A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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EIREAS (EIRIOES), a township, in the parish of Llandrillo-yn-Rhôs, union of Conway, hundred of Creuddyn, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 4½ miles (N. E.) from Conway; containing 266 inhabitants. A small stream separates this township from Denbighshire. The celebrated well called Fynnon Elian, in the township, is still occasionally visited by the superstitious, for the purpose of venting maledictions against any person who has unfortunately incurred their displeasure. The usual ceremony is, for the person who owns the well, after having read certain passages from the scriptures, to hand some of the water to the applicant, who drinks a part and throws the remainder over his head, at the same time cursing his victim in whatever words he pleases, which ceremony is repeated two or three times. A district church, dedicated to St. Catherine, was erected in the township in 1838, by subscription: the living is in the Vicar's gift; income, £100.
ELERCH (ELEIRCH), a township, in the parish of Llanbadarn-Vawr, union of Aberystwith, Upper division of the hundred of Geneu'rGlyn, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 8¼ miles (E. N. E.) from Aberystwith; containing 187 inhabitants. The township is situated in the mountainous part of the parish.
ELVIS, ST., a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Dewisland, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 4 miles (E. by S.) from St. David's; containing 34 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the shore of St. Bride's bay in St George's Channel, and near the road from Haverfordwest to St. David's, is one of the smallest parishes in the principality, containing only 430 acres. An attempt to procure silver was made here, but the success with which it was attended was not sufficient to encourage the adventurers to establish any permanent works. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £2. 10. 10., endowed with £800 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of St. David's, by an exchange made with the crown, under a recent act of parliament; net income, £72: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £31, and 10s. Easter offerings. The church, dedicated to St. Teilaw, is a small edifice, possessing no features deserving notice: there is no inclosed churchyard, the funerals being generally solemnized in the adjoining parishes of Brawdy and Whitchurch.
ENERGLYN (GENAU'R-GLYN), a hamlet, in the parish of Eglwysilan, hundred of Caerphilly, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 1¼ mile (N. W.) from Caerphilly; containing, with the town of Caerphilly, which is situated within its limits, 898 inhabitants. The mansion of Energlyn, the grounds of which are well wooded, is situated on the southern declivity of a lofty elevation, commanding a fine view of the plain and castle of Caerphilly, on the south-east. This eminence is skirted at its base by a stream, which winds round to its conflux with the Romney at Pont-y-Pandy, a short distance to the north of Caerphilly, and on the southern bank of which are some iron-works: on the summit of the hill are several tumuli.
ERBISTOCK, a parish, in the union of Wrexham, partly in the hundred of Bromfield, county of Denbigh, and partly in that of Maelor, county of Flint, 2 miles (W.) from Overton; containing 423 inhabitants, of whom 324 are in the township, or Denbighshire portion. This parish, which by tradition is said to have been originally an appendage to the ancient monastery of Bangor-Iscoed, is situated on the road from Ellesmere to Wrexham, and bounded on the north by the parishes of Marchwiel and Bangor-Iscoed, on the east and south by Overton, and on the west by Ruabon. It comprises by admeasurement 1468 acres, of which about 140 are woodland, and the remainder arable and pasture. The soil on the western side of the parish is a cold clay, but in the other parts it is lighter, and well adapted to the growth of wheat, oats, and barley; dairy-farming, however, engages the chief attention, the produce of which is considerable and of good quality. The surface, though marked with no lofty eminences, is continually varied by breaks, slopes, and bold undulations, forming the groundwork of that beautiful scenery for which the place is celebrated, and supplying