A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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LLANYCYWYS (LLAN-Y-CRWYS), a parish, in the union of Lampeter, partly in the Upper division of the hundred of Cayo, and partly in the Upper division of that of Cathinog, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Lampeter; containing 400 inhabitants. It is situated near the river Cothy, and separated from the parish of Cayo by the small river Twrch, which flows near the church. In addition to an extensive tract of common, it comprises a large portion of arable and pasture land, inclosed and in a good state of cultivation; the total area is 3379 acres. The surface is varied, and the surrounding scenery diversified; the adjacent country is mountainous, and the views from the higher grounds embrace objects rather of striking boldness than of beauty. The soil is favourable to the growth of corn and hay, of both which the lands yield abundant crops; the principal manure is lime, brought at considerable expense from a great distance. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £600 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant; net income, £60; patron and impropriator, John Johnes, Esq., whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £90. The church, dedicated to St. David, is not distinguished by any architectural details of importance. There is a place of worship for Independents. A day school is held, and also a Sunday school. The Roman road called Sarn Helen, leading from Loventium to the station at Llanvair-ary-Bryn, according to Sir R. Colt Hoare, passed through the parish, to the left of the church, and is discoverable at two places near the small river Twrch. At the upper end of the common is a large stone, about five yards high, fixed upright in the ground, with the inscription "T. Singer;" but whether originally placed there as a guide to shepherds traversing the common, or as a boundary, is not known: the latter is more probable, as it stands precisely on the spot where the parishes of Llanycrwys and Cellan, and the counties of Carmarthen and Cardidigan, join.
LLANYMOWDDWY (LLAN-Y-MAWDDWY) a parish, in the union of Dôlgelley, hundred of Talybont and Mowddwy, county of Merioneth, North Wales, 4 miles (N. E.) from DinasMowddwy; containing 622 inhabitants. This parish comprises an extensive mountainous tract on the eastern confines of the county, bordering on Montgomeryshire; about 6000 acres are inclosed, and consist of arable and pasture land in nearly equal portions. The district abounds with fine scenery; and from the summit of the Aran Mowddwy are obtained magnificent prospects of numerous other mountains, with the intervening country. The Vale of Mowddwy, which is of considerable length, has the appearance of a glen or ravine, and is embosomed in vast hills, whose declivities are covered with verdure, and afford pasturage to great numbers of young cattle, and sheep. It is so much contracted as scarcely to leave space for a very narrow meadow in its bottom; and in one part of it, an opening between the hills that inclose it presents a beautiful vista, through which is seen the rugged and lofty summit of the Aran Mowddwy mountain. In several parts of the vale are interspersed groves of small extent, but of luxuriant appearance, and above them the hills are covered with fine turf to their summits, which consist of boggy and peaty lands, affording shelter to multitudes of red grouse, and supplying abundance of fuel to the inhabitants. The peat is brought from its elevated bed with great difficulty down the declivities of the hills, which are too steep for a horse, in a sledge drawn by men, who, by means of a rope, contrive to direct and regulate its motion; but the practice is attended with danger from the accumulated velocity that the sledge acquires in its descent.
The soil is light and gravelly, producing chiefly barley and oats, but the staple commodity of the parish is wool. Lead is wrought, but not to any great extent, and a few of the inhabitants are engaged in procuring limestone, which is found in abundance, but is generally of a brown colour, and of poor quality as manure. The village is situated in the Vale of Mowddwy, near the river Dyvi or Dovey, which rises in a pool, containing no fish, but abundance of lizards, at the base of a rock called Craig Llyn Dyvi, under the mountain of Aran Mowddwy. The turnpike-road from Dinas-Mowddwy to Bala and Corwen passes through the village, near which, at Pumrhŷd, is a beautiful waterfall. A flannel factory gives employment to two or three hands; and fairs are held on the first Thursday in March, and on the 18th of October.
The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £16. 18. 4.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £235; there is a glebe-house, and the glebe comprises twelve acres, valued at £18 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Tydecho, is an ancient structure in the early style of English architecture, and contains 300 sittings, of which those in the gallery are free. There are places of worship for Independents, and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists; a day school in connexion with the Church, partly supported by a small endowment left by Thomas Owen for education; and six Sunday schools, one of which is conducted on Church principles. The produce of several charitable donations and bequests, amounting to £6. 3., is annually given to the poor; and a sum of 20s., arising from the Rev. Edward Morgan's bequest, in the parish of Llangelynin, is distributed among those children who can best repeat the Church Catechism. Near the source of the river Dovey is a strongly impregnated chalybeate spring.
