A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
SALFORD, with Kinnerton and Badland, a township, in the parish of Old Radnor, within the liberties of the borough of New Radnor, union of Kington, county of Radnor, South Wales; containing 241 inhabitants.
SALTNEY, a township, in the parish of Hawarden, union of Great Boughton, hundred of Mold, county of Flint, North Wales, 1½ mile (W.) from Chester; containing, in 1841, 554 inhabitants. This township, at one time a marshy waste, borders on the upper part of the estuary of the Dee, on the confines of Cheshire; and is bounded on the north by the new channel formed for that river, over which here are two ferries, supported at the expense of the River Dee Company. The monks of Basingwerk possessed the marsh of Saltney for pasturage, it having been granted by Robert, lord of Mold, who bestowed on them the like privilege in Hawarden, and also that of cutting rushes to thatch their buildings. The tract extended into Cheshire, and a stone near the east end marked the boundary in that county. It was here that Henry II. encamped with his army, in 1157, when he sent forward the division which was defeated in the woods of Eulo Castle by the sons of Owain Gwynedd, who pursued the fugitives to Henry's camp. Upwards of two thousand acres, forming the greater part of the township, were inclosed pursuant to an act obtained in 1778, and are now well cultivated. A manufactory for Glauber salts, sal-ammoniac, ivoryblack, &c., was established in 1781: ivory-black only is now produced. The Chester and Holyhead railway passes through Saltney, where the Wrexham, Ruabon, and Shrewsbury line branches off; and large quantities of coal from Ruabon and other places are shipped for various parts, from Saltney quay. The tonnage of coal, in and out, for the last six months of the year 1847, was 10,059 tons; and for the last six months of the year 1848, 30,654 tons; showing an increase of 20,595 tons. The trade in other articles is also considerable; iron, lime, slate, and general goods are now shipped here, from the districts traversed by the Shrewsbury railway, and from parts beyond. Morva Caer-Lleon, or "the marsh of Caer-Lleon," now Chester, was the ancient name of this place.
SCYBOR-Y-COED (YSCUBOR-Y-COED), a township, situate in the parish of LlanvihangelGeneu'r-Glyn, union of Machynlleth, hundred of Geneu'r-Glyn, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 12 miles (N. E. by E.) from Aberystwith; containing 651 inhabitants. It lies on the road from Aberystwith to Machynlleth, and on the river Dovey or Dyvi. The immediate neighbourhood is well wooded and agreeable, and some respectable residences are scattered over the township, various parts of which command fine views of the estuary of the Dovey. The principal house is Glàndyvi, which overlooks the Vale of Dovey and St. George's Channel. In this township were conveniently situated the smelting-houses and refining-mills, commonly called the "Silver-mills," belonging to the company that worked the royal mines in Cardiganshire. The river is navigable to Garreg for vessels of three hundred tons' burthen, and the inhabitants carry on a considerable trade in the exportation of lead-ore and bark, and the importation of timber, coal, and limestone. The township contains the chapel of EglwysVâch, or Llanvihangel-Capel-Edwin, the living of which is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and in the patronage of Mrs. Jane Davies; net income, £80 a year; impropriator, T. P. Chichester, Esq. The chapel is dedicated to St. Michael. There are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, and some Sunday schools.
SEALAND, a township, in the parish of Hawarden, union of Great Boughton, hundred of Mold, county of Flint, North Wales, 2½ miles (N. by E.) from Hawarden; containing 339 inhabitants. It formerly was included in the extensive maritime waste called Saltney Marsh, which composed the upper part of the estuary of the river Dee, and extended between the counties of Flint and Chester; but in 1732, Nathaniel Kenderley and Co., subsequently constituted "the River Dee Company," obtained an act of parliament for cutting a canal from Chester through the marsh, and so forming a new channel for the river. This object they accomplished in 1737, and thus upwards of eight hundred acres were separated from the southern portion, and formed into a new hamlet, under the name of "Sealand." At different subsequent periods, three thousand acres have been inclosed and added by the same company, and there still remains a considerable portion of marsh land exposed to inundation at high water. For the first part inclosed the company are bound to pay £200 per annum to the lord of the manor of Hawarden and other trustees, who, or any five of them, are to apply that sum to such purposes as they may think necessary; the company also charged themselves with maintaining at all times two ferries across the new channel. The greater portion of the inclosed marsh is now fertile arable land.
