A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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Tremerchion, or Dymeirchyon (Trê-Meirchion)
TREMERCHION, or DYMEIRCHYON (TRÊ-MEIRCHION), a parish, in the union of St. Asaph, Rhuddlan division of the hundred of Rhuddlan, county of Flint, North Wales, 3½ miles (E. S. E.) from St. Asaph; containing 613 inhabitants. The village of Tremerchion is delightfully situated on the brow of a hill, under the Clwydian range of mountains, and commands a rich and luxuriant prospect of that unrivalled vale, of the mountains forming its western boundary, and the lofty chain of Snowdon. Lead-ore has been found in the parish, but the works are discontinued. A little below the church stands the mansion of -y-Bryn; bella, once called Bâchegraig, embosomed in woods, and some time since the property and residence of Signor Piozzi, in right of his wife, previously Mrs. Thrale, widow of Henry Thrale, Esq. She was daughter and heiress of John Salusbury, Esq., to an ancestor of whom, named Roger Salusbury, the ancient house, and certain tithes in Carnarvonshire, were given, as a marriage portion with one of his daughters, by Sir Richard Clough, an eminent merchant in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by whom the house was erected in the year 1567. The old edifice inclosed a quadrangular area, and was a curious brick mansion, with three sides composed of different buildings, the former six stories high, including the cupola, and forming from the second floor the figure of a pyramid, having probably been erected from the model of buildings in Flanders; the bricks were of a very superior kind, and are supposed to have been made either in Holland, or by a Dutchman on the spot. This edifice was taken down, and the present house erected, about the end of the last century, by Mrs. Thrale. The property now belongs to Sir John S. Piozzi Salusbury, Knt.
The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £5, and in the gift of the Bishop of St. Asaph; the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £539. 14., equally divided between the impropriator and the vicar. The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, is a small neat edifice, and contains an organ, a very unusual appendage to country churches in Wales. Under a finely ornamented arch lies the effigy of Davydd Ddû, or Davydd the Black, of Hiraddug, in ecclesiastical robes. He was incumbent of the parish about the middle of the fourteenth century, and is celebrated throughout Wales for his poetry and prophecies; he translated the Psalms of David into Welsh metre, and assisted greatly in regulating the Welsh prosody. Beneath the figure is inscribed Hic jacit Dafid ap Roderic ap Madog. Here is also a mutilated effigy of Sir Robert Pounderling, constable of Dyserth Castle, represented as a Knight Templar, cross-legged; and the church anciently contained a cross (long since demolished), in great fame for the miracles reputed to have been performed at it, which are described in a poem published about the year 1500, by Grufydd ab Ivan ab Llewelyn Vychan. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists.
Margaret Vaughan, in 1707, gave the sum of £100, directing that part of the interest should be annually distributed among the poor, and the remainder appropriated in apprenticing a child. A school was built contiguous to the churchyard, about the year 1765, which is partly supported by an endowment in land by the same lady, producing £4 per annum, partly by the landed proprietors, and partly by payments from the children. It is in connexion with the Established Church, and there is also a Church Sunday school. Divers small sums have been given for the benefit of the poor; among which are a rent-charge of £1. 5., by Edward Mostyn, Esq., in the year 1733, and another of £1. 6., by Mrs. Grace Price, in the year 1741. Mrs. Williams, in 1729, left a house and about two acres of land, increased by a small addition under the Skerring inclosure act, the whole now paying a rent of £6; and Robert Davies, in 1823, bequeathed £30, lodged in the Holywell savings' bank. The produce of all these benefactions is distributed annually.
Sir Richard Clough, the founder of the mansion of Bâchegraig, was the son of poor parents at Denbigh, and became a chorister in Chester Cathedral, whence he was removed to London, and apprenticed to Sir Thomas Gresham, with whom he afterwards became a partner: he is even said to have contributed a few thousand pounds towards founding the Royal Exchange. He lived chiefly at Antwerp, and amassed so much wealth in mercantile pursuits as to render his name proverbial, on the attainment of riches by any person. His descendants are stated to have been deprived of the bulk of his immense estate by virtue of an agreement between him and Sir Thomas Gresham, to the effect that, on the decease of either, the survivor should inherit the whole of his property.