LLANYMYNECH, a parish, partly in the hundred of Chirk, county of Denbigh, North Wales, but chiefly in the hundred of Oswestry, Northern division of the county of Salop, in England, 6 miles (S. by W.) from Oswestry; containing 954 inhabitants, of whom 388 are in the Welsh county. This parish comprises three townships, two of which, Llwynllanan and Treprenal, are in Salop. In the former stands the church, near the verge of the county; and the remains of the famous Offa's Dyke, now scarcely discernible here, support part of the churchyard wall, and divide the village, of which the western half skirts Carreghova, the third township, a detached portion of Denbighshire. The soil is various, that of the lower lands bordering on the river Vyrnyw or Vyrnwy being a very rich loam, forming excellent meadow and pasture land, and that of the upper grounds in some places a strong red clay well suited for wheat, and in others a light hazel mould yielding abundant crops of barley, and the whole interspersed with veins of alluvial or calcareous gravel. A mountain stream called the Tanat, descending from the hills along a rich vale, forms part of the western boundary to the confluence of that river with the Vyrnyw, a stream of greater magnitude, which skirts the remainder of the parish to its eastern angle, and unites with the Severn a few miles below. The eastern border of the parish is watered by the Morda, a brook that has its source above the town of Oswestry; and the northern boundary is formed by a considerable eminence rising gradually westward.
Here commences the principal limestone range of North Wales, originating in an abruptly precipitous elevation of 900 feet, and extending northward through the country. The stone is a pearl-coloured marble, veined with red and white streaks, and bearing a high polish; while the lime produced is so pure as to be sent far beyond many other intervening but coarser calcareous strata, for the finer purposes of plastering, and various works. In these limestone rocks are found sulphate and carbonate of lead, copper, and zinc, of superior quality; also a green dusty ore of copper, called by the miners "copper malm." The curious ancient mining level called the Ogov consists of caverns of unequal form and dimensions, connected by veins of ore which serve as guides to the miners. A branch of the Ellesmere canal reaches from Frankton to this parish, where it joins the Montgomeryshire canal. A tramway has been formed, extending from the limestone rocks for nearly two miles and a half, communicating with the Frankton and Montgomeryshire canals, of which the latter crosses the river Vyrnwy by an aqueduct of five arches, with several smaller arches to carry off the water in the valley after floods. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £12. 13. 4.; net income, £394, with a glebe-house; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph.—See Carreghova.
LLANYNIS (LLAN-YNYS), a parish, in the union and hundred of Builth, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 3½ miles (W. by S.) from Builth; containing 175 inhabitants. This place derives a considerable degree of interest from its proximity to the scene of Llewelyn's death. Within a few yards only from the church was a bridge over the Irvon, near which that last royal assertor of his country's independence was slain, and of which some of the timbers remained in the bank of the river until within the last half century. Near the summit of a high ridge that intersects the parish, the northern acclivity of which, to the south of the church, is almost precipitous, and covered with wood, are several small artificial terraces or flats, formed probably for encampment or for ambush: from these terraces are roads or paths, at nearly equal distances from each other, leading down the slope to the river; and the principal one of the roads, which are about 300 yards apart, led directly to the bridge over the Irvon, near which Llewelyn ab Grufydd was slain.
