, at the eastern entrance of the sound; Howquoy, at the western entrance; and Skeldaquoy Point, stretching for almost a quarter of a mile from the south, and forming the western boundary of Holm Sound bay. The sound, nearly in the centre of which is the small but picturesque island of Lambholm, is an important passage from the eastern to the western coasts, through which vessels pass with greater security, and by a shorter line, than either by the Caledonian canal or Pentland Frith; it affords, also, safe anchorage for vessels which may have to wait for the tide. The surface towards the south is low, but rises gradually towards the north, terminating in a range of hills of sufficient elevation to shelter the lands from the north winds; it is intersected by numerous limpid streams.
The whole number of acres is 7610, of which 2850 are arable, 830 in constant pasture, and the remainder undivided common. The soil is generally a light black loam, in some places alternated with sand, and in others with clay; and is well adapted for the cultivation of turnips, which frequently attain a large growth, averaging from twelve to fourteen pounds each in weight. The chief crops are oats and bear, with potatoes, turnips, and the various kinds of grasses; flax, also, was formerly cultivated with great success. Very considerable improvements in agriculture have taken place under the auspices of Alexander Sutherland Græme, Esq., the principal, and almost the sole, proprietor of the lands. The common Orkney breed of cattle, formerly prevalent, has been improved by the introduction of the Dunrobin, and also of the Teeswater, or short-horned breed; and a powerful stimulus has been given to the rearing of cattle, by steam navigation, which has opened new markets for the sale of produce. The district of the parish called Paplay has been always remarkable for the fertility of its soil, and the abundance of its crops: it is supposed to have derived its appellation from having been the property of some religious establishment. There is nothing peculiar in the geological features of the parish. Græme's Hall, the seat of the ancient family of the Græmes, descendants of Græme, Bishop of Orkney, is now deserted.
The site of a fishing village was laid out on the shore of the harbour of Holm Sound when the parish was surveyed in 1828, with a view to encourage the settlement of fishermen by profession at this place, which, from the convenience of its harbour, and its proximity to the German Ocean, is peculiarly adapted to the purpose. The fish found off the coast are, cod, ling, haddock, halibut, flounders, and skate. For the supply of his family, almost every inhabitant has a share in a boat; and most of them are also adventurers in the herring-fishery, which commences in July, and ends in September; but there is no regular fishing establishment, the population being generally agricultural. Fairs for cattle and horses are held quarterly. The grain raised in the parish is sent to the distilleries in Kirkwall, for which, and for the conveyance of other produce, facilities are afforded by steamers, which, since 1833, have continued to ply here for eight months during the year. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkwall and synod of Orkney. The minister's stipend is £157, of which more than one-third is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £4 per annum; patron, the Earl of Zetland. The church, originally dedicated to St. Nicholas, and rebuilt in 1818, is situated at Paplay, in the eastern portion of the parish, and affords sufficient accommodation for the parishioners; the seats are all free. There is a place of worship for members of the United Secession. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £26, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £5 per annum. Mr. Patrick Græme, sheriff-depute of the county in 1770, and proprietor of Græme's Hall, was a great benefactor to the parish; he supplied the inhabitants with linseed gratis, introduced the cultivation of flax, and taught them the art of making it into cloth, of which, for many years prior to his decease, they exported 20,000 yards annually to the English markets. Admiral Alexander Græme, who distinguished himself in the action with the Dutch off the Dogger Bank, in which he lost his right arm, though not resident, was also a great benefactor to his tenants.
HOLM ISLES, in the county of Orkney. Holm is a name by which several islands of the Orkney group are known, with, in most cases, a distinctive affix. Of these, one simply called Holm is in the parish of Westray, and lies on the east side of Papa-Westray. Holm of Grimbister, in the parish of Firth, is situated in a creek, east of Pomona, and a very short distance from its shore. Holm of Howton belongs to Orphir parish, and is south of the main land, in Scalpa Flow; its scanty herbage feeds a few sheep. Holm of Huip, in the parish of Stronsay, lies north of the island of that name, and is appropriated to the pasturage of sheep and cattle. Holm of Pharay, in the parish of Eday, is situated in Westray Frith, and north-west of Eday, and forms a northern point of Fersness bay. All these isles are of very small extent, and uninhabited. Holm of Midgarth, in the parish of St. Peter, Stronsay, is also of moderate extent; but it has two dwellings, and six persons at present reside upon it.
HOLMS, The, isles, in the parish of Unst, county of Shetland. These are three minute uninhabited isles, which lie to the north-west of the island of Unst; they are each nearly of the same size, and are the smallest of the whole Shetland group.
HOLTON-SQUARE, a village, in the parish of Alloa, county of Clackmannan; containing 295 inhabitants. It is a colliery village, consisting of about sixty dwellings, and appendant to the mines of the same name.
HOLYTOWN, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Bothwell, middle ward of the county of Lanark, 11 miles (E. by S.) from Glasgow; containing, with the villages of Chapelhall and Newarthill, 8169 inhabitants, of whom 900 are in the village of Holytown. This district is situated in a part of the county abounding with coal and ironstone, both of which are wrought to a very great extent. The collieries comprise all the various seams, and not less than from twenty to thirty are in operation; the ell coal, the nine feet, and the splint coal are found in abundance in the mines of Chapelhall. On the Woodhall estate, ironstone, of good quality, principally that called the black band, is plentiful; and it is wrought at Calderbraes, near the village of Holytown, and at Greenside, near Newhouse. The Monkland Iron and Steel Company have extensive works near Chapelhall, in which are three blast-furnaces, making together about 1440 tons of pig-iron monthly, and six others producing 2880 tons: in the same establishment are mills and forges in which 400 tons of malleable iron are manufactured weekly. Some works at Cairnbroe, also, belonging to a firm, contain six blast-furnaces, yielding 600 tons of iron per week; and two more furnaces are in contemplation. About one hundred tons of steel are made by the Monkland Company annually, of which thirty tons are wrought into files; and about sixty tons of scrap iron are collected by them monthly, and manufactured into engines for steam-boats and other purposes. In the company's works more than 2400 persons, including miners, are constantly employed; and the average annual amount of the produce of the various iron-works in the district is estimated at £676,000.
