A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
NEWBRIDGE, an extensive and populous village, in the parishes of Llanwonno, Eglwysilan, and Lantwit-Vairdre, unions of Cardiff and Merthyr-Tydvil, partly in the hundred of Caerphilly, but principally in that of Miskin, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, on the turnpikeroad from Cardiff to Merthyr-Tydvil, 12 miles (S. by E.) from Merthyr-Tydvil: the population is returned with the respective parishes. It is situated on both banks of the river Tâf, which here receives the Rhondda; and derives its name from the celebrated bridge called Pont-y-Pridd, over the Tâf: there are three other bridges at the place, connecting the different parishes; and a fine bridge for the TâfVale railway. In 1816 Newbridge was an insignificant village. Its progressive increase and importance are entirely owing to the coal and other mineral treasures of the neighbourhood, and to its favourable situation on the Glamorganshire canal and the Tâf-Vale railway, midway between Merthyr-Tydvil and the sea at Cardiff. It has for some time been distinguished for a chain-cable manufactory, usually affording employment to about one hundred persons, and where, among many other large works, the suspension bridges across the Thames at Hammersmith, and across the Usk and the Tweed, together with the Brighton chain-pier, were made. This manufactory is in the parish of Eglwysilan. In that part of the village which is within the parish of Lantwit-Vairdre, are works for the manufacture of patent wrought-iron railway-plates; and a little lower down the river, at Treforest, in the same parish, Mr. Crawshay, of Merthyr, a few years since erected some tin-mills, which are now in full operation, and are said to be the largest tin-mills in the world. There are also, in the Eglwysilan part of Newbridge, some plate-works belonging to the Tâf-Vale Iron Company. The entire length of the village is not less than a mile; and a church has been erected in that portion situated in the parish of Eglwysilan, with the aid of a grant from the Church Commissioners. There are several places of worship for dissenters, noticed in the parishes where they are respectively situated. Near the turnpike-road is a curious rocking-stone, which, however, has been much injured of late.
PONT-Y-PRIDD, otherwise called the New Bridge, over the river Tâf, forms a beautiful and picturesque object from the various points at which it is visible; but, owing to the steepness of the ascent, it is somewhat inconvenient to travellers on horseback, and is almost impassable for vehicles heavily laden, which ford the stream when practicable. It consists of one arch, 140 feet in the chord, and 35 feet in height above the level of the river when the water is low, forming the section of a circle 175 feet in diameter, which, at the time of its erection, was considered the largest stone arch in the world. At each extremity are three cylindrical holes, gradually diminishing in size as they approach the summit, introduced to relieve the arch from the extreme pressure arising from its abutments; the diameter of the lowest is nine feet, that of the middle six, and that of the uppermost four. The architect was William Edwards, a native of the parish of Eglwysilan, a self-taught genius, whose talents procured for him great distinction as a bridgebuilder. He began the work, in 1746, by constructing a light and elegant bridge of three arches, which, in the course of about two years and a half after the period of its completion, was swept away by a flood of extraordinary magnitude. The mountain torrents tore up by the roots several large trees, which, forming a dam as they floated along by the middle piers of the bridge, caused a vast accumulation of the waters; and these, ultimately bursting through their barrier with irresistible force, carried away the entire structure. Bound by the terms of the contract to maintain the stability of the bridge for seven years, Edwards conceived the design of surmounting the difficulty by a structure of one arch, of the then unexampled width of 140 feet, from pier to pier, which he completed in 1751, having only to add the parapets; but, owing to the keystone of the arch being unable to resist the pressure of the abutments, the whole gave way and fell into the river. The luckless architect was thus driven once again to the resources of his fertile genius, to prevent the recurrence of so unpropitious an event; and adhering to his latter plan of a single arch, he contrived an ingenious method for diminishing the enormous weight that had previously forced the keystone out of its place, by constructing the cylindrical holes in the present bridge, already described, which enabled him to complete this curious and much admired edifice. Some account of William Edwards is given in the article on Eglwysilan.
NEWCASTLE, a parish, consisting of the Higher and Lower townships, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Newcastle, county of Glamorgan, South Wales; comprising part of the market-town of Bridgend, and containing 1239 inhabitants, of whom 590 are in the Higher, and 649 in the Lower township. This place, which is situated on the western bank of the river Ogmore, near its confluence with the Ewenny, derives its name from a fortress of later date than that of Oldcastle, on the opposite bank of the Ogmore. By whom these castles were originally built has not been clearly ascertained; but their origin has been attributed to some of the Norman invaders of this part of the principality, who probably erected them for the protection of the territories of which they had obtained possession. The parish is bounded on the north by the parishes of Bettws and Llangonoyd, east by St. Bride's Minor and Coyty, south by Merthyr-Mawr, and west by Laleston. Its surface is very irregular, and exhibits little timber of any kind. The Lower township includes part of the market-town of Bridgend, and presents some good land, producing wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, and hay, with a few turnips. In the Higher township the lands are of rather poor quality, with the exception of a small portion inclosed and cultivated; but they contain coal and iron mines, together with limestone-quarries, in the former of which a considerable number of men are employed. An act of parliament was passed in 1847, enabling the LlynviValley railway company to form an extension of their line, three miles and a half in length, to Newcastle. Besides Bridgend, there is the small village of Aberkenvig in the parish. The scenery is generally pleasing, and from the eminence on which the church is situated is a fine view, including the influx of the Ogmore into the Bristol Channel, the castles of Coyty and Ogmore, and the mansion of Coytrehên, higher up the river Ogmore, with its luxuriant groves; forming an assemblage of picturesque objects.
The Tondu iron-works, in the Upper division of the parish, are pleasantly situated within a quarter of a mile north-west of the village of Aberkenvig, and near the Porthcawl railway, now the property of the Llynvi-Valley railway company. They consist of two blast furnaces, with every requisite convenience for the manufacture of pig-iron. Small quantities of blackband, sufficient to indicate the presence of that cheaply-wrought species of ironstone, have been discovered on the property; but the supply of blackband used here is obtained from a place called Tywyth, in the Upper hamlet of the parish of Llangonoyd, whence it is conveyed to Tondu by railway. The Tondu iron-works form one of the several establishments which have made the Vale of Llynvi remarkable as a great seat of the iron-trade.
The living is a discharged vicarage, with the livings of Bettws, Laleston, and Tythegston annexed, rated in the king's books at £7. 7. 3½., endowed with the rectorial tithes of the parish of Bettws, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor; present net income, £197, with a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Illtyd, is an ancient structure with a tower, and is situated at Bridgend, on the declivity of an eminence; it is supposed to have been erected in 1200, and is sixty feet long and twenty broad, containing about 200 sittings, of which sixty are free. The town of Bridgend, which is partly in Coyty parish, contains also several places of worship for dissenters, and a chapel of ease to the church of Coyty. At Penyvray, in the parish of Newcastle, is a place of worship for Particular Baptists; and at Aberkenvig, one for Calvinistic Methodists. The interest of £10, bequeathed by Mr. Watkins, and vested in the Bridgend turnpike-trust, is annually distributed among the poor; but two charities of £10 and £5 by Rachel Mathews and John Austin have been lost. The only remains of the ancient castle are, a gateway remarkable for the elegance of its pointed arch, and the ruins of the wall which inclosed the site; the area has been converted into a garden: they are the property of the Earl of Dunraven.
NEWCASTLE, with Evenjob, a township, in the parish of Old Radnor, liberties of the borough of New Radnor, union of Kington, county of Radnor, South Wales, 3¼ miles (E. N. E.) from New Radnor: the population is returned under the head of Evenjob.
NEWCASTLE-EMLYN, a market-town and chapelry, and the head of a union, in the parish of Kenarth, Higher division of the hundred of Elvet, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 19 miles (N. W. by N.) from Carmarthen, and 222 (W. by N.) from London; containing, with the village of Aberarad, but exclusively of the suburb of Atpar in the Cardiganshire parish of Llandyvrîog, 1049 inhabitants. The ancient name of this place, Dinas Emlin, or "the city of Emlin," is thought by Mr. Llwyd to have been derived from Emilianus, a Roman settler in the principality, who perhaps made it his residence; but no traces of Roman occupation have been discovered in corroboration of that opinion. Its modern name appears to have originated in the erection of a new castle in the reign of Henry VII., by Sir Rhŷs ab Thomas, on the site of a fortress probably built by the Normans, though neither the name of the founder, nor the precise time of the erection, of the original structure, is known. The ancient castle was besieged and taken, in 1215, by Llewelyn ab Iorwerth, who resigned it in the following year, when he divided the principality of South Wales between its rival princes, on which occasion the castle fell to the portion of Maelgwyn. In 1258, Llewelyn appointed a meeting of commissioners at this place, to deliberate upon the terms of a treaty of peace with the English; but the negotiations were frustrated by the treachery of Patrick de Canton, the lieutenant of Henry III., who, perceiving that the party by which he was attended was stronger than Llewelyn's, attacked the Welsh by surprise, and put many of them to the sword: the rest, who with difficulty effected their retreat, raised the country in the rear of the enemy, and the English forces were soon overtaken, and Patrick, with a large number of his adherents, was slain. In the reign of Edward I. the castle was besieged by Rhŷs ab Meredydd; but a large reinforcement being brought by Robert de Tibetot to the relief of the garrison, Rhŷs thought it prudent to raise the siege, and retire in haste into Ireland.
The castle, which had been rebuilt in the time of Henry VII., by Sir Rhŷs ab Thomas, descended to his grandson, Rhŷs ab Grufydd, on whose attainder, in the reign of Henry VIII., it became forfeited to the crown, and was granted to the Vaughans of Golden Grove, of whom Richard Vaughan was by Charles I., in the 19th of his reign, created Earl of Carberry in Ireland, and Baron Emlyn. During the civil war, the castle was garrisoned for the king: it was besieged by the parliamentarian forces in 1645, but was relieved by a body of royalists under the command of Colonel Gerard, who, attacking the besiegers, totally defeated them, killed 200, and took 500 prisoners, with all their arms, ordnance, and baggage, and with the loss on his own part of only twenty-six men killed, besides others wounded. The castle continued in the family of Vaughan, by the last of whom it was devised to the late Lord Cawdor, father of Earl Cawdor, the present proprietor.
The Town is beautifully situated on the southern bank of the Teivy, which here rushes with great impetuosity along its rocky channel, and over which is a handsome stone bridge of three arches, forming a communication between the counties of Cardigan and Carmarthen, and connecting the suburban hamlet of Atpar, in the former county, with this town. Newcastle consists principally of one irregular street, extending nearly a mile in length. The houses, several of which are handsome, are in general well built, and the cottages have an appearance of comfort and neatness not usually found in this part of the country: the town is neither paved nor lighted, but is well supplied with water. The surrounding country is pleasingly varied, abounding with interesting objects, and with romantic scenery. From several points the appearance of the town, with the capricious windings of the river and the remains of the ancient castle rising from its banks, is strikingly beautiful. The Teivy is celebrated for its salmon and sewin fishery, which is prosecuted with great success in small boats called coracles, peculiar to the principality. The market is amply supplied with provisions, and is remarkable for the number of pigs exposed in it for sale; it is on Friday, and is well attended. Fairs are held on March 23rd, May 10th, June 22nd, July 20th, August 20th, September 20th, October 19th, and November 22nd. Newcastle-Emlyn is included within the limits of the contributory borough of Atpar. It is a polling-place in the election of the knights for the shire; and one of the county debtcourts established in 1847 has been fixed here, with jurisdiction over the registration-district of NewcastleEmlyn.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant; present net income, £71; patron, the Vicar of Kenarth. The chapel, which was built by public subscription about seventy years since, is a neat small edifice. A spacious and handsome church has lately been erected, affording accommodation to a greater number of the inhabitants; of 500 sittings, 400 are free: it is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and the living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Bishop of St. David's, with a net income of £150. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists; and some Sunday schools are supported. The poor-law union of which the town is the head was formed May 31st, 1837, and comprises the following twenty-one parishes and townships; namely, Bangor, Bettwsleuvan, Brongwyn, Hênllan, Llandyssil, Llandyvrîog, Llangranog, Llangunllo, Llanvair-Orllwyn, Llanvair-Trêlygon, Penbryn, and Troedyraur, in the county of Cardigan; Kenarth, Llangeler, Llanvihangel-ar-Arth, and Penboyr, in the county of Carmarthen; Capel-Colman, Clydey, Llanvyrnach, and Penrith, in the county of Pembroke; and Kilrhedyn, in the counties of Carmarthen and Pembroke. It is under the superintendence of thirty-four guardians, and contains a population of 20,860.
The remains of the castle occupy an elevated ridge east of the town, on a peninsula formed by a bend of the river Teivy. The river flows in a direct course till it almost reaches the walls of the structure, but, suddenly reverting in a direction nearly parallel with its former course for a considerable distance, winds majestically in front, leaving before the castle a long and beautiful meadow, and returns on the opposite side, with features of a new character, forcing its way over a rocky bed. It thus surrounds the ancient edifice with a magnificent natural moat, which is double on that side where it first reaches the castle. The ruins consist chiefly of the principal gateway entrance, about fourteen feet in height, flanked by two octagonal towers, and possessing, from its situation immediately above the river, and its lightness and elegance, a peculiarly picturesque appearance. The town gives the inferior title of Viscount Emlyn to the Right Honourable Earl Cawdor.
NEWCASTLE (LITTLE), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 8½ miles (N. by E.) from Haverfordwest; containing 431 inhabitants. It derives its name from an ancient mound near the church, called "the Castle," and its distinguishing epithet of Little from the inferiority of this fortification to a much older and more extensive work of the same kind, at a short distance from the village. The parish comprises a moderate tract of land, by far the greater part inclosed and cultivated, the remainder being stony, barren, and unfit for tillage, especially the northern portion of it, which is hilly. Fairs are held in the village on May 6th and July 10th. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant; net income, £54; patron, T. Morse, Esq.; impropriator, the Rev. T. K. W. Harries. The church is dedicated to St. Peter. A Church Sunday school is held; and there is a place of worship for Baptists, with a Sunday school held in it. Near the village is a spring designated Golden Well, which ebbs and flows regularly with the tide in St. George's Channel, nine miles distant; the water is said to be efficacious in coughs, and in diseases of the eye.
Newchurch, or Llan-Newydd
NEWCHURCH, or LLAN-NEWYDD, a parish, in the Lower division of the hundred of Elvet, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 3½ miles (N. W. by N.) from Carmarthen; containing 867 inhabitants. This place is stated to have been the scene of a pitched battle which was fought, about the year 72, between the Britons and the Romans under the command of Severinus, son of Severus, the Roman governor of Britain, who at that time resided at York. Severinus is supposed to have fallen in the engagement; and a stone, formerly on the road-side, but now removed and set up in the front court of Traws-Mawr, is said to have marked the spot where the battle took place. This stone, which is noticed by Camden, bore the inscription "Severini Fili Severi," the word sepulchrum or memoriæ being understood. It is described by the last editors of Camden's Britannia as "a rude pillar, erected near the highway, flattish, five or six feet high, and about three feet broad," and from the form of the letters and the rudeness of the stone, they suspect it to be the epitaph of some person of Roman descent, but of a later period; the inscription has since been mutilated, and the word "fili" is no longer legible, that part of the stone having been chipped off.
The parish is situated on the banks of the river Gwili, and on the turnpike-road from Carmarthen to Newcastle-Emlyn, comprising a large extent of arable and pasture land, which is fertile and in a good state of cultivation. The court leet for the hundred is held under Earl Cawdor, at Bwlch Newydd in the parish. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £600 royal bounty, and £1400 parliamentary grant; net income, £96: the patronage and impropriation belong to the family of Mallock. The church was entirely rebuilt in 1829, and is a remarkably neat edifice. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists; and two Sunday schools are held, one of them in connexion with the Established Church, and the other with the Calvinistic body. Two rent-charges of 10s. each, one by an unknown donor, and the other by Eynon Rees in 1786, are distributed in March and September among poor industrious families. In the parish are several barrows, probably covering the remains of those who fell in the battle noticed above; and to the east of the church, and near the ruins of an ancient chapel, which has been converted into a barn, are a Roman encampment, and vestiges of a Roman road that passed through the parish to Fishguard, in Pembrokeshire.
NEWCHURCH, a parish, in the poor-law union of Kington, hundred of Painscastle, county of Radnor, South Wales, 7 miles (S. W. by W.) from Kington; containing 155 inhabitants. This parish is situated nearly at the south-eastern extremity of the county, on the confines of Herefordshire, and is intersected by a road leading from Hay to New Radnor. The small river Arrow, which passes through it in a winding course, separates it on the north from the parish of Colva, and on the east from that of Michael-Church. It comprises by admeasurement an area of 1624¾ acres, the whole of it titheable, with the exception of 10 acres of inclosed and 400 acres of uninclosed land, the latter subject to a right of commonage. The surface is hilly, and the soil various, running in some places into a red clayey earth; the lower lands are fertile and productive, but the hills are mostly in a state of nature, and serve chiefly for the pasturing of sheep. Newchurch is situated in that part of the county called Radnor Forest, but the parish is nearly bare of wood, the tract retaining the above name having long since lost all traces of its original character. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £5. 6. 8., and endowed with £200 private benefaction, and £200 royal bounty; net income, £171; patron, the Bishop of St. David's: a small estate termed Catriggin belongs to the benefice. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a small edifice consisting of a nave and chancel, without tower or spire, and possessing no details of importance; it is situated on the right bank of the Arrow, in the midst of hills of forbidding rather than pleasing aspect.
Newchurch-In-Tîr-Abbot, otherwise Llandulas
NEWCHURCH-IN-TÎR-ABBOT, otherwise LLANDULAS, a parish, in the union of Llandovery, hundred of Builth, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 9 miles (N. E.) from Llandovery; containing 141 inhabitants. It was bestowed by Rhŷs ab Grufydd, Prince of South Wales, upon the monastery of Ystrad Flur, or Strata-Florida, in the county of Cardigan, which he founded in the year 1164. In consequence of this grant the place was styled Tîr yr Abad, or "the abbot's land:" its present name, to which that appellation forms an adjunct, appears to have been derived from the erection of a church here in the year 1716. The name Llandulas, by which it is also known, and which, according to some authorities, is a corruption of Glàn Dulas, under which it occurs in several public documents, seems to have originated in its situation on the bank of the little river Dulas; from this circumstance, also, it was not unfrequently called Aber Dulas. The parish lies in a mountainous district, having the Eppynt hills on the east, at the western extremity of the county, on the confines of Carmarthenshire. It comprises a considerable tract of hilly country, of which the soil is chiefly a turbary, interspersed with small inclosures producing thin crops of barley and oats, and some small pastures of indifferent herbage. The views from the higher grounds, embracing the counties of Brecknock and Carmarthen, are remarkable for their extent, if not for their picturesque beauty. The turnpike-road from Builth to Llandovery passes through the parish, within a short distance of the village.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1000 royal bounty, and with £200 by Sackville Gwynne, Esq., of Glànbrân, who also charged his estates with the payment of £20 per annum to the minister; patron of the living, Colonel Gwynne of Glànbrân, who is the proprietor of the tithes; net income of the minister, £47. The minister and parishioners claim a right of exemption from episcopal jurisdiction and visitation, but have not strenuously maintained that privilege, as they prove wills and take out letters of administration at the Register Office at Brecknock. The church, a small edifice, was erected in 1716, at the sole expense of Sackville Gwynne, Esq. There is a Sunday school, held by the Calvinistic Methodists. A Roman road, which was a branch of the Via Helena, called by the Welsh Sarn Helen, passed through the parish, over the common termed Llwydlo Vâch; and part of it may still be traced in some places. At Pyllau-DaProbert, forming a portion of the tenement of Trelath, is a well the water of which is strongly impregnated with sulphur, and similar in its properties to that of Llanwrtyd.
NEWMARKET, a parish, in the union of Holywell, Media division of the hundred of Prestatyn, county of Flint, North Wales, on the old line of road between Chester and Holyhead, 7 miles (W. N. W.) from Holywell; containing 713 inhabitants. In Pope Nicholas' Taxation this place is called Rywlyvnwyd, by which name it is also mentioned in a document so late as the middle of the sixteenth century: it was formerly a chapelry in the parish of Disserth. According to Mr. Pennant, the ancient name was Trelawnyd, "for which," says that distinguished antiquary, "I can find no satisfactory reason." He also hazards the conjecture, from the numerous tumuli and other sepulchral memorials visible in the neighbourhood, that this was the scene of the slaughter of the Ordovices, the aboriginal inhabitants of the district, by the Romans under Agricola. In the early part of the last century the village was much enlarged through the care and exertions of John Wynne, Esq., of Gop, to whom the estate then belonged. It even attained the distinction of a market-town, the market, now in disuse, being held on Saturday; but the place has greatly declined from its former consequence, and now presents only the appearance of a village, though of considerable size. The parish contains about 943 acres; and lead-ore abounds in it, but the works have been discontinued. Fairs used to be held on the last Saturday in April, the third Saturday in July, the fourth Saturday in October, and the second Saturday in December. The petty-sessions for the hundred take place here.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £200 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Bishop of St. Asaph: the net income, previously £90, was lately augmented with £70 per annum by the see. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £233. 3. 7.; the incumbent's glebe comprises four acres and a quarter, with an excellent house. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is a small structure of modern date, standing within a spacious cemetery, finely shaded by lofty trees; about twenty yards from the principal entrance, on the south side, stands a tall and very beautiful cross, the upper part elegantly sculptured in high relief. There are places of worship for Independents, Calvinistic Methodists, and Wesleyans. A remarkable case of breach of trust here for purposes of education, has been commented on both by the commissioners of charities, and the commissioners for inquiring into the state of Welsh schools. Under the will of John Wynne, Esq., dated 1713, a schoolhouse in the parish was devised to the churchwardens for the time being, together with a yearly rentcharge of £40, for the support of a charity school, and for providing pensions and apprenticeships. The will directs the master "to teach a public grammar school with Latin and Greek authors; and in case the same be obstructed and hindered by law for want of conformity in matters of religion, then to teach and instruct all persons, both young and old, in order to enable them to write and cast accounts, and speak languages, particularly the French, and to teach them the mathematics, and all in order to fit persons for travel, for trade, and for navigation." The number of scholars is limited to twenty-six, twenty of the number to be of the parish of Newmarket; the will contains no limitations as to the religious tenets to be inculcated in the school. For more than seventy years, it is certain, not the slightest benefit has resulted to the parish from this benevolent bequest. Yet the testator gives power to the parties concerned, "to distrain for the same upon all or any part of the premises," which are worth more than £200 a year; and declares, that if any let or "hindrance to the quiet enjoyment" of the rent-charge should be given, its amount should be doubled. The charity having become the subject of a suit in chancery, it was found by the "master," in 1800, that the arrears then amounted to £2520; and a scheme was at that time submitted to the court: no steps, however, have been taken for the recovery of the arrears, nor is even the rent-charge paid. Four Sunday schools are held, one of them in connexion with the Church.
Among the tumuli and other relics of antiquity which lie thickly scattered throughout this interesting district, that called Copa'r'leni, or Gop Paulini, on the summit of a mountain about half a mile above the village, is the chief. It is composed of loose stones covering an acre and a half of ground, and is about twelve yards in height. Different conjectures have been raised regarding the purpose of its formation, but there can be little doubt that it was erected over the remains of some renowned warrior or chieftain, slain in battle, and that it served, in later time, as a beacon, since it commands a view of the whole range of encampments on the south and west, the Irish sea on the north, and the estuaries of the Dee and Mersey on the east. Part of the brow of the hill is termed Bryn-y-Saethau, or "the hill of arrows," intimating that it was the station of the archers in some of those engagements which, in the early period of British history, deluged this neighbourhood with blood, but the calamities of which have not been recorded by the historian, and are now involved in the obscurity of ages. A greater number of these tumuli, of the ordinary size, may be seen in the tract intervening between this place and Caerwys than in any other district in North Wales. Several of them, being opened, were found to contain urns, in which were burnt ashes, charcoal, &c.; and many hundreds have been levelled in agricultural operations. Clawdd Offa, or Offa's Dyke, passes very near the village, and forms the boundary line between this parish and that of Llanasaph.
New Mote, or New Moat
NEW MOTE, or NEW MOAT, a parish, in the union of Narberth, hundred of Dungleddy, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 10 miles (N. E.) from Haverfordwest; containing 377 inhabitants. The name is derived from an artificial mount, situated within a short distance of the church, and entirely surrounded by a deep moat, that may be easily filled with water. It is supposed to have been originally constructed by the Flemings who, in the reign of Henry II., settled in this district of the principality, obtaining by force the hundreds of Castlemartin and Rhôs, together with a part of that of Dungleddy. The parish is pleasantly situated on a branch of the river Cleddy, and comprises a considerable portion of meadow, arable, and pasture land, all inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. Its population is agricultural. The surrounding country is diversified, and displays some interesting features of mountain scenery. The ancient mansion of the Scourfields, who resided here from the reign of Edward I. till within the last eighty years, when they removed to Robeston Hall, near Milford, has been taken down, and the proprietor has erected a spacious and elegant mansion on a very eligible eminence, about 400 or 500 yards from the former. The house is surrounded with thriving plantations, and with groves of old trees; it is delightfully situated below the southern declivity of the Percelly range of mountains, and commands a fine view over the whole of the lower part of the county.
The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £2. 4. 7.; patron, W. H. Scourfield, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £200. The church, dedicated to St. Nicholas, is an ancient and venerable structure, consisting of a nave, chancel, and one aisle, with a square embattled tower at the west end. The chancel, which appears to have been richly embellished at no very distant period, has of late been restored to its former state of elegance, and now presents a very pleasing appearance; it contains several handsome monuments to the Scourfield family, some of them of great antiquity. A Sunday school is held, in connexion with the Established Church. Near the mount above noticed, in the lower part of the parish, and about a mile and a half south-east from the church, are vestiges of a very extensive Roman camp, inclosing a quadrilateral area 300 yards in diameter, and situated on a gentle declivity towards the south. A considerable portion of the northern rampart has been dug up, but the remains are sufficient to mark out the four sides of the camp with tolerable accuracy. The road from Narberth to Fishguard passes through its centre.
NEWPORT, a sea-port, market-town, and parish, in the union of Cardigan, hundred of Kemmes, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 19½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Haverfordwest, and 242 (W. by N.) from London; containing 1751 inhabitants. The ancient British name of this place, Trêvdraeth, signifying literally "the town on the sands," appears to have been derived from its situation on a sandy beach of considerable extent, which intervenes between it and the bay of Newport. The town is indebted for its origin and early importance to the descendants of Martin de Tours, the first lord of Kemmes, which territory he had wrested from the Welsh by conquest, and erected into a lordship marcher. William, son of Martin, built a castle at this place, which he made the head of his barony, and endowed with many privileges. He bestowed upon the inhabitants a charter of incorporation, vesting the government of the town in a mayor and burgesses, to whom he gave an extensive grant of lands, with liberty to hold a weekly market, and several valuable immunities; all which were confirmed, in 1192, by his son Nicholas, who granted common pasture, and water from the fosse, and whose charter declares that the burgesses "ought to have a bailiff and common council." The lordship was entirely independent of the palatinate of Pembroke: the lord held his courts in the castle of this place; all writs were issued in his own name exclusively, and neither in that of the Earl of Pembroke, nor even of the King of England. In 1215 the castle was taken by Llewelyn ab Iorwerth, but it soon afterwards reverted to its original proprietors, whose descendants continued to hold it, together with the lordship, in which they exercised jura regalia, till the time of Henry VIII., when all such jurisdictions were abolished.
Under the protection of its ancient lords the town increased in extent and wealth, and enjoyed many additional privileges, some of which were granted to the barony in the 34th year of the reign of Elizabeth. It had become extremely populous, and carried on an extensive woollen manufacture, about the commencement of the sixteenth century, when a pestilential disease occasioned such mortality among its inhabitants, that its market was transferred to Fishguard, the trade of the port ceased, and the town fell into decay. The market has however been reestablished, and some little addition to its trade has gradually taken place since that period; but the town has never recovered its former importance.
Newport stands on the high road from Cardigan to Fishguard, and is pleasantly situated at the mouth of the river Nevern, which falls into St. George's Channel at Newport bay, and on ground ascending gradually to the Carn Ingle mountain, which shelters it from the south-easterly and south-westerly winds, and rises to a considerable height beyond the town. It consists of small streets irregularly formed, and is neither lighted nor paved, but the inhabitants are naturally well supplied with excellent water. The houses, with some few exceptions, are indifferently built, but, from the intermixture of numerous trees with the buildings, the town, at a small distance, has a pleasingly rural appearance; and the surrounding scenery, in which its venerable church and the picturesque remains of its ancient castle form prominent and interesting features, renders the more remote view of it strikingly beautiful.
The trade principally carried on is the working of some extensive quarries of slate, with which the neighbouring coast abounds, and of which great quantities are shipped to various places, the vessels being enabled to approach close to the quarries, and to receive the slates from the overhanging cliffs. In the burning of lime, also, for the supply of the adjacent districts, a considerable portion of the population is employed. A vein of alum shale is said to lie within a short distance of the town, but it has never been worked. There is a salmon-fishery on the river Nevern, which in favourable seasons is carried on with advantage; and a herring-fishery also exists here, but the demand is so inconsiderable that it is not productive of much benefit to the persons engaged in it. The port is subject to the customhouse of Cardigan: the principal exports are corn and butter, and the produce of the quarries; the chief imports are coal, culm, and limestone. The harbour, which is small, has its entrance partially obstructed by a sand-bank; but it affords good shelter to the coasting-vessels occupied in the trade, and to the boats connected with the fisheries. A compact and well-protected bay, on the south and east, stretches out before the town, from which it derives its name of Newport bay. The market is on Friday; and fairs take place on June 27th and October 16th.
Newport retains the ancient form of government which it held under the charter granted by William, son of Martin de Tours, and afterwards confirmed by his son Nicholas. The control is vested in a mayor, bailiff, and an indefinite number of aldermen and burgesses. The mayor, who acts as a sort of head constable, is appointed by the lord of the borough from two burgesses presented by a jury; the bailiff, or pound-keeper, is chosen by the mayor; and the body of aldermen consists of those who have served the office of mayor. Courts leet and baron occur twice in the year; the petty-sessions for the hundred are held in the town on the first Friday in every month, and Newport is a polling-place in the election of a knight for the shire. The freemen, who are appointed by presentment of the jury, at one of the courts leet, are entitled to common and pasture upon the waste lands, which are about three miles in circumference. The boundaries of the borough are co-extensive with those of the parish, and are well ascertained, being duly perambulated at certain periods.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £16, and endowed with £400 parliamentary grant; present net income, £216, with a glebe-house; patron, Thomas Lloyd, Esq., of Bronwydd, lord of the manor. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is an ancient and venerable cruciform structure, partly in the early style of English architecture, with a square tower at the west end. The roofs of the nave, chancel, and transepts, all of carved oak, are supported on ranges of plain pointed arches, and in the chancel are two stone canopies plainly wrought; over the nave is a richly wrought open spire for a bell, and the windows exhibit tracery of considerable elegance. The building a short time since received an addition of 418 sittings, towards defraying the expense of which the Incorporated Society for the enlargement of churches and chapels contributed £200, in consideration of which grant 218 of the new sittings are free. On the west side of the porch are the ruins of a detached house, said to have been the record office of the town. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists. A school on the National system is supported here on the foundation of the late Mrs. Bevan, for the gratuitous instruction of poor children; it is a permanent establishment, and the central school in which the teachers are prepared who superintend the several circulating branch institutions connected with the foundation. The school contains about 150 males and females; and the master has a salary of £40 per annum, together with a house and garden rent-free. This plan of "circulating" instruction was originally projected by the Rev. Griffith Jones, of Llandowror, in the county of Carmarthen, in the article on which parish an account of the charity is given. A British school is supported by subscription; and four Sunday schools are held, one of which is in connexion with the Established Church.
On an elevated knoll rising abruptly at the extremity of the principal street in the town, are the remains of the ancient castle, consisting principally of one of the circular bastions that defended the grand entrance, the other having of late years fallen down, and some portions of the dungeons, between which and the town was a subterraneous communication, discovered not many years ago. The bottom of this concealed way was flagged, and the sides and the roof were secured by smooth stones. The castle was surrounded by a moat, and though the ruins bespeak it to have been originally occupied as a seat of baronial magnificence rather than as a fortress, it was no doubt well adapted to both purposes, and in its general construction it appears to have combined strength with elegance. Newport bay, bounded by the headlands of Dinas and Ceibwr, opens beautifully in front, rendering the situation peculiarly delightful. Beyond the site of the castle rises the lofty rocky eminence of Carn Ingle, where St. Brynach, to whom many churches in Wales are dedicated, is said to have passed his life in religious seclusion, and to have conversed with angels, from which fabulous tradition the place has been termed also "Mons Angelorum." There are Druidical remains in the vicinity: about half a mile from Newport, in a field on the Fishguard road, and near a bridge, are some very curious antiquities of this kind, consisting of a small chamber formed of massive stones; and close to the town, in a field on the road leading to Berry Hill, about 200 yards from the Nevern river, is a very fine cromlech. On a hill connected with Carn Ingle is a large stone, named Morris' Grave. According to Speed there was anciently a house of Augustine friars at this place, but no particulars of its foundation or history have been preserved.
NEW-QUAY, a sea-port, in the parish of Llanllwchaiarn, union of Aberaëron, hundred of Moythen, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 15 miles (N. W. by W.) from Lampeter: the population is included in the return for the parish. This place is advantageously situated on the shore of Cardigan bay, and affords good anchorage to vessels of 500 tons: the depth of water is from two to six fathoms. The haven is securely sheltered from the westerly winds, and, if improved to the extent of which it is susceptible, might be made an excellent harbour of refuge. The pier, at least, might be enlarged, for which purpose a subscription was opened with success; but the attempt has been hitherto frustrated by the want of a sufficient title to the land, which would be requisite to carry that object into effect. In 1835 an act was obtained for making a road from this place to Aberaëron; and in November 1847 a treasury warrant was issued for transferring this creek and Aberaëron from the port of Cardigan to that of Aberystwith. There are sixty schooners and thirty smaller vessels belonging to New-Quay, averaging from 20 to 200 tons' burthen, and employing about 390 men. Ship-building is extensively carried on, and very fine stone is worked in the vicinity. Fish of very superior quality are found in abundance on this part of the coast: soles, turbot, and oysters, are taken in great numbers during the season; and a good herring-fishery might also be established with advantage. The village is of considerable size, and is inhabited chiefly by persons connected with the business of the port: comfortable lodgings are provided for visitors, who resort to the place in summer for the benefit of sea-bathing. A fair is held on November 12th.—See Llanllwchaiarn.
NEWTON, a parish, in the union and hundred of Narberth, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 2½ miles (W. by S.) from Narberth; containing 71 inhabitants. This parish is situated near the road leading from Tenby, by Canaston bridge, to Haverfordwest, and on the left bank of the Eastern Cleddy. It comprises a moderate area, of which the greater part is inclosed and cultivated, and of the remainder one-half is uncultivated, and the other woodland; the surface is agreeably diversified, and the scenery enriched with thriving woods. In some parts the parish abounds with ironstone; and there were formerly extensive iron-works carried on with great success at Black Pool, on the banks of the Eastern Cleddy, where is still the shipping-place for the town of Narberth; they afforded employment to a considerable number of persons, but have been discontinued for some time. The living is a donative, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant; net income, £50; patron and impropriator, Charles Deedes, Esq. The church, which is situated at a small distance from the village, possesses no architectural details of interest.
NEWTON-NOTTAGE, a parish, comprising the hamlets of Newton and Nottage, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Newcastle, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 4½ miles (W. S. W.) from Bridgend; containing 792 inhabitants, of whom 325 are in the hamlet of Newton. The parish is situated on the shore of the Bristol Channel, and comprises a tract of which a considerable portion is uninclosed and uncultivated. The sea has encroached greatly on the shore; and much land in the parish, which within the recollection of persons still living or but lately deceased formed excellent pasturage for sheep, is now covered with sand. Ironstone is procured to a limited extent on Newton Down, and both lead-ore and manganese have been found in the white limestone of the parish; a facility of conveyance, and of communication with the limestone and freestone quarries, and the other mines in this part of the county, is afforded by the Llynvi railway. This railway commences at the harbour of Porthcawl, in the parish, and proceeds by Nottage village to North and South Cornelly, and Pyle, whence it pursues an eastern course to the iron-works at Cevn Cribwr, where it is joined by the Bridgend railway. Then, taking a northern direction in a line parallel with the western bank of the river Llynvi, it passes the village of Llangonoyd, and, crossing the river at Typhylly Chwyth, terminates at Blaen-Llynvi, extending in the whole of its main course a distance of seventeen miles. An act of parliament was lately passed for its conversion from a tramroad into a locomotive line. From Newton Down may be obtained a fine view of Penllyne Castle, near Cowbridge, to the east; and to the west over Swansea bay, the whitewashed habitations about Oystermouth, and the country adjacent to Swansea. The decayed bathing-village of Newton, which is agreeably situated on a knoll near the sea-shore, is undergoing considerable improvement; it has a good beach, and Sir J. Guest, who lately purchased the property, has commenced building some new houses.
The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £17. 4. 7., and in the patronage of the Proprietors of the Manor; present net income, £375. The church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, is an ancient and venerable structure, displaying portions in the successive styles of English architecture, with a massive square tower; the pulpit appears to have been formed out of one solid stone, and is rudely carved with a representation of the Scourging of our Saviour: the number of sittings has been enlarged by the erection of a gallery, in which are forty sittings free. There are places of worship for dissenters, and four Sunday schools, one of which is connected with the Church. A new day school, sanctioned by the Board of Education, was finished in 1848. No public charities now remain; a bequest of £50 by Mary Lougher, in 1731, and a similar one of £10 by Alexander Pryce or Rees, prior to 1786, having been misapplied, and partly to his own use, by one of the parish officers. Some traces of the Julia Strata Maritima may be discerned on Newton Down, a little to the left of the turnpike-road, in its course towards Nidum (Neath). Near the church is a curious well, noticed by Camden as ebbing and flowing in opposition to the tide, being full at low water and empty at high water: various conjectures have been formed to account for this phenomenon, which may be satisfactorily explained on the principle of a natural syphon.—See Porthcawl, and Nottage.
NEWTOWN, a newly-created borough, a market-town, a parish, and, jointly with Llanidloes, the head of a poor-law union, in the Upper division of the hundred of Newtown, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 8 miles (S. W. by W.) from Montgomery, and 179 (W. N. W.) from London, on the road from Welshpool to Aberystwith; containing, in 1849, with a suburb in the parish of Llanllwchaiarn, about 7000 inhabitants. Very little is known of the origin or early history of this place, which since the beginning of the present century has, from the celebrity of its flannel manufacture, risen into importance, and obtained a distinguished rank among the manufacturing and commercial towns in the principality. The name, which is synonymous with Trênewydd, that given to it by the Welsh, is evidently in allusion to a somewhat recent date, but whether with reference to its origin, or to any more ancient town that previously existed near the site, has not been ascertained. On the banks of the Severn, at the distance of about a mile, on the left of the road to Welshpool, are some remains of a British encampment, but no historical event is recorded which in any way connects it with the town; and on the right of the same road are vestiges of the Roman way from Caer-Sws to the Gaer near Montgomery. At the former of these places coins, bricks, and other relics of Roman antiquity, have been discovered; and there are some remains of the castle of Dôlvorwyn, near the town. During the civil war of the seventeenth century, Charles I., on his way to Chester, was hospitably entertained for two days and nights by Sir John Pryce, at Newtown Hall, the residence of that family since the time of Henry VI.; on his departure from which, he narrowly escaped being made prisoner by Sir Thomas Myddelton.
The town is situated in a beautiful valley on the banks of the river Severn, and consists of one principal street, intersected by several smaller streets; the old houses are in general of timber and brick, but those of modern erection are of handsome appearance. A substantial bridge of stone over the Severn was completed in 1827, in lieu of an ancient one of wood that stood near the site. This structure, which is called the Long Bridge, consists of three arches of more than sixty feet span, and connects the parish of Newtown with Pen-y-Gloddva and the Basin, in the parish of Llanllwchaiarn, on the other side of the river; the arches and the parapets are of grey freestone, and the piers and spandrils of blue stone found in the neighbourhood. The bridge was erected by the county, at an expense of more than £4000. A stone bridge of one arch, over the Pistill brook, on another side of the town, is termed by way of distinction the Short Bridge. The town, which appears to be flourishing, is indifferently paved; it is partially lighted with gas, and capable of being amply supplied with water at a small outlay. Considerable improvements have taken place of late years, among which is the construction of a road leading through the heart of the county of Radnor to Builth, and forming the most direct road from Chester, and the northern parts of Wales, to the southwestern part of England.
The environs abound with pleasing and interesting romantic scenery, and a fine view of the town is obtained from the summits of the hills on the north and south sides. At the distance of about a mile on the road to Builth, is a picturesque and strikingly beautiful spot, called Cwm-Pistill, much resorted to by the inhabitants: from the summit of a shelving mass of rock, a stream of water rushes with impetuosity, making in its descent a fine cascade, and winding at the base along a glen planted with trees of various kinds. At a place called Castell-y-Dale, about a mile from the town, are some faint traces of what is supposed to have been a castle; but the walls are nearly all mouldered away, and its origin and history are lost in antiquity. In a park adjacent to the town, on the west, stands Newtown Hall; and the surrounding country is enlivened by numerous gentlemen's residences, among which may be mentioned Bryn Llywarch, Dôlerw, Dôlvorgan, Dôlvorwyn Hall, Glàn-Havren, Gregynog, Aberhavesp Hall, Glàn-Severn, Vronvelen, Pennant, Penybryn, and Vaynor: so beautiful and extensive a view as that obtained from the last-named seat, is rarely to be met with. The parish contains 2736 acres, of which 850 are arable, 1500 in grass, and upwards of 200 woodland: the surface is a pleasing alternation of hill and dale; the soil is generally of good quality, and produces plentiful crops of grain.
The staple trade of this place and its neighbourhood is the manufacture of flannel, which was first introduced about sixty years since, but for several years was conducted only upon a small scale, the average number of pieces not exceeding ten per week. The superior fineness of the Welsh wool, and the peculiar softness of the water of the Severn, however, afforded every facility for conducting the manufacture to advantage; and the skill and care bestowed by the masters on the finishing of the goods have distinguished the flannels of Newtown for unrivalled excellence. The manufacture is now carried on to a very considerable extent, affording employment to some thousands of persons in the town and vicinity. The parishes of Newtown and Llanllwchaiarn contain the principal flannel-factories in North Wales; the pieces manufactured are of the finest quality, and obtain a ready sale in the market held every alternate Thursday, in the Public Rooms, a spacious building opened in 1832, the proprietors of which are shareholders of £25 each. Previously, the market for the sale of flannels had been held at Welshpool, but the manufacturers and other inhabitants of this place erected the above-named building, with the view of withdrawing it entirely from that town, and establishing it permanently here. Flannel is brought hither from the counties of Radnor, Merioneth, Salop, Cardigan, Flint, and Denbigh. An act of parliament was obtained in 1814, for extending the Montgomeryshire canal from Garthmill to the Llanllwchaiarn suburbs of this town, a distance of eight miles, which was carried out with great benefit to the trade. The line, which is called the Western branch of the Montgomeryshire canal, was opened on the 1st of March, 1819; and in the course of the following year, a basin, 300 feet in length and 100 wide, was completed in the parish of Llanllwchaiarn. Convenient wharfs and yards have been formed for storing coal, bricks, slates, timber, and other articles of merchandise; and numerous lime-kilns have been built along the banks of the canal. It has contributed to facilitate the conveyance of the heavier articles of manufacture, and to supply the neighbourhood with commodities of every kind at a much cheaper rate. The markets, which are abundantly supplied and well attended, are on Tuesday for corn and provisions, and on Saturday for provisions only; very great quantities of Welsh mutton are purchased here for the London market, and green bacon, poultry, and butter for the larger manufacturing districts. The tolls belong to the Earl of Powis, as lord of the manor of Cedewen, in which the town is included. The market-hall is a plain brick building, situated in the centre of the principal street: the lower part is appropriated to the use of the corn-market, and the upper to the sale of wool, every market-day. Fairs are held on the first Tuesday in February, the last Tuesday in March, the first Tuesday in May, June 24th, the last Tuesday in August, the second Tuesday in September, October 24th, and December 16th. Of these the May, June, September, and October fairs are very large, and amply supplied with horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, and all kinds of wares; at the September and October fairs, of which the first day is always for sheep and pigs, many thousand sheep are generally sold.
By the act of 1832, for "Amending the Representation," Newtown was constituted a contributory borough, uniting with other towns in the county in the return of a member to parliament. The right of election is vested in every male person of full age occupying, either as owner, or as tenant under the same landlord, a house or other premises of the annual value of not less than £10, provided he be capable of registering as the act directs; and the present number of such tenements within the limits of the borough, which comprise Newtown parish and part of the parish of Llanllwchaiarn, is about 300. The town is within the jurisdiction of the county magistrates, who hold a petty-session for the division on the second Wednesday in every month, in the Public Rooms; where, also, the summer assizes, and, alternately with Welshpool, the quarter-sessions, of the county, are held. The powers of the county debtcourt of Newtown, established in 1847, extend over the whole of the registration-district of Newtown and Llanidloes, except the parishes of Llanidloes, Llangurig, and Trêveglwys. It is supposed that the county gaol was formerly in this town, and near the market-place was an ancient building, afterwards converted into a public-house, which was still called the "Old Gaol," but was taken down with a view to the improvement of this part of the town: the Castle inn now occupies the site.
The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £8. 15.; tithe rent-charge, £510, with a glebehouse, a modern and handsome building, and about four acres of land; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph. The old church, dedicated to St. Mary, now abandoned, is an ancient structure, in the early style of English architecture, with a low square tower surmounted by a belfry of wood. It has two aisles, separated by a central range of pillars and pointed arches of wood, which support the roof, and a chancel, divided from the body of the church by an elaborately carved and richly gilt screen, removed hither from Abbey Cwm Hîr, in the county of Radnor: there are some marble monuments, chiefly to the family of Pryce, of Newtown Hall. The present church, consecrated in September 1847, was erected by means of a grant from Her Majesty's commissioners, which was met by a required subscription in behalf of the parish: two acres of land were given by David Pugh, Esq., M.P., and upwards of half an acre by the late Walter Long, Esq., of Dôlvorgan, in a most advantageous situation, as a site for the edifice. It reflects great credit on the taste of the architect, Thomas Penson, Esq., of Oswestry. The church is built in the early English style of architecture, of rubble stone, lined with common brick, and cased with fire-brick; it is ornamented with a tower and numerous pinnacles, and forms a very pleasing object on entering the town either from the east or west. Internally it displays to much advantage the art of adapting moulded fire-bricks, richly ornamented, in the formation of arches, &c.; and the open roof, with its dark-stained timber, has also a good effect. An organ has been provided by the congregation, at an expense of about 500 guineas; it was built by Willis, of Gray's Inn lane, London, and is admired for the excellence and capacity of its tones, combining all the latest improvements. Accommodation is afforded in the building for 1200 persons, and two-thirds of the sittings are free. It seems that when the erection of this edifice was first proposed, an additional, and not a new parish, church was intended; and that, subsequently, the purpose was changed, the old church being no longer safe for the performance of divine service. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, and Calvinistic and Primitive Methodists.
An academy for the education of young men for the ministry among the Independents, was formerly fixed here; it had been previously held at Llanvyllin, till the year 1821, and is now fixed at Brecon. A few years ago, John Griffiths bequeathed £1700 three per cent. consols, the interest to be applied partly in providing lodging for poor travellers, and partly in instructing twenty poor boys between the ages of six and twelve inclusive, in reading, writing, ciphering, and the Church Catechism, on the principles of a National school. In the year 1845 a school was established by the Wesleyan congregation, who raise £80 per annum for its support; it is open to all denominations, no particular catechism being required to be learned, but the pupils who are not taken by their parents to any regular place of worship, are expected to attend the Wesleyan chapel and Sunday school. On the erection of the new church, the incumbent succeeded in raising a National schoolhouse not far from it, a site being granted by the late Mr. Long. It was built from the designs of Mr. Penson, and is in the same style, and of the same materials, as the church; consisting of two spacious rooms, which may be thrown into one, and of a good house for the master. A British and Foreign school, also, has been built on the extreme opposite side of the town, at Pen-y-Gloddva, in the parish of Llanllwchaiarn: it is a plain capacious building. Besides these day schools, several Sunday schools are supported. A dispensary was instituted in 1825, by William Pugh, Esq., of Bryn Llywarch, who, during the first year, defrayed the whole expense of its establishment, amounting to more than £200; it is now supported by general subscription among the inhabitants, and is productive of great benefit to the numerous families employed in the manufactures of the place. William Jones, of Newtown, in 1738, granted a rent-charge of 10s.; Elizabeth Evans, of Maddox-street, Hanover-square, in 1815, bequeathed £300, vested in government securities, and yielding a dividend of £9; and an anonymous benefactor gave a sum of £10; the produce of all which is distributed at Easter and Christmas among the poor. The charities that have been lost are, a bequest of £10, by Catherine Edwards, in 1734; a similar one by David Powell; and another of £5 by David Price. The poor-law union of which this town, conjointly with Llanidloes, is the head, was formed February 13th, 1837, and comprises the following seventeen parishes; namely, Newtown, Aberhavesp, Bettws, Carno, Kerry, Llandinam, Llangurig, Llanidloes, Llanlligan, Llanllwchaiarn, Llanwnnog, Llanwyddelan, Manavon, Moughtrey, Penstrywed, Trêgynon, and Trêveglwys. It is under twenty-six guardians, and contains a population of 25,958.
NICHOLAS' (ST.), a parish, in the union of Cardiff, hundred of Dinas-Powys, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 6 miles (W. by S.) from Cardiff; containing 425 inhabitants. This parish, which takes its name from the dedication of its church, is situated on the turnpike-road from Cardiff to Swansea, and comprises a considerable tract of arable and pasture land, the whole, with the exception of only a small portion, inclosed and cultivated. The soil is in general fertile and productive; the surrounding scenery is pleasingly varied, and in some parts picturesque. Dyfryn House, in the parish, was formerly the seat of the ancient family of Pryce, and afterwards, by marriage with the heiress of that family, the property and residence of the Hon. William Booth Grey, and, on the death of Mrs. Grey, of her relation, John Bruce Bruce, Esq., who has taken the name of Pryce. It is agreeably situated in a retired spot, about a mile southward from the village; the grounds are tastefully laid out, and comprehend a pleasing variety of scenery. Cottrel, the residence of Capt. Sir George Tyler, R.N., to whom it reverted on the death of the late Earl of Clarendon, is also pleasantly situated, and commands from the rear of the house a fine view of the picturesque Vale of Ely, with Hensol Castle and the grounds attached to it on the western bank of the river. Fairs, chiefly for cattle and sheep, are held in the village on May 19th, August 21st, and December 17th; and the petty-sessions for the hundred are also held at this place. According to the Annales Marganenses, printed in Gale's Scriptores, the town or ville of St. Nicholas' was burned by the Welsh in the year 1226.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £11. 10.; patron, John Bruce Pryce, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £210, and there is a glebe of fifty-six acres, valued at £59 per annum. The church is an ancient and venerable structure, with a tower at the west end. There are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic Methodists; a Church day school; and three Sunday schools, one in connexion with the Established Church, and the others belonging to the Calvinistic Methodists and Baptists. On the right of the road leading from the village to Dyfryn House is a cromlech, said to be the largest monument of the kind in the kingdom. It consists of five upright stones, inclosing an apartment seventeen feet in length and thirteen in breadth, upon which rests a sixth or table stone, twenty-four feet long, and varying in breadth from seventeen to ten feet. The apartment is inclosed entirely on the east, west, and north sides, but is open on the south; the five supporting stones are flat, of unequal length, and now much diminished in apparent height by the accumulation of rubbish. In a field by the road-side, immediately opposite to Cottrel Lodge gate, is a single stone of the same origin, lying in an inclined position. Indeed, many parts of the neighbourhood are studded with Druidical remains; Dyfryn, Mr. Bruce Pryce's seat, being distinguished from other houses of the same name, as Dyfryn Golych, or "the vale of worship." A large number of human bones were found in February 1847, at the Doghill farm, in the parish, in graves cut deep in the lias rock.
Nicholas' (St.), otherwise Monkton
NICHOLAS' (ST.), otherwise MONKTON, a parish, in the union of Pembroke, partly in the borough of Pembroke, and partly in the hundred of Castlemartin and county of Pembroke, in South Wales; containing 1462 inhabitants, of whom 748 are in the borough. It appears to have derived the name of Monkton from the circumstance of Arnulph de Montgomery, founder of Pembroke Castle, having, in 1089, granted its church, situated within the precincts of that fortress, together with twenty carucates of land here, to the abbey of St. Martin, at Seyes, in Normandy; soon after the date of which gift, a priory of monks of the Benedictine order, dedicated to St. Nicholas, was founded at this place, and made a cell to that foreign abbey. William and Walter Mareschal, Earls of Pembroke, were successively great benefactors to this establishment, which continued to flourish till the reign of King Edward III., who seized it, with the other alien priories, into his own hands. It was subsequently restored by Henry IV., but being again seized, it was bestowed by Henry VI. upon Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, who, in the 21st of that king's reign, gave it as a cell to the abbey of St. Alban's, which grant was confirmed by Henry, in the 27th of his reign. The house continued subordinate to that abbey till the Dissolution, when its revenue was estimated, according to Speed, at £113. 2. 6., and, according to Dugdale, at £57. 9. 3. It was assigned, in the 37th of Henry VIII., to John Vaughan and his wife.
This parish, which is bounded on the north by a creek of Milford Haven extending up to the town of Pembroke, is situated to the south-west of that borough, and comprises a considerable tract of land, wholly inclosed and in a state of cultivation. The soil is in general fertile; and the inhabitants that are not resident in the suburban village of Monkton, are employed in agriculture. The scenery is finely diversified, and the views, extending over the sea and the adjacent country, abound with interest. In the parish is Orielton, an ancient mansion, supposed to have been originally built by one of the followers of Arnulph Montgomery, called Oriel, from whom it derived its name. It is now the property of Sir John Owen, Bart. In the time of Henry II. it belonged to the Wyrriotts, in whose possession it continued till the reign of Elizabeth; it then passed by marriage to the Owens, and finally came to Sir Hugh Owen, Bart., who, dying in 1809, left his large estates to his kinsman, John Lloyd, Esq., who, assuming the name of Owen, was created a baronet, and is now lord-lieutenant of the county. The mansion has been greatly improved by the present proprietor, and is a handsome edifice occupying an elevated situation, finely sheltered by thick woods, and ornamented with thriving plantations. Corston, a respectable residence, is also in the parish; and there were anciently several other seats and family mansions, some of which have entirely disappeared, and the rest have been converted into farmhouses. Courts leet are held by the lord of the manor, at which constables are appointed for the whole of the parish, who act under the authority of the lord, independently of the corporation of Pembroke. Fairs are held on May 14th and November 22nd. The corporation of Pembroke exercise jurisdiction over the village, which is included within the limits of that borough, as forming a suburb to the town.
The living is a discharged vicarage, consolidated with the livings of St. Mary and St. Michael, Pembroke. The church, dedicated to St. Nicholas, anciently the church of the priory, and all that now remains of that establishment, is a venerable structure, partly in the Norman, and partly in the early English style of architecture, with a Lady chapel at the east end, now roofless, but having four handsome windows on the southern side, and one in the eastern end. The nave is vaulted with stone, and the present chancel formerly communicated with the chapel of the Virgin by an archway, which has been closed for ages: the pavement of the church consists partly of curious glazed bricks; and the modern font rests on the fragment of a beautiful clustered column of remote antiquity. On each side of the ruined Lady chapel is a canopied recess for a recumbent figure, and to the right of the altar are stalls for two officiating priests. In the parish are two places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, in each of which a Sunday school is also held. There are numerous tumuli in various parts, evidently sepulchral, and probably raised over the remains of some of the ancient defenders of the soil against the Norman invaders; the greatest number is at a place called Dry Burrows, where is the largest group of these memorials in the county.
NICHOLAS' (ST.), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Dewisland, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Fishguard; containing 346 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated in the north-western part of the county, and at no great distance from St. George's Channel, comprises a moderate portion of arable and pasture land, inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. From the high grounds in the north and south parts of it, some fine views are obtained of the Channel. The living is a discharged vicarage, annexed, with that of Mathrey, to the discharged vicarage of Granston: the tithes of the parish have been commuted for a rent-charge of £153, of which £102 are payable to the impropriator, and £51 to the vicar, who has likewise a glebe of thirty-six acres, valued at £25 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Nicholas, is not remarkable for any architectural details; in the fence of the churchyard is a stone, about a yard and a half in length, and threequarters of a yard in breadth, with an old inscription. There is a place of worship for Independents, in which a Sunday school is also held. At no great distance from the church, just above the village of Trellŷs, are the remains of an ancient cromlech, the table stone of which rests only upon two supporters: there is another cromlech at Fynnonddrudian.
NICHOLASTON, a parish, in the union and hundred of Swansea, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 11 miles (W. S. W.) from Swansea; containing 119 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Nicholas. It is situated on the shore of Oxwich bay, by which it is bounded on the south, and comprises a small tract of arable and pasture land, with a comparatively trifling portion uninclosed and uncultivated. The scenery is enriched with thriving trees; and the views from the eminence of Cevn Bryn, over Penrice Castle and grounds, and from the cliffs that impend over the bay, are interesting and diversified. Manselfield, a hamlet in the parish, from which one of the churchwardens is invariably chosen, is so called from the Mansel family, one of whom, William Mansel, of Penrice Castle, was proprietor of it in the reign of Henry VI.; it is situated at a short distance from the village of Nicholaston, and consists of about seventy acres. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £5. 11. 0½., with the living of Oxwich, rated at £9. 9. 2., annexed; present net income, £224, with a glebe-house; patron, C. R. Mansel Talbot, Esq., who is the principal owner of land in the parish. The church is a small plain edifice possessing no architectural details of importance, situated near the summit of the cliffs which overhang the centre of Oxwich bay. A small Sunday school is held.
NODDVA, a hamlet, in the parish of Darowen, union and hundred of Machynlleth, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 6 miles (E. by N.) from Machynlleth; containing 528 inhabitants. The name of this township signifies a place of refuge, from which it is supposed that the parochial church (situated within its limits) and a certain tract around it, now described by three stones, once afforded sanctuary to offenders against the laws. Each of these stones stands about a mile from the church; one of them, called Carreg Noddva, or "the stone of refuge," near Cevn Côch Ucha, to the east; another near Rhosdyrnog, rising nearly three yards above the ground, to the south; and the third, which is smaller, to the north-east, near Cwm Bychan Mawr. Upon the summit of Vron Gôch, a hill about half a mile westward from the church, are vestiges of an ancient intrenchment; and there is a tumulus on the top of another hill, designated Bwlch Gelli Lâs: near the latter, on the sheep-walk of the farm Berllan Dêg, a celt and various brazen military weapons were discovered.
NOLTON, a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Rhôs, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 6 miles (W. by N.) from Haverfordwest; containing 227 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the eastern shore of St. Bride's bay, and comprises a moderate portion of arable and pasture land, which was inclosed under the provisions of an act of parliament in 1759. The surface is varied, and in some parts hilly; the soil is in general productive, and the inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture. Stone, of a quality not inferior to that of Portland, abounds in the parish; and some quarries were opened, that might have been worked to great advantage, had due care been taken to find out the proper stratum. The repairs and alterations of the cathedral church of St. David's, towards the close of the last century, were to have been wholly executed with this stone; but the contractor for the buttresses having taken the stratum which lay nearest the surface, instead of sinking lower for that of the best quality, the intention was abandoned. The small haven near the village of Drewson, in the parish, afforded a facility for conveying the produce of the quarries to its destination; and probably, when further trial has been made of the quality of the stone from the proper stratum, it may again become a shipping-place for that material.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £4. 2. 11., endowed with £200 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £118, and there is a glebe of 29a. 2r. 20p., valued at £40 per annum; also a glebe-house. The church is dedicated to St. Madoc: there was formerly a chapel of ease at the village of Drewson, but it has been for some time in ruins. A school is chiefly supported by an endowment of £18 a year, arising from a bequest by the late John Grant, Esq., of Waltham Place, county of Berks, who left funds for a similar purpose to the parish of Roch. A house consisting of a schoolroom on the first floor, and two rooms below for the residence of the master, was erected principally at the expense of the late Rev. Moses Grant. The master is appointed by the rector and churchwardens. At Drewson, properly Druidston, were some Druidical remains, from which that small hamlet originally derived its name; the stones that composed the circle were removed in 1740, and have been used for building purposes.
NORTHOP (NORTH-HOPE), a parish, in the union of Holywell, Northop division of the hundred of Coleshill, county of Flint, North Wales, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Mold, and 3 (S. by E.) from Flint; containing 3566 inhabitants, of whom 1022 are in the township of Northop. This place, which obtained its present appellation in contradistinction to East, or Queen's, Hope, was by the Welsh called "Llan-Eurgain," from the dedication of its first church to St. Eurgain, niece of St. Asaph, the second bishop of the see that from him derived its name. The parish is situated on the estuary of the Dee, by which it is bounded on the north-east; and is traversed by the roads from Chester to Holyhead, and from Mold to Flint, which cross each other near the church. It comprises 8564 acres of good arable and pasture land, inclosed and cultivated, exclusively of several thousand acres of sands on the estuary of the river, which, being almost entirely dry at low water, might at a comparatively small expense be brought into cultivation. The village, which is large, is pleasantly situated in a fertile tract of country, abounding with finely varied and highly picturesque scenery, and is surrounded on all sides by elegant villas and handsome seats, inhabited by opulent families, the most conspicuous residence being Soughton Hall.
The parish is rich in mineral treasure, and coal and lead-ore have been worked here for centuries; a large colliery is still wrought in the township of Soughton, and several shafts have been sunk on the Northop Hall estate, in the township of Northop. In the township of Caervallough are some lead-mines, which have been wrought from the earliest times. An ale and porter brewery, the first of the kind established in the county, was erected in the hamlet of Kelsterton, in the year 1818, and is conducted with great advantage; part of the city of Chester, and this and the adjoining counties, being supplied from it. In the hamlet of Golvtyn a quay and pier were constructed some time ago by the Irish Coal Company, and vessels sail from this place for the ports of North Wales, for Liverpool, Dublin, London, and various parts of the world. The Chester and Holyhead railway, opened in 1848, runs for three miles through the parish, skirting the estuary of the Dee.
The living consists of a rectory and a vicarage; the rectory a sinecure, annexed, by an act passed in the 6th of Queen Anne's reign, to the bishopric of St. Asaph, in lieu of mortuaries, and rated in the king's books at £49. 14. 9½.; the vicarage endowed, rated at £14. 6. 8., and in the gift of the bishop. The tithes have been commuted for £1297, of which a sum of £797 is payable to the bishop, and a sum of £500 to the vicar: there is a glebe-house. The church, erected in 1571, and dedicated to St. Peter, was taken down in consequence of its dilapidated state, and rebuilt in 1839–40. The present church, the third upon the same site, is a spacious and embattled structure, with pinnacles, and a lofty and elegant tower ninety-eight feet high; the body of the edifice consists of a nave, chancel, and north aisle, with a sepulchral chapel adjoining the latter, in honour of St. Mary, and containing several ancient monuments. Of these, the oldest is one having the effigy of Edwyn ab Gronow, Prince of Tegengl, who died in 1073. Another has the effigy of a knight in complete armour, with the hands crossed upon the breast, and a lion at the feet, the shield bearing a cross with five mullets. A third monument is to the memory of a female, whose effigy is well sculptured, having the head protected by an elaborately wrought canopy; from the neck depends a massive chain, and around the whole is a mutilated inscription, of which only the date mcccclxxxii. is legible. In digging a grave near the communion table, in 1798, was found the figure of an armed knight, well sculptured; the armour of the period of the reign of Richard II.
Besides the parish church, there is a church called St. Mark's, in the eastern part of the parish, distant about three miles and a half from the mother church. It was erected in 1836–7, at a cost of £1500, and is a neat structure in the early English style of architecture, with a chancel and a square tower, and capable of seating 500 persons. A substantial and commodious parsonage-house was built in 1841, principally through the exertions and liberality of the Rev. Henry Jones, vicar of Northop. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar for the time being, with a net income of £120, chiefly derived from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners' fund. Annexed to it, under an order in council dated January 1844, is a district consisting of five townships of the parish, namely Weppre, Golvtyn, Kelsterton, Leadbrook Major, and Leadbrook Minor; bordering on the river Dee, and containing, according to the last census, a population of 1067 souls. A great portion of this population is agricultural; but mariners, fishermen, and their families, constitute the majority. There are places of worship in the village for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists; at Rhôs-Esmor, in the mining district of the parish, one each for Baptists and Calvinistic Methodists, for which latter denomination there are also one at Soughton and one at Golvtyn. The Independents have two places of worship, one of them at Soughton.
A free school was founded in 1606, by the Rev. George Smith, LL.B., who endowed it with £20 per annum for the salary of a master, and who also gave £2 per annum for the benefit of a poor child of each of the parishes of Northop, Flint, Whitford, Cwm, and St. Asaph. Dr. D. Ellis, in 1624, augmented the endowment with £5 a year, for the better support of the master; and Owen Jones, Esq., in 1658, bequeathed all his lands and tenements in Northop to the vicar and churchwardens, in trust for the maintenance of seven boys of the parish whilst remaining in the school, who should receive £4 per annum each for five years, and at the expiration of that time be apprenticed with a fee of £8. Previously to 1815, the rents of the property had amounted to £131 per annum, and there was at that time a surplus of £547 in the hands of the trustees. By a decree of the court of Chancery, issued in that year, five more boys were added to the establishment, making twelve; the annual payment to each was increased to £6, and the apprentice fee to £12; an addition of £10 per annum was made to the salary of the master, and the remaining surplus was ordered to be distributed to the poor not receiving parochial aid. In 1609, three years after the date of the Rev. George Smith's will, the parish built a school-house, on ground adjoining the churchyard; but this building is now used as a vestry-room, and for the purpose of a Sunday school, the school having been transferred in 1823 as a National school to a new building erected by subscription, aided by a gift of £100 from the National Society, upon ground presented by the late Marquess of Westminster. The endowments now available for education, exclusively of the funds for the maintenance and apprenticeship of the twelve boys, amount to £75, of which £65 are appropriated to the National school, and £10 to a National school in connexion with St. Mark's church. A British school is held in the village of Pentre, the neighbourhood of which abounds with coal-pits; and in the village of Rhôs-Esmor is a school, established in 1844 by the congregation of Calvinistic Methodists there. Nine Sunday schools are also carried on in the parish, two of which are in connexion with the Established Church. Various charitable donations and bequests have been appropriated to the endowment of the National school, being included in the income above stated: among them were, a bequest of £50, by Mrs. Margaret Ellis, in 1700, for teaching female children, one of £40 by Hugh Carrison, and another of £20 by Mr. Edwards of Soughton. Of the charities not so applied are a rent-charge of £2 by Lady Catherine Hanmer, in 1646, and two others of £1 each, by Henry Kenrick in 1609, and Hugh Price Wynne. But the chief benefactor of the parish was the above Owen Jones, whose estates now produce £138. 16. per annum, of which about £40 are distributed on Maundy-Thursday and St. Thomas's day among the poor.
In the hamlet of Caervallough, about two miles westward from the village, are the remains of a very extensive camp, called Moel-y-Gaer, or "the fortified hill," occupying an eminence surrounded by a deep circular fosse, and having an entrance on the western side. Within the area, and near the northern extremity, is a small artificial mound, from the summit of which is one of the most extensive prospects in the principality. This camp, which is the most perfect British post in North Wales, commanded all the lines of stations on the Clwydian mountains, to the west: the view from it embraces the vales of Hope and Mold, as far as Wrexham, on the south; the estuaries of the Dee and the Mersey, with the port of Liverpool, on the north; and Chester, on the east. About 300 paces to the north-west of it is a large artificial mound, overlooking the pass of the mountain, and most probably intended as an outpost to the principal camp of Moel-y-Gaer. At the distance of a mile north of the village of Northop, and near the road leading to Holywell, are the ruins of Llŷs Edwyn, the ancient palace of Edwyn ab Gronow, the above-named Prince of Tegengl. These remains, which are very inconsiderable, occupy a commanding situation; the foundations of the palace may still be traced, and the moat by which it was surrounded is tolerably perfect on the north-east. Edwyn, in conjunction with several of the native princes of North Wales, attempted to oppose the progress of William the Conqueror in the subjugation of the principality, but he failed, and, as appears from Domesday-book, was compelled to hold his territories subject to that monarch. After Edwyn's death, in 1073, they remained in the possession of his descendants till the reign of Henry IV., when Howel Gwynedd, having embraced the cause of Owain Glyndwr, was taken prisoner and beheaded, and his estates were forfeited to the crown. Wat's Dyke, here erroneously called Offa's Dyke, enters the parish in the hamlet of Soughton, and crossing the road to Mold near the turnpike-gate, takes a western course for some distance, and then forming an acute angle and taking a northern direction, crosses the Holywell road at the stone-quarry, within a mile from the village of Northop, and passes near Llŷs Edwyn, where it again pursues a western course, leaving the parish near Cornist.
William Parry, LL.D., representative in parliament for Queenborough in the reign of Elizabeth, and who was executed before the door of the parliament-house, in 1584, for designing the death of that sovereign, was a native of the parish; and Dr. John Wynne, Bishop of St. Asaph, and afterwards of Bath and Wells, who received the rudiments of his education in the free grammar school, was interred in the chancel of the church: he erected Soughton Hall in 1714.
NORTON, a parish, in the union of Presteign, hundred and county of Radnor, South Wales, 2 miles (N. N. W.) from Presteign; containing 291 inhabitants. This parish is pleasantly situated in the eastern part of the county, bordering upon Herefordshire, and is intersected by the great turnpike-road from North Wales through Knighton to Presteign. It comprises 2200 acres of arable and pasture land, of which 1400 are inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. The scenery, though not distinguished by any peculiarity, is pleasing and well wooded; and the views, especially towards the east, embracing a portion of the county of Hereford, are interesting and diversified. There are two elegant mansions, Boultibrook, and Norton House. The inhabitants of the village, which is seated on a small stream that falls into the river Lug, call the place a borough, and style themselves burgesses; but nothing satisfactory is recorded either of the time or the manner in which they received their privileges, which are but few and very obscurely defined. They are empowered to hold a court every two or three years, and it is said that the interval between these courts must not exceed four years. Norton is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £5, endowed with £200 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor; present net income, £142: the living is endowed with part of the rectorial tithes, and the remainder belongs to several proprietors. The church, dedicated to St. Andrew, is an ancient edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel, with a low tower. A day and Sunday school is supported in connexion with the Established Church. In the village is the site of a castle, of which no account can be obtained: it was in ruins even in Leland's time.
NOTTAGE, a township, in the parish of Newton-Nottage, union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Newcastle, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Bridgend; containing 467 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west by the sea; and the Llynvi railway passes close to the village, on the east. At Ty Mawr, or "the great house," which has been restored by Mr. Knight, of Neath, it is said that Ann Boleyn resided for a short time.