numerous and choice spots for the range of the eye not only over the landscape in the immediate locality, but also over the varied features of the surrounding districts. The river Dee, which runs for a considerable distance along the boundary line of the parish, and the numerous and extensive plantations of oak and other trees, which have been made within the last few years, together with several pleasing rivulets, and neat cottages interspersed in various directions, unite to form a scene of rustic simplicity and repose. The churchyard, with the views in the immediate vicinity, seldom fails to arrest the attention of strangers. The gentlemen's seats are Rosehill and Erbistock Hall, the latter an ancient family mansion, the property of Sir W. W. Wynn, to whom about three-fourths of the land in the parish belong: another landholder is Mr. Manley, whose farm has been in his family for some hundreds of years, and whose old mansion is now converted into a comfortable farmhouse. There is a corn-mill, situated on the bank of the river Dee.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £7. 14. 9½.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £247; there is a glebe-house, and the glebe comprises thirty acres of land, valued at £49 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Hilary, is a neat edifice, of simple design, most resembling the Grecian style of architecture, beautifully situated on the bank of the river. It is supposed to have been erected about the beginning of the last century; and in the porch, a monumental stone, raised to the memory of a parish clerk, bears the date of 1676, about which time the present register of births and marriages was commenced: the edifice is fifteen yards long and twelve wide, and will accommodate about 140 persons with sittings. There is a place of worship for Independents, with a Sunday school held in it. A day and Sunday school in connexion with the Church is supported principally by subscription: the school-house was built in 1814. Some donations, amounting in the aggregate to £60, have been left by various benefactors, the interest of which is annually distributed among the poor.
ERDDIG, a township, in the parish of Gresford, union of Wrexham, hundred of Bromfield, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 1½ mile (S. W. by S.) from Wrexham; containing 145 inhabitants. It is surrounded on all sides by the parish of Wrexham, except the east, where it joins that of Marchwiel, and is intersected by Wat's Dyke, an ancient boundary between England and Wales. On this rampart, which may be distinctly traced, stands Erddig Hall, the seat of Simon Yorke, Esq., whose grandfather, Philip Yorke, Esq., was author of the "Royal Tribes of Wales." The mansion is beautifully situated between two small vales, watered by a winding stream, and fringed with hanging woods, in one of which are the remains of an ancient camp, almost entire, placed at the junction of two mountain torrents, and defended by deep and strong intrenchments. At the point of land impending over these streams is an elevated mount, inaccessible on every side, except that towards the camp; and on the northern side of the latter is an entrance, which appears to have been defended by a strong gate. This work is supposed by the inhabitants of the neighbourhood to be of Roman origin, but no Roman antiquities have been found to corroborate that opinion, and the only remains of mural defences consist of a few stones cemented with mortar. In the mansion are many paintings by eminent masters, among which is a full-length portrait of the notorious Judge Jeffreys, in his robes, by Sir Godfrey Kneller. The vicar of Gresford receives from Erddig a tithe rentcharge of £20. 7. 6., and the Dean and Chapter of Winchester a rent-charge of £20. 12. 6.
Erddreniog (Yr Ddreiniog)
ERDDRENIOG (YR DDREINIOG), a hamlet, in the parish of Tregayan, hundred of Tyndaethwy, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 4 miles (N.) from Llangevni: the population is included in the return for the parish.
ERLAS (ERLYS), a township, in the parish of Gresford, union of Wrexham, hundred of Bromfield, county of Denbigh, North Wales; containing 74 inhabitants, who are exclusively employed in agriculture. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for £43. 11. 3., and the impropriate tithes, payable to the Dean and Chapter of Winchester, for £58. 8. 9.