SEGROIT, a hamlet, in the parish of Llanrhaiadr-in-Kinmerch, union of Ruthin, hundred of Isaled, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 3 miles (S.) from Denbigh; containing 328 inhabitants. A stream which falls into the river Clwyd bounds it on the north. It was formerly assessed with the townships of Cader and Segroit Uchâv for the joint maintenance of their poor, but now there is a general assessment for the parish.
SENNI (SENNY), a township, in the parish and hundred of Devynock, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 8 miles (W. S. W.) from Brecknock; containing 292 inhabitants. It comprises the upper part of the vale watered by the river Senni, and anciently formed a portion of the Great Forest of Devynock, which contained twenty thousand acres, extending over the surrounding district. On the river, which is crossed by several bridges, is one of the "lord's mills," to which the resident tenants of this township are obliged to send their corn to be ground, an exaction of servitude formerly extorted by the lords of Brecknock, and still claimed by the lords of the manor of the Great Forest, but not now rigidly enforced. The tenants possess the privilege of grazing their cattle within that manorial district, on the payment of a small regulated sum for each beast, which is called Cymmorth. On the attainder of Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, who was lord of Brecknock, the demand of cymmorth reverted to the crown; and in the 10th of George I., the dues were assigned on lease to the ancestor of the present possessor. About seventy years ago, the tenants disputed the claim, but it was established by a legal decision. The township is highly cultivated, and presents many pleasing prospects; it comprises 2800 acres, of which 40 acres are common or waste land. Some good flag-stone is quarried, and there is an iron-foundry and forge near Senni bridge, with a tramroad passing through the vicinity for the conveyance of coal and lime: at Senni bridge is also a manufactory for stuffs, but not on a very extensive scale; and there are two corn-mills on the river. The parochial church, though situated at the lower end of the Vale of Senni, is included within the township of Maescar; that of Senni, however, contains a place of worship for Independents, with a Sunday school held in it. There are three almshouses, endowed in 1723 by the bequest of David Walter, who also left a rent-charge of £5 for the apprenticing of poor children. The tithes, which have been commuted for a rent-charge of £177. 15. 3., are divided in three equal portions among the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, the vicar of Devynock, and the impropriator.—See Devynock.
SESSWICK, a township, in the union of Wrexham, in that part of the parish of Bangor-Iscoed which is in the hundred of Bromfield, county of Denbigh, in North Wales, 4 miles (S. E.) from Wrexham; containing 144 inhabitants. This township is situated on the western side of the river Dee.
SILIAN (SULIEN), a parish, in the union of Lampeter, Upper division of the hundred of Moythen, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Lampeter; containing 366 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated in the southeastern portion of the county, derives its name from the saint to whom its church is dedicated, who flourished during the earlier part of the sixth century. It is surrounded by the parishes of LlanvihangelYstrad, Bettws-Bledrws, and Lampeter; and by computation consists of 2100 acres, of which rather less than one-half is arable, and the rest alternately meadow and arable, there being no woodland. The general character of the surface is hilly: the lower parts are tolerably fertile, but the uplands less productive; and both are employed principally in pasturing sheep, and raising the different varieties of corn. The small river Dulas, which falls into the Teivy, bounds the parish on the west and south, and there is also a brook called the Tawola. The village is in some degree enlivened by its situation on the old turnpike-road leading from Aberystwith to Lampeter; and another from Rhaiadr, in the county of Radnor, to the same place, intersects the parish. The living is consolidated with the vicarage of Llanwnnen. The church, dedicated to St. Sulien, and very romantically situated, was rebuilt from the foundation, in 1839, in the early English style, and is thirty-five feet long by nineteen broad, containing about 200 sittings, all of which are free; the font is circular, of antique design, and ornamented with four human faces. In the churchyard is a rudely sculptured monument of stone, now scarcely a foot above the surface of the ground, marked on one side with Runic knots, and on the other with zig-zag lines. There is a place of worship for Baptists, with a Sunday school held in it. A bequest of 10s. per annum left by Samuel Evans, in the year 1706, is distributed among the poor of Silian not seeking parochial relief.