Among the principal mansions are, Woodhall, an ancient house in good preservation; Cleland House, a handsome modern mansion, beautifully situated on the South Calder; Carfin and Jerviston, both on the banks of the same river; and Lauchope House, an elegant mansion recently erected, and tastefully embellished. The village is on the great road from Edinburgh to Glasgow, and the district is intersected by the roads from Stirling to Carlisle, and from Edinburgh to Ayr and Hamilton; it is inhabited chiefly by persons employed in the collieries and iron-works. The post has a daily delivery; and facility for the conveyance of the produce of the several works is afforded by the Wishaw and Coltness railway, which joins the Garnkirk line at Gartsherrie, and by the Monkland canal. The late quoad sacra parish of Holytown was about four miles in length, and of nearly equal breadth, comprising an area of 12,000 acres, of which one-half are arable, and of the remainder, about one-third woodland and plantations, and two-thirds meadow and pasture. The soil is a cold and tenacious clay, difficult to work, but, from the improved state of husbandry, producing favourable crops, though not more than sufficient for the supply of the population. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. A preaching station was for some time established in the district, which, within the last few years, has been replaced by the erection of a handsome church, containing 830 sittings. The minister derives his stipend, £80, from the seat-rents and collections, under the patronage of the male communicants. There is a place of worship for the United Associate Synod. District parochial schools are supported by small endowments, in addition to the fees; five schools are maintained by the parties connected with the several works, in which more than 1000 children receive instruction; and three more are about to be erected by subscription. There are also eight Sabbath schools; and to those of Holytown, Newarthill, Chapelhall, and Cairnbroe, libraries are attached.
HOLYWOOD, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Dumfries; containing 1061 inhabitants, of whom 81 are in the village. It is uncertain when the present name was first applied to this parish; but the Oak forest which once overspread the ground, and the Druidical temples situated here, leave no doubt as to its origin. This wood, or forest, extended, it is supposed, for about eight miles, reaching to Snaid, in the parish of Glencairn; and as it was well known by the early Christian missionaries to have been the retreat of the Druids, some of whose temples are in the vicinity, the memory of its primitive consecration was probably transmitted by them, under the name of Holywood. The ancient abbey of Holywood stood in the south-east corner of the present burying-ground. It was founded by Dervorgilla, or Donagilla, daughter of Allan, lord of Galloway, who died in 1269; she was the mother of John Baliol, declared king of the Scots by Edward I., in 1292. It was called Monasterium sacri nemoris, on account of its situation in the grove of oaks; and its monks were of the Præmonstratensian order: among them is said to have been Johannes de Sacro Bosco, a great mathematician, and author of the book De Sphæra. This monastery, with that of Whitorn, is supposed to have sprung from the religious institution of Souls-seat, near Stranraer, founded by Fergus, lord of Galloway, early in the twelfth century. The remains of the abbey, the roof of which was supported by a fine pointed arch across the middle of the building, were taken down in 1778, and the materials used for the erection of the present parish church. The two bells belonging to the edifice were, however, preserved; they are of excellent tone, and are now the parish bells. The patronage of Holywood formerly belonged to the earls of Nithsdale, one of whom sold it, in 1714, to Alexander Ferguson, of Isle, in Kirkmahoe, whose son, Robert, disposed of it to Robert Ferguson, of Fourmerkland, in this parish, after which it passed through several hands, and was purchased, in 1823, by the late John Crichton, Esq., of Skeoch. Cowhill, in the parish, was long the seat of the Maxwells, cadets of the noble family of Nithsdale. In the year 1560, the old castle was burnt by the English; and a tower, in lieu, was built in 1579; but, being obtained by purchase, in 1783, by G. Johnstone, Esq., a Liverpool merchant, he pulled it down in order to erect an elegant mansion on its site.
The parish is about ten miles long, and its mean breadth is one mile and a half; it contains 8960 acres. It is situated in the most beautiful part of the vale of Nithsdale, and is bounded on the north-east by Kirkmahoe; on the east by the parish of Dumfries; on the south by Terregles, Irongray, and Kirkpatrick-Durham, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright; and on the west and north by Glencairn and Dunscore. Being in a broad valley, the surface is flat and low, with the exception of one range of hills, which, however, are neither abrupt nor of great height. The lands are watered by the Nith and Cluden, the latter of which is a famous trout-stream. The soil in the vicinity of these rivers is a rich alluvial mould, free from stones: adjacent to this the earth is light and dry, and rests upon fine sand or gravel. In some other parts there is a deep strong loam, very strong, and recumbent upon a tilly subsoil: although this in its natural state is not so fertile as the former, yet when drained, limed, and properly wrought, it becomes much more productive, except in cold and wet seasons. The hilly ground is somewhat more shallow and dry; it is covered with an ordinary kind of grass, mixed with heath and harsh weeds. The parish comprises 7500 acres under tillage, 560 in wood, 360 moss, 300 hill land, 120 meadow, and 120 roads. Both white and green crops of all kinds are produced, and the system of husbandry followed is of the most approved kind. Fine crops of turnips are raised by the liberal and judicious application of bone-dust manure, and are eaten off the ground by the sheep. The cattle are mostly the black Galloways; the cows for the dairy are of the Ayrshire breed. The hilly tracts are occupied by the native Scotch sheep; but the English breed is preferred on the lower grounds, for the superior quality of the wool. Extensive improvements have been going on for a considerable time in the different branches of husbandry, comprising subdivisions of land, good drainage, the repairing and enlarging of farm-houses, &c.: indeed, the rental of the parish has been considerably more than doubled since the year 1790. The rateable annual value of Holywood now amounts to £7437.
The rocks in the upper part of the parish are the greywacke; in the midland district they consist of hard red freestone and limestone. Boulders, also, of large and small grained greywacke, conglomerate, and trap, with several varieties of granite and sienite, are found, from the weight of a stone to three tons. The parish has two small villages, viz., Holywood and Cluden. The facilities of communication are extremely great, about thirty miles of road being distributed in different directions throughout the parish, all of which are in excellent condition for travelling. The turnpike-road from Carlisle to Glasgow, by Dumfries, is carried near the manse; and a coach runs upon it to and fro every day. A coach, also, passes from Dumfries to Glasgow, by Ayr. At Cluden, within the parish, are some extensive mills, which are let on lease to the Company of Bakers, at Dumfries. 16,000 bushels of wheat; 12,000 of oats; of barley shelled, 1000; and of barley for flour, between 400 and 500 bushels, are produced at the mills every year. About one mile higher up the Cluden is another mill, in which barley is ground, flax prepared, and wool carded. Wool is also spun by machinery, on a small scale, at Speddoch.
The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Dumfries and synod of Dumfries; patron, James Otto, Esq., of Skeoch. The stipend of the minister is £204; and there is a good manse, with seven acres of arable land, valued in £10. 10. per annum. The church was built in 1773, and thoroughly repaired in 1821. It is a neat building with a square tower, and well adapted for accommodation, but inconveniently situated, being eight miles distant from a part of the population: it contains 600 sittings. There are three parochial schools, in which all the usual branches of education are taught. The master of the first school has a salary of £26; the second master has £15, and the third £10. The total income of the first master is about £60; that of the second and third, between £25 and £30 each. There is also a subscription library, established fifty years ago, the volumes in which are chiefly theological. About a quarter of a mile south-west from the church, are eleven large stones, placed in an oval form; the number was twelve till within these few years. They have been universally ascribed to the Druids; and the massy size of the stones, the largest of which weighs twelve tons, excites the astonishment of all visiters. Mr. Charles Irvine, who, in 1790, discovered the method of rendering salt water fresh, for which he was rewarded by government with a grant of £5000, was connected with the parish.