TRÊ'RCOED, a township, in the parish of Disserth, union of Builth, hundred of Colwyn, county of Radnor, South Wales, 4½ miles (N. N. E.) from Builth; containing 277 inhabitants. The township is bounded on the north by a stream which falls into the river Ithon, and near which is Maes Madoc, celebrated as the scene of one of the last engagements between Prince Llewelyn ab Grufydd and the English. On an elevated common are some square fortifications, conjectured to be British, notwithstanding their form.
TRÊTOWER (TRÊF-Y-TWR), a chapelry, in the parish of Llanvihangel-Cwm-Dû, union and hundred of Crickhowel, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 3 miles (N. by W.) from Crickhowel; containing 282 inhabitants. This place derives its name, signifying "the town of the tower," from its castle, supposed by some to have been originally the residence of one of the native lords of Brycheiniog. By whom, however, or when, the castle was founded, has not been distinctly ascertained. It was perhaps built by Pycard, a Norman knight, to whom Bernard Newmarch gave the manor, to be held by knight's service, as of the paramount lordship of Blaenllynvi. From the Picards the manor and castle descended, by marriage, to the Bloets, of Raglan Castle, Monmouthshire, with whom the estate continued till the reign of Richard II., when, by the marriage of Isabel, or Elizabeth, only daughter and heiress of Sir John Bloet, it passed to Sir James Berkeley, second son of Lord Berkeley, of Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire. In 1403, Sir James was commanded by Henry IV. to fortify his castle of Trêtower against Owain Glyndwr, by whom it was, notwithstanding, partially demolished; and at present, in some of the remaining walls are several parts which appear to have undergone repairs, probably at the time here alluded to, as they display evident marks of haste in the execution of the work, some of the ancient ornamental carving having been walled up. The manor and the remains of the castle were given by Edward IV. to the family of Herbert, from whom the property has descended by inheritance to the Duke of Beaufort, in whose possession is a sketch of the castle as it appeared in the reign of Elizabeth.
The village is pleasantly situated on the left bank of the river Rhiangoll, which, after flowing along the beautiful Vale of Cwm Dû, falls into the Usk within a short distance of it, between the lofty mountains near the entrance of the vale, through which the road from Crickhowel to Brecknock is carried. It contains but few houses, and independently of its situation and the remains of the ancient castle, presents scarcely any objects of interest. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty; net income, £64; patron, Morgan Morgans, Esq.; impropriator, Mr. Jones. The chapel is dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, but whether it was founded by the monks of the priory of St. John the Evangelist, Brecknock, or, as is more probable, by Pycard, as an appendage to the castle, has not been satisfactorily ascertained: it was rebuilt in 1776, the expense being defrayed by a parish rate. A round tower, and some ruined walls mantled with ivy, are all that remain of the castle, which was situated in a very low and damp spot, on the bank of the Rhiangoll, south-west of the village.
Adjoining the castle grounds is the "fair place of Henry Vehan, Esq.," noticed by Leland, which is now only a farmhouse. Among the ancestors of this family, some of whom represented the county in parliament, and were high sheriffs of it, may be noticed, the gallant Sir Roger Vaughan, who was knighted on the field of Agincourt, together with Sir David Gam and others of his brave countrymen, who saved their sovereign's life by the sacrifice of their own; Thomas, who, in the reign of Henry VI., was attainted for his attachment to the house of York; Sir Roger, who, fighting in the same cause, was killed in the great battle of Danesmoor, near Banbury; and Sir Thomas, chamberlain to the young Edward V., who, with the Lords Grey and Rivers, was beheaded at Pontefract by Richard III. Some of the descendants still reside in the village, though not possessed of any of the property; the ancient mansion and the demesne of Trêtower Court having been sold by Charles Vaughan, Esq., about sixty years ago.
TRÊVDRAETH (TRÊF-DRAETH), a parish, in the hundred of Malltraeth, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 6 miles (S. W.) from Llangevni; containing 950 inhabitants. The name of this place signifies "the town on the sands." The parish is situated near the Malldraeth marsh, and is bounded also by the parishes of Newborough, Llangafo, Llangrystyolys, Cerregceinwen, Aberfraw, and Llangadwaladr. It comprises a tract of inclosed and cultivated land extending more than three miles in length, and two miles and a half in breadth; and, in addition, about 1000 acres of land which, since the inclosure of the marsh in 1818, has been recovered from the sea. The lands are interspersed with a great number of prominent rocks, which give the surface a singular appearance; the soil, however, is generally fertile, the agricultural produce being chiefly barley and oats. There is very little woodland, but the distant hills of Carnarvonshire constitute pleasing objects as seen from the parish.