The parish is situated on the road leading from Builth to Carmarthen and Llandovery over the Eppynt hills, and is bounded on the north by the river Irvon, and on the south by a rivulet called Cniddon or Knithon. It comprises by computation 2256 acres, of which 784 are arable, 248 meadow and pasture, 402 titheable wood and coppice, 820 waste and forest not titheable, and two acres garden-ground. The surface is very uneven, and in some parts mountainous; a long ridge of high land, rising near the eastern extremity of the parish, extends almost its entire length, and terminates in a barren hill on its western confines. The scenery is richly diversified; and the banks of the Irvon, a stream abounding with salmon, trout, and grayling, are finely alternated with luxuriantly fertile meadows, groves of thriving timber, and flourishing plantations. From the higher grounds are views over a tract of country characterised by features of picturesque beauty, and combining many objects of interest. The soil on the north side, where the land is low, and sometimes, after heavy rains, overflowed by the waters of the Irvon, is extremely rich; but on the south side it is rather light and barren. The chief produce of the parish is wheat, barley, oats, peas, and various kinds of livestock; and the prevailing timber is oak and ash, interspersed with birch, hazel, black and white thorn, and alder, to which have lately been added some plantations of fir.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £7. 0. 7½.; patron, the Bishop of St. David's: the tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £103; and there is a glebe of three acres, valued at £7 per annum. The church, situated in a fine fertile plain on the south bank of the Irvon, was rebuilt in 1806, and is a neat edifice consisting of a nave and chancel, measuring seventy feet in length and twenty-four in breadth. A tenement named Tîr Twppa, in the parish, was charged by Howel Lewis, of Blaen Dihonwy, in 1674, with the payment of 20s. annually to the poor of Llanynis, and with a like sum to those of Maesmynis. Thomas Lewis, supposed to have been a brother of Howel, in 1675 bequeathed a tenement called Pen-y-Rhiw, adjoining Tîr Twppa, to the poor of the two parishes, in equal portions; and a moiety of the present annual income of £15, arising from this tenement, is distributed, according to the will of the testator, by the minister and officers of the parish.
LLANYNYS (LLAN-YNYS), a parish, partly in the hundred of Isaled, but chiefly in that of Ruthin, union of Ruthin, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Ruthin; containing 749 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the river Clwyd, and intersected by the road leading from Ruthin to Denbigh, extends nearly eight miles in length, and one mile and a half in mean breadth. Its surface is partly mountainous; but the soil, though shallow and comparatively unproductive in the more elevated parts, is tolerably fertile in the inclosed lands. The surrounding scenery is picturesque; and the views from the higher grounds, extending over the adjacent country, embrace some interesting features. In addition to the old inclosures, a few hundred acres of waste land were allotted under the provisions of an act obtained in 1803; of the remaining wastes, nearly the whole is mountainous. Plâs Einws, an ancient mansion, occupies a pleasant situation here, and forms an agreeable object in the scenery. Bâchymbyd, a fine seat belonging to Lord Bagot, which an ancestor of his lordship's acquired by marriage with an heiress of the family of Salusbury, is also in the parish, and in that portion of the demesne bordering on the road are some beautiful chestnut-trees, that have acquired a large growth.
The living consists of a rectory and a vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Cyfeiliog united to the latter. The rectory, which is a sinecure, rated in the king's books at £26. 13. 6., is annexed to the bishopric of Bangor, in lieu of mortuaries; the vicarage, rated at £8. 13. 4., and the perpetual curacy, are of the net annual value of £415, with a glebehouse, and in the patronage of the Bishop. The tithes of the parish are divided between the bishop and the vicar, of whom the former has two-thirds, and the latter one-third, together with the tithes of pigs, geese, &c., exclusively; the whole have been commuted for £666. 13. 4. payable to the bishop, and £348. 6. 8. to the vicar, who has also a glebe, &c., of three acres, valued at £20 per annum. The church is dedicated to St. Saern, and situated within a small distance of the river. A Church school is supported principally by subscription. Several donations have been made to the poor, some of which have been lost; the following are still in existence. Edward ap Thomas, of Maesmaencymes, left the sum of £20, charged on land now the property of Lord Bagot; 20s. a year are accordingly paid, and distributed among the poor on St. Thomas's day. Matthew Jones, by will dated 1703, left £17 to be added to £3 left by Mrs. Ann Price, to be laid out for the use of the poor, and the interest yearly distributed on St. Matthew's day, to twelve of the poorest of them: it is not confined to twelve objects, nor given on the above day, but is added to other funds for distribution on St. Thomas's day, every year. By will dated 1734, Roger Jones bequeathed the interest of the sum of £5 to be distributed annually at Whitsuntide, which is accordingly done. Williams's charity consists of a rent-charge of five shillings a year, when created is not now known; it is paid out of land the property of Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart., and is added to the money given away on St. Thomas's day.
