A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1846.
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YARROW, a parish, in the county of Selkirk, 9 miles (W.) from Selkirk; containing, with the village of Ettrick-Bridge and part of Yarrowford, 1264 inhabitants. This place, which is of considerable antiquity, was originally designated as the parish of St. Mary; its present name was acquired from the removal of the church to the banks of the river Yarrow, about the middle of the 17th century, since which time the parish has invariably retained the name of that river. The surrounding district formed part of the royal forest of Ettrick, and in the reign of Bruce was recovered from the English by Sir James Douglas, upon whom, as a reward for his fidelity, that monarch conferred the lands, which at the same time he erected into a free royalty. On the attainder of the Douglas family in 1455, the lands became forfeited to the crown, and part of them were granted to Sir Walter Scott, ancestor of the dukes of Buccleuch, in consideration of his active services in the suppression of the rebellion of that period. The forest of Ettrick was afterwards given by James IV. to his queen, the Lady Margaret, of England, and James V. frequently resorted to this place to enjoy the diversion of the chase, the memorial of which is still preserved in the name of a pass called the "Hart's leap," marked by two stones said to have been placed there by the king and his attendants.
The parish is of very irregular form, about eighteen miles in extreme length and nearly sixteen miles in breadth; and comprises 71,410 acres, of which 2740 are arable, 640 woodland and plantations, and the whole of the remainder moorland, affording rough pasturage for sheep and a few cattle. The surface is hilly and mountainous, and intersected by three continued and precipitous ranges, which traverse the parish in a north-eastern direction, and of which the Blackhouse Heights have an elevation of almost 2400, the Minchmoor of about 2300, the Hangingshaw Law of 2000, feet above the level of the sea. The chief rivers are, the Yarrow, the Ettrick, and the Tweed, which last in some parts forms the northern boundary. The Yarrow has its source in the hills of Dumfries-shire, among numerous other streams that form two lakes of considerable extent; and after a course of many miles through the parish, it falls into the Ettrick. The valley through which this beautiful river winds abounds with picturesque and romantic scenery, and perhaps no stream in the country is associated with reminiscences of deeper interest, or more closely identified with the finest strains of Scottish minstrelsy. Among the lakes are the loch of St. Mary and the loch of The Lowes. The former, seven miles and a half in circumference, is separated from the latter, which is about a mile and a half in circuit, by a narrow neck of land, or sandbank, thrown up by opposite currents of two small streams; the larger lake is thirty fathoms, and the smaller eleven fathoms, in depth. Their borders are thinly ornamented by some dwarfish trees, part of the remains of the ancient forest, and by a few plantations of recent date; and near them till lately stood the picturesque ruins of the church of St. Mary. There are also several lakes of less importance, some of them containing rich beds of shell-marl, which is used as manure for the lands. Numerous springs of excellent water afford an abundant supply for domestic use.