HOPEMAN, a village, in the parish of Duffus, county of Elgin, 2¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Burgh-Head; containing 588 inhabitants. This village, also called Hopeman Harbour, is situated on the shore of the Moray Frith, and between the ports of Burgh-Head and Lossiemouth. It is the seat of a considerable fishery, but, though regularly built, has not been remarkable hitherto for a cleanly appearance. In 1840, a new and excellent harbour was completed here, having seventeen and a half feet of water at spring tides, and five feet at low water, with an easy entrance of thirty-six feet, at right angles to the coast, leading from the outer to the inner harbour, the whole completely sheltered. Salmon, herrings, and white-fish are the kinds chiefly taken off this part of the coast. In the village is a small school.
HORDA, an isle, in the parish of Burray, county of Orkney. It is one of the smaller isles, lying in the Pentland Frith, between South Ronaldshay and Swinna; and is about a mile in length and half a mile in breadth, affording pasturage to cattle and sheep.
HORNDEAN, a village, in the parish of Ladykirk, county of Berwick, 7 miles (W. S. W.) from Berwick; containing 124 inhabitants. This place consists chiefly of the Kirktown of the ancient parish of Horndean, which was annexed, at the Reformation, to the parish of Ladykirk. It is pleasantly situated on a gentle acclivity rising from the banks of the river Tweed, and is inhabited by persons employed in the various handicraft trades carried on for the supply of the neighbourhood, in the salmon-fishery, and in agriculture.
HOSPITAL-MILL, a hamlet, in the parish of Cults, district of Cupar, county of Fife; containing 66 inhabitants. It consists of a small group of houses, and of a mill, formerly a flax, and now a tow mill, in which are spun about 200 tons of tow annually, valued at £7000, and for which Dundee is the principal market.
HOUNAM, a parish, in the district of Kelso, county of Roxburgh, 11 miles (S. S. E.) from Kelso; containing 280 inhabitants, of whom 45 are in the hamlet, and the remainder in the rural districts of the parish. This place, of which the name is of doubtful origin, is not distinguished by any events of historical importance, though, from its situation on the confines of England, and the remains of numerous forts, it probably participated in the frequent hostilities of the border warfare. The parish measures about eight miles in length and six in mean breadth, and is bounded on the south-east by the county of Northumberland, in England. The surface is almost one continued series of hills, forming part of the Cheviot range, and is diversified with gentle undulations in some parts, and in others with small valleys and narrow glens, intervening between the bolder hills. Through these valleys, the waters of the Kale and Capehope wind for several miles, along the banks of which are some small tracts of level land. The highest of the hills is Hounam Law, which has an elevation of 1464 feet above the level of the sea; it is of conical form, and easy of ascent, and is about nine miles in circumference at the base. The lower hills vary from 1200 to 1300 feet. The Kale water has its source in the hills in the parish of Oxnam, and, taking a northerly course, divides the parish into two nearly equal parts, and, after a very circuitous progress, unites with the Capehope near the village, a little to the westward of which it forms a picturesque cascade, falling from a rocky precipice. These, and various smaller streams which flow through the parish, abound with excellent trout. There are also numerous springs of excellent water, and one of medicinal properties, which is in some repute as a powerful diuretic.
The soil varies greatly in different parts, but is notwithstanding tolerably fertile, and in the valleys and lower grounds extremely rich, in the higher lands a sandy gravel, and in some places moss and heath. The whole number of acres is estimated at 14,458; of these, about 13,540 are hilly pasture and sheep-walks, 816 acres arable, and 102 in wood and plantations. The crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is advanced; the lands have been drained, and considerable portions of waste reclaimed. The farm-houses, most of which have been rebuilt, are substantial and commodiously arranged; those of modern erection are of stone, and roofed with slate; and all the more recent improvements in agricultural implements have been generally adopted. The number of sheep annually fed on the hilly pastures is about 13,000, principally of the Cheviot breed, to the improvement of which much attention is paid; those on the lower pastures are of a mixed breed between the Cheviot and Leicestershire. Above 1600 stones of wool are annually procured for sale. About seventy milch-cows are kept on the dairy-farms, and 120 head of young cattle annually reared, chiefly the Ayrshire; few horses are reared, except for agricultural purposes, and these are partly of the Lanarkshire, and partly of the English breeds. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5171. Wood formerly abounded in some parts, and there are still scattered remains of ancient forests; but the woods have been nearly all cut down, and very few trees, if any, have been planted in their place. The plantations are chiefly of recent formation; those of Chester House have attained considerable growth; and the younger plantations at Greenhill, and in the vicinity of the village, are in a thriving state, and, when mature, will add greatly to the beauty of the scenery. There are also some well-grown trees in the hedge-rows, including oak, ash, elm, and beech; and birch, hazel, alder, and mountain-ash appear to be indigenous to the soil. The plantations are mostly plane, Scotch fir, and larch. The rocks in the parish are principally of porphyry formation, and in the cavities are found grey amethyst, rock-crystal, calcareous spar, quartz, agates, and jasper; the two last afford some very beautiful specimens. The substrata in the lower parts are chiefly clay, gravel, and sand. Greenhill, the seat of the Duke of Roxburghe, is a handsome and spacious mansion, beautifully situated in grounds tastefully laid out, and embellished with shrubberies and ornamental plantations.
The hamlet, which is of considerable antiquity, is pleasingly seated on the eastern bank of the Kale water, and at the base of a gently rising ground, which gradually terminates in a hill of considerable height; it consists of a substantial inn, and a few dwelling-houses, each of two stories, and all lately rebuilt. Almost adjoining it, is a neat range of houses which may be regarded as a continuation of the hamlet. Fairs are held on the Oxnam side of the parish, on the 31st July and 15th October, for lambs and ewes, and are well attended. Facility of intercourse with the market-towns is afforded by various good roads that pass through the parish, and by handsome and substantial bridges recently erected over the different streams, and all of which are kept in excellent repair. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Jedburgh and synod of Merse and Teviotdale: patron, Sir George Warrender, Bart. The stipend of the incumbent is about £206; the manse, erected in 1776, and enlarged and repaired in 1832, is a tolerably comfortable residence, and the glebe comprises about nine acres, valued at £11 per annum. The church is very ancient, and was formerly a cruciform structure; but it has been curtailed in its proportions, and is at present a plain rectangular building, adapted for a congregation of not more than 200 persons. The parochial school affords education to about thirty children; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £11. There are traces of ancient camps in various parts; the Roman road called the "Street" passes through the parish; and on some rising ground near the village, overlooking the Kale water, are the remains of an old fort, which has given the name of Chester House to the lands on which it is situated. At Hounam-Mains are distinct traces of a very extensive circular intrenchment called the Rings; likewise part of a circle of upright stones, supposed to be Druidical; and in several parts of the parish are similar stones, of large dimensions, in detached situations. There are also some cairns, thought to have been raised over the tombs of warriors killed in battle.
