A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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CLOIGIN, a lordship, or an extra-parochial district, locally in the parish of Llandeveylog, hundred of Kidwelly, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Carmarthen; containing 208 inhabitants. The road from Carmarthen to Pont-ar-Ddulas, and that to Llanelly, pass through this place. An ancient chapel stood here rather more than half a century since, in which only marriages were solemnized; but it has been entirely pulled down, and the materials removed for private use, the foundations alone remaining. A spring of clear water, called Pistyll Gwŷn, was formerly much resorted to for healing sore eyes, but it has fallen into neglect.
CLUYACH, a hamlet, in the parish of Ystrad-Dyvodog, union of Merthyr-Tydvil, hundred of Miskin, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 9 miles (N.) from Llantrissent; containing 318 inhabitants. The name signifies "a sheltered glade," which is descriptive of the situation of the hamlet among mountains.
CLYDEY (CLYDAI), a parish, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, hundred of Kîlgerran, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 6 miles (S. W.) from Newcastle-Emlyn; containing 1268 inhabitants, and comprising 5000 acres. This place, which occupies the north-eastern extremity of the county, until lately formed the endowment of a prebend in the cathedral of St. David's, rated in the king's books at £12, and in the gift of the Bishop. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £6, endowed with £600 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Bishop: the tithes have been commuted for £387, of which £250 are payable to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, £125 to the vicar, and £12 to an impropriator. The church, dedicated to St. Clydai, is a substantial structure, with a massive square tower. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists; and four Sunday schools, supported by the dissenters. Fairs are held at Hênveddau, in the parish, on September 27th and October 30th.
CLYGYROG (CLEGYROG), a township, in the parish of Llanbadrig, hundred of Tàl-ybolion, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 6 miles (W. S. W.) from Amlwch; containing 386 inhabitants. The name signifies rocky, or stony, as descriptive of the general character of the district. This township and that of Cemmes constitute the whole of the parish, and were formerly assessed separately for the support of the poor, but are now united for that object.
CLYNNOG (CELYNOG), a parish, in the poorlaw union of Carnarvon, hundred of Uchgorvai, Arvon division of the county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 10 miles (S. S. W.) from Carnarvon, on the road from that town to Pwllheli; containing 1789 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the shore of St. George's Channel: the village stands on a plain, at the base of Garn Gôch mountain, and is distinguished as having been the residence of St. Beuno, who built a church or chapel here, near his cell. The church was afterwards made collegiate, and, at the time of the Lincoln Taxation, in the year 1291, had an establishment consisting of five portionists, or prebendaries, which continued until the general Dissolution, and was endowed with extensive possessions, assigned by divers native princes and wealthy individuals: among the endowments was the township of Clynnog, which appears to have been "held freely of St. Beuno" in the reign of Edward III. St. Beuno is also said to have founded a monastery that existed here, which, however, more probably owed its origin, in 616, to Gwethaint, or Gwyddaint, one of his disciples. It was situated at a place called Monachdŷ Gwyn, about two miles south-eastward from the church, and, having fallen into decay after its first inmates were dispersed, was restored for the reception of Carmelites, or White friars, and called Monachdŷ Clynnog-Vâch, to distinguish it from Clynnog-Vawr, the township given as part of the endowment of the church. This society was probably of no long duration, but it is not known at what period it was suppressed, nor has any thing further been ascertained regarding the history of it. According to tradition the original church of ClynnogVawr, founded by Beuno, was destroyed by fire; and a book concerning it, called Tiboeth, written by St. Twrog, and mentioned so late as the reign of Queen Elizabeth, is said to have been preserved from the fire, which may have happened at the time when the district was spoiled, in 970.