The soil is generally a light brown loam, of good quality, but thickly intermixed with stones; along the banks of the rivers it is gravelly, and in some other places clayey, inclining here and there to bog. The crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips; the system of agriculture is much improved, and the four and five shift courses are now adopted. Bone-dust has been introduced with success in the cultivation of turnips. The marshy lands have been mostly drained, and irrigation has been practised on lands requiring it; the arable farms have been inclosed, and also the sheep-walks in the hilly pastures. The farm-houses are well built; and improvements in the agriculture of the parish have been much promoted by the encouragement held out by the Selkirkshire Pastoral Society, established under the patronage of the late Lord Napier, and which holds a triennial meeting in this parish, for distributing prizes among the successful competitors in every department of husbandry. Considerable attention is paid to the livestock. About 45,000 sheep are reared annually: they are chiefly of the Cheviot breed, with about 1200 or 1500 of the black-faced kind, which was once the prevailing breed; also a few of the Leicestershire on some of the farms. The cattle are of the Ayrshire crossed by the short-horned breed: the number of milch-cows is 200, and of young cattle nearly the same; and about 150 Highland cattle are pastured on the hills. There are but very few, and these widely scattered, remains of the ancient forest; the chief are some oak-trees on the West Faldshope hill, but they are more remarkable for their great age than for the stateliness of their growth. There are also some remarkably fine trees at Hangingshaw, among which are a plane and a beech of very large dimensions. The plantations consist of Scotch, silver, and spruce firs, intermixed with ash, elm, larch, and birch; they are well managed, and in a thriving condition. The substrata are chiefly greywacke and clayslate, and the rocks generally of the transition formation. Sandstone is found in some places, with aluminous shale; pyrites of iron and calcareous spar are also prevalent, and nodules of galena are occasionally obtained. The rateable annual value of the parish is £11,690. Ashiesteel, the seat of Major General Sir James Russell, K. C. B., is pleasantly situated on the banks of the Tweed; the mansion-house has been enlarged and beautified, and the grounds are tastefully laid out, and embellished with plantations. Elibank Cottage, which had also been enlarged and improved, was destroyed by an accidental fire in 1840. There are small villages at Yarrowford and Ettrick-Bridge, chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the handicraft trades requisite for the wants of the parish. A circulating library is supported by subscription. Facility of communication with the neighbouring towns is afforded by good roads along the banks of the rivers, and by bridges kept in excellent repair by contributions from the proprietors and tenants in lieu of statute labour.
The parish is in the presbytery of Selkirk, synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and patronage of the Crown the minister's stipend is £233. 8. 1., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £34. 10. per annum. The church erected in 1640, and thoroughly repaired in 1826, is a neat plain edifice adapted for a congregation of 430 persons. There are two parochial schools, one at Yarrow, and the other at Ettrick-Bridge. The master of the former has a salary of £31. 6. 6., with £12 fees, and a good house and garden: a handsome and commodious schoolroom was built for this school in 1830. The master of the school at Ettrick-Bridge has £20 per annum, with £10 fees, and a house and garden. Three other schools are supported by subscription of individuals, for the instruction of the children of those districts in which they are situated; but there are, notwithstanding, in the remoter parts of this extensive parish, some children who are not within the reach of instruction. A branch of the Selkirk Savings' Bank, established in 1815, has tended to diminish the number of applications to the poor's fund. There are in various places remains of the strongholds or castles occupied by the chieftains of feudal times. The most considerable ruin is Blackhouse, seated in a lonely glen, and anciently the seat of the Black Douglases; and in the immediate vicinity are seven large stones, pointing out the spot where seven brothers of that family were killed. A portion, also, of Elibank Castle still overhangs the river Tweed; and the lower portions of the massive walls of Dryhope Castle, the seat of the Scott family, are entire. To the west of the church is a spot regarded as the scene of a sanguinary conflict between some rival clans in the feudal times; and two large upright stones are supposed to indicate the sepulchres of the chieftains who fell on that occasion. In the progress of cultivation, a large flat stone was discovered by the plough, inscribed with a legend in Latin, of which the chief legible portion was Hic jacent in tumulo duo filii liberali. On Dryhope Haugh was a large cairn, of which the stones were removed some years since to furnish dykes for inclosures. Connected with this parish have been numerous remarkable persons, of whom were, Mary Scott, celebrated in minstrelsy as the "Flower of Yarrow," daughter of John Scott, of Dryhope; Sir Gideon Murray, senator of the College of Justice by the title of Lord Elibank; Dr. John Rutherford, pupil of the celebrated Boerhaave, and subsequently professor of the practice of physic in the university of Edinburgh, who was born in the parish during the incumbency of his father; Russell, the historian of ancient and modern Europe; and his kinsman, Colonel William Russell, distinguished for his military exploits in India, and more particularly at Manilla. Sir Walter Scott resided at Ashiesteel for ten years after the demise of Colonel Russell. Soon after he had been appointed sheriff of Selkirkshire, while resident here, he is said to have composed some of his earliest works; and a small hillock, now covered with shady trees, and which was his favourite resort for study, is still called the Sheriff's Knowe. James Hogg, better known as the "Ettrick Shepherd," was also long resident in the parish.