Two collieries have been opened, which are worked with success, employing about 100 persons; and though the coal hitherto raised is inferior in quality to that found in Flintshire and Denbighshire, it has proved highly advantageous to the inhabitants of this part of Anglesey, who would otherwise be compelled to derive their supply of fuel from those counties. The strata through which the pits are sunk consist, first of sand to the depth of five feet; secondly of freestone, to a further depth of sixty-six feet; thirdly of black shale, for a depth of six feet; fourthly of good coal to the further depth of three feet and a half; fifthly of indurated clunch, for two feet; and lastly of freestone, to an unknown depth. The dip of these strata is reported to be only one yard in ten, towards the east-by-south. There are likewise several quarries of limestone, and of stone for building. Since the inclosure of the marsh, and the opening of the collieries, the parish has increased in population, and many new buildings have been erected; and its situation on the road from Holyhead to Moel-y-Don ferry, and near the Holyhead railway, affords facility of conveyance for the produce of the collieries, and of intercourse with the neighbouring districts. Fairs are held on May 1st and November 1st.
The living is a rectory, with the living of Llangwyvan annexed, rated in the king's books at £14. 8. 11½.; present net income, £465; patron, the Bishop of Bangor. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for a rent-charge of £380; and there is a house, with a glebe of nine acres and three-quarters, together valued at £30 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Beuno, and supposed to have been originally founded in the year 616, is a small plain edifice, situated at the extreme border of the parish, and has an east window of modern date and of good design. It is about sixty feet long and fifteen broad, and will contain nearly 300 persons, of whom seventy can be accommodated in free sittings. The parish register, which is quite legible from the year 1550, is the oldest in North Wales, with the exception of that of Gwaenyscor. Siamber Wen, the rectory-house, situated about two miles from the church, on the margin of Ll-y-Bryn; Goron, was erected in 1819, and is a spacious and handsome building, surrounded with pleasant grounds, and commanding a view over the most beautiful portion of the parish. There are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, with a Sunday school held in each of them.
A National day school was founded in 1828, by subscription, aided by a grant of £35 from the parent society; it is open to children of this parish and that of Llangadwaladr, and is under the superintendence of the rector. John Pugh Gwilim, in 1633, and Robert Roberts, bequeathed to the poor £46. 13. 4., which sum, with other money, was expended some years since in erecting eight cottages, on ground purchased by the parish, for the occupation of indigent families rent-free. Owen Williams bequeathed land at Newborough for apprenticing children, containing 1a. 2r. 14p., to which an allotment was assigned of 2a. 3r. 4p., on the inclosure of Malldraeth common; and the whole is now let at £3. 15. per annum, appropriated according to the will of the donor. Richard Williams, in 1777, left a rent-charge of 10s. for the use of the poor; and Ellen Griffith, at some period unknown, one of £2 for a similar purpose. There are some other small donations, and a few have been lost.
TREVECCA, a hamlet, in the parish and hundred of Tàlgarth, union of Hay, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 8 miles (S. S. W.) from Hay; containing 259 inhabitants. This hamlet is situated on the road from Crickhowel to Hay, at the foot of the Black Mountains, near the right bank of the river Llynvi; and contained a remarkable religious establishment, founded by Mr. Harris, and described in the article on the parish. The railway from Brecknock to Hay passes along the bank of the Llynvi, near the village.
TRÊVECHAN, with Rhŷdonen, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llanynys which is in the hundred of Ruthin, in the union of Ruthin, county of Denbigh, North Wales: the population is included in the return for the parish.