HOUNDWOOD, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the parish of Coldingham, county of Berwick, 6 miles (W. N. W.) from Ayton; containing, with the villages of Auchincraw and Reston, 1334 inhabitants. This district, which is situated in the southern portion of Coldingham, comprises about 12,000 acres, of which 8500 are arable, 300 woodland and plantations, and the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. The surface is diversified with hills, of which, however, the highest, Wardlaw Bank, has not an elevation of more than 640 feet above the level of the sea, though commanding from its summit a splendid view to the east, south, and west, embracing the German Ocean, the Merse, part of Roxburghshire, the heights of Lammermoor, and the Cheviot hills in the distance. The lands are watered by the small river Eye, which flows for nearly eight miles through the district, and falls into the sea at Eyemouth: common trout of excellent quality are found in abundance. The soil is tolerably fertile, and the arable grounds are in good cultivation, producing favourable crops; the system of husbandry is improved; the lands have been drained and inclosed, and the farm-houses and offices are substantial and commodious. The plantations are chiefly oak, elm, birch, and fir; they are under good management, and generally in a thriving state. Renton House, the seat of Sir Samuel Stirling, Bart., and Houndwood House, the property and residence of Mrs. Coulson, are the principal mansions. In the village of Reston is a small manufactory for woollen cloths of the coarser kind; but the population of the district is mostly agricultural. The cattle and sheep bred in the pastures are sent to Ayton, Dunse, and Morpeth; and other agricultural produce chiefly to Dunbar, Eyemouth, and Berwick. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Chirnside and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and the patronage is vested in the male communicants: the stipend of the minister is £87, arising from seat-rents and collections. A chapel which was erected on the lands of Renton, in 1794, by the Renton family, and in which divine service was performed by a minister of their endowment, has been closed since the opening of the present church in 1836. The church is a handsome structure in the Grecian style of architecture, and contains 500 sittings, of which twenty are free; it was built by subscription, at a cost of £800, towards which £167. 10. were contributed from the General Assembly's funds. The chapel at Renton is, however, still in good repair. There are a parochial school, and a school supported by subscription. Formerly, numerous remains existed of strongholds, of which that of Houndwood was the seat of the prior of Coldingham.
Houston and Killallan
HOUSTON and KILLALLAN, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Renfrew; including the village of Crosslee and part of the late quoad sacra district of Bridge-of-Weir, and containing 2818 inhabitants, of whom 623 are in the village of Houston, 14 miles (S. W.) from Glasgow. This place consists of two parishes which were united in the year 1760, when the population in both of them was scarcely more than one-third of the present number. The principal resident proprietor is W. M. Fleming, Esq., whose ancestor, Peter Fleming, held the estate of Barochan, in this parish, and being celebrated for his skill in falconry, received from James IV. the hood of his favourite hawk, richly studded with gems, as a reward for his dexterity, which hood, though many of the jewels have been lost, and among them a ruby of great value, is still preserved in the house at Barochan, the residence of his descendant. The parish of Houston is supposed to have derived its name from Hugo de Padvinan, who obtained a grant of the barony of Kelpeter from Baldwin, sheriff of Lanark, and who substituted his own name for that by which the barony had been previously called. The name of the other parish is thought to be a corruption of Killfillan, an appellation said to have been obtained from Fillanus, its tutelary saint.
The united parish is about six miles in length and three in breadth, and is bounded on the north and east by the parish of Erskine; on the south, by the river Gryfe, which separates it from the parish of Kilbarchan; and on the west by the parish of Kilmalcolm. The river Gryfe has its source in the upland moors and high hills between Kilmalcolm and Largs, the latter place situated on the coast of the Frith of Clyde; and, augmented by numerous streams which meet near Duchal, it enters the parish, and pursues a rapid course towards the low lands at Fulwood, in which it is precipitated over several rocky heights. Thence it winds its way into the Clyde, first receiving the river Black Cart at Walkinshaw, and the White Cart near the bridge of Inchinnan. The surface is irregular, and in many parts beautifully diversified. In the lands of Houston is an extensive wood, consisting chiefly of oak, ash, birch, and plane trees, of which many are of venerable growth; there is a similar wood of natural growth, and extensive and thriving plantations, at Barochan. The high grounds in the district of Killallan, likewise, are largely planted with oak, ash, beech, and Scotch fir; and the mosses have been covered with trees which appear to be thriving well. Agriculture forms but a secondary pursuit in the parish, and comparatively only a small portion of land is in cultivation; the greater number of the inhabitants being employed in the various manufactures which have been established. Improvements have, notwithstanding, been made in draining the grounds, and many of the mosses have been reclaimed, and produce abundant crops; the farm-buildings are substantial and commodious, and are all roofed with slate. The scarcity of common manure has led to the introduction of a compost of moss prepared with oil, which, under proper management, has been found to answer well. The substratum is chiefly clay, covered in some parts with moss six feet in depth; in the higher districts, granite of good quality is prevalent; and in the lower parts, sandstone and limestone are quarried. Coal exists in abundance; and mines have been opened for the supply of the extensive works in the parish, and for fuel in the neighbouring places. Barochan, the patrimonial seat of Mr. Fleming, is of considerable antiquity, and has recently undergone great improvements; it is beautifully situated, and embellished with ornamental plantations, forming a conspicuous feature in the landscape. A subscription library has been established in the village of Houston. Fairs are held in May, chiefly for milch-cows, young cattle, and for others, of the Highland breed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £11,293.
The chief manufacture is that of cotton, for which several extensive mills have been erected, mostly on the banks of the Gryfe. The principal are the New mills, near the Bridge of Weir, in the district of Killallan, erected in 1792, and at present conducted by Messrs. Findlay; they contain 6240 mule spindles, and are driven by a water-wheel thirteen feet in diameter, with power equal to that of twelve horses, and afford employment to nearly 100 persons. The mill at Gryfe grove, erected in 1822, contains nearly 1000 mule spindles, and 500 for water-twist, with the requisite machinery, set in motion by a water-wheel of cast-iron, of twelve feet diameter, and giving occupation to about forty persons: adjoining is a mill erected by the same proprietor, for carding wool. A mill has also been erected by Mr. Shanks, in which are 1400 spindles, driven likewise by an iron water-wheel twelve feet in diameter. Gryfe mill, to the east of the Bridge-of-Weir mill, and belonging to Messrs. John Freeland, and Co., was built in 1793, and contains 18,000 spindles; it is set in motion by a water-wheel nineteen feet in diameter, and employs nearly 300 persons. Crosslee mill, conducted by Messrs. Stevenson and Sons, is driven by a wheel of cast-iron, twenty-six feet in diameter, and equivalent to seventy-horse power; it affords constant employment to 300 people. Houston cotton-mills, situated on the burn of that name, and built in 1793, is driven by a wheel of eighteen-horse power, about thirty feet in diameter, and employs 140 persons: attached to this mill is a steam-engine, by which the machinery is set in motion when the water of the stream is insufficient for that purpose. Houston bleachfield, on the same rivulet, belonging to Messrs. Carlisle, is an extensive establishment, chiefly employed for the manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley: about 4000 pounds of cotton and 60,000 pounds of linen-yarn and thread, and about 12,000 pounds of raw silk, are annually bleached in this establishment, in which fifty persons are engaged. The parish is in the presbytery of Paisley and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and patronage of Alexander Speirs, Esq. The minister's stipend is £264, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £13. 10. per annum. The church, erected in 1775, is conveniently situated; it is in good repair, and is adapted for a congregation of 800 persons. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship; and there is a Roman Catholic chapel. The parochial schoolmaster has a salary of £34, with £24 fees, and a house and garden.