SKIER, an extra-parochial district, in the hundred of Newcastle, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 6 miles (W.) from Bridgend; containing 21 inhabitants. It consists of one large farm of several hundred acres, situated adjacent to Skeir Point, on the shore of the Bristol Channel, and close to Kenvig common. The place formerly belonged to the abbey of Neath, which accounts for its being unattached to any parish.
SKOKHAM ISLE, an extra-parochial district, in the hundred of Rhôs, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 4 miles (W.) from Dale. It comprises about two hundred acres, and is situated about three miles from the main land, and five miles west-by-north from St. Anne's Point at the mouth of Milford Haven. The shore on all sides is bold, and in some parts precipitous, except for a small space on the north side, where is the landing-place. The southern portion is based on red rabstone, and the northern on limestone. It is chiefly valuable for the pasturage of sheep, and as a rabbit warren; a small turbary supplies fuel, and there is an abundance of fresh water. The channel between this island and that of Gresholm, extending in a line towards St. Anne's lighthouse, is called the Wild Goose Race.
SKOMAR, a small island, forming a detached portion of the parish of St. Martin, Haverfordwest, in the county of Pembroke, South Wales, situated off St. Bride's Point, from which it is separated by a strait named Jack Sound. It lies nearly due north of the islet of Skokham, from which it is divided by a strait, a mile and a half in breadth, called Broad Sound; and comprises an area of about seven hundred acres, a considerable portion of it under tillage. It abounds with rabbits, has an abundance of fresh water, and is based on limestone, of which there are various detached rocks on its shores, the principal being Midland Isle, in Jack Sound. The whole is let to a resident tenant.
SLEBECH, a parish, in the union of Narberth, hundred of Dungleddy, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 4½ miles (E.) from Haverfordwest; containing 294 inhabitants. This parish is delightfully situated on the northern bank of the Eastern Cleddy, and on the turnpike-road from Haverfordwest to Narberth. It is bounded by the parish of Wiston on the north, by Lawhaden and Robeston-Wathen on the east, and by Uzmaston on the west; and comprises 4438 acres, whereof about 3000 are pasture, 1000 arable, and the remainder woodland, the timber consisting chiefly of oak, of which there is a great quantity of large growth. The surface is pleasingly varied, and the soil generally fertile, chiefly producing barley and oats. The rates are collected by the ploughland. Limestone is found at a great depth, and some quarries are worked to a limited extent; it is also procured at a small expense, in abundance, in the neighbourhood. On the Eastern Cleddy, at the eastern boundary of the parish, is a large mill and wharf, called Blackpool, where goods are landed for the town of Narberth and the surrounding country, as the river becomes navigable here for vessels of considerable burthen. About four miles below, the Eastern joins the Western Cleddy; and the two rivers, after flowing a short distance, form the magnificent expanse of Milford Haven.
The parish is enlivened with some gentlemen's seats, the grounds attached to which form a fine contrast to the want of variety and embellishment observable in other portions of the county. Slebech Hall, the property of the Baron de Rutzen, by marriage with the heiress of the late Nathaniel Phillips, Esq., is an elegant, substantial, and comparatively modern mansion, presenting a quadrangle of noble elevation, and containing a fine collection of paintings by the old masters, marble busts, and bronzes, with every appendage of luxury. Near the house is an extensive garden, strikingly pleasing in its appearance, with curious and ancient terraces, planted with the rarest fruit-trees and choicest vines, forming a rich and ornamental vineyard, attached to a long range of hot-houses: the park has lately been very considerably enlarged, and inclosed with a lofty wall. The house was erected by the late John Symmons, Esq., on the site of a commandery of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, which at the Dissolution was purchased by Roger and Thomas Barlow, the last representative of which family conveyed it by marriage to the late Mr. Symmons, from whom it was purchased by Nathaniel Phillips, Esq., whose daughter is the present Baroness de Rutzen. There are many peculiar privileges belonging to the property, such as right of free warren, &c. Picton Castle, the seat of Lord Milford, is a noble and spacious edifice of the Norman era; and though it has undergone some alterations and received several additions, to adapt it more for the purpose of modern residence, it still preserves much of its original character of a