YARROWFORD, a village, partly in the parish of Selkirk, and partly in that of Yarrow, county of Selkirk, 5 miles (W. by N.) from the town of Selkirk; containing 46 inhabitants. This village, situated on the borders of the two parishes, derives its name from a ford over the Yarrow, on the north bank of which river it is built. Though a small place, it is beautifully seated; and in its vicinity are, Newark Castle, once the residence of Anne, Duchess of Buccleuch; Haining, the former abode of the family of Pringle; and Foulshiels, the birthplace of the celebrated and unfortunate traveller, Mungo Park. The river, whose pastoral beauties have been so sweetly depicted in Scottish song, is in this quarter finely and thickly wooded; many of the plantations on its banks are of recent formation. The stream of the Ettrick unites with it about two miles from Selkirk.
YELL, an island, in the county of Shetland; containing 3450 inhabitants. This island, one of the most northern of the Shetland group, lies to the north-east of Northmavine on the Mainland, to the south-west of Unst, and to the west of Fetlar. It is about twenty miles in length and six in breadth, having, generally, a bold and rocky coast, indented with numerous bays and voes, several of which form safe and convenient harbours, and serve as excellent fishing-stations. Two ranges of hills, varying from 200 to 400 feet in height, extend almost the whole length of the island, in a nearly parallel direction from north to south, and are in some parts intersected by other hills running east to west; but the surface otherwise is moderately low, particularly along the whole of the eastern coast. The soil for the most part is of a mossy quality, mixed with particles of decayed rock; and in several places are extensive peatmosses, in which are found large trees, though scarcely a shrub is now to be seen. The arable land is chiefly near the shore; but it is very inconsiderable in proportion to the undivided common, which is estimated at about 45,000 acres, producing an abundance of a rough sort of grass, here called lubbo, that grows naturally, and affords a tolerable pasture for sheep, horses, and black-cattle. In the northern part of the island the principal bays are, Basta voe, Gloup voe, the sand of Brecon, Papal-ness, and Cullivoe; on the south the chief harbours are Hamna voe and Burra voe, about a mile distant from each other. In all these, numerous boats equip for the ling and herring fisheries, which are carried on to a great extent, though to less advantage now than in former years, and in which, during the respective seasons, nearly the whole of the male population are engaged. The nearest market-town is Lerwick, the capital of Shetland, distant, due south from Hamna voe, about twenty-six miles. The island is divided into the two parishes of Fetlar and North Yell, and Mid and South Yell, which see.
Yell, Mid and South
YELL, MID and SOUTH, a parish, in the county of Shetland, 32 miles (N.) from Lerwick; containing, with the islands of Hascussay and Samphrey, 1705 inhabitants. This parish includes the middle and southern districts of the island of Yell, which belongs to the group usually called the North Isles; and annexed to it are the island of Samphrey, on the west, distant about a mile and a half from Yell, and the island of Hascussay, about one mile distant towards the east. It is bounded on the west by Yell sound, which is six miles across, and distinguished from most of the other channels on the north coast of Shetland by the great rapidity of its current; on the east by Colgrave sound, which averages three miles in breadth; and on the south by that of Lunnafrith, about four miles broad. There are 37,000 acres, of which 4000 are enclosed, and of this latter portion 1500 acres are cultivated. The coast varies in different parts, but is in general bold and rocky, and penetrated by several voes or inlets affording good landing places, and ample accommodation and security for vessels in any weather; the principal is Mid Yell voe, on the east, containing sufficient space and depth of water to moor a large fleet. Near this is Whalefirth voe, on the west, separated from the former only by a narrow tract of land offering every facility, by the construction of a canal, for the junction of the two sounds, and consequently of two great seas. On the south are the harbours of Burra voe and Hamna voe, which are both secure and convenient retreats, about a mile distant from each other.