HOWGATE, a hamlet, in the parish of Penicuick, county of Edinburgh, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Penicuick; containing 81 inhabitants. It lies on the high road from Libberton to Dumfries; and in its neighbourhood are several fine streams, of which some are tributaries to the Esk. A Secession meeting-house was built here in 1750.
HOWIESHILL, a hamlet, in the parish of Cambuslang, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 2½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Rutherglen; containing 62 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Rutherglen to Hamilton, and is one of the numerous hamlets in the parish, and a short distance east of Cambusland.
HOWWOOD, a village, in the parish of Lochwinnoch, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 2½ miles (S. W.) from Johnstone; containing 252 inhabitants. It is seated in the north-eastern part of the parish, and on the road from Lochwinnoch to Johnstone, which runs nearly parallel with the Ardrossan and Johnstone canal. The village is neatly built, though of small extent, and consists principally of detached houses and cottages inhabited by persons engaged in cotton-mills and in agriculture. A school has been established, the master of which has a good house and garden rent-free, and occasionally a donation, which is raised by voluntary contribution of the inhabitants: his principal income, however, arises from the fees. A friendly society, also, has long been formed, and has acquired ample funds.
HOY, an island, in the county of Orkney; containing 1486 inhabitants, of whom 1153 are in the parish of Walls and Flotta, and the remainder in that of Hoy and Græmsay. See the articles on those two parishes.
Hoy and Græmsay
HOY and GRÆMSAY, a parish, in the county of Orkney, 2½ miles (S.) from Stromness; containing 547 inhabitants, of whom 214 are in the island of Græmsay. This parish, which is chiefly situated in the island of Hoy, the principal of the South Orkney isles, is bounded on the north by the Sound of Hoy, which separates it from the parish of Stromness, in the main land; on the east, by the bay of Scalpa, in which is the small island of Græmsay; on the south and south-east, by the parish of Walls; and on the west, by the Atlantic Ocean. That part of the parish which is in the isle of Hoy is about nine miles in extreme length, and six miles in breadth. The surface is boldly elevated, forming the highest ground in the whole island, from which circumstance it is supposed to have derived its name; and the lands are chiefly marked by three lofty hills, ranged in triangular form, of which that to the north-east rises from a broad base to the height of 1200 feet above the level of the sea. The soil along the shores of Hoy is a rich loam, and in other parts peat, alternated with clay. The greater portion of the land is covered with heath, affording pasture to many flocks of sheep which roam at large: in the husbandry of what is arable very little improvement has been made. The scenery, for want of timber, has a dreary aspect, relieved, however, in some parts by small valleys, intersecting the hills, and watered by numerous rivulets, of which the banks are ornamented with a few shrubs and wildflowers. The hills abound with Alpine plants; and there are several deep glens, in which the sound of the voice, or the report of a musket, is re-echoed by repeated reverberations. A rock on the brink of a valley, called the Dwarfie-stone, has been excavated into three distinct apartments; in one of these is something resembling a bed, and between this and a smaller apartment is a recess apparently intended as a fire-place, with a hole cut in the roof to emit the smoke. The whole mass is of sandstone, about thirty-two feet in length, seventeen feet in breadth, and seven and a half feet in height. Veins of iron and lead ore have been discovered; and the latter, on analysis, was found to contain a considerable proportion of silver; and some grains of gold have also been met with.
The island of Græmsay, which is separated from the rest of the parish by a sound about a mile in breadth, is a beautiful spot, a mile and a half in length and a mile broad. Its surface is level, and covered with verdure affording luxuriant pasturage; the soil is fertile, and that portion of the land which is arable produces rich crops of grain: the substratum throughout is clay-slate, which is wrought for roofing. Cod, ling, and other fish are found in abundance off the coast; and seven boats belonging to the parish are regularly employed in the herring-fishery, during the season. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Cairston and synod of Orkney. The minister's stipend is £150, to which are added £8. 6. 8. for communion elements, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £8 per annum; patron, the Earl of Zetland. There are two churches, both in good repair. The church of Hoy was built towards the close of the last century, and that of Græmsay was thoroughly repaired about the year 1810; they contain each 182 sittings. Divine service is performed every third Sunday at Græmsay; and on the two others the inhabitants attend the church at Hoy. The parochial school at Hoy is well attended; the master has a salary of £26, with a house and garden, and the fees are about £2 per annum. A school in Græmsay is supported by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Among the precipices on the coast is a massive lofty insulated pillar which, from a fancied resemblance, is called the "Old Man of Hoy;" it is conspicuously seen from the Caithness coast.
HULMITRAY, an isle, in the parish of Harris, county of Inverness. This is one of the smaller isles of the Hebrides, and is situated in the Sound of Harris, and a short distance to the north-east of the island of North Uist.
HUNA, a township, in the parish of Canisbay, county of Caithness, 19 miles (N.) from Wick; containing 111 inhabitants. This place is situated on the shore of the Pentland Frith, and consists, in its western part, from Huna Inn to Gill's bay, of one of the most fertile districts in the parish, and eastward to Duncansbay burn, of moss, which prevails to the very brink of the Frith. The parochial church stands on an eminence close by the shore, and the manse is built about a quarter of a mile, inland, from it: the tall white spire of the former is an excellent landmark at sea. Here is a post-office, from which the mail-boat with the Orkney bags crosses the Frith three times a week, the distance to the landing-place in Orkney being about twelve miles. Edwin, King of Scotland, fought an army of Orkneymen at Huna, and signally defeated them.
HUNDA, an island, forming part of the parish of St. Peter in South Ronaldshay, south isles of Orkney, and containing 6 inhabitants. It lies in Scalpa Flow, to the north of Ronaldshay, and west of the isle of Burray; and is of small extent.
HUNTHILL, a hamlet, in the parish of Blantyre, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 3½ miles (W. N. W.) from Hamilton; containing 60 inhabitants. It is situated on the western borders of the parish, and nearly adjoins the village of Blantyre, in the manufactures and works connected with which the population is partly engaged.
