A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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MACHYNLLETH (MACHYNLLAETH), a market-town and borough; a parish comprising the three townships of Machynlleth otherwise Y Dre, Is-y-Garreg, and Uwch-y-Garreg; and the head of a union; in the Lower division of the hundred of Machynlleth, county of Montgomery, North Wales; containing 2482 inhabitants, of whom 1636 are in the township of Machynlleth, 39 miles (W. by N.) from Montgomery, and 209 (W. N. W.) from London. This place, which is of considerable antiquity, is supposed to have been the site of the Maglona of the Itineraries, a Roman station, where, in the reign of the Emperor Honorius, the captain of the "Numerus Solensium" was posted, under the Dux Britanniarum, to keep the mountaineers in subjection. Connected with the principal station, which occupied the highest part of the hill, was an outwork called Cevn Caer, or "the ridge of the city," about four miles from the present town, in the adjoining parish of Pennal, in the county of Merioneth: there were formerly some remains of the outwork, and several Roman coins have been at various times discovered there. Few circumstances of historical importance connected with Machynlleth are recorded. In 1402, Owain Glyndwr, flushed with repeated successes, assembled the estates of the principality in the town, where he held a parliament, that solemnly acknowledged his title to the sovereignty of Wales, of which kingdom he caused himself to be formally invested with the crown. At this parliament Davydd Gam, who had married the sister of Owain Glyndwr, but was, notwithstanding, a zealous partisan and adherent of Henry IV., attended, apparently for the purpose of promoting Owain's pretensions to the crown, but with the disguised intention of assassinating that chieftain. In this attempt, however, he was frustrated by a timely discovery of his treachery; and, being seized and imprisoned, he would have been instantly executed but for the intercession of Owain's most zealous friends and partisans. In resentment for his treachery, Owain burnt Davydd's house and laid waste his lands, and detained him in confinement at Machynlleth till the year 1412, when he was finally ransomed by his father and other vassals of the English crown. Charles I., when on his route to Chester, had a bed prepared for him in a house in the town, called "the Garrison;" the bed and furniture, which have been carefully preserved, are now deposited at Esgair Llyveren, in the county of Merioneth.
The town is situated near the western extremity of the county, about a quarter of a mile from the southern bank of the river Dovey, and on the turnpike-road leading to Aberystwith from the principal parts of North Wales, and also from Shrewsbury. It is romantically embosomed in mountains that encompass it on every side, and from which a beautiful view is obtained of the Vale of Dovey, abounding in highly picturesque and richly diversified scenery, with the winding course of the river, from above the parish of Cemmes to its influx into the bay of Cardigan. The streets are wide and spacious, the houses in general neat and well built; and the whole town, which is amply supplied with water, has a regular and prepossessing appearance. A book society has been some time established, and is much patronized. The environs are pleasant, comprehending much beautiful scenery and many interesting objects. At Uwch-yGarreg, a township in the parish, is Pistyll Rhaiadr, one of the finest waterfalls in the principality: though inferior to some in the beauty of the scenery immediately adjoining, it is not surpassed in romantic grandeur by any. The Dovey is celebrated for its salmon-fishing.
The manufacture of flannels, principally of the coarser kind, is carried on to a considerable extent, and some webs are also made. In this manufacture more than forty carding-engines and seven fullingmills are employed in the town and its vicinity; the weaving is done by the workmen at their own dwellings, and about 200 pieces, averaging about 150 yards each, are sent to the market held at Newtown, every alternate Thursday. Lead-ore is found in the parish, and mines of that metal have been opened in the township of Is-y-Garreg; but they are not at present in operation: there are quarries of good slate, some of which are worked upon a moderate scale. The river Dovey is navigable to Derwenlâs, within two miles of the town, and affords a facility of conveying the produce of the quarries and mines to their destination, and of supplying the neighbourhood with various commodities. The average annual exports from this place are, 500 tons of bark, 40,000 feet of oak timber, 150,000 yards of oak poles for collieries, 100 tons of lead-ore, and 1500 tons of slate. The average imports are, 5000 quarters of rye and wheat, 1000 tons of coal, 500 tons of culm, 2000 tons of limestone, 11,000 English and foreign hides, and groceries and other shop goods to the amount of £14,000 in value. The market is on Wednesday. Fairs are held annually on the first Wednesday in March, on May 16th, June 26th, July 9th, August 7th, September 18th, October 21st, and November 26th, for cattle, horses, and wares: a statute fair, also, occurs on the Wednesday before Easter.