The parish is extensive: the mountains Garn Gôch and Garn Ddû here form the extremity of a long ridge stretching obliquely from Snowdon, and terminating at a short distance from the sea. Copperore and manganese exist among the mountains in various parts of the parish, but no spirited efforts have yet been made for working them. Fairs are held on May 6th and November 6th. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £6; present net income, £158, with a glebe-house; patron, the Bishop of Bangor. The rectory, which is rated at £24, is a sinecure, annexed to the headship of Jesus' College, Oxford, the principal of which receives two-thirds of the great tithes. The church, dedicated to St. Beuno, is a large and highly interesting cruciform edifice, built in the time of Edward IV. or Henry VII., in the later style of English architecture, and consisting of a nave, chancel, and north and south transepts, with a lofty square tower at the west end. In 1832 the interior was repewed by public subscription, but this alteration does not harmonize with the ancient fabric, nor with the exterior character of the building. On the south-west side, and communicating with the church by a narrow passage, is a building called Eglwys Beuno, occupying the site probably of the original chapel in which the remains of the founder were interred. St. Beuno had his shrine here, which was held in great veneration, even until within the last century, for the miracles reputed to be performed at it: a plain altartomb, the monument of the saint, stood in the middle of Eglwys Beuno, or St. Beuno's chapel; and it was customary for the superstitious to cover it with rushes, and place thereon sick children, or other diseased persons, after subjecting them to ablution in a neighbouring holy well, convinced that, passing a whole night on his tomb, the patient would be restored to health by the miraculous interposition of the saint. Beuno was uncle to St. Winifred, and is fabled to have re-united her head to her body, on its being struck off by Cradocus, son of King Alen. In the east window of the church are some fragments of stained glass, and the date MDLXXXIV. A very fine screen or rood-loft of oak separates the chancel from the transepts, and the nave possesses a beautiful panelled roof, of which the rosettes ornamenting the knobs at the junction of the ribs separating the panels, are remarkable for the sharpness of their execution, and the elegance of their endless ornamental details. Among the other features of interest are, three sedilia and a piscina on the south side of the chancel, and a small monumental brass, of the date 1633, to the memory of William Glynne. There is also a neat monument to the memory of Colonel Twisselton, an active officer during the parliamentary war, who defeated and made prisoner Sir John Owen, near Llandegai, in 1648. Both the church, and the chapel of St. Beuno, are in a state of considerable dilapidation, from the loss of the funds with which they were formerly kept in repair; but within the last few years, a subscription has been opened for the restoration of these very interesting buildings. Until towards the close of the last century a custom prevailed of offering, in aid of the repairs of the church, or for the relief of the poor, calves and lambs born with the Nôd Beuno, or mark of St. Beuno, a certain natural mark in the ear. These were brought to the church on Trinity-Sunday, the festival of the saint, and delivered to the churchwardens, who, having sold them, put the money into a large chest, called Cyf St. Beuno, made of one piece of oak and secured by three locks, still preserved in the church, and which, in allusion to its strength, gave rise to a local phrase applicable to any difficult undertaking that was intended. On the Pwllheli road, at about a furlong's distance from the church, is St. Beuno's well, now nearly dry, surrounded by a stone building. There are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, Independents, and Baptists, within the limits of the parish; also ten Sunday schools, gratuitously conducted, seven of which belong to the Calvinistic Methodists, two to the Independents, and one to the Baptists. A sum of £1. 10., the interest of a gift of £30 by David Ellis Nanney, Esq., in 1820, is distributed among the poor at Christmas; and a similar sum, arising chiefly from a gift by the Rev. Philip Twisselton, has become lost. In a field at Bâchwen is a very large cromlech, with several supporting stones; the table-stone is eight feet and a half in length, and at the eastern end nearly two feet thick. There is another cromlech at Penarth, and the parish contains some encampments of early date.
CLYRO (CLAERWY), a parish, in the union of Hay, hundred of Painscastle, county of Radnor, South Wales, 1 mile (N. W.) from Hay; containing 984 inhabitants. This parish, which is nearly four miles in breadth, extends for about seven miles along the banks of the river Wye, which separates it from the county of Brecknock; and borders also upon the county of Hereford, from which it is separated only by a narrow brook: the road from Brecknock, by way of Glâsbury bridge, to Kington in Herefordshire, passes through the village. Some vestiges are discernible of an ancient castle, the history whereof is altogether unknown; and a monastery was founded here at a very early period, of which there are at present no remains, the only memorial of it being retained in the name of some lands, which probably belonged to it, and which, from that circumstance, were called "Tir y Myneich." There are several neat villas within the parish; two of them are the property of Thomas Baskerville Mynors Baskerville, Esq., and one, called Cabalva, the seat of William Davies, Esq.