HUNTLY, a burgh of barony and a parish, in the district of Strathbogie, county of Aberdeen, 39 miles (N. W.) from Aberdeen, and 145 (N. by E.) from Edinburgh; containing 3642 inhabitants, of whom 2731 are in the burgh. This place, including the united parishes of Dumbennan and Kinoir, anciently formed part of the ample possessions of the powerful family of the Cumyns, of whose baronial seat, Strathbogie Castle, there are still considerable remains. During the contested succession to the throne of Scotland after the death of Alexander III., the Cumyns, who were the adherents of Edward I. of England, were nearly extirpated by the Gordons, upon whom Robert Bruce conferred the castle and lands of Strathbogie, in reward of their important services. The castle was almost destroyed after the battle of Glenlivet, in 1594, but was restored, with considerable additions, by the first Marquess of Huntly, in 1602, and, under the name of Huntly Castle, was the seat of the head of the Gordon family till their removal to Fochabers, when it became the residence of the Marquess of Huntly, eldest son of the Duke of Gordon, and so continued for a time. On the death of George, the fifth duke, in 1836, without issue, the dukedom of Gordon became extinct; but the Marquessate of Huntly, his second title, descended to his kinsman, the Earl of Aboyne. The late duke's heir of entail, the Duke of Richmond, is, with the exception only of the estate of Avochy, the present proprietor of all the lands.
The town, which derives its name from its founders, the family of Gordon, is beautifully situated on a peninsula, near the confluence of the rivers Doveran and Bogie, over the former of which is an ancient bridge of one spacious arch, and over the latter a substantial bridge of three arches. The streets are regularly formed, intersecting each other at right angles; and in the centre is a noble square, surrounded with handsome houses, some of which are of very elegant appearance. The town is well paved, and lighted with gas; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. There are several libraries, of which the chief are, the Farmers' Agricultural library; an evangelical subscription library, and a circulating library; and there is also a readingroom, supplied with public journals and periodical publications. The environs abound with picturesque scenery, enlivened by numerous villas, and derive much interest from the venerable ruins of the ancient castle, and the beautiful grounds of Huntly lodge, on the opposite bank of the Doveran. The linen manufacture was formerly carried on here to a very great extent, but, since the termination of the war, has very much declined; and at present, not more than forty weavers are employed, for the wholesale houses of Aberdeen, and a few in the weaving of damask. There are a bleach-field upon a moderate scale, and a tannery and distillery in full operation; the usual handicraft trades for the supply of the neighbouring district afford employment to many of the inhabitants, and there are numerous shops supplied with merchandise of various kinds. From its situation on the principal road from Aberdeen to Inverness, the town has a considerable degree of traffic. The post-office has a daily delivery; and there are branches of the North of Scotland, the Town and County, and the Aberdeen banks, for the first of which a handsome building has been erected in the square. A market is held on Thursday, which is amply supplied with grain, and numerously attended by dealers from different parts of the country; and fairs, chiefly for cattle and horses, are held monthly, of which those at Whitsuntide and Martinmas are also for hiring servants. Facility of communication is afforded by good turnpike-roads, of which that from Aberdeen to Inverness passes through the town, that to Banff through the north-east, and one to Portsoy through the northern, district of the parish. The town was erected into a free burgh of barony by charter of James III., granted to George, second earl of Huntly; and is governed by a baron bailie, appointed by the superior, but whose jurisdiction extends only to the removal of obstructions in the public streets and thoroughfares.
The parishes of Dumbennan and Kinoir were united in 1727, and, in honour of the eldest son of the Duke of Gordon, called Huntly. The united parish is about ten miles in length, and four miles in breadth. The surface is diversified with hills of moderate height, which surround the town on all sides, and of which the hill of Kinoir, in the immediate vicinity, consisting of several thousand acres, has been recently planted by the Duke of Richmond, at an expense of nearly £3000. The rivers are the Doveran and the Bogie. The Doveran has its source in the hills of Cabrach, and, flowing through the parish in a north-easterly direction, receives the waters of the Bogie. The Bogie rises in the parish of Auchindoir, and forms the boundary between this parish and that of Drumblade for two or three miles. Both these rivers about with trout, and salmon are also found in the Doveran. The quantity of land which is arable cannot be precisely determined, but there is little waste capable of improvement: the soil, though various, and consisting chiefly of clay, moss, and gravel, is tolerably fertile; and the chief crops are oats, barley, and bear. The hills afford good pasture for cattle, of which considerable numbers are reared, and sent to the English markets; but few sheep are bred in the parish. The system of husbandry has been improved under the auspices of an agricultural society of which the Duke of Richmond is patron, and which holds annual meetings in the town for the distribution of prizes, when a cattle show takes place. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7245. The plantations consist chiefly of birch, elm, oak, larch, and Scotch and spruce firs, all of which are carefully managed, and in a thriving state. The rocks are generally of granite and whinstone: limestone has been quarried, though it is of inferior quality, and very difficult to work with any prospect of advantage; and ironstone and plumbago have been also found. Huntly Lodge, the seat of the Dowager Duchess of Gordon, was formerly a shooting-box belonging to the dukes, by one of whom, about 1830, it was enlarged and greatly improved as a residence. It is an elegant mansion, beautifully situated in a demesne embellished with plantations, and tastefully laid out in walks, and enlivened by the rivers Doveran and Bogie, which unite within the grounds. Avochy House, the seat of John Gordon, Esq., is a pleasant residence, within the grounds of which are some slight remains of the ancient castle of Avochy.
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Strathbogie and synod of Moray. The minister's stipend is £185. 13. 9., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 per annum; patron, the Duke of Richmond. The old church, situated in the centre of the town, is a spacious plain structure, erected in 1805, at a cost of £2600, and containing 1800 sittings. The new church, erected in 1841, at an expense of £1400, is also in the town, and contains 1100 sittings; the duty is performed by a missionary, appointed by the General Assembly, and who has a stipend of £100, derived chiefly from the seat-rents. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, the United Secession, and Independents; also an episcopalian, and a Roman Catholic chapel, the latter a handsome structure in the later English style. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with a house and garden, and the fees average £60. He also receives £30 per annum from the Dick bequest. The school is held in a building erected by the Duchess Dowager of Gordon, in which are also held a school connected with the new church, and supported by subscription, and an infant and a sewing school, of which the mistresses receive salaries from the duchess. A dispensary is maintained; and there are several friendly societies, and a savings' bank in the town, in which are deposits amounting to £3644. The remains of the castle consist partly of those of the ancient castle of Strathbogie, of which the chief portion is a large circular tower, now in ruins; and partly of the restorations of Huntly Castle, which also are greatly dilapidated. The whole forms a venerable pile of ruins, romantically situated on the bank of the Doveran, near the bridge.