Llanyre, or Llanhîr (Llan-Hîr)
LLANYRE, or LLANHÎR (LLAN-HÎR), a parish, in the union and hundred of Rhaiadr, county of Radnor, South Wales, 5 miles (N.) from Builth, on the road to Rhaiadr; containing 746 inhabitants. This parish, anciently called Llanllyr-arRhôs, is situated between the rivers Wye and Ithon, by the former of which it is bounded on the west, and by the latter on the east. It extends five miles in length and about two miles and a half in breadth, and comprises 5901 acres, of which 1961 are, or until very lately were, common or waste land: it is divided into two townships or hamlets, Kilgu and Trawscoed. The surrounding scenery is generally pleasing, the banks of the rivers being in some parts richly ornamented with wood. The living is a vicarage not in charge, annexed to the vicarage of Nantmel: the church, dedicated to All Saints, an ancient edifice consisting of a nave and chancel, is not remarkable for any architectural details. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyan Methodists at Newbridge, on the western border of the parish: in that for Baptists a Sunday school is also held. John Davies, of Coedglasen, in the year 1718 bequeathed a rent-charge of £2, which is distributed about Christmas among such poor as do not receive parochial relief; but some other charities, that produced £2. 10. per annum, have been lost since 1766. Within the limits of the parish is a house called Cwm, on the farm attached to which, about two miles north-east of Llandrindod wells, are the remains of a Roman camp, which, however, are included in the adjoining parish of Llanvihangel-Helygen, and are described under the head of Radnorshire.
LLANYSTYNDWY (LLAN-YSTUMDWY), a parish, in the union of Pwllheli, hundred of Eivionydd, Eivionydd division of the county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) from Pwllheli; containing 1241 inhabitants. This parish, the name of which signifies "the church on the windings of the river Dwy," is pleasantly situated on the northern shore of Cardigan bay, and on the turnpike-road leading from Pwllheli to Trêmadoc. It is bounded on the north by the parishes of Llanvihangel-y-Pennant and Dolbenmaen, on the east by the parish of Criccieth, and on the west by that of Llanarmon. It comprises by computation about 6200 acres, of which 2500 acres are arable, the same number pasture, 1000 woodland, and 200 waste or common. The land gradually rises from the bay; it is plentifully wooded, and there are fine views of the sea, and of a great variety of beautifully picturesque scenery, which is enlivened by some handsome seats, forming interesting features in the landscape. Of the seats the principal is Plâs Hên, an ancient family mansion, celebrated as having been the residence of Sir Howel y Vwyall, who attended the Black Prince to the field of Poictiers, and is said to have taken the French king prisoner in the battle fought there. Another old mansion is Abercain, formerly the residence of the Vaughans, lineal descendants of Collwyn ab Tango, founder of one of the fifteen tribes of Wales. Gwynvryn and Trevan, also in the parish, are both elegant houses, and these places are noted for the frequent and sanguinary feuds maintained between their respective lords, towards the close of the fifteenth century. The village is small, but has a very pretty appearance: it is situated in a fine vale watered by the Dwy, the largest river in this part of the county, and over which a bridge of three arches has been erected near it. A fair is held on April 17th.
The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £11. 8. 1½.; patron, the Bishop of Bangor, the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £485. The church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and nearly rebuilt in 1819, is a handsome edifice, neatly fitted up, consisting of a nave, chancel, and north and south aisles, and measuring ninety feet in length and thirty in breadth; the north aisle was erected by Mrs. Priestly, and the late Ellis Nanney, Esq., of Gwynvryn, under the sanction of a faculty. The Rev. Ellis Anwyl Owen, A.M., the late rector, endowed the living with five acres of good land, on which he built an excellent parsonage-house. There are places of worship for Independents, Calvinistic Methodists, and Baptists. A National school has been some time established for the gratuitous instruction of children. The school-house was built out of certain funds that had accumulated from the rectory during the period for which it was held by Dr. Hughes, canon residentiary of St. Paul's, London, under a dispensation: though small, it is substantial and commodious, situated in the village, and occupying land given for the purpose by the late Sir Thomas Mostyn. The school is partly supported by subscription, and partly by the funds above-noticed, amounting to £400, and by the rent of a field let at £8 per annum, both the gift of Dr. Hughes; together with a bequest of £220 by Ellis Nanney, Esq., in 1819, vested, like the former sum, in three and a half per cent. stock. There are four Sunday schools, belonging to the dissenters.