The surface of the interior consists for the most part of hills covered with peat, supplying only plenty of good fuel, and of extensive tracts clothed with a short coarse grass, affording tolerably nutritious pasture for sheep and cattle. The two principal ranges of hills in the parish rise from 200 to 400 feet in height; they stretch nearly from one extremity to the other, and are frequently crossed by subordinate eminences taking a direction from east to west, the cultivated land lying chiefly along the shore. The soil exhibits various modifications of moss, with admixtures occasionally of clay incorporated with particles of rock and of sand transported by storms from the margin of the island, and scattered over the surface. The chief grain cultivated is bear and oats, the average annual value of which is about £2300; potatoes return upwards of £1000. Meadow hay and other crops are also raised, but in inferior proportions; and ponies, cattle, and sheep traverse the hills and mountains in large numbers, the occupiers of farms having a common right of pasture according to their respective rents. The spade is in general use, being better suited to the nature of the surface, and to the size of the farms, than the plough; and the small portions of land under tillage present in many parts specimens of great industry. Agriculture, however, is still in its infancy; large tracts of common offer temptations to the successful application of capital by draining, and those tracts already inclosed for pasture are capable, if the means were at the disposal of the tenants, of being rendered doubly valuable by being brought under tillage. The prevailing rocks are gneiss, with portions of granite, quartz, whinstone, and some rocks of the micaceous class. Bog-iron ore has been found; and in several places, layers of rich loam, from one to two feet in thickness, have been discovered lying under masses of peat-moss, and incumbent on the prevailing rock, the earth being imbedded with birch, oak, &c. The rateable annual value of the parish is £352.
The inhabitants follow fishing as their principal occupation, and are partly engaged in taking ling, tusk, and cod. The profits of these three sorts, though variable, may be averaged at £500 per annum; those of herrings at £600, and the amount of other fish, caught for domestic consumption, with the oil obtained from it, at £360. Sea-trout are also abundant; salmon have sometimes been taken, and the large numbers of cockles in the vicinity are found occasionally of great service to the inhabitants, many of whose lives were saved in the scarcity of 1837 by this fish. Horses and pigs, but especially cattle, sheep, and lambs, constitute an important part of the disposable produce of the parish; numbers of them are sold yearly, and they fetch a much higher price than formerly in consequence of the introduction of steam-vessels. The parish is in the presbytery of Burravoe, synod of Shetland, and in the patronage of the Earl of Zetland. The minister's stipend is £158., of which about a tenth is received from the exchequer; with a manse, rebuilt in 1807 and repaired in 1833, and a glebe valued at £20. The church at Mid Yell, built in 1832, is as conveniently situated as possible, as is also the church lately erected at South Yell; but both, though with every advantage of locality, are but thinly attended during a considerable portion of the year. Many of the inhabitants reside at great distances, and find it impossible to attend in the winter; there is neither road nor bridge in the parish, and the surface in that season is to a great extent a mossy swamp. A missionary has for several years officiated in South Yell, being supported by the Royal Bounty; there is a place of worship there for Wesleyans, and in Mid Yell one for Independents. A parochial school was established in 1822; the salary of the master is £26, with a house, and about £5 fees. The antiquities are inconsiderable, comprehending only a few Pictish houses, and the ruins of tenements once occupied by the native inhabitants, where have been found knives, drinking cups, lamps, hammers, and adzes, all constructed of stone.