HURLET, a village, in the Abbey parish of the town of Paisley, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 3 miles (S. E.) from Paisley; containing 287 inhabitants. The village and the adjacent hamlets are inhabited chiefly by colliers, and others employed in the extensive mineral works carried on in the district. The immediate neighbourhood abounds with coal, which has been wrought for more than three centuries; and iron-stone is found in great abundance, in the procuring of which alone about 100 men are at present constantly engaged. The manufacture of copperas was introduced into Scotland by a company from Liverpool, who established their works at this place; and a similar concern was formed at Nitshill, in the vicinity, in 1807, by a company who subsequently purchased the works at Hurlet, which they converted into a manufactory for alum. Large quantities of muriate of potash and sulphate of ammonia are also produced, and conveyed to Glasgow and Paisley by canal, and by the Hurlet railway. The produce of the mines and mineral works in the district, in a recent year, was, 42,554 tons of coal, 4931 tons of limestone, 5701 tons of aluminus schistus, 1200 tons of alum, and 300 tons of copperas; the number of men employed was 580. To remedy the distress to which the miners and others are subject, from the frequent occurrence of accidents in their dangerous employments, a friendly society has been established; and about 100 children of the workmen attend a school in the neighbourhood, where they are taught reading, writing, and arithmetic, and, on the Sabbath, receive religious instruction. The villages of Corsemill and Dovecothall, in the vicinity, are chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the bleaching and print fields on the banks of the river Levern; and several are occupied in the extensive cotton-mills at Barrhead, in the adjoining parish of Neilston.
HURLFORD, a village, in the parish of Riccarton, district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 1½ mile (E. S. E.) from Kilmarnock; containing 371 inhabitants. This place is seated on the south bank of the river Irvine, over which is a good and substantial bridge, that has lately undergone extensive alteration and repair. The population is chiefly engaged in the coal-works in operation in the parish. The great high-road from Ayr to Edinburgh intersects the village. There is a school, of which the master has a free house and garden, and for which the ground was given by the Duke of Portland.
HUTCHESONTON, a town, in the parish and barony of Gorbals, within the jurisdiction of Glasgow, county of Lanark; containing 3559 inhabitants. This place, which forms one of the principal suburbs of the city, is situated to the south of the Clyde, on land originally in the parish of Govan, purchased in 1647 by the corporation of Hutcheson's hospital. The town was commenced in 1794, and consists of several spacious and well-formed streets, intersecting each other at right angles; the houses are generally from three to four stories in height, and are tolerably well built of stone, and roofed with slate. The whole is well lighted with gas, and amply supplied with water. The inhabitants had formerly facility of communication with the city of Glasgow by a bridge over the Clyde, which was scarcely completed when it was swept away by an inundation of the river, in 1795. The loss of this bridge greatly retarded the progress of the town; and it was not till the year 1829 that the foundation-stone of a new one, on the same site, was laid by the preceptor of the hospital. The present bridge is a handsome structure of five arches, from a design by Mr. Robert Stevenson, civil engineer; and is 406 feet in length, and thirty-six feet wide within the parapets.
The population are partly employed in the cotton manufacture, weaving both by power and hand looms, and in different branches of the linen trade. A very extensive factory for weaving stripes and checks for furniture, various fabrics for women's dresses, shirtings, and other articles, was established here by Messrs. Somerville and sons. There are also some foundries and iron-works, of which the most important are those of Mr. W. Dixon, who has erected several hot-blast furnaces on the principle of Neilson's patent, in which about 4000 tons of pig-iron are annually produced. The greater portion of the town was included within the late ecclesiastical district of Hutchesonton, separated from the parish by act of the General Assembly. That arrangement, however, has been set aside; and a congregation of members of the Free Church now rent the church, a plain but elegant structure, erected in 1839, at a cost of £2600, by the Church Building Society, and containing more than 1000 sittings. The members of the Relief have also a place of worship. A school-house, capable of receiving 650 children, has been built by subscription, aided by a grant from government; instruction is afforded upon very moderate terms. There are likewise Sunday schools for children of both sexes, all well attended.
Hutton, a parish, in the county of Berwick, 6 miles (W. by N.) from Berwick-upon-Tweed; containing, with the village of Paxton, 1133 inhabitants. The parish of Hutton was enlarged in the year 1614, by the annexation of the neighbouring parish of Fishwick; and these two districts form the parish as it at present exists. Hutton, which lies near the Whiteadder river, is supposed to have derived its name from the situation of its village in a hollow, whence the term How-town, corrupted into Hutton. Fishwick, which is on the banks of the Tweed, is generally thought to have derived its name from the avocations of its inhabitants as fishermen: the ruins of its church were not long ago still visible. From a diary of the progress of Edward I. through Scotland, it seems probable that he encamped in this locality on the 29th of March, 1296, the day preceding that on which he took the town of Berwick. It appears that Hutton, or Hauden, was the place where he rested with his army the day after he left Coldstream; and as this parish lies in the direct line of his march to Berwick from Coldstream, where he crossed the Tweed on the 28th of March, it is concluded that it must be the spot there referred to.
The parish, which resembles in figure an irregular triangle, is about four miles long and three broad, and contains 5261 acres. It is bounded on the north by the parishes of Chirnside, Foulden, and Mordington, from which it is separated by the Whiteadder river; it has the Tweed on the south, the parish of Berwick on the east, Edrom on the west, and Whitsome and Ladykirk on the south-west. The surface presents one continued flat, with the exception of the ground on the banks of the Tweed and Whiteadder, which, being diversified with gentle elevations, relieves the tame and uninteresting scenery in the other parts of the parish. The height of these elevations, however, above the sea seldom exceeds 150 feet. The soil near the rivers is a rich deep loam, resting upon sandstone, and exceedingly fertile, producing heavy crops. The ground in the middle of the parish is of an inferior quality, being thin, wet, and moorish, and rests upon a tenacious clayey subsoil. A tract of this description, about a mile broad, commences here, and runs from east to west, to the extremity of the county; while on each side of it the earth is rich and productive. The parish comprises 4950 acres either cultivated or occasionally in tillage. Above sixty acres on the banks of the rivers, being too steep for the operations of the plough, remain for the most part in natural pasture, part of which is of very superior quality. About 250 acres are under wood, consisting of ash, elm, plane, oak, beech, and all the varieties of fir. This department of rural economy claims much of the attention of the proprietors, especially on the estates of Broad Meadows, Paxton, and Fishwick, where the plantations are in a state of rapid progression. The lands are considered most suitable to wheat, though excellent crops of turnips are produced, as well as of grain of all kinds. The farm-buildings and offices are in general neat and convenient; and nearly the whole of the grounds are inclosed with good thorn hedges. Improvements in every department of husbandry have, indeed, been carried on for many years past. Sandstone of various kinds is the prevailing rock: on the estate of Hutton Hall is a stratum of very fine gypsum. The rateable annual value of the parish is £10,446.