This parish until lately constituted the endowment of a prebend in the collegiate church of Brecknock, rated in the king's books at £7. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Bishop of St. David's. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Bettws-Clyro annexed, rated in the king's books at £6; present net income, £330; patron, the Bishop. The impropriate tithes of the parish, including the chapelry of Bettws-Clyro, have been commuted for a rent-charge of £675. Attached to the vicarage is a glebe of four acres, valued at £6 per annum; likewise a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is an ancient edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel, with a tower, which, having been partly demolished, is covered with a shelving roof: the font is of considerable size, and there is a large piscina at the entrance, which formerly contained the holy water. The chancel was rebuilt in 1823, as appears by an inscription on a tablet over the door, by the Venerable Archdeacon Beynon: it contains two neat marble tablets, one to the memory of the Rev. Edward Edwards, prebendary of Llanvaes, and vicar of Clyro, and the other to that of Sophia, only daughter of William Davies, Esq., of Cabalva. In the church also is an elegant mural monument of white marble, ornamented with a female figure in relief, bending over an urn, to the memory of Elizabeth Williams, of Bronith Cottage. The chapel of BettwsClyro is about two miles distant from the parish church. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists near the village. A day school is supported under the superintendence of the vicar, and another school, also in connexion with the Established Church, has been opened by Mrs. Baskerville, of Clyro Court. Two Sunday schools are also conducted on Church principles. Mrs. Elizabeth Gwynne, of the county of Hereford, about the year 1772, bequeathed £600, the interest of which was to be applied in paying a master to teach poor children of the parish, and also for clothing and apprenticing them; but this charity is not now available to the purposes intended by the donor, as her brother James Price, one of the trustees, in whose hands the money was placed, became, after building a school near the church, greatly embarrassed. Here is a mineral spring, the water of which is regarded as efficacious in the cure of diseases of the eye.
CNWCLAS, a borough, partly in the parish of Beguildy, but chiefly in that of Heyop, of which latter it constitutes a division, in the hundred of Knighton, county of Radnor, South Wales, 2½ miles (N. W. by W.) from Knighton: the population is returned with the respective parishes. This place is pleasantly situated near the right bank of the Teme, which here separates Radnorshire from Shropshire; and had formerly a castle, originally built by Ralph Mortimer, about the year 1242, on the summit of a conical artificial mound. The village consists of about a dozen farmhouses and cottages: the manor belongs to the crown. There is a considerable extent of pasture land in the vicinity, especially near the river Teme, the cattle fed on which are principally taken to the market at Knighton, and to Bishop's-Castle in Shropshire. The borough is still under the superintendence of a bailiff and burgesses, the latter of whom are made by a presentation of a jury of burgesses, selected by the steward of the manor. Jointly with Kevenlleece, Knighton, Rhaiadr, and (by the act of 1832, for "Amending the Representation of the People") Presteign, it contributes, with Radnor, to return a representative to parliament. The right of voting was formerly vested in the burgesses at large without regard to the distance of their residence from the borough, but is now, by the late act, vested in the old resident burgesses only, if duly registered according to the provisions of the act, and in every male person of full age occupying, either as owner, or as tenant under the same landlord, a house or other premises of the annual value of not less than £10, if he be capable of registering as the act directs. The number of voters, including the twenty-one resident burgesses that remain from the former constituency, is only twenty-two. The limits of the borough were not altered by the late boundary act. The court-house, where the burgesses are created, is situated in that part of the borough which is in the parish of Beguildy. The Rev. Vavasour Powell, who distinguished himself in the civil and religious disputes of the seventeenth century, more particularly in connexion with the Welsh nonconformists, was a native of this borough.