fortress. It was erected by William de Picton, one of the followers of Arnulph de Montgomery, and has been inhabited without intermission since that remote period. The greater portion of the building, to which the late Lord Milford made some large additions, is in the ancient style of baronial grandeur. During the parliamentary war in the reign of Charles I., the castle was gallantly defended by Sir Richard Philipps for the king; but it had the good fortune to escape the destruction which so many other fortresses experienced. This estate came by marriage with a descendant of the Wogans to Sir Thomas Philipps, of Cîlsant, father of John, the first baronet of the family; and, on the death of the late Lord Milford, descended to R. B. P. Philipps, who in 1828 was made a baronet, and in 1847 was created Lord Milford. The park, which is partly in the parish of Boulston, possesses many attractions; the gardens are extensive.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £200 private benefaction and £800 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Baron de Rutzen, who is impropriator of the tithes; net income, £50. The old parish church, originally the church of the commandery, and the only remaining portion of that establishment, is a venerable structure in the Norman style of architecture, pleasantly situated near the bank of the river, and embosomed in the luxuriant groves which surround it. It contains some ancient monuments, and also a handsome monument of modern erection to the memory of Sir William Hamilton, and his first wife, who was one of the coheiresses of the Wogans of Wiston. The building, however, is so much dilapidated that a new church has been erected about a mile distant, and in a more central part of the parish, entirely of hewn stone, chiefly at the expense of the Baron and Baroness de Rutzen. It was consecrated in the year 1847, and forms a very handsome edifice, conspicuously placed on the side of the turnpike-road: the designs were furnished by H. Goode, jun., Esq., of London. There is a place of worship for Baptists; a day school is held in connexion with the Established Church, and the Baptists have a Sunday school. The commandery of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, according to Bishop Tanner, was established here prior to the year 1301, and endowed with lands by Wize and his son, Walter; it flourished till the Dissolution, when its revenue was estimated at £211. 9. 11.
Snead (Sneyd, or Is Nawdd)
SNEAD (SNEYD, or IS NAWDD), a parish, in the union of Clun, Lower division of the hundred of Montgomery, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 2 miles (N.) from Bishop's-Castle; containing 70 inhabitants. This parish comprises about 500 acres, and is watered by the river Camlet, its northern boundary. The surface is undulated, rising in some parts into bold eminences; the soil is in general fertile. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with the great tithes, with between twenty and thirty acres of land purchased by the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty, and £400 still in their hands; net income, about £110; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Richard E. Owen. The church, an ancient edifice in the early English style of architecture, was formerly dependent on a very extensive monastery here. It is beautifully situated in a retired spot, and nearly concealed from view by the trees of lofty growth by which the churchyard is surrounded; the west end is almost covered with ivy, and the venerable building has a strikingly picturesque appearance on entering the churchyard.
SOLVA, a small sea-port, in the parish of Whitchurch, union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Dewisland, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 12 miles (N. W. by W.) from Haverfordwest; containing 596 inhabitants. This place derives its name from its situation near the mouth of the small river Solva, which here discharges itself into the northern part of St. Bride's bay. It first came into notice from the great demand for shipping during the last war, and the convenience of its harbour; and, from one of the poorest hamlets in this part of the principality, has within the last sixty years risen into a flourishing little town. The houses are of very neat appearance, but are built without any regard to regularity of plan, and only those which are situated in the lower part of the valley, in a direction parallel with the river, have the form of a street. Within a few hundred yards of the original buildings another small town has been erected, occupying the height above the vale, and from that circumstance called Upper Solva. The aspect of the whole is highly interesting; the cottages are of a comfortable description, and the gardens, laid out in terraces on the acclivity of the hill, and commanding a fine view of the sea, are pleasing and picturesque.