Eryrys (Erw Yrys)
ERYRYS (ERW YRYS), a hamlet, in the parish of Llanarmon, union of Ruthin, hundred of Yale, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 4½ miles (E.) from Ruthin; containing 681 inhabitants. This hamlet, which takes its name from Yr Hên Gyrys o Iâl, a collector of Welsh proverbs in the eleventh century, forms the northern portion of the parish, and is situated in a narrow valley watered by the river Alyn. It is bounded on the western side by the lofty Clwydian mountains, which separate it from the Vale of Clwyd, and on the eastern by a range of hills, nearly equal in height, separating it from Flintshire. The latter exhibit several projections of limestone rock, highly impregnated with lead-ore, mines of which have been worked for many years: in 1828, a very powerful steam-engine was erected, for pumping out the water. The road from Caergwrle to Ruthin passes through the hamlet, nearly parallel with the river Alyn, which is here crossed by a bridge, and then continues its course towards the latter town between two lofty mountains, called Moel-Venlli and Moel-y-Cyw, each upwards of 1715 feet above the level of the sea: this gap is called Bwlch Agricola, from an opinion that it was traversed by Agricola on his route to Mona. On an artificial mound near the foot of the former mountain stood the castle of Iâl, built by Owain Gwynedd, in 1148, of which the only remains consist of the rampart and fosse surrounding it.
ESCLUSHAM ABOVE, a township, in the parish and union of Wrexham, hundred of Bromfield, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 3 miles (S. W. by W.) from Wrexham; containing 436 inhabitants. This place takes the adjunct to its name from its situation with reference to that great work of the Saxons, called Offa's Dyke, which separates it from the township of Esclusham Below, and which is here in a tolerably perfect state. The township comprises a tract of elevated ground in the south-western part of the parish, and there are considerable coal mines within its limits. It is separately assessed for the maintenance of the poor, according to an arrangement made in March, 1830. A tithe rent-charge of £284 is paid to the impropriators, and one of £53.15. to the vicar of Wrexham.
ESCLUSHAM BELOW, a township, in the parish and union of Wrexham, hundred of Bromfield, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 2 miles (S. W.) from Wrexham; containing 579 inhabitants. Offa's Dyke forms a prominent object here, separating the township on the west from that of Esclusham Above, and hence the adjuncts to the respective names. On this celebrated line of British and Saxon demarcation stands Pentre Bychan, the residence of the Meredith family since 1002: when levelling the dyke, for the purpose of rebuilding the house, in 1824, several Saxon coins were found. The rampart then takes a direction to Cadwgan Hall, a large old mansion also situated upon it, which was formerly in the possession of Edward Jones, Esq., who suffered in London, in September, 1586, as one of the confederates in the Babington conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth: near this house was discovered, in 1804, buried in a mound, more than a cart-load of armour, which is now deposited in Chirk Castle. The Dyke hence proceeds in a northern course to Plâs Power, at one time an appendage of Chirk Castle; and, in the park there, is discovered in its most perfect state, with its deep and wide fosse on the Welsh side. It next extends to Adwy-'rClawdd, or "the pass on the dyke," where it is crossed by the road from Ruthin to Wrexham, and thence enters the township of Broughton. A small isolated portion of this township, on which stands part of the town of Wrexham, has been included within the limits of that new borough. The place is separately assessed for the support of the poor, according to an arrangement made in March, 1830. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £349. 17. 6., and those payable to the vicar of Wrexham for one of £100. 2. 6.: the vicarial glebe comprises an acre and a half.
ESGAIR-GEILIOG, a hamlet, in the parish of Moughtrey, union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Upper division of the hundred of Montgomery, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 4 miles (S. W.) from Newtown; containing 256 inhabitants. This hamlet forms the upper portion of the parish, being situated among the mountains bordering on Radnorshire. The uninclosed parts of those hills, which exhibit many singular chasms, are allotted as sheepwalks to the different contiguous farms, under an inclosure act passed in 1797. The road from Newtown to Knighton and Builth passes through the eastern extremity of the hamlet.
ESKEIRETH (ESGEIRIAU), a hamlet, in the parish of Trêveglwys, union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Upper division of the hundred of Llanidloes, county of Montgomery, in North Wales, 8 miles (N. N. W.) from Llanidloes: the population is returned with the parish. Several of the inhabitants are employed in the manufacture of flannel.