COEDANNA (COED-ANAU), a parish, partly in the hundred of Twrcelyn, and partly in that of Tàl-y-bolion, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 2 miles (S. E.) from Llanerchymedd, on the road to Beaumaris; containing 275 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Llaneilian; and the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £140. The church, dedicated to St. Blenwydd, is a small ancient structure, originally founded about the year 630: divine service is performed in it every alternate Sunday. William Thomas, in 1772, bequeathed £10, and Margaret Owen, in 1784, gave by deed £20, the interest to be distributed among the poor: the former benefaction has been lost; but with the latter two small cottages were erected, in which two poor families are allowed to reside rent-free, occasionally; the poor at the same time receiving annually the interest of the original bequest from the parochial funds.
COEDCANLASS (COED-CANLAIS), a parish, in the union and hundred of Narberth, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 8 miles (S. E. by S.) from Haverfordwest; containing 245 inhabitants. This small parish is situated on the eastern bank of Milford Haven, from which there is a ferry to Llangwm, on the opposite shore; and is five miles distant from Pembroke, across the ferry at Lawrenny. The substratum of the soil is a fine limestone rock, which is quarried to a considerable extent. The living is a donative, with a stipend of £20 per annum, paid by Sir John Owen, Bart., the impropriator. The church is a small picturesque building of great antiquity, repaired some years since, at the expense of Sir John Owen: divine service is only occasionally performed in it, but burials generally, the remaining ecclesiastical rites being celebrated at Martletwy. Here are the ruins of an ancient mansion, which bore the same name as the parish, and belonged to the family of Percival.
Coed-Eulo, or Coed-Ewloe
COED-EULO, or COED-EWLOE, a township, in the parish of Hawarden, hundred of Mold, county of Flint, North Wales, 1¼ mile (W. by N.) from Hawarden; containing, with Eulo-Town, 1404 inhabitants. This place is remarkable in history as the scene of a signal defeat sustained by a chosen body of English troops, despatched by Henry II., in 1157, whilst advancing with a formidable army to the conquest of Wales, from his encampment on Saltney Marsh, with a view to force on a general engagement with Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales, who had posted his forces at Basingwerk. This detachment, having been unexpectedly attacked, when passing along a deep and narrow defile here, by a strong body of Welsh troops, lying in ambush, and headed by Davydd and Cynan, sons of Owain, was seized with a panic, which, added to the difficulties of the situation, rendered the men unable to resist the impetuosity of their assailants; the majority of them were mercilessly slaughtered, and the few that escaped retreated in discomfiture to the main body of the army. The township is a scene of busy industry. Potteries for the manufacture of coarse earthenware, and kilns for making fire-bricks, draining-pipes, and tiles of superior quality, a considerable quantity of which is shipped to various ports on the Welsh coast and to Ireland, have for some years been carried on here with spirit, and afford employment to a great proportion of the inhabitants: the clay is found on Buckley mountain, and, when manufactured into bricks, is calculated in a superior manner to resist intense heat. Large collieries are also wrought, and the produce shipped to Ireland, and different parts of North Wales. The Chester and Holyhead railway, opened in 1848, passes in the vicinity of Eulo. At Buckley, a handsome chapel was erected in 1822, by the Parliamentary Commissioners, who granted £4000 for the purpose. The edifice is in the later English style, with a tower surmounted by a spire, and contains 580 sittings, of which 270 are free. It is dedicated to St. Matthew, and forms a chapel of ease for four townships, under the rectory of Hawarden. Attached is a parsonage-house, the residence of a curate. Here are National schools for the education of children of both sexes, with a house for the master, built in 1819, at an expense of £1200, by subscription. An infants' school and a Sunday school are also supported. Situated in a woody glen, at the distance of about a quarter of a mile north of the road leading from Chester to Holyhead, are the picturesque remains of Eulo Castle, an appendage to that of Mold, but of unknown origin, and of which a more detailed account is given in the article on Hawarden.
COED-FRANK, a township, in the parish of Cadoxton, union and hundred of Neath, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 2½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Neath; containing 1126 inhabitants. Its name signifies a forest, which in former ages was much infested by wolves; and tradition reports that, after a desperate battle fought in this neighbourhood, great numbers of these animals came down and devoured many of the slain. The township commences at the mouth of the river Neath, and extends in a north-eastern direction until it meets that of Dyfryn-Clydach. A branch of the Neath canal passes through it, nearly parallel with the river, and joins the Briton-Ferry canal, which connects the rivers Neath and Tawy below Swansea; and by means of a ferry across the former, near the termination of the canal, a distance of seven or eight miles from Swansea to the eastern part of the county is avoided. The Crown Copper-works, belonging to a company at Birmingham, and affording employment to about 100 persons, are situated here. Coed-Frank and Dyfryn-Clydach form the ecclesiastical parish or district of Skewen, under the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37.