The harbour is sheltered from the waves of St. Bride's bay by a singular bend at the mouth, and by a large pyramidal rock, which divides the entrance into two narrow passages. It is accessible to ships of five hundred tons' burthen, and in cases of emergency ships of a thousand tons might anchor; but the great rock at its mouth, and the high lands which surround it, appear at a distance as one entire cliff, and render the approach somewhat dangerous, owing to the difficulty in discerning the entrance. Many nautical men are of opinion that, at a very small expense, such improvements might be made as would render it one of the safest and most commodious havens on the coast. There were formerly about thirty vessels of various descriptions belonging to the port, of from twenty to two hundred and fifty tons' burthen; but that number is greatly reduced, and at present there are only four brigs, varying from one hundred and fifty to two hundred tons' burthen, and a few small craft of from twenty to forty tons. The staple trade of the port is in corn, of which considerable quantities are shipped for the English markets; and in limestone and coal, which are brought from Milford Haven: the limestone is burnt into lime at some kilns near the entrance of the town, for the supply of the surrounding districts. The sand of the harbour, possessing saline properties, is raised in tolerable quantity at low water, and landed on the quay, whence it is taken away by the farmers in the neighbourhood, and used as a manure. A small market is held weekly on Friday. On the ridge called the Gribyn, which bounds the valley of the Solva on the east, are traces of various intrenched encampments; and at the southern extremity, towards the sea, is a circular intrenchment, surrounded by a rampart of loose stones, and supposed to be of British origin.—See Whitchurch.
In this town, until transferred to Milford, was the establishment belonging to the lighthouse upon the "Smalls," a cluster of dangerous rocks, distant about eighteen miles from the Welsh coast, bearing from St. Anne's Point W. N. W., from St. David's W. S. W., and from Gresholm W.¾ N. These rocks form three distinct reefs, extending parallel to each other in a direction from north-east to south-west, for three-quarters of a mile; the entire breadth in a transverse direction is about a quarter of a mile. The greater number of them are above water, while others are visible only at half tide; on the largest of the former is the lighthouse, the plan of which was first suggested by Mr. Philipps of Liverpool, and the building erected by Mr. Whitesides, of the same place. It was completed in the year 1775, and its stability was proved by the architect himself, who, in company with two other persons, passed the following winter in it. The lighthouse is an octagonal building, resting upon eight strong oak piles at the angles, and one in the centre; the piles at the north and north-east angles are stayed, to resist the violence of the waves, which sometimes strike the edifice on the opposite side with the whole force of the Atlantic swell. The rock on which it is built is twelve feet above the level of the sea at high water, and the lantern has an elevation of seventy feet; it is lighted by eighteen argand lamps, and in clear weather the light, which is of a red colour, is seen at the distance of five or six leagues, having the appearance of a star of the first magnitude. Beneath the lantern are the store-room and the apartments for the men, who are always three in number, and are furnished with a supply of provisions and stores for six months, as it frequently happens that for many weeks together, during the winter, no boat can reach the rock. The erection of a lighthouse on these dangerous rocks has been attended with the greatest benefit to the navigation of the Channel, many lives and much property having been saved since the design was carried into effect. The Smalls, it is said, belong to no parish, nor are they within any county; but they are nearest to the Welsh coast, and the inhabitants of the lighthouse are considered as parishioners of Whitchurch.
SONTLY (SONLLI), a township, in the parish of Marchwiel, union of Wrexham, hundred of Bromfield, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 1½ mile (S.) from Wrexham; containing 87 inhabitants. The ancient house of Sontly was possessed by a family of the same name, in old writings called Soully or Sullie, a branch of the Eytons, of Eyton. It was afterwards inhabited by a younger branch of the Broughtons, but is now a farmhouse.
SOUGHTON (SYCH-DIN), a hamlet, in the ecclesiastical district of St. Mark, parish of Northop, union of Holywell, Northop division of the hundred of Coleshill, county of Flint, North Wales, 1 mile (S.) from Northop; containing 530 inhabitants. The Hall is a chaste and unique mansion, erected in 1714 by Dr. John Wynne, Bishop of Bath and Wells; and there are two other respectable seats in this vicinity, namely, Soughton House and Lower Soughton. An extensive colliery was formerly worked, giving employment to several of the inhabitants; but it is now exhausted. The Calvinistic Methodists and the Independents have each a place of worship here, and each support a Sunday school. An estate in the township was bequeathed by Owen Jones, in 1658, for the instruction and apprenticing of poor boys at Northop. Wat's Dyke enters the parish in this township, and crosses the Mold road at the Soughton toll-gate, taking a course nearly westward for some distance.