This place, as a contributory borough, together with Llanidloes, Welshpool, and Llanvyllin, returned a member for Montgomery. The elective franchise was granted in the 27th of Henry VIII., and was exercised by the boroughs for many years without interruption. Eventually, however, it underwent important alteration. On a petition to the House of Commons, in 1685, complaining of an undue return, it was resolved that the right of election was vested in the burgesses not only of Montgomery, but also of Llanidloes, Welshpool, and Llanvyllin, no mention being made of Machynlleth; and on a similar petition, presented to the Commons in 1728, it was resolved that the elective franchise was confined solely to the borough of Montgomery, which then continued to return the member, to the exclusion of the other towns. These resolutions being at variance with each other, the burgesses of Llanidloes, Llanvyllin, and Welshpool, and also those of Machynlleth, the latter having neglected to support their claim at the two former periods, were allowed the privilege, by a statute of the 28th of George III., of asserting their claim to join in choosing a member for Montgomery before any future committee of the House, and of appealing against any subsequent decision within twelve calendar months. No practical benefit, however, appears to have resulted from this privilege. By the act of 1832, for "Amending the Representation," the town was again declared one of the contributory boroughs within the county to return one member to parliament. The right of election is vested in every male person of full age occupying, either as owner, or as tenant under the same landlord, a house or other premises in the borough of the annual value of at least £10, provided he be capable of registering as the act demands; and the number of tenements of this value within the limits of the borough, which are minutely detailed in the Appendix, is about a hundred. Since 1832, the contributory boroughs, besides Montgomery, have consisted of Machynlleth, Llanidloes, Welshpool, Llanvyllin, and the newly-created borough of Newtown. The election of the knight of the shire takes place here or at Montgomery, being the towns at which the ancient county court is held alternately. The town is also one of the polling-places in the election for the shire. The town-hall, or market-house, a plain and commodious building, was erected in 1783, by Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart., grandfather of the present owner of Wynnstay, who is lord of the manor, and holds courts leet twice in the year. The powers of the county debt-court of Machynlleth, established in 1847, extend over the registration-district of Machynlleth. This court, and the petty-sessions for the hundred, are held in the town monthly.
The parish comprises an area of 9876 acres, of which 4799 are common or waste, affording pasturage to numerous flocks of sheep, that feed on the declivities of the hills; the lower grounds are fertile and productive, and peat is found in various parts of the district. The living consists of a rectory and a vicarage, united under the provisions of an act of the 29th and 30th of Charles II.; the rectory, which was a sinecure, is rated in the king's books at £11. 10. 7½., and the vicarage at £6. 6. 0½.: patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph. The tithes have been commuted for £400 payable to the incumbent, and £3. 3. to the parish-clerk: the glebe comprises 3a. 1r. 20p., valued at £25 per annum; and there is a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Peter, is a handsome structure, in a style resembling later English architecture. It was rebuilt, with the exception of the tower, in 1827, and contains 873 sittings, of which 300 are free, in consideration of a grant of £300 from the Incorporated Society for the building and enlargement of churches and chapels: the edifice is well arranged and neatly fitted up. The ancient tower, in the same year, was raised a few feet higher, and crowned with battlements and crocketed pinnacles. There are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, Independents, and Baptists. Day and Sunday National schools were established here in 1829, by John Jones, Esq., of Upper Norton-street, London, but a native of this town, who in that year gave £1000 three per cent. consols. for their endowment. This sum is augmented by the use of a prior bequest of £200 by John Owen, Esq., for teaching children, and a grant of £40 from Ann Jones for the like purpose: the endowments of the schools altogether amount to nearly £55 per annum. Commodious buildings were erected at the same time by subscription, occupying three sides of a quadrangle, with a projection in the centre; the expense amounting to £600. In these schools, which are supported partly by the endowments, and partly by subscription, a large number of children of both sexes receive gratuitous instruction; the master and mistress have a joint salary of £60 per annum, with a house and garden rent-free, and the master is allowed to take a few pay-scholars. Ten Sunday schools are supported by the dissenters.