There are several mansion-houses, of which Hutton Hall is the most ancient and remarkable. It is situated on an eminence near the Whiteadder, and appears to have been originally a square tower, constructed principally for observation and security, to which many subsequent additions have been made, to accommodate it to the usages of modern times. The mansion of Paxton was built about eighty years ago, of dark sandstone; the front is massive and commanding, and the house is enlivened by the passage of the river Tweed on the south-east. The apartments are elegant and commodious, and a very valuable collection of paintings enriches the mansion. Broad-Meadows is constructed of fine white freestone, and is a modern building in the Grecian style of architecture. The scenery in the vicinity of these residences is interesting, and in some parts beautiful, especially near Paxton. Not far from the last-named place are Spittal House and Tweed Hill, the latter of which stands on the Tweed, in the vicinity of the Union chainbridge. The population is almost entirely agricultural; their chief communication is with the town of Berwick. There is a manufactory for bricks and tiles on the estate of Paxton, where large quantities of the latter are produced for drainage. Three corn-mills are also in operation in the parish, the produce of which, consisting of flour, meal, and pearl-barley, is exported from Berwick to London. Upon that part of the Tweed forming the boundary line of the parish are four or five fishing-stations; upwards of twenty men are employed, and considerable quantities of trout, salmon, and grilse are caught, which are packed in ice at Berwick, and despatched to the London market.
Two turnpike roads pass through the parish, one leading from Berwick to Dunse, and the other from Berwick to Kelso, by Swinton; on each there is a considerable traffic. The lines of turnpike road are about ten miles, and the parish roads of equal extent. About two miles and a half from the village of Hutton, and six from Berwick, is the iron suspension-bridge over the Tweed, erected in 1820, and by which many serious accidents, and the loss of lives have been prevented. It is 361 feet in length, and of one hundred tons weight of malleable iron; the whole expense was between £7000 and £8000. Another bridge has been lately erected, across the Whiteadder, near Hutton Mill, connecting the parish with Foulden, and also opening a facility of communication with the sea-port of Eyemouth, the only one in the county. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Chirnside and synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and the patronage is vested in the Crown: the stipend of the minister is £236, with a manse, built fifty years ago, and enlarged and repaired in 1822. There are two glebes, one of which is in Hutton, and the other in Fishwick, amounting together to about thirteen acres, valued at £30 per annum. The present church, erected in 1834, is remarkably neat in its external appearance, and accommodates, in a plain manner, but commodiously, above 600 persons. There is a parochial school, in which Latin, mathematics, and all the usual branches of education are taught: the master has a salary of £34, with the fees and a house. The parish also has two small parochial libraries, a friendly society, and an agricultural association, the last designed chiefly to promote improvements in the art of ploughing. Dr. Andrew Foreman, Bishop of Moray, Archbishop of Bourges in France, and afterwards Archbishop of St. Andrew's, and who flourished at the beginning of the 16th century, was a native of the parish.
Hutton and Corrie
HUTTON and CORRIE, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 7 miles (N. N. E.) from Lockerbie; containing 809 inhabitants. The name of Hutton appears to be derived from the term Holt, signifying an elevated piece of ground or a mound of earth, from some mounds of artificial construction in the district, used in ancient times as seats of deliberation, and for the administration of justice. Corrie, which was joined to Hutton soon after the Reformation, derives its appellation from a rivulet which runs through it, and the name of which, in the Gaelic language, signifies "a narrow glen," the stream issuing from a glen. On the farm of Closs, in the parish, are some remains of a place called Maskersa, where the Grahams, of Gillesbie, formerly had their residence, but from which they removed, more than 300 years ago, to a tower on the brink of the Dryfe, which was a fortress of great strength, surrounded by a fosse. Of this family the descendants still retain property in the neighbourhood. It was in the tower of Gillesbie that the first president of the court of session was for a time confined, when taken away to prevent his giving a decision in a suit in which one of the parties thought he had too much influence.
The parish extends twelve miles in length, from north-west to south-east, and the average breadth is about three miles; it contains nearly 23,000 acres. It is bounded on the north-east by the ridge of hills which divides Annandale from Eskdale; on the south-east by the water of Milk, which separates Corrie from the parish of Tundergarth; and on the north and west by the parishes of Wamphray, Applegarth, and Dryfesdale. The general aspect of the country is diversified with an agreeable variety of scenery. Towards the north the hills are covered with verdure, and the banks of the Dryfe with wood, the effect of which is considerably heightened by the course of the stream, which runs over a gravelly, and frequently a rocky, bottom. In the approach to the Milk, the view is somewhat similar; but the features of the landscape are less marked and prominent. On the heights between these two waters, the scene is reversed, and becomes bleak and rugged. The soil in some places is mixed with a fine gravel, and in others with good clay; in the high lands it is mossy or moorish. About 3000 acres of land are occasionally cultivated; the remaining 20,000 have not been ploughed within the last fifty years. Much of this ground was formerly in tillage; but the consolidation of the small farms has led to the conversion of a considerable quantity of ploughed land into pasture. All kinds of white and green crops are raised, with the exception of wheat; and the system of husbandry followed is adapted to the improved state of agriculture. About two-thirds of the lands are employed as sheep pasture in nine or ten regular breeding farms, keeping about 10,000 sheep, which are wholly Cheviots, except 600 or 700 of the black-faced breed. The cattle, which are also of superior quality, and much attended to, are of the black Galloway breed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5300. The communication of the people is chiefly with Dumfries, seventeen miles distant. The roads were formerly in bad condition; but they have been entirely re-constructed within the last thirty years: they consist partly of two lines, one of which leads from Dumfries towards Hawick, and the other from Moffatt towards Langholm and Carlisle. There are bridges over the Dryfe, Corrie, and Milk, which, as well as the roads, are kept in good repair.
The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries; patrons, the Johnstone family, of Annandale. The stipend of the minister is £241, with a manse, built in 1803, and since enlarged and improved, and a glebe of above thirty-five acres, worth £25 per annum. The church is situated near the Dryfe, equidistant from the north-eastern and southern extremities of the parish; it is in good repair, and accommodates 312 persons with sittings. There is a parochial school situated in the Hutton division of the parish, where the classics, mathematics, and French, with the usual branches of education, are taught. The master has a house and garden, with a salary of £27, and about £20 fees; he has also two-thirds of the interest of £260, bequeathed in 1802, by Mr. James Graham, a native of the parish, for teaching poor children reading, writing, and arithmetic. There is another parochial school at Corrie, which has been for a considerable time endowed with a bequest by Mr. Edward Moffatt, of Exeter, consisting of the interest of £280, for teaching the children of this division of the parish reading and writing. In 1820, Col. James Wilson, grand-nephew of the founder, added £20 per annum to the salary, on condition of the master teaching the children arithmetic, and that the school should be considered as endowed, he and his heirs appointing the master. The heritors of Corrie have for some time paid the master about £16 a year; and besides a house and garden, he has five acres of good pasture ground. The same branches of instruction are taught as in the school at Hutton. The relics of antiquity consist of the remains of several old intrenchments of a circular form, called British forts, and of a rectangular one at Carter-town, which was a Roman camp, and is supposed to have been a post of communication between Annandale and Eskdale, where the Romans had several stations.