SOUTHERNDOWN, a hamlet, in the parish of St. Bride's Major, union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Ogmore, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 5 miles (S. by W.) from Bridgend; containing 313 inhabitants. This place is situated on the sea-coast, and comprises the southern declivity of a very extensive down. It is resorted to for sea-bathing. Close to it, on a small promontory, presenting rocky and lofty cliffs, stands Dunraven Castle, once the seat of Thomas Wyndham, Esq., who erected the present spacious and elegant structure, in the early English style, on the site of a more ancient castle. The latter is said to have been the oldest in Wales, and the residence of the celebrated Caractacus, as well as of his father, Brân ab Llyr. It continued occasionally to be the seat of the reguli of this district after the capture of the British hero, and until the Norman conquest of Glamorgan in the time of Iestyn ab Gwrgan, when, on the partition of that territory by Robert FitzHamon, the castle and manor were assigned to William de Londres, who bestowed them on his butler, afterwards Sir Arnold Butler. One of Butler's female descendants conveyed them by marriage into the family of Vaughan, from whom they were purchased by an ancestor of the late Mr. Wyndham, whose only daughter and heiress conveyed them by marriage to the present Windham Henry Wyndham-Quin, Earl of Dunraven and Mountearl. The castle is the residence of Viscount Adare, the earl's eldest son.
A lofty embankment across the peninsula, still traceable, protected the castle on the land side, while the bold cliffs rendered it inaccessible from the sea. About a mile westward from it are three very extraordinary natural caverns, formed by the action of the sea on the projecting rocks. One, termed by pre-eminence the "Cave," is approached from the south by a rude piazza worn through the rock, the appearance of the sea and sky between the rough arches of which has a grand and singular effect. The next is a cavern called the "Wind Hole," extending about twenty-seven yards, with two or three fissures in the roof, at a considerable distance from the edge of the cliff; and if a hat or any other light substance be placed on the opening on the top, it will be violently blown into the air. The third has received the name of the "Fairy Cove," from the number of petrifactions which it contains, and which have assumed such a variety of grotesque shapes as to render it the most curious of the whole. At the western end of the down, which abuts on the Ewenny river, is another singular object, consisting of a large body of water issuing from the bottom of the down, foaming and boiling with much force, and forming two small streams.—See St. Bride's Major.
SPITTAL, a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Dungleddy, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 5 miles (N. by E.) from Haverfordwest; containing 429 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the east by Walton, south by Rudbaxton, west by Camrhôs and part of Trevgarn, and north by Ambleston. It is situated on the Western Cleddy, which forms its boundary on the west; and is intersected by the turnpike-roads leading from Haverfordwest to Cardigan and Fishguard, respectively. It contains by admeasurement 2674 acres, all of it arable or pasture, except from 10 to 20 acres of woodland. The surface is generally flat, and the scenery therefore not very attractive: the soil is of an excellent quality, producing grass, and wheat, barley, and oats; the prevailing timber is oak and ash. There are three modern mansions, named Scotton, Froy Hall, and Haver Hill. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant; net income, £79; patron, the Bishop of St. David's. The tithes, which are appropriate, have been commuted for a rent-charge of £152, and there is an appropriate glebe of 32 acres, valued at £20 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is not distinguished by any architectural details of importance, consisting only of a nave and chancel, separated by a low and unornamented circular arch; the length is 78 feet, and the breadth 24. There are places of worship for Baptists, Wesleyan Methodists, and Independents; and two Sunday schools.
About 100 yards south-east of the church is an ancient ruin, covering nearly an acre of land, and said to have been an hospitium, or hospital, from which the word Spittal is supposed to be derived. It must have been a place of considerable importance, as the walls, still visible in some parts, are of great solidity, being about five feet in thickness; and under these, immense vaults have been discovered. Tradition reports the erection to have been by the monks of St. David's, at an early period, for the accommodation of pilgrims to the shrine of St. David's; which is slightly corroborated by the circumstance of the tithes of the parish still belonging to the dignitaries of the cathedral. In the parish are also several remains of ancient encampments, here called "rhâths:" of these, one occupies the summit of a conical hill which rises abruptly in the vale; the area, about two acres, is nearly circular, and is inclosed by a single rampart. Near it was a chapel, dedicated to St. Leonard, which, together with the church at Rudbaxton, was granted by Alexander Rudebac to the commandery of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, at Slebech; and on the site of this chapel, and on that of another a mile west of the church (the two being called East Chapel Park, and West Chapel Park), stone coffins and a great quantity of human bones have been dug up. Not far from the road leading from Haverfordwest to Cardigan is a place named "Scotton Gallows," where tradition says the heir of the family suffered in consequence of slaying the heir of the family of Heythog on that spot in a duel. West of the same road, at Scotton, is an elegant mansion, erected by Jas. Higgon, Esq., being one of the three mansions above mentioned: it commands an extensive western view.