TRÊVEGLWYS (TRÊF-EGLWYS), a parish, in the union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Upper division of the hundred of Llanidloes, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 4½ miles (N.) from Llanidloes; containing 1853 inhabitants. This parish comprises a pleasant vale of the same name, towards the southern part of the county; it is bounded by Llanidloes, Llandinam, Llanwnnog, and Carno, and intersected by the small river Tarannon, which flows into the Severn near Caer-Sws. The area by admeasurement is 27,000 acres, including a great portion of mountainous land, and a considerable share of arable and pasture, the pasture principally in sheep-walks. In the lower part of the parish the soil is very heavy, and well adapted for wheat and barley; oak is the prevailing kind of timber. An allotment of the common land took place about fifteen years since. The scenery is varied, in some parts highly picturesque; and the village, which is small, and surrounded by sheltering hills, is seen with beautiful effect from the Llanidloes road, at the distance of a mile from which it is situated. The inhabitants are employed in agriculture, and the manufacture of flannel.
The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £5. 8. 4.; present net income, £103, with a glebe-house; patron, Lord Mostyn; impropriators, Lord Mostyn, Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart., the Dean and Chapter of Bangor, and another. The church, dedicated, according to some authorities, to St. Luke, but as others state, to St. Michael, is an ancient structure in the early style of English architecture, and contains some remains of carved oak of elegant design. It is about sixty feet long and thirty feet broad. In the churchyard are some yewtrees of luxuriant growth. There are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists; and numerous Sunday schools. Ursula Evans bequeathed to the poor a rent-charge of £1, the payment of which has been discontinued for some years, from neglect of the parishioners in enforcing it. Mrs. Pugh gave £10, which, with two other small bequests, were vested in a turnpike bond of £20. Richard Baxter left £100, and Hugh Baxter £50, both which sums have been appropriated to the purchase of a rent-charge out of the land of Maesy-Gwaelod, producing £8 per annum; and John Swancoat bequeathed land, yielding £6 per annum, to the poor of the parish, for whose relief there are also some smaller charitable donations. A few other bequests have been lost. An urn was found near the farmhouse of Finnant some years ago, containing a quantity of coins, and ashes of a dark colour: the person removing the urn broke it accidentally into pieces. There are still considerable traces of a Roman road that passed through the parish.
TREVGARN, GREAT, a parish, in the poorlaw union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Rhôs, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 5 miles (N.) from Haverfordwest; containing 100 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the east by Spittal and part of St. Dogmael's, south and west by Camrhôs, and north by Hayscastle; and is intersected by a stream called the Nant-y-Coy, and from north to south by the Western Cleddy river, up the valley of which, and through the village, passes the turnpikeroad from Haverfordwest to Fishguard. It is computed to contain 1200 acres, including that part of it termed Little Trevgarn, lying east of the Cleddy; 700 acres are arable, 400 pasture, and 100 woodland, chiefly oak. The surface is generally hilly, with a southern inclination, so as to command extensive views over the south-western part of Pembrokeshire, embracing St. Bride's bay and Milford Haven. Of the cultivated portion, consisting of a very good soil, the principal produce is oats, barley, and wheat; but the north-western part is composed chiefly of the Trevgarn and Leweston mountains, which form an elevated, heathy, and barren tract, unfit for tillage. Trevgarn Hall, situated a little to the west of the village, was erected in 1824 by the late proprietor, Dr. Evans, and commands a fine view over the district of Rhôs.