The Rev. John Jones, in 1690, bequeathed £50, the interest to be distributed among ten people not receiving parochial relief; this sum, with £10 left by Robert Owen, was expended in erecting six houses, now occupied by poor families put in by the parish. A person unknown left £100 in trust to the owner of Plâs Hên, the interest of which, £5, is paid by the possessor of the property, the Hon. Edward Mostyn Lloyd Mostyn, of Mostyn Hall, and given to twenty of the poorest inhabitants, according to the will of the donor; and Thomas Pritchard, in 1720, bequeathed £10 to the poor, which remained in the hands of the late parish-clerk, since whose death nothing has been paid. Mr. William Ellis, collector and coast officer at Conway, by will, in 1814, gave the interest of £1000 consolidated three per cent. annuities, after the death of his daughter, born in 1791, to be expended annually in purchasing clothing and other necessaries for twelve of the poorest persons of Llanystyndwy, where he was born.
LLANYVYDD (LLAN-NEFYDD), a parish, in the union of St. Asaph, hundred of Isaled, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 7 miles (N. W. by W.) from Denbigh; containing 1196 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Nevydd, one of the daughters of Brychan Brycheiniog, who flourished about the middle of the fifth century. It is pleasantly situated in the north-western part of the county, and near the river Elwy, which, after traversing the parish in a north and east direction for a considerable distance, falls into the river Clwyd. It is bounded on the north by the parishes of St. Asaph and Abergele, towards the south by those of Henllan and Llansannan, and on the west by Llanvair-Talhairn; comprising 10,500 acres, of which 4000 are woodland, 500 common, and the remainder nearly equally divided between arable and pasture. The surface is varied, rising in some parts into lofty eminences; and the surrounding scenery, though occasionally picturesque, is in general rather of a bold and striking character: the views over the adjacent country combine many features of interesting aspect. The lands are inclosed and cultivated, and the soil, which is mostly gravelly, is fertile and productive, especially on the lower grounds, producing all kinds of grain of good quality. The inhabitants are principally employed in agriculture. Fairs are held on March 18th, May 12th, August 14th, and November 20th.
The parish until lately constituted a prebend in the Cathedral Church of St. Asaph, rated in the king's books at £37. 13. 4., and in the gift of the Bishop of St. Asaph. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £10; present net income, £228; patron, the Bishop. The church, dedicated to St. Nevydd, contains about 700 sittings, of which sixty are free. The Baptists have a place of worship, in which they also hold a Sunday school. There are three small rent-charges, the property of the poor; viz. one of 20s. per annum, created by the will of Pierce Owen, in 1654, and paid out of the farm of Penygaer; another of 40s., the bequest of Maurice ab Sion, in 1717, derived from some land named Tan'ronnen; and the third of the same amount, given by Evan Hughes, in 1729, and issuing from a plot of ground called Voel. Besides these, a tenement and about ten acres of land were purchased, in 1731, with £115, the benefactions of various persons, and now produce a rental of £9 per annum. Several further bequests in aid of the poor have also been made: among others, Ambrose Wynne, in 1671, left £50, and Mrs. Anne Foulkes in 1740, and Mrs. Jane Wynne in 1751, bequeathed each £20; but some of the early donations have been lost, and it is stated in Gilbert's Parliamentary Return of 1786, that £43 out of £163, the gifts of thirteen benefactors (whose names are recorded on a stone tablet in the north aisle of the church), are also unaccounted for.
LLANYWERN (LLAN-Y-WERN), a parish, in the hundred of Pencelly, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 3½ miles (E.) from Brecknock; containing 115 inhabitants. The name of this place, properly Llan-y-Gwern, signifying "the church of the alder grove," appears to have been derived from the situation of the village in a tract of moist ground, favourable to the growth of alder-trees, for the number and luxuriance of which the neighbourhood was distinguished. The lands and tithes of the parish, with a manorial right, were bestowed by charter of Bernard Newmarch, upon the monks of the priory of St. John, at Brecknock, and subsequently confirmed to them by two successive charters of Roger, Earl of Hereford. To this circumstance is attributable the name of Monkton, by which the parish is designated in several ancient deeds; and also the names of some estates within its limits, one of which, called Waun-y-Mynach, or "monks' meadow," became the property of David Lloyd, Esq. By a charter of Henry I. granted in 1127 to Battle Abbey, in the county of Sussex, of which the priory of St. John was a cell, the inhabitants of this place still claim the privilege of exemption from the payment of tolls throughout the kingdom. On the dissolution of the priory, the appropriated estates became vested in the crown, and were sold tithe-free to various individuals, who, voluntarily subscribing to the support of a minister, acquired the right of nomination to the living.