STACKPOOL-ELIDUR, a parish, in the hundred of Castlemartin, union and county of Pembroke, South Wales, 3½ miles (S.) from Pembroke; containing 294 inhabitants. The name of this place is derived from the Stack rock at the mouth of the Broad Haven (at the head of which it is situated) in the Bristol Channel; and its adjunct from St. Elidur, to whom the original foundation of its church is attributed. The parish comprises an extensive tract of good arable and pasture land, in a high state of cultivation; and the scenery, enriched with the beautiful grounds and plantations surrounding the mansion of Stackpool Court, is finely diversified and strikingly picturesque. Stackpool Court, the property and one of the seats of Earl Cawdor (of which the park is in this parish, and the house and grounds in that of St. Petrox), is romantically situated in a deep and well-wooded valley, ornamented with an artificial lake, over which is an elegant stone bridge of eight arches. A noble mansion, which overlooked the lake, was erected by the great grandfather of Earl Cawdor, and son of Sir Alexander Campbell, who was the first of the family that settled in Wales, and who, by marriage with Miss Lort, the heiress, became possessed of the estate. This edifice, however, has been almost entirely rebuilt by his lordship, from a plan designed by the late Sir Jeffrey Wyatville; and Stackpool Court has been rendered one of the most superb residences in the principality. It is built of hewn limestone, and presents an imposing grandeur of appearance, having two spacious and magnificent fronts: along the whole of that facing the lake, a wide terrace has been formed, from which is a delightful prospect; and from the other front, containing the entrance, is a view of the pleasure-grounds. The interior comprises a splendid suite of apartments, and a library consisting of a large collection of valuable works in every department of literature. The gardens are laid out with taste, and the greenhouses and hothouses are stored with rare exotics; the park, which is well stocked with deer, is very extensive, and in the grounds is a large conservatory: the approach to the house has been much increased in beauty by the erection of a new bridge of one arch. The whole of this fine property has been greatly improved by the present proprietor; and the estate, which includes not less than fifteen thousand acres of rich land, in the highest state of cultivation, with its luxuriant woods and plantations, forms a distinguished ornament to this part of the county.
The living is a rectory, with that of St. Petrox, rated in the king's books, and endowed with £600 royal bounty; income, £447. The church, dedicated to St. Elidur, or, according to some authorities, to St. James, is an ancient structure, containing several monuments to different members of the family of Stackpool Court, among which is one, under a rich sculptured canopy of stone, bearing the effigy of a crusader, said to represent Sir Elidur de Stackpool, the earliest known proprietor of that estate, and the reputed founder of the church. The interior was richly embellished by an ancestor of Earl Cawdor, in 1766. In the park is a day school, under the patronage of the Earl and Countess Cawdor; and a Sunday School is held in the church. On a tongue of land commanding a branch of the Stackpool estuary is a strong encampment, near which have been found human bones in several places, a brazen spear-head, and an old sword; probably memorials of some of those conflicts that frequently took place along this coast, between the natives and the invaders of their country.
STANAGE, a lordship, in the union of Knighton, in that part of the parish of Brampton-Bryan which is in the hundred of Knighton, county of Radnor, South Wales, 3 miles (E.) from Knighton; containing 169 inhabitants. The remainder of the parish is situated in Wigmore hundred, county of Hereford. This lordship, the name of which signifies "the stony edge," forms the most eastern point of South Wales, and lies on the south bank of the river Teme, on the road from Knighton to Ludlow. Stanage Park, occupying a fine and extensive eminence, formerly belonged to the Cornewalls, barons of Burford.
STANSTY, a township, in that part of the parish of Wrexham which is in the hundred of Bromfield, in the union of Wrexham, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 1½ mile (N.) from Wrexham; containing 355 inhabitants. Wat's Dyke enters this township from the south, and, after passing through it to the river Alyn, is continued beyond that river, in the township of Gwersylt, in the parish of Gresford. A tithe rent-charge of £121. 6. is paid to the impropriators, and one of 14s. to the vicar of Wrexham.