There are seven houses in the town inhabited from time immemorial by paupers, three of which were bequeathed by Isaac Pugh, and the others are supposed to have been the gift of Humphrey Morris. The latter donor also assigned £60, the interest to be expended partly in keeping the buildings in repair and supplying the inmates with clothing, and partly in educating and apprenticing poor children; but the portion for the repair of the houses has been lost. Several persons have at different periods left sums for the benefit of the poor, including £60 by Thomas Pugh, £40 by Rowland Owen, £20 each by Humphrey Morris, Gwen Owen, and John Davis, and other smaller benefactions; all of which were consolidated, and the amount, £190, lent on two bonds to the Montgomeryshire turnpike trusts, now yielding an interest of £9. 10. Of this income, £5 are annually distributed among the poor of the town, £1 each among those of the two townships of Uwchy-Garreg and Is-y-Garreg, and the remaining £2. 10. in apprenticing poor boys of the town. A few small charities have been lost. The poor-law union of which this place is the head, was formed January 16th, 1837, and comprises the following eleven parishes and townships; namely, Machynlleth, Is-y-Garreg, Uwch-y-Garreg, Cemmes, Dârowen, Llanbrynmair, Llanwrin, and Penegoes, in the county of Montgomery; Pennal, and Towyn, in that of Merioneth; and Scybor-y-Coed, in that of Cardigan. It is under the superintendence of fifteen guardians, and contains a population of 12,306. A savings' bank has been some time established in the town.
On a hill immediately above Penyrallt House are the remains of an ancient fortification of great strength, within sight of Cevn Caer, and commanding all the passes in the district around it. Part of the senate-house in which Owain Glyndwr assembled his parliament, is yet remaining: it was built with the slate stone of the country, and, from the appearance of the spacious entrance, which is still in good preservation, seems to have been an edifice of no mean extent. The old building called "the Garrison" is situated near the Wynnstay Arms, and it is supposed that there was formerly a subterraneous passage leading from this place to the fortification of Cevn Caer, in the adjoining parish of Pennal. Adjacent to the town is a field named the "Garshion," at the extremity of which is a copious spring, whence the inhabitants of Machynlleth are supplied with water.
Dôl Guog, near the town, was for some time the retreat of the celebrated Llywarch Hên, an eminent bard, who flourished towards the close of the sixth and at the commencement of the seventh century. He was chieftain of a part of Cumbria, or Cumberland, but having survived twenty-four of his sons, who fell in fighting the battles of their country against the Saxons, and falling into poverty in his old age, he retired, under the protection of Cynddylan, prince of part of Powys, to this place, where he devoted himself to the pursuits of poetry. He died at the advanced age of 105 years, and was buried at Llanvawr, near Bala. Many of his compositions while in retirement here, have been published in the Welsh Archæologia, and in a separate volume by Dr. Pughe. Howel Swrdwal, a Welsh bard, was minister of the parish in the fifteenth century; as was also, for many years, Ievan Llawdden, an eminent poet of the Vale of Loughor, who flourished from 1430 to 1470. Dr. Davies, head master of the grammar-school at Macclesfield, was a native of the town.
MAENAN, a township, in the parish of Eglwys-Bâch, union of Llanrwst, hundred of Llêchwedd-Isâv, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 2½ miles (N.) from Llanrwst; containing, exclusively of Maenan-Abbey, 428 inhabitants. It is situated on the bank of the river Conway, and forms an ancient lordship, for which courts leet and baron are still annually held in April, by the steward of Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart. This lordship claims all the privileges formerly possessed by the abbots of Maenan, namely, exemptions from tithes, &c.