The parish, which is of small extent, is bounded on the north by the parish of Llanvillo, on the south by that of Llanhamllêch, on the east by that of Llanvihangel-Tàlyllyn, and on the west by Brecknock. Its soil is loamy; the land is divided between arable and pasture, with a portion of wood, and produces wheat, barley, oats, and hay: the population is exclusively agricultural. The village, which appears to have been formerly of greater extent than it is at present, is situated within a quarter of a mile to the left of the turnpike-road leading from Brecknock, through Llanvihangel-Tàlyllyn, to Tàlgarth; and the surrounding country, without exhibiting any striking peculiarity of features, is characterised by the pleasingly varied scenery that prevails generally in this part of the principality. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty; net income, £81: the Bishop of St. David's presented on the two last vacancies, previously to which the advowson was understood to belong to the freeholders in the parish, who contribute £4. 10. per annum towards the stipend of the incumbent. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a small ancient edifice, possessing no architectural details of importance: through the exertions of the curate it has been ceiled, flagged, and pewed, and a free place erected in it. There is a Sunday school in connexion with the Established Church. Mr. Watkin Prees, in 1731, bequeathed a rent-charge of ten shillings upon a field named Clôs Penyglan, which is distributed on Good Friday, among the poor. At the north-western extremity of the common of Waun-y-Geivr, now inclosed, are the remains of a small cromlech.
LLAWRYLLAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Llanvechell, hundred of Tàlybolion, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 6½ miles (W. by S.) from Amlwch: the population is returned with the parish. A small stream, issuing from a lake in the adjoining parish of Llanvlewyn, flows through this hamlet into the bay of Cemmaes: on the opposite side of the stream is a remarkable cromlech, now prostrate.
LLAY (LLAI), a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Gresford which is in the hundred of Bromfield, county of Denbigh, in the poor-law union of Wrexham, in North Wales, 5 miles (N. by W.) from Wrexham; containing 539 inhabitants. It is situated near the left bank of the river Alyn, and on the border of Flintshire. The great tithes, belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Winchester, have been commuted for £220, and the vicarial tithes for £100; the impropriate glebe comprises 61a. 1r. 5p., and the vicarial 29a. 3r. 16p. Offa's Dyke passes between the township and the river.
LLÊCH, with Llan and Llwyn, a township, in the parish of Llanrhaiadr-in-Kinmerch, union of Ruthin, hundred of Isaled, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 2 miles (S.) from Denbigh; the three places containing respectively 159, 343, and 121 inhabitants. Courts leet and baron, with view of frankpledge, are held for the manors of Llêch and Llan, which belong to the Bishop of Bangor, at the village of Llanrhaiadr; the steward of the bishop presides. The road from Denbigh to Ruthin passes through the hamlet.
LLÊCHCYNVARWYDD (LLÊCH-GYN-FARWY), a parish, in the hundred of Llyvon, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, the church being 3 miles (S. W.) from Llanerchymedd; containing 396 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church to Cynvarwy, an eminent British saint, who flourished towards the close of the seventh century, is situated in the western part of the island, upon the road leading from Llanerchymedd to the old line of road to Holyhead. It extends to the former of these towns, and comprehends a very large tract of land, of which the greater portion is inclosed and cultivated. The surface is boldly undulated, rising in some parts into considerable eminences; and the higher grounds command extensive prospects over the surrounding country. The soil is of a poor argillaceous quality, and produces chiefly oats, with a small proportion of wheat and barley.
The living is annexed to the rectory of Llantrisaint. The church, supposed to have been originally founded about the year 630, is a small edifice, consisting of a nave and south transept, the latter the property of the Bôdorgan family; the building contains about 120 sittings, half free. The Rev. H. W. Jones, rector, in 1826 built a handsome parsonage-house here, which, with fifteen acres of land his private property, he gave to the benefice; he has also made great improvements in the church at his own expense. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists; and a National school, situated in the main street of Llanerchymedd, which town is partly in the parish, is supported by subscriptions and school-pence. Two Sunday schools in connexion with the Established Church are also held. Mrs. Margaret Wynne bequeathed a portion of land, called Clwch Bâch, consisting of forty-eight acres and three-quarters, producing a rent of £25 per annum, the produce to be appropriated to the support of an indigent and aged woman, selected by the owner of the mansion-house of Tre'r Ddôl, in the parish. Mrs. Catherine Roberts left £50 in money, for the support of two poor housekeepers; this sum has been lent on mortgage to the trustees of the Shrewsbury and Holyhead road, and the interest, £2. 10., is distributed according to the will of the testatrix. Nothing is now known of the disposition of a bequest of £10 by Jane Lewis. The parish is entitled to send two men to the almshouses at Beaumaris, founded under the will of David Hughes; and the privilege is exercised accordingly, two of the inmates being from this place. In a field adjoining the church is an upright stone, called Maen Llêchgwenvarwydd, which is more than nine feet high, and appears to be of great antiquity.