Evenechtyd (Y Eyneichdyd)
EVENECHTYD (Y EYNEICHDYD), a parish, in the union and hundred of Ruthin, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 2 miles (S. by W.) from Ruthin; containing 234 inhabitants. This place, the name of which is said to be derived from mynach, "a monk," and tyd, "land," was probably an appendage, or farm, of some religious house. It is situated on the road leading from Ruthin to Corwen, and is bounded on the north by the parish of Llanvwrog, on the south by Llanelidan, on the east by Llanvair-Dyfryn-Clwyd, and on the west and southwest by Clocaenog. The land, the extent of which is about 1400 acres, consists chiefly of arable, pasture, and woodland, the portion under tillage being by far the largest, and in a state of high cultivation, producing excellent wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, and turnips. The scenery is particularly picturesque and beautiful; the surface is boldly undulated, and ornamented in various parts with oak, ash, and poplar trees, and enlivened with several streams, the principal of which is the Clwyd, traversing the eastern boundary. The parish comprehends a great part of the demesne of Lord Bagot, and the hill called Coed Marchan, celebrated for its mineral productions. Limestone and barytes are abundant, for burning the former of which many kilns are at work, and for the preparation of the latter a mill has been erected at a considerable expense, in which about twelve or fifteen hands are employed; there is also a corn-mill of very ancient date. The village is beautifully situated in a sequestered vale abounding with pleasing scenery.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £6. 1. 5½.; patron, the Bishop of Bangor: the tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £200, and there is a glebe of about ten acres and a half, valued at £20 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is a very ancient edifice, twenty yards in length, and contains a curious wooden font rudely carved from one solid block of oak, and relieved with panelling: the churchyard is ornamented with box-trees, planted entirely round it about sixty or seventy years since, and which are at present in a very flourishing condition, forming a striking feature in the scenery of the locality. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists, and a Sunday school belonging to the Independents. The proceeds of some small charitable bequests are distributed about St. Thomas's day among the poor of the parish; namely, a portion of the rent of an estate bequeathed to the poor of this and three other parishes, by Griffith Thomas ab Evans, in 1669, the portion payable to Evenechtyd being £1 per annum; the interest of £10, left by the Rev. John Price, in 1723; a similar bequest by Robert Price, in 1764; and the interest of a moiety of £30, left by William Jones, in 1782. All the charities, except the first, were for a time lost by the failure of individuals in whose hands they were placed; but the rector restored the two last, and the second was replaced by a deduction being made for a certain period in the salary of the parish clerk, a former clerk having been the defaulter. On the summit of an eminence above the village are the remains of an encampment called Pen-y-Gaer; and in the churchyard is a very large stone, called Carreg Gamp, or "the stone of the games," formerly used in the rustic sports of the village.
Dr. Morgan, Bishop of Bangor, who died in 1673, was formerly rector of this parish; he was born at Llandisilio, in Montgomeryshire, in 1608, and was buried in the cathedral of Bangor, which had been greatly improved at his own cost. Dr. William Lloyd, Bishop of Norwich, was also for some years rector of Evenechtyd, to the church of which he presented a splendid service of communion plate, with an engraving of the arms of Norwich, and the following inscription: "The guift of Dr. William Lloyd, late Bishopp of Norwich, anno 1710, to the parish of Efenechtyd." Dr. Lloyd was a native of the principality: he was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, and was appointed in 1675 to the bishopric of Llandaf, whence he was translated to that of Peterborough, in 1679, and from the latter to the see of Norwich, in 1685.
EVENJOB, with Newcastle, a township, in the parish of Old Radnor, union of Kington, liberties of the borough of New Radnor, county of Radnor, South Wales, 3½ miles (E. by N.) from New Radnor; containing, with Bareland and Burva, 345 inhabitants. It is situated at the intersection of two cross roads, one leading from New Radnor to Presteign, and the other from Discoed to Old Radnor. Offa's Dyke crosses the brow of a hill about half a mile distant on the east, near which are vestiges of an ancient camp.