Maenan-Abbey, or Maenan-Myn-Achdŷ
MAENAN-ABBEY, or MAENAN-MYNACHDŶ, an extra-parochial liberty, locally situated partly in the township of Arddr, parish of Llanbedr, union of Conway, and partly in that of Maenan, parish of Eglwys-Bâch, union of Llanrwst, in the hundred of Llêchwedd-Isâv, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 3 miles (N.) from Llanrwst. It is situated on the eastern bank of the river Conway, and derives its extra-parochial privileges from having been anciently the site of the rich abbey of Maenan, said to have been founded by Richard I., but the first authentic notice of which occurs in 1282, when Edward I., by authority of Pope Nicholas, removed the Cistercian monks of Conway to this place, at the same time confirming to them all the privileges they had enjoyed in their former habitation, and adding considerably to their possessions. The cause of the change was, that Edward had selected the vicinity of their original house for the erection of the magnificent castle of Conway; and, probably being jealous of their communication with his new subjects, their countrymen, he soon after further removed them to the famous abbey of Vale Royal, in Cheshire. The establishment at Maenan, nevertheless, continued to be occupied by monks, and flourished until the period of the Dissolution, when its revenue was valued at £179. 10. 10.; and according to some writers, the king did not remove the original monks from Maenan into Cheshire, but allowed them to remain here. In 1563, the site of the abbey, together with the township of Maenan, was granted to Elizeus Wynne, who took down a great part of the buildings, and erected a mansion near the spot with the materials. The original edifice was equally remarkable for the pleasantness of its situation and the beauty of its architecture: a small arch is the only portion of it now standing. The inhabitants attend the parish church of Llanddoget, in the county of Denbigh, for the performance of ecclesiastical rites.
MAENOR-DEILO, LOWER, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llandilo-Vawr which is in the Lower division of the hundred of Cayo, in the union of Llandilo-Vawr, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 3½ miles (N. E.) from the town of Llandilo-Vawr; containing 364 inhabitants. This hamlet is situated on the western bank of the picturesque river Towy. At Capel-Bâch was formerly a chapel of ease, on the site of which is now a private residence.
MAENOR-DEILO, UPPER, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llandilo-Vawr which is in the Lower division of the hundred of Cayo, in the union of Llandilo-Vawr, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 4½ miles (N. E. by N.) from the town of Llandilo-Vawr; containing 384 inhabitants. The rich and beautiful Vale of Towy is seen to much advantage from many portions of this hamlet, which is ornamented with various pleasing residences of families of independent fortune.
MAENOR-DEILO-VABON, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llandilo-Vawr which is in the Lower division of the hundred of Perveth, in the union of Llandilo-Vawr, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from the town of Llandilo-Vawr; containing 424 inhabitants. This place lies on the road from Llangadock to Llandilo-Vawr, which here runs along the eastern bank of the Towy. Upon the brook called the Areth, which divides the parishes of Llandilo-Vawr and Llangadock, is a very fine fall of considerable height, much resorted to by the lovers of the picturesque. The house contiguous to the bridge is remarkable for a murder committed there some time ago, under very memorable circumstances. The seat Maenor-Vabon is in this hamlet.
MAENTWROG (MAEN-TWROG), a parish, in the union of Festiniog, hundred of Ardudwy, county of Merioneth, North Wales, ¼ of a mile from the post-office at Tan-y-Bwlch, and 18 miles (N. N. W.) from Dôlgelley; containing 883 inhabitants. It derives its name from a large upright stone still remaining at one angle of the church; this stone is called "Maen Twrog," and was erected to the memory of Twrog, an eminent British saint, who flourished at the close of the fifth and beginning of the sixth centuries, and to whom the church is dedicated. The parish is surrounded by the parishes of Festiniog, Llandecwyn, and Trawsvynydd; and contains 5288a. 3r. 17p., of which the arable compared with the pasture forms about one-third, but a very considerable portion is under wood, the prevailing species being oak. The surface is partly rugged and hilly, embracing one-half of the Vale of Festiniog, but is not so much so as that parish, there being here more flat and level land, with a soil for the most part light and gravelly, producing oats and barley.