LLÊCHRHŶD (LLÊCHRYD), a parish, in the Lower division of the hundred of Troedyraur, union and county of Cardigan, South Wales, 3 miles (S. E.) from Cardigan; containing 397 inhabitants. It is supposed by some historians to have been the scene of a sanguinary engagement that occurred between Rhŷs ab Tewdwr, sovereign of South Wales, and the three sons of Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, who, in a previous insurrection, had compelled that sovereign to seek refuge in Ireland. Rhŷs, returning thence, in 1087, with a powerful army to recover possession of his dominions, landed on the neighbouring coast, and was met at a place called Llêchryd by the sons of Bleddyn, who resolved to give him battle before his army should be increased by the number of his friends that were hastening to join him; and an obstinate and severe battle was here fought, in which the sons of Bleddyn were totally defeated, and two of them slain on the field. A place of this name in Radnorshire has been generally reputed the scene of this engagement, to which opinion Mr. Jones, the historian of Brecknockshire, has afforded some negative sanction by deriving its name from a stone that may have been raised there to the memory of Riryd, one of Bleddyn's sons, who fell in the encounter. But numerous circumstances conspire to give the greater degree of probability to the former opinion, among which not the least important is the situation of Llêchrhŷd in Cardiganshire, in the direct route of the sovereign's march through his own territories, where he might reasonably expect the assistance of his friends, in his progress towards the seat of his government at Dynevor, or Carmarthen.
The parish is pleasantly situated on the northern bank of the river Teivy, which is navigable for small vessels to Llêchrhŷd bridge, an ancient structure mantled with ivy, and forming a truly interesting feature in the scenery of the place. It is bounded on the east by the parish of Llandygwydd, and on the west by that of Llangoedmore; and comprises by computation 636 acres, of which 240 are arable, 16 meadow, 230 pasture, and 150 woodland; the whole, except the last, subject to both great and small tithes in kind. The country in every direction is remarkable for its beautiful scenery, which, perhaps, is not surpassed by any other in this part of the principality, and which is much indebted for the interest it affords to the picturesque Teivy, a river celebrated for its fine salmon. Coedmore, the seat of the lord of the manor, is a modern residence delightfully situated, and commanding many fine views, among which is one embracing the ruins of Kilgerran Castle, in the county of Pembroke. The parish also contains the villages of Llêchrhŷd and Llêchrhŷd Issa, the former situated on the turnpike-road from Cardigan to Newcastle-Emlyn, along which, for some years, the royal mail has passed and repassed daily from Cardigan, through Newcastle-Emlyn, to Carmarthen. The inhabitants derive a considerable profit from the drying of salmon, of which great quantities are taken in the river. There was formerly a weir at Llêchrhŷd, which was deemed obnoxious by the people of the adjoining district, as it precluded the salmon from ascending the river for a long line of country above: in the wide-spread Rebecca Insurrection of 1843, this weir was demolished by a determined party of 400 men, provided with crow-bars, pick-axes, and other instruments; so that numbers of fine salmon now ascend the river, even as high as Lampeter, thirty miles distant. Many hands were formerly employed in an extensive manufactory of tin plates, but it has been discontinued for some time: the buildings have been demolished, and on the site Lewes Gaver, Esq., has built a set of splendid stables, ornamented with a high tower, containing a turret-clock.
Llêchrhŷd, though now a parish of itself, is said to have been formerly only a chapelry in Llangoedmore; but no record of such connexion can now be traced. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1200 royal bounty; net income, £131; joint patrons, T. Lloyd, Esq., Mrs. Lloyd, and C. R. Longcroft, Esq., the impropriators, whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £36. 6. The church, dedicated to the Holy Cross, is an ancient edifice, much improved through the exertions of the incumbent, the Rev. James Owen, by whom a subscription was raised for the purpose, to which he himself liberally contributed; nearly all the sittings are free. There are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists and Independents, the latter said to have been originally built by Major Wade, an officer under Oliver Cromwell. Two Sunday schools are conducted gratuitously by the dissenters.