The most remarkable natural feature of the surface, is that which gave name to the parish, Trevgarn signifying "the town of the rock." It consists of three separate piles of rocks, of striking aspect, rising perpendicularly and abruptly to a considerable height from the ridge of the moor, and presenting the appearance of ruined castles, an idea that seems confirmed to the eye by their being situated so as to command the narrow pass of the mountain through which the Western Cleddy here flows, and which, on the opposite eastern side, exhibits a fine grove, feathering down to the water's edge. They are of the transition formation, containing, it is said, valuable veins, and situated about 500 yards from each other, the whole chain running west and east, and continued on the eastern side of the river Cleddy, in Little Trevgarn. The western or most elevated, called "Polegarn," appears, when viewed from the south-east, like a huge dismantled tower, and is visible from distant parts of the county: on a nearer approach, it is found to consist of disrupted masses, covered with lichens of varied and vivid colours. The second pile, termed "Picketgarn," exhibits the most irregular and grotesque forms, displaying from the south the aspect of a vast dilapidated castle, while from the east it presents among its outlines the figures of two lions couchant. On the northern side of this stupendous group, and detached from the great mass, is a very large equilateral and triangular stone, twenty-one feet long and five deep, supported by a few points of its base on a cubical block about seven feet six inches square, the whole suggesting some artificial means for its erection. The third group rises in fearful grandeur from the brink of the Cleddy, and is intersected by the new Fishguard road, offering to artists from its colour, form, and composition, studies for striking and effective display. It has been surrounded by a ditch and rampart, part of which is still remaining: doubts are entertained whether these are of Roman or British structure.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £1. 13. 9., present net income, £60, with a glebe-house adjacent to the church, of ample and convenient form, built in 1832 by the incumbent; patron, John Evans, Esq., who is lord of the manor, and proprietor of the whole parish. The church, a plain but neat edifice, measures, with the chancel, about sixty feet in length, and eighteen in breadth; all the sittings are free. The old road to Fishguard passed over the hill, through the village of Trevgarn, where a tradition still prevails that it was once the seat of Cambrian royalty; which receives some countenance from the circumstance, that in 1798, on pulling down some buildings used as a barn and out-offices, the massive walls were found to be built upon circular arches almost buried in the earth, and these arches supported on some rude stone columns: on digging up the floor of the subterraneous pile, a quantity of coins and silver and gold trinkets were discovered and secreted by the persons employed. Some old encampments were formerly traceable in different parts, but their defences have been levelled.
TRÈV-HELYG, a township, in that part of the parish of Castle-Caer-Einion which is within the liberties of the borough of Welshpool, in the county of Montgomery, North Wales; containing 42 inhabitants. It is a detached township, bounded on the east by the river Severn; and the Montgomeryshire canal passes through it in a parallel line with that river, and also the road leading from the town of Welshpool to that of Newtown, both in this county.
TRÊVILAN (TRÊF-ILAR), a parish, in the union of Lampeter, Lower division of the hundred of Ilar, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 7 miles (N. by W.) from Lampeter; containing 317 inhabitants. This parish comprises 2201 acres, and is pleasantly situated in the Vale of Aëron, on the high road leading from Lampeter to Aberystwith; the country is boldly varied, and the scenery in some parts picturesque. In the southern part is the small village of Tàlsarn, deriving its name from a branch of a Roman road or causeway that terminated here; it is situated on the bank of the river Aëron, and fairs are held in it on September 8th and November 7th. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £5, and endowed with £400 royal bounty; patron, the Bishop of St. David's: the tithes have been commuted for £110, of which £5 are payable to an impropriator, and £105 to the rector, who has also a glebe of three acres, valued at £9. 9. per annum. The church is dedicated to St. Hilary, from whom the parish is supposed to have derived the name Trêv-Ilar, said to be its proper appellation. Having fallen into a state of dilapidation, the church was taken down in 1806, and rebuilt: the present is a neat edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel, but of much smaller dimensions than the original building: the ancient font, a square basin upon a round pillar, has been preserved. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists. A day school, and two Sunday schools, are supported; and a bequest by Samuel Evans in 1706, producing 10s. per annum, is given to a few poor persons. Near the churchyard is a mound surrounded by a moat, called Castle Trêvilan, thought to be the site of a fortress of that name, which was begun by Maelgwyn ab Rhŷs, and completed by his son Maelgwyn Vychan, in the year 1233. Here is a strongly impregnated chalybeate spring, which is occasionally resorted to for medicinal purposes.
TRÊVIRIG (TRÊF-FEIRIG), a township, in that part of the parish of Llanbadarn-Vawr which is in the Lower division of the hundred of Geneu'rGlyn, in the poor-law union of Aberystwith, county of Cardigan, South Wales; containing 633 inhabitants. It is situated contiguous to the valley of the Rheidiol.
TRÊVLLŶS, a township, in the parish of Llangammarch, union and hundred of Builth, county of Brecknock, South Wales, 9½ miles (W. S. W.) from Builth; containing 494 inhabitants. It forms the upper part of the parish, between the rivers Irvon and Dulas; and the road from Builth to Llandovery passes through the township, which is hilly, and has some clumps of well-grown timber trees in the valleys. The tithes have been commuted for £187, two-thirds payable to the Bishop of St. David's, and one-third to the vicar of Llangammarch. At a place called Llwyn-y-Vynwent tradition reports that a chapel of ease anciently stood, but no traces of it can now be discovered.