The village, in which there is a comfortable inn, is situated in the north-western part of the parish, and in the most romantic portion of the fertile and highly picturesque Vale of Festiniog. It stands on the southern bank of the river Dwyryd, which falls into Traeth Bâch in the bay of Cardigan; and on the turnpike-road leading from Dôlgelley to Carnarvon. Roads also branch off from it north-west to Trêmadoc, north-east to Festiniog, and south-west to Harlech. The surrounding scenery is richly diversified with verdant meadow lands and luxuriant groves, beautifully contrasting with the barren and precipitous mountains by which this portion of the vale is inclosed. About a mile from the village are two fine waterfalls, one called Rhaiadr Dû, or "the black fall," and the other Llyn-y-Gwynryn, both formed by the small river Velinrhyd. The latter, which consists of six different falls, each about thirty feet in extent, is a fall of great interest, and, as seen from the base of the rocks over which the river descends, has a sublime grandeur of effect. The river Dwyryd is navigable to the village, and receives the small river Cynval: two other streams, named Llechrwd and Velinrhyd, form the boundary between this and the parish of Llandecwyn and part of Trawsvynydd. The manufacture of flannel and the knitting of stockings are carried on to a moderate extent, affording employment to a portion of the inhabitants. Fairs are held annually on March 3rd, April 14th, May 15th, August 15th, September 19th, and November 10th.
The living is a discharged rectory, consolidated with the rectory of Festiniog: the church, rebuilt in 1814, is a neat stone edifice, with a square embattled tower, measures about fifty feet long and thirty-six broad, and contains 232 sittings, of which sixty are free. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. A school-house has been built by Mrs. Oakeley, of Tan-y-Bwlch Hall, in which between fifty and sixty children are instructed at her expense; there are also five Sunday schools, one of them in connexion, like the day school, with the Established Church, and the other four appertaining to the dissenters. Mrs. Jones, in the year 1742, bequeathed £30; Evan Lloyd, in 1691, £20; and John Roberts £5: with these sums, and other money, three cottages and gardens were purchased in a remote part of the parish many years since, in which three poor families are permitted to reside rent-free; but the interest of the above sums is still annually distributed among the poor.
Several Roman antiquities have been found in or near the parish, consisting of coins, urns, and inscribed stones, of which last, some are in the possession of Mrs. Oakeley, of Tan-y-Bwlch Hall, and of John Lloyd, Esq., of Pen-y-Glànau, who has an extensive collection of antiquities discovered in different parts of the principality. Among the inscriptions in the possession of Mrs. Oakeley are, a bordered stone, ornamented at the extremities, and divided longitudinally into two compartments, in the upper of which are the characters [capital V rotated left, AND] and, and in the lower PXXXIX.; another stone, fourteen inches in length and nine inches broad, with the inscription [captial V rotated left] IVLIMANS; and a third, fifteen inches long and seven inches broad, bearing the inscription IMAV. XXXIX.—See Festiniog.
Edmund Prys, Archdeacon of Merioneth, one of the most eminent poets of his time, was rector of the parish for many years. He translated the metrical version of the Psalms of David used in the Welsh churches, one of which he is said to have versified every time he had service in this church, in which the whole were sung previously to their being published; and he also assisted Bishop Morgan in his translation of the Bible into Welsh. He was born at Gerddi Bluog, in the parish of Llanvair, in 1544, and was interred under the communion table of this church.
MAESCAR, a township, in the parish and hundred of Devynock, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 7 miles (W. by S.) from Brecknock; containing 770 inhabitants. The township comprises 4241a. 2r. 3p., of which 186 acres are waste land. It forms the north-eastern portion of the parish, and is bounded on the north by the river Usk, into which the Camlais brook here flows, and over which is a bridge. The inhabitants of a portion of the hamlet resort to the parish church, while those of the upper part of Cwm Camlais frequent the chapel of Llan Illtyd, in the hamlet of Glyn. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £248, which is equally divided among the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, the vicar of Devynock, and an impropriator.—See Devynock.
MAESGWARTHA (MAES-GWARTHAF), a hamlet, in the parish of Llanelly, union and hundred of Crickhowel, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 5½ miles (W. by N.) from Abergavenny; containing 1659 inhabitants. This hamlet comprises the upper portion of the parish, and contains several limestone-quarries and limekilns, the produce being sent to the neighbouring districts, by means of the Brecknock canal, which passes through it.