YESTER, a parish, in the county of Haddington, 4 miles (S. by E.) from Haddington; containing, with Gifford, Long Yester, and Long Newton, 1069 inhabitants, of whom 525 are in the village of Gifford, about 140 in the hamlets of Long Yester and Long Newton, and the remainder in the rural districts of the parish. This place, of which the ancient name was St. Bothan's, derived its present name, soon after the Reformation, from the lands of the Marquess of Tweeddale, which lie partly within the limits of the parish, and consist of a fine valley on the banks of the Gifford water, and of which the Cambro-British Ystrad, now softened into Yester, is faithfully descriptive. These lands were granted by William the Lion to Hugh de Gifford, son of an English gentleman of that name, who in the reign of David I. had settled in East Lothian, and acquired extensive landed property. The Gifford family resided for a long period in the baronial castle of Yester, which is celebrated in Scott's poem of Marmion; but on failure of heirs male, in 1418, their wide estates were divided among four daughters, co-heiresses, of whom the eldest, who possessed the manor of Yester, conveyed that property to the Hay family, by marriage with Sir William Hay, of Locherwert, whose descendants were in 1488 created Lords Hay, of Yester, and in 1646 Earls, and in 1694 Marquesses, of Tweeddale. The parish is about six miles in length from east to west, and about five miles in breadth, and comprises 8928 acres, of which 5400 are arable, 946 woodland and plantations, sixty undivided common, and 2522 hill pasture. The surface is generally elevated, rising gradually from the sea-coast to the Lammermoor hills, of which Lammerlaw, the highest of the range, is 1700 feet above the level of the sea, and wholly within the parish. The vale of Yester is a tract of fertile land, through which the Gifford water flows, between banks richly crowned with wood and thriving plantations, and comprehending much pleasing scenery, and, in some parts, beautifully picturesque features. The Lammermoor hills are covered with heath, interspersed with only a few spots of verdure, but affording excellent pasturage for sheep; and from these heights descend numerous streams which, uniting at some distance from their base, form the Gifford water.
The soil is principally a light loam intermixed with clay, and has been by good cultivation mostly rendered fertile, and in some parts adapted to the growth of wheat; but 300 acres more of the pasture or waste land might be reclaimed, and brought into tillage, at a moderate cost. The chief crops are barley, oats, and wheat, with potatoes and turnips. The system of agriculture is greatly improved; the lands have been drained and inclosed; bone-dust, rape, &c., are used as manures with success, and all the more recent improvements in implements of husbandry have been adopted. The farm houses and offices are substantial and commodious, and many of those recently erected are handsome. Great attention has been paid to the live-stock. About 4000 sheep, and nearly 1000 lambs, are annually reared; they are of the Cheviot and Leicestershire breeds, with a cross between the two. The cattle are of the shorthorned breed, with some of the native Highland and Shetland breeds; about 400 are annually fed. The woods consist of oak, ash, beech, elm, and lime, of which many fine trees are found on the lands of Yester House; the plantations are well managed and generally thriving. The substrata are principally limestone and clay; the former is worked at Kidlaw, in the southern part of the parish, and the clay is well adapted for making tiles for roofing and draining, for which purpose the Marquess of Tweeddale has erected a mill upon his lands. Yester House, the seat of the marquess, is a handsome mansion, beautifully situated on the banks of the stream, and surrounded by a spacious and richly wooded demesne. Newton Hall and Newhall are also good houses. The village of Gifford stands in the vale of Yester, and Long Yester and Long Newton at the foot of the Lammermoor hills; the nearest market-town is Haddington, which is the greatest market for grain in this part of the country. Fairs are held annually at Gifford, on the last Tuesday in March, the third Tuesday in June, and the first Tuesday in October; they are well attended, and generally from 3000 to 4000 sheep, 500 head of cattle, and about the same number of horses, are exposed for sale. During harvest, a statute-fair is held every Monday morning for hiring farm servants. A penny-post office has been established; and facility of intercourse is afforded by good roads, of which about three miles of turnpike-road pass through the parish, and about thirteen miles of common road kept in repair by statute labour. The rateable annual value of Yester is £5842.