TRÊVLYN, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Trêgaron, Upper division of the hundred of Penarth, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 2 miles (N. by E.) from Trêgaron; containing 180 inhabitants. It is situated near the Teivy, on the left bank of which, between this place and Trêgaron, is a bog of excellent peat; and higher up is a beautiful lake, about three-quarters of a mile in circuit, called Ll-y-Bryn; y Maes, or "the lake of the field," from which the hamlet takes its name, and which tradition states to cover the original site of the town of Trêgaron. A Roman road from Loventium to the northern parts of the county passed through the hamlet; and the remains, consisting of a bank of raised earth, are still visible.
TRÊVLYN, a township, in the parish of Llanidloes, union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Upper division of the hundred of Llanidloes, county of Montgomery, North Wales: the population is returned with the parish. Three-fourths of the tithes belong to Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart., and the remaining fourth to the vicar of Llangurig.
Trêvlys (Trêf-Lys, or Trêf-Llys)
TRÊVLYS (TRÊF-LYS, or TRÊF-LLYS), a parish, in the union of Festiniog, hundred of Eivionydd, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 3 miles (S. W. by S.) from Trêmadoc; containing 87 inhabitants. It is situated on the northern shore of Cardigan bay, and is but of small extent. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Criccieth; the tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £34. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is a small ancient edifice, without any architectural claim to notice. There are places of worship for Independents and Methodists, and poor children of the parish are eligible to the school at Criccieth, founded by the Rev. David Ellis. Bron-y-Voel, in the parish, was the birthplace of Sir Howel y Vwyall, who resided here when governor of Criccieth Castle: he was a commander under the Black Prince at the battle of Poictiers, when he took John, the French king, prisoner; and is supposed to have been buried at Penmorva. On the farm of Tŷmawr is a very ancient grave.
TREVOR-TRAIAN, a chapelry, in the parish of Llangollen, union of Corwen, Nanthewdy division of the hundred of Chirk, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 3 miles (E.) from the town of Llangollen, on the road to Wrexham: the population, though formerly returned separately, is now included in the return for Llangollen-Traian, with which Trevor-Traian jointly forms one of the two divisions of the parish. This chapelry comprises the mountainous range to the north of the town and the river Dee; and contains the ruins of Castell Dinas Brân, an historical notice of which is given in the article on Llangollen. It abounds with very extensive rocks of limestone and other formations; and the navigable feeder of the Ellesmere and Chester canal passes within its southern boundary, along the northern bank of the river Dee, extending from the main branch of the canal near the north end of the Ponty-Cysylltau aqueduct, to a junction with the river, at a short distance below the church of Llantysillio. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £400 private benefaction, £600 royal bounty, and £800 parliamentary grant; net income, £87: the patronage and impropriation belong to the Misses Thomas. The chapel is a small plain edifice, built by John Lloyd, Esq., of Trevor Hall, in 1742, for the use of his family, but not consecrated until 1772. The chapelry shares with Llangollen-Traian in the produce of some bequests.
The remains of Castell Dinas Brân are situated on the summit of a conical isolated hill, rising to a considerable height out of the vale, and very steep; they extend about one hundred and ninety feet in length, and one hundred and fifty in breadth, having on one side a deep trench cut in the solid rock. To the north of them is Craig-Eglwyseg, exhibiting for the distance of half a mile a vast assemblage of rocks composed of different tiers, like an immense flight of steps. Near Trevor Hall is a very interesting natural cavern, extending into a limestone rock to an unknown distance under the range of Trevor hills, and adorned by a great variety of very beautiful specimens of stalactite; in it have been found fossil remains of the hyena and of animals of the antediluvian world.
TRÊVREYAN (TRÊF-RHEWIN), with Myhatham, or Mallaen, a hamlet, in the parish of Llanarthney, Upper division of the hundred of Iscennen, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales; containing 338 inhabitants.