COEDGLASEN (COED-GLEISION), a hamlet, in the parish of Nantmel, union and hundred of Rhaiadr, county of Radnor, South Wales, 5½ miles (E. by S.) from Rhaiadr; containing 237 inhabitants. It is situated on the western bank of the Clywedog brook, and on the southeastern declivity of Camlo Hill. The name signifies "the green wood," and was formerly characteristic of the township, which was well wooded.
COEDYCUMMER (COED-Y-CYMMER), a hamlet, in the parish of Vainor, union of Merthyr-Tydvil, hundred of Pencelly, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 1¼ mile (N. by W.) from Merthyr-Tydvil; containing 1905 inhabitants. This large village, which is situated on the borders of Brecknockshire and Glamorganshire, is of recent origin, having risen in consequence of the establishment of the iron-works in the vicinity, in which many of the inhabitants are employed. The houses are built along the sides of the road leading to Brecknock, and are scattered over part of an adjoining common, which extends between two branches of the river Tâf. On the creation of the parliamentary borough of Merthyr-Tydvil, in 1832, Coedycummer was included within its limits.
COGAN, a parish, in the union of Cardiff, hundred of Dinas-Powys, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Cardiff; containing 28 inhabitants. This parish contains about 700 acres of land, inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. The living, with those of Llandough and Leckwith, forms a consolidated rectory: the income is stated under the head of Leckwith. The church, dedicated to St. Peter, is at present disused: in the chancel are some ancient monuments, among which are several of the Herbert family, of Cogan Pill, an old mansion now converted into a farmhouse.
COLLVRYN, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llansantfraid-yn-Mechan which is in the Upper division of the hundred of Deythur, in the union of Llanvyllin, county of Montgomery, North Wales; containing 182 inhabitants. It is situated on the south side of the river Vyrnwy.
COLVA, a parochial chapelry, in the union of Kington, hundred and county of Radnor, South Wales, 9 miles (E. by N.) from Builth; containing 221 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the river Edwy, and on a road leading from Kington to Builth, appears to have been formerly only a hamlet, or chapelry, within the parish of Glâscomb, in the church of which the inhabitants have still a pew appropriated to their use: it is also, together with Rulen, partially dependent upon that parish, as the inhabitants of both contribute to the repairs of the church of Glâscomb; but in all civil matters they are independent parishes. The parochial chapelry contains 900 acres of inclosed, and 1000 of uninclosed, land; it is chiefly of a hilly character, and the soil is not very productive. The greater part is the property of the crown, but there is a small manor belonging to the owner of Harpton Court. Colva, in the king's books, is described as a chapel to Glâscomb, of the certified value of £10. The great tithes are an appropriation belonging to the Bishop of St. David's, and the vicar of Glâscomb receives the small tithes, holding Colva by the same presentation, institution, and induction as Glâscomb. The appropriate tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £95, and the vicarial for one of £62. The chapel, like the church of Glâscomb, is dedicated to St. David. A farm called Ty'n-y-Waun, in the parish of Llandegley, in this county, was purchased with the amount of benefactions made by Evan and Ann Griffiths, in 1721, and is now let for £21 per annum, which sum is equally divided among the poor of Colva, Llandegley, and Llanvihangel-Nant-Melan. John and James Lloyd likewise bequeathed £60, the interest to be applied for the benefit of the poor, which, with the portion of the former charity payable to Colva, produces £9. 17. 6. yearly for the poor not receiving parochial aid. The late Mr. James Chambers, of this place, also bequeathed £60, since laid out in mortgage on a tenement in the parish of Kington, in Herefordshire, producing £3 per annum, which is distributed in bread among the poor of Colva, at Easter and Christmas.