The parish is in the presbytery of Haddington, synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and patronage of the Marquess of Tweeddale: the minister's stipend is about £240, with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £30 per annum. The church, situated in the village of Gifford, was erected in 1708, and repewed and thoroughly repaired in 1830; it is a neat substantial edifice, adapted to a congregation of 600 persons, and the seats are all free. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. There are three parochial schools, respectively at Gifford, Long Yester, and Long Newton: the master of the Gifford school has a salary of £34. 4., with £40 fees, and a house and garden. The masters of Long Yester and Long Newton have each a smaller salary, with a house and garden; the school fees of the former are £18, and of the latter, £14. About a mile from the church, and in the grounds of Yester House, are the remains of the church of St. Bothan's, from which the parish derived its former name; it appears to have been a very elegant, though small, cruciform structure of red sandstone, displaying various styles of architecture, from the decorated to the later English. The transepts are of much earlier date than the nave: the pulpit, which is of oak, very richly carved, was removed to the present church. What remains of this ancient edifice is now appropriated as a place of sepulture to the Tweeddale family. At Duncanlaw, in the eastern part of the parish, was an ancient chapel dedicated to St. Nicholas, of which there exist no remains. The father of the reformer, John Knox, is supposed to have been born in the village of Gifford. It is also said that Sir Isaac Newton was descended from a branch of the Newtons, of Newton Hall.—See Gifford.
YETHOLM, a parish, in the district of Kelso, county of Roxburgh; containing 1295 inhabitants, of whom 326 are in Kirk-Yetholm and 618 in TownYetholm, 8 miles (S. E. by E.) from Kelso. This place derives its name, signifying "the Hamlet of the Gate," from its position on the confines of Northumberland, from which its two villages are separated only by an open narrow valley which, during the border warfare, afforded a facility of entrance into either country for the too frequent purposes of depredation. Few events of historical importance are recorded with reference to the place. It is said, however, to have been selected by Douglas as the rendezvous of the Scottish army previously to the battle of Otterburn, and it was the place of sepulture of many of the Scottish chieftains who fell at Flodden Field, within six miles of the church. The parish is about four miles in average length and three in breadth, and comprises 8400 acres, of which 2000 are meadow and hill-pasture, 100 wood and plantations, 200 undivided common, and the remainder arable. The surface is divided into numerous small and beautiful valleys by the many hills which intersect it, and of which the highest have an elevation of nearly 800 feet above the level of the sea. Of these valleys the principal is the vale of Bowmont, through which runs the river of that name; it is about two miles long, and varies from a quarter to half a mile in breadth. This river has its source in the Cocklaw hill, and flows with a rapid course into one of the streams tributary to the Tweed: it is subject to frequent inundations, which occasion much injury to the surrounding lands; and abounds with excellent trout. There is a fine sheet of water called Yetholm Loch, of irregular form, and about a mile and a half in circumference; it contains a great number of pike and perch, and is the resort of various kinds of aquatic birds. The inhabitants of Kirk-Yet-holm have the privilege of grazing their cattle, and cutting turf, upon the common; and about 500 acres adjacent to the two villages are occupied by the inhabitants at rack-rent, in portions varying from two to fifty acres each.
The soil is in general fertile, and in the valleys a rich loam; the lower hills are in cultivation, producing good crops, and the higher afford excellent pasture to numbers of sheep and cattle. The system of agriculture is much improved, and the four and five shift courses now prevail; the chief crops are, wheat, barley, and oats, of which a considerable portion is sent to distant markets: good crops of turnips are also raised in the parish. Great attention is paid to the rearing of live-stock, upon which the farmers depend as much as upon agriculture; the cattle are almost exclusively of the short-horned breed, and the sheep, of which about 5000 are fed, are the Cheviot and the Leicestershire, with an occasional cross between them. Lime, procured within a distance of ten miles, is much used, as is the ordinary manure; and in numerous instances, guano brought from Berwick has been introduced with advantage. The farms vary greatly in extent; the farmbuildings are commodious, and the lands are fenced in some parts with hedges of thorn, and in others with loose walls of stone. The hills are chiefly of the transition rock, consisting of