TRÊVRIW (TRÊF-RIW), a parish, in the poor-law union of Llanrwst, Uchgorvai division of the hundred of Nantconway, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, on the road from Conway to Llanrwst, 2 miles (N. N. W.) from Llanrwst; containing 426 inhabitants. The village is situated on the western bank of the river Conway, up which the tide flows to it; and vessels of sixty tons' burthen come to this place, bringing coal, lime, and other heavy goods for Llanrwst and the neighbouring parishes, and conveying downwards the produce of the slate-quarries of Llanrhychwyn. Lead-ore and zinc exist in the parish, and have been procured to a considerable extent. Fairs are held on May 12th, September 3rd, and November 7th. The living is a discharged rectory, with the perpetual curacy of Llanrhychwyn annexed, rated in the king's books at £7. 15. 10.; patron, the Bishop of Bangor: the tithes of this parish and that of Llanrhychwyn have been commuted for a rent-charge of £200, payable to the incumbent; and there is a glebe of nearly 1½ acre. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, a small edifice consisting of a nave, chancel, and north aisle, is stated to have been built by Llewelyn the Great, about the year 1230, "for the ease of his princess, who before was obliged to go on foot to Llanrhychwyn, a long walk among the mountains." There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists; a day school, in connexion with the Established Church; and two Sunday schools, conducted by the Calvinistic Methodists. Llewelyn is said to have had a palace here, in a place now called Gardd-y-Neuadd, where some hewn stones were discovered, which have since been used in building a wall, and are pointed out as the only remaining fragments of the royal habitation. Dr. Thomas Williams, a physician, who compiled a Latin and Welsh Dictionary, and wrote some other works, which are preserved in manuscript, was, according to Mr. Owen, a native of Trêvriw, where he died about the year 1620.
Trévwalchmai, or Trewalchmai (Trêf-Walchmai)
TRÉVWALCHMAI, or TREWALCHMAI (TRÊF-WALCHMAI), a parish, partly in the hundred of Llyvon, and partly in that of Malltraeth, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 5 miles (W.) from Llangevni; containing 699 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the line of the great road to Holyhead, and comprises about 1540 acres of inclosed arable and pasture land, and 160 acres of common affording good pasturage for sheep. The village, since the diversion of the Holyhead road in this direction, has considerably increased in size, and improved in appearance; it is neatly built, and, though still small, has, with its church, which is on an eminence, a pleasing aspect. The living is annexed to the rectory of Hêneglwys: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £204. 12. 6., and there is a glebe of three acres, valued at £3 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Mordeyrn, was in a state of great dilapidation until, in 1845, the incumbent, after restoring the principal church of Hêneglwys, determined on repairing this also. The same judicious plan was observed of adhering, in all details, to the exact style of the date of the original building; and some excellent improvements were introduced, such as the removal of the unsightly pews that encumbered the interior, and the destruction of a gallery built across the middle of the principal aisle in modern times. At the same time, the eastern window of Hêneglwys was brought here to replace a very small one of the same date, and the latter was again used in another portion of the church where it was wanted. These and other alterations were effected at a moderate cost, and under the sole superintendence of the incumbent, the Rev. Wynne Jones. The church consists of a principal aisle of about the end of the fourteenth century, and a second aisle, or chapel, of the fifteenth century, added on at the north-eastern end. An account of it, as it now appears, is given in the second number of the "Archæologia Cambrensis," from which the above particulars of the building are derived. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, with a Sunday school held in it; and a day school in connexion with the Established Church is conducted in the parish.
William Bold in 1688, the Rev. Hugh Hughes, and an unknown donor, severally bequeathed portions of land for the benefit of the poor. The benefaction of the first produces £14. 13. per annum, and that of the second £1, half of which is applied to the repairs of the church, and the other half to the poor; the localities of both these grants are in the parish of Hêneglwys. The third gift is situated in Cemmes Parcel, and consists of above 5¼ acres, but being let to a poor person, yields only £1 a year. Besides the above, the parish is in possession of several small pieces of land, producing £5. 2. per annum, distributed among the poor.
TRÊV-Y-COED, a hamlet, forming that part of the parish of Lampeter which is in the Upper division of the hundred of Troedyraur, in the union of Lampeter, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 3 miles (W. by S.) from Lampeter; containing 90 inhabitants. This hamlet is a detached portion of the hundred of Troedyraur, and situated nearly in the centre of that of Moythen; it lies on the road from Lampeter to Cardigan, and extends to the river Teivy. Neuadd, a neat residence, standing on a well-wooded eminence, north of the turnpike-road, forms a conspicuous and pleasing object in the approach to Lampeter. Here was formerly a chapel of ease, but it has long since been demolished.