MAESGWYN (MAES-GWYN), a hamlet, in the parish of Nantmel, union and hundred of Rhaiadr, county of Radnor, South Wales, 2 miles (E.) from Rhaiadr; containing 390 inhabitants. It forms the south-eastern portion of the parish, and was formerly called Uwch-Coed. At the base of the barren eminence of Rhiw-Graidd, on the north-western side, is a fine sheet of water, about a mile in circumference, named Llyn Gwyn, near which, and close to the bank of the Dulas river, is Llwynbaried House.
MAESMAENCYMRO (MAES-MAENCYMRO), with Bryn-Caredig, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llanynys which is in the hundred of Ruthin, in the union of Ruthin, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 3 miles (N. W.) from Ruthin. The population is included in the return for the parish.
MAESMAWR (MAESMOR), with Ceulan, a township, in the parish of Llanvihangel-Geneu'rGlyn, union of Aberystwith, Upper division of the hundred of Geneu'r-Glyn, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 8 miles (N. E.) from Aberystwith; containing 597 inhabitants. It consists of a mountainous district near the head of the river Maesmor.
MAESMYNIS (MAES-MYNYS), a parish, in the union and hundred of Builth, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 1½ mile (S. W.) from Builth; containing 252 inhabitants. This parish is situated in the northern part of the county, between the rivers Irvon aud Dihonwy, by the latter of which it is separated on the south-east from the parish of Llanddewi'r-Cwm. It is divided on the north-west from Llanynis by a rivulet called the Cniddon, a tributary of the Irvon; and is bounded on the east by Builth, on the south by Llangynog and MerthyrCynog, and on the south-west by Llangammarch. It contains by computation 6294 acres, of which 2509 are arable, 501 meadow and pasture, 400 woodland, &c., 5 garden, and the remainder waste, mountain, common, &c. The soil is generally light and barren, but produces good wheat, barley, oats, and peas; and live-stock is also reared by the farmers: of timber, the prevailing sorts are oak, ash, and wych, with birch, alder, and thorn; and there are plantations of fir. The surface is extremely uneven, rising into hills of considerable elevation forming part of the Eppynt range, alternated with deep and narrow valleys. Of the valleys, one termed Cwmbwch, from the river Bwch, by which it is intersected, and another of greater extent, along which the Dihonwy takes its course, are finely ornamented with flourishing plantations, and in other parts almost covered with underwood. Near the rivulet Cniddon is an extensive wood, named Gilvâch Ddedwydd, on the southern side of which the parish church forms an interesting feature in the highly picturesque scenery that distinguishes this part of the parish. In a field adjoining this wood, stood, not many years since, a large stone, or rather some petrified gravel, of an oblong shape, about eight feet high, and from four and a half to five feet long, on each side, called Maen Dewi, or "St. David's stone;" it was broken up by the proprietor, but there are fragments still remaining. On the river Dihonwy, which flows here for nearly the whole length of the parish, are two corn grist-mills; and on the Irvon is a flannel manufactory, employing about ten persons, near which is a small village designated Nant-yr-Arian, or "the money brook."
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £7. 1. 3.; patron, the Bishop of St. David's. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £156. 5., and there are five acres of glebe land, valued at £5 per annum; also a commodious house, about 200 yards from the churchyard, erected by the late incumbent, the Rev. Thomas Bowen, on the site of a former rectory-house, built in 1694. The church, dedicated to St. David, and situated on an eminence, is an ancient structure, with the remains of a tower, that appears to have been in ruins for ages. Within the tower walls, which are not more than seven or eight feet above the ground, an old ash-tree had obtained a considerable growth, from the roots of which three young trees are now growing. The interior of the church consists of a nave and chancel, of late years ceiled, and is in length about seventy-five feet, and in breadth about twenty: the ancient roof of the chancel was of oak panelled in compartments, each of which was ornamented with the device of two lions seiant, and beneath them the legend "Nor is this," in old characters. There is a meeting-house for Independents; and about thirty males and females are gratuitously taught by that denomination in a Sunday school. The tenement of Tîr Twppa, in Llanynis, is charged with the annual payment of 20s. to the poor of this place; and the rental of a tenement in the same parish, called Pen-y-Rhiw, and now producing £15 per annum, is divided among the poor of the two parishes. The shaft of an ancient stone cross, beautifully sculptured, and a great curiosity, has been inserted in the wall of a farmhouse, called Neuadd Siarmon; it is said to have been removed from Porthy-Crwys, in Llanynis.
MAESTREGOMER (MAES-TRE-GOMER), a hamlet, in the parish of Trêveglwys, union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Upper division of the hundred of Llanidloes, county of Montgomery, North Wales: the population is included in the return for the parish. The parochial church is situated in this hamlet, about four miles and a half north-by-east from Llanidloes.
MAES-TROYDDYN, a hamlet, in the parish of Cayo, union of Llandovery, Higher division of the hundred of Cayo, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 11 miles (W. N. W.) from the markettown of Llandovery: the population is included in the return for the parish. It is situated on the right bank of the river Twrch, near its junction with the river Cothy. There are some well-wooded eminences in the hamlet.
MAES-Y-FYNNON (MAES-Y-FFYNNON), a hamlet, in the parish of Llanthoysaint, union of Llandovery, Lower division of the hundred of Perveth, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 5½ miles (S. E.) from Llangadock; containing, with Quarter Mawr, 541 inhabitants. It is situated at the foot of the Black Mountains, and contains some well-wooded dingles. There are several carneddau on the eminences in the district, more especially at Tŷ Uchâv, where are two circular ones, and contiguous is a large upright stone.
MALLAEN, a hamlet, partly in the parish of Cayo, and partly in that of Kîlycwm, union of Llandovery, Higher division of the hundred of Cayo, county of Carmarthen, in South Wales, 7½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Llandovery: the population is included in the return for the respective parishes. This place is a manor belonging to the crown, and forms a part of the lofty and barren mountain called Mallaen, on the border of Cardiganshire. On this mountain the inhabitants of Cayo and those of the adjoining parish of Llanwrda and the hamlet of Ystrad have a right of common pasture and of turbary: upon its southern ridge are two circular carneddau.
MALLWYD (MAEN-LLWYD), a parish, in the union of Dôlgelley, partly in the hundred of Machynlleth, county of Montgomery, but principally in that of Tàlybont and Mowddwy, county of Merioneth, in North Wales, 11½ miles (N. E.) from Machynlleth; containing 1177 inhabitants, of whom 1041 are in the Merionethshire, and 136 in the Montgomeryshire, portion: the township of Mallwyd contains 108 inhabitants. The name, implying "the dark stone," is supposed to have been derived from an ancient monument formerly existing within a short distance of the village, but which disappeared about forty years ago. The parish lies on the river Dovey, and comprises a very considerable portion of arable and pasture land, inclosed and in a good state of cultivation, together with a large tract of uninclosed and uncultivated country, where peat, which forms the principal fuel of the inhabitants, is obtained. The total area is 14,560 acres. The village is delightfully situated in a small but fertile valley, watered by the Dovey, and abounding with finely diversified scenery, formed by the various indentations of the three lofty mountains of Aran, Camlan, and Moeldyvi, which surround the vale like an amphitheatre. The views in every direction are interesting, and embrace many objects of striking beauty and features of romantic character, including some pleasing waterfalls in various parts of the parish, which, especially after floods, are seen to great advantage.
Of these falls, the principal are at Pennantigi, in the township of Cerist; at Maes Glasau, in the township of that name; at Pont Vallwyd, in that of Camlan; and another near Dinas-Mowddwy. That at Pont Vallwyd is close to the village, and is formed by the river Dovey rushing through a narrow and rocky channel against a high slate rock in the centre of its bed, whence its waters are precipitated into a pool beneath. On one side of it the Camlan mountain rises in rude majesty, opposite to which issues a stream that is crossed above by a lofty ivy-mantled bridge of one arch, the sides of the glen being covered with underwood, and the waters of the Dovey at the same time reflecting in a variety of shades the conical head of the Aran and its dependent elevations to the north. Between the opening in the mountains a distant view of the Vale of the Dovey is also obtained, which adds considerably to the picturesque beauty of the scene by its light and contrasted hues. The manufacture of flannel is carried on in the parish upon a moderate scale, affording employment to a portion of the inhabitants, of whom also a few are engaged in slate-quarries. The turnpike-road from Welshpool to Machynlleth and Dôlgelley passes through the village.