LLÊCHVAEN (LLÊCH-VÀN), a hamlet, forming the Upper division of the parish of Llanhamllêch, in the hundred of Pencelly, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 2 miles (E. by S.) from Brecknock; containing 113 inhabitants. The present name of this place has a tautological meaning, being literally the "stony stone," corrupted from the ancient etymology, signifying the "upright or lofty stone." It is situated on the southern declivity of the Allt Ronwy mountain, and near the left bank of the Brynych brook, which falls into the river Usk about a mile lower down. A bridge here crosses the Usk, and another the Brecknock canal, which passes nearly contiguous, and just below is conveyed to the right bank of the Usk river by an aqueduct of four arches. The Hay railway, from Brecknock to Kington and Eardisley in Herefordshire, is carried through this hamlet, a little to the south of the village of Llêchvaen. Here was formerly a chapel of ease to the mother church of Llanhamllêch, but it fell down about a century ago, and has not since been rebuilt, the church being sufficiently capacious, and centrally situated, so as to accommodate the inhabitants of all parts of the parish. The Calvinistic Methodists have a place of worship here, in which they also hold a Sunday school. The Roman Via Julia Montana traversed the hamlet, in its approach to the Gaer near Brecknock, from the station in the parish of Llanvihangel-Cwmdû.
LLÊCHWETHER (LLÊCHWEDDOR), a hamlet, in the parish of Llanwrtyd, union of Llandovery, hundred of Builth, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 11 miles (W. by S.) from Builth; containing 297 inhabitants. It is situated, as the name implies, on the southern declivity of a barren hill, near the left bank of the river Irvon, the vale of which is much admired for its picturesque scenery.—See Llanwrtyd.
LLÊCHYLCHED (LLÊCH-YLCHED), a parish, in the hundred of Llyvon, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 7 miles (S. E. by E.) from Holyhead; containing 618 inhabitants. This parish is situated in the south-western part of the island, on the road from Bangor to Holyhead, and is intersected by the Chester and Holyhead line of railway. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Bôdedern, on the south by that of Llanvaelog, on the east by that of Ceirchiog, and on the west by that of Llanvihangel-yn-Howyn. The parish comprises by computation 1591 acres, the whole of which is arable with the exception of a little pasture; it is entirely rural and agricultural, containing only farmhouses and labourers' cottages, and the chief stream is a rivulet called Avon Crigyll. The living is annexed to the rectory of Llanbeulan. The church, a small edifice dedicated to St. Ylched, is situated in a marshy valley watered by a stream that falls into the bay of Carnarvon, and in the midst of scenery of an unprepossessing and dreary character, close by the road to Holyhead; it is now abandoned, or, if used at all, used merely for the performance of the burial service. A new church, much more conveniently and pleasantly situated, has been erected in the village of Bryngwran, containing 350 sittings, of which 250 are free. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists: in that for the Calvinistic body, a Sunday school is also held. Two benefactions amounting to £11, the principal of them by an unknown donor, have been lost to the poor.
Lledrod (Llethr-Y-Troed) Isâv
LLEDROD (LLETHR-Y-TROED) ISÂV, a township, in the parish of Llanvihangel-Lledrod, union of Trêgaron, Upper division of the hundred of Ilar, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 9 miles (S. S. E.) from Aberystwith; containing 648 inhabitants. The small river Wyra passes through it, and falls into the sea at Llanrhŷstid.
LLEDROD UCHÂV, a township, in the parish of Llanvihangel-Lledrod, poor-law union of Trêgaron, Upper division of the hundred of Ilar, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 9 miles (S. E.) from Aberystwith; containing 501 inhabitants. The parochial church stands here, at the foot of the western declivity of a high and dreary common, and near the source of a small rivulet called the Wyra. Several tumuli are observable on the adjacent hills; and there is a chalybeate spring, formerly much regarded for its sanitary properties.
LLEWESOG, with Trevydd-Bychain, a hamlet, situated in the parish of Llanrhaiadr-in-Kinmerch, union of Ruthin, hundred of Isaled, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 3 miles (S. by E.) from Denbigh; containing 512 inhabitants. Formerly a joint assessment was made for these two places for the support of their poor, but now there is a general assessment for the parish.