TREVYNON, a township, in that part of the parish of Llangorse which is in the hundred of Pencelly, in the union and county of Brecknock, South Wales: the population is included in the return for the parish. The township is situated near the river Llynvi, and for all parochial purposes is united to the parish of Llandevailog-Tre'r-Graig.
TREWERN (TRÊ-WERN), a township, in the parish of Buttington, within the liberties of the borough of Welshpool, in the incorporation of Forden, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Welshpool; containing 372 inhabitants. It is situated on the right bank of the river Severn, on the road from Shrewsbury to Welshpool. A small stream, designated by the same name as the township, here falls into the Severn. A chapel, capable of accommodating 130 persons, has been built at an expense of £260, partly defrayed by voluntary contributions, and partly by a donation of £50 from the Church Pastoral-Aid Society; the minister's stipend is £100, and divine service is performed every Sunday, and Thursday evening. The tithes of the township have been commuted for £208. 10., of which a sum of £155. 10. is payable to the Dean and Chapter of Christchurch, Oxford.
TREWERN (TRÊ-WERN), with Gwiller, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of LlanvihangelNant-Melan which is within the liberties of the borough of New Radnor, in the union of Kington, county of Radnor, South Wales, 6 miles (W.) from New Radnor; containing 153 inhabitants. It forms the extreme western division of the parish, occupying the southern declivity of a lofty mountain which anciently composed a part of the forest of New Radnor. The area is 2423 acres, of which 800 are common or waste. Trewern stands on the upper portion of the eminence, and Gwiller on the lower, with the road from New Radnor to Rhaiadr passing between them. There are two large tumuli on the hill. The tithes have been commuted for £168, of which a sum of £100 is paid to the impropriator, and £68 to the vicar of Llanvihangel-Nant-Melan.—See Radnor, Old.
TREWYLAN, a hamlet, in that part of the parish of Llansantfraid-yn-Mechan which is in the Upper division of the hundred of Deythur, in the union of Llanvyllin, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 8 miles (E.) from Llanvyllin; containing 87 inhabitants. It lies on the south bank of the river Vyrnwy. There is an ancient British fortification in the hamlet, situated in a low meadow, which must have been surrounded on all sides by a morass; it is seen very distinctly from the Meivod road, about a quarter of a mile from Pont-y-Pentre.
TROEDYRAUR (TROED-YR-AUR), a parish, composed of the Upper and Lower divisions, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, Upper division of the hundred of Troedyraur, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Newcastle-Emlyn; containing 1062 inhabitants, of which number 601 are in the Upper, and 461 in the Lower, division. The ancient name of this place, Llanvihangel-Trêv-Deyrn, was derived from the dedication of its church to St. Michael, and from its having been the residence of some royal personage, perhaps a prince of Ceredigion. Its present appellation of Troedyraur, signifying "the foot of gold," originated in an opinion that gold was formerly procured at the foot of the eminence on which the church stands. The parish is intersected by the direct road from Lampeter to Cardigan, and comprises a very considerable tract of arable and pasture land. With the exception of a comparatively small portion, the whole is inclosed; and the surrounding scenery, though not distinguished by any peculiarity of features, is pleasingly enlivened with the grounds and plantations of some gentlemen's seats. Troedyraur House is a spacious mansion, beautifully situated. Alderbrook Hall, the seat of John Lloyd Williams, Esq., by whom it was erected, is also a handsome house; it stands on an eminence above the church, commanding some good views, and is environed with thriving and extensive plantations, which are highly ornamental to the neighbourhood.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £13, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £305, and there is a glebe of twelve acres, valued at £12 per annum; also a glebehouse. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is a neat structure, erected in the year 1795, by subscription among the parishioners, under the superintendence of the rector, who subsequently added to it a very neat porch at his own expense. Here was an ancient chapel, called Tŵr Gw-y-Bryn, upon the site of which a parsonage-house has been built. There are two places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, and one for Independents, with a Sunday school held in each of them. A tumulus in the parish, called Crûg Mawr, was opened in the year 1829, under the direction of the Rev. Thomas Bowen, and found to contain two earthen vases, and two lachrymatories: one of the vases, soon after its exposure, crumbled to pieces; the other, together with the lachrymatories, was presented to the