The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £10. 15. 5.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £340; and there is a glebe of about an acre, with a glebehouse. The church is dedicated to St. Tydecho, who lived at the close of the fifth and beginning of the sixth centuries, and of whom tradition has recorded many marvellous exploits. It is situated on a spot where two counties meet, the eastern end being in the shire of Merioneth, and the western in that of Montgomery. The edifice is in the early style of English architecture, and is remarkable for the situation of the altar in the centre, opposite to the reading-desk, to which situation it was removed from the east end by Dr. John Davies, incumbent, in defiance of the injunction of Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury. In the churchyard are three remarkably fine yew-trees, one of which measures twentyeight feet three inches in girth, and from one stem throws out a great number of scions, that spread around it an extensive shade, and together present an appearance of sombre magnificence. There are places of worship for Independents, and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists; and eleven Sunday schools, all conducted by the dissenters. Dr. Davies bequeathed £50, with which a portion of land was purchased, now yielding £8. 10. per annum; Mrs. Margaret Vaughan, £50; Edward Wynne and Griffith Lewis, each £20; Robert Vaughan, Ellis David, and an unknown benefactor, £10 each; and William and John Parry, £5 each. The produce of all these gifts, together with some smaller donations and bequests, used to be annually distributed among the poor of the parish; but a great portion of the charities is lost. The above-mentioned Dr. Davies, author of a Welsh grammar and dictionary, was for many years incumbent of the parish, to which he was a great benefactor, building a rectory-house and three bridges at his own expense. He devoted much of his time to literary pursuits; rendered into Welsh the thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England; and assisted Bishop Parry in his translation of the Bible into Welsh, published in one volume folio, in 1620. He died and was interred here in 1644. At Cae Gwyn is a well, the water of which is in high estimation for its efficacy in the cure of diseases of the eye.
MANAVON, a parish, in the union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Lower division of the hundred of Newtown, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 8½ miles (W. S. W.) from Welshpool; containing 795 inhabitants. The parish is situated in a mountainous district nearly in the centre of the county, and is intersected by the river Rhiw, and by the road leading from Llanvair to Newtown and Montgomery. It comprises a large tract of land, of which a considerable portion is uncultivated; of the remainder, one-half consists of old inclosures, and the other has been brought into a state of cultivation under the provisions of an act of parliament passed in 1796. The scenery is strikingly diversified, and from the higher grounds are obtained extensive and varied prospects. The manufacture of flannel is carried on to a limited extent. The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £8. 18. 4.; present net income, £227, with a glebe-house; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is an ancient structure, in the early style of English architecture, appropriately fitted up: in the churchyard are two fine yew-trees of luxuriant growth. In the township of Dôlgynvelyn was formerly a chapel of ease, which has been in ruins for many years. There are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. A Church school is partly supported by the rent of an acre of land, and a small allotment since added, to which are also attached a cottage and garden occupied by a pauper; the whole purchased with a bequest of £10 left by Judith James in 1718, and a legacy of £20 by Rowland Evans in 1735. Five Sunday schools are supported by the dissenters; three of them connected with the Calvinistic Methodists, one with the Wesleyans, and one with the Independents. George Baxter in 1658, John Thomas Shone at an unknown period, and Evan Thomas in 1689, gave each a small rent-charge on certain portions of land to the poor; and William Foulkes, in 1781, bequeathed £30 in money, the interest of which was to be divided among twelve decayed housekeepers. The late Rev. Walter Davies, distinguished as a philologist and antiquary, was for many years rector of the parish.
MANCOTT, a township, in the parish of Hawarden, union of Great Boughton, hundred of Mold, county of Flint, North Wales, ¾ of a mile (N.) from Hawarden; containing 282 inhabitants. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, in which a day school and a Sunday school are held: the day school is partly supported by schoolpence, but chiefly by subscription, and is open to any denomination.—See Hawarden.