felspar, and pitchstone-porphyry, of which the former is most prevalent, and thickly interspersed with nodules of jasper and agate: occasionally, crystals of calcareous spar are found, and also red sandstone, but not of very good quality. The vale of Cherry-Trees abounds with moss varying from eight to fourteen feet in depth, in which trunks of various trees, especially of oaks of extreme hardness, have been found; but throughout the vale the moss has been drained, and the land brought into cultivation. CherryTrees, the seat of Adam B. Boyd, Esq., who is the only resident heritor, is a very handsome modern building, pleasantly situated in the vale, and surrounded with thriving plantations. The villages of Town-Yetholm and Kirk-Yetholm are both situated in the vale of Bowmont, and are governed by baron-bailies appointed respectively by the Marquess of Tweeddale and Mr. Wauchope: these villages communicate by a handsome bridge over the river Bowmont, recently erected. In Town-Yetholm was formerly a market, which has long been discontinued. The roads are kept in good order; a turnpike-road extends for about four miles within the parish, and affords facility of intercourse with Kelso and other towns. Fairs are held at Kirk-Yetholm on the 27th of June, for Cheviot sheep one year old, and cattle, and on the 24th of October, for ewes and cattle; at Town-Yetholm on the 5th of July, for lambs and wool, and the 1st of November, for cattle. This parish has been for a long period the resort of numerous hordes of gypsies, of whom the largest body in Scotland seem from time immemorial to have established their head-quarters here. The number of these at present is about 100, and they live chiefly by selling horn spoons of their own manufacture, and coarse earthenware; their general habits are orderly and peaceable. The rateable annual value of the parish, according to returns made under the Income tax, is £6789.
Yetholm is in the presbytery of Kelso, synod of Merse and Teviotdale, and patronage of Andrew Wauchope, Esq.: the minister's stipend is £200. 4. 2., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £25 per annum. The old church, situated in the village of Kirk-Yetholm, was a very indifferent building, and although enlarged to more than twice its original size, in 1609, was insufficient for the accommodation of the parishioners. A new church was therefore erected in 1837, well adapted for a congregation of 750 persons. There are also places of worship for a congregation of Old-Light Burghers, and one of the United Associate Synod. The parochial school affords a liberal education to about 100 scholars; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £30 fees, and a house and garden: the school-house is one of the best in the country. The parochial library contains about 500 volumes; there are a library connected with one of the dissenting places of worship, and two Sunday school libraries. On the summits of Castlelaw and Camp hill, the former on the farm of Vencheon, and the latter on that of Halterburn, are remains of fortifications, each inclosing a circular area nearly 300 yards in diameter, and defended by double fosses and ramparts. Upon the summit of Yetholm Law are the remains of a Roman camp of quadrilateral form, and of considerable dimensions. The supposition of its Roman origin has been much strengthened by the discovery of an urn of brass containing 500 Roman coins; it was lately turned up by the plough on the farm of Mindrum, near the borders of the parish. On what was formerly an island in the lake of Yetholm, were recently slight remains of the baronial residence of the Kers, of Loch Tower, a branch of the Roxburghe family. The churchyard of the parish contains the remains of many of the border chieftains; and at a depth of nearly six feet from the surface were recently discovered a stone coffin with a skeleton of gigantic stature, and a kistvaen consisting of four upright stones joined together, and covered on the top with a flat stone, under which was a human skull. Dr. Scott, an eminent chymist, and physician to King Charles II., resided at Thirlestane, in this parish, in an ancient mansion recently taken down.
YIELDSHIELDS, a hamlet, in the parish of Car-luke, Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 1¼ mile (E.) from the village of Carluke; containing 66 inhabitants. This is a small place situated nearly in the centre of the parish, and a short distance north of the Jock's burn, a stream tributary to the Clyde. Close to it is the old Roman road called the Watling-street, which passes through Clydesdale to the western extremity of the wall of Antoninus, and intersects this parish for several miles in a north-western direction. The course of the road may be traced from the Roman camp near Cleghorn, by Kilcadzow, Coldstream, and this hamlet, onward, by Dyke, to Belston; after passing which, it runs, by Castlehill, into the adjoining parish of Cambusnethan. On the confines of the old red sandstone, in this quarter, is a band of limestone, which has been wrought near the hamlet.