Ewenny (Y Wenwy)
EWENNY (Y WENWY), a parish, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Ogmore, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, on the road from Cardiff to Swansea, 2 miles (S. E. by S.) from Bridgend; containing 211 inhabitants. A manufacture of brown earthenware was extensively carried on here at a very early period, it being alluded to in the writings of the Welsh bards upwards of three centuries ago; and from the shape of the vessels here made being similar to those of ancient Roman earthenware found in other places, it has been boldly conjectured to have existed ever since the dominion of that people in Britain. Since the commencement of the present century, seven kilns were kept in full operation, supplying a great part of South Wales with this species of pottery. The clay from which it was chiefly manufactured was procured upon the spot, from a bed varying from ten to fourteen feet in thickness, resting on reddish sand, and occupying a tract about three-quarters of a mile in length and half a mile in breadth. The works were likewise conveniently situated for fuel, being only four miles distant from the Bryn-Cethin colliery. The river Ewenny, a tributary of the Ogmore, flows by or through the parish: its name signifies "the white stream;" and it abounds in sewin, trout, and a fineflavoured fish called the gwyniad.
The living is a donative, in the patronage of Richard Turberville Turberville, Esq., the impropriator; net income, £40. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is a fine old building, in the Norman style of architecture, consisting of a nave, chancel, and one transept, forming part of the remains of the church of a Benedictine priory here. The priory was founded, soon after the Conquest, by Thomas de Londres, lord of Ogmore, and in 1141 was made by Maurice de Londres a cell to St. Peter's Abbey at Gloucester: its revenue, in the 26th of Henry VIII., was estimated at £78.0. 8., and it was granted in the 37th of the same reign, as part of the possessions of that abbey, to Sir Edward Carne, an eminent civilian, from whose family it was transferred by marriage to the Turbervilles. Divine service is performed in the nave: the chancel has been used as the family burial-place of the proprietors since the Reformation, and contains some interesting monuments, among which are, one to the memory of Maurice de Londres, a splendid altar-tomb to one of the family of Carne, and an elegant mural monument to the last proprietor, Richard Picton Turberville, Esq., by whom the adjacent family seat was modernised. This mansion stands within the fortifications of the monastic edifice, and is a plain substantial structure, containing numerous elegant apartments, and exceeded in the comforts of its internal arrangements by few houses in the county. Of the ancient conventual buildings, three towers with gateways still remain, mantled with ivy: under the tower of the south gate was a deep dungeon, only six feet in diameter, the entrance covered by a strong iron grating, through which prisoners were let down. The whole forms an interesting group, and may be considered one of the most perfect relics of ecclesiastical architecture in the principality. The seal of Isabel, daughter of William, Earl of Gloucester, who had for her dower the lordship of Glamorgan, and was married, first to Prince (subsequently King) John, son of Henry II., afterwards to the Earl of Essex, and lastly to Hubert de Burgh, has been found here: together with her own titles, it is inscribed with that of Countess of Morton, which she derived from her first husband, who was Earl of Morton. The Calvinistic Methodists have a place of worship close by the village, and the Particular Baptists one at Corntown, a village about half a mile distant from the village of Ewenny: a Sunday school is held in each meeting-house. A bequest of £50, by Elizabeth Jones, in 1821, was vested in the three and a half per cent. consolidated Bank annuities, and the dividend, £1. 13. 9., is annually distributed among the poor.
EYTON, a township, in the parish of BangorIscoed, union of Wrexham, hundred of Bromfield, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 3½ miles (S. by E.) from Wrexham; containing 261 inhabitants, who are almost exclusively employed in agriculture. It lies near the road frem Wrexham to Overton, on the left bank of the river Dee, and contains two respectable mansions pleasantly situated. Deborah Davis bequeathed £60, the interest to be divided among the poor widows of the township, which is accordingly carried into effect about March, 6s. or 7s. each being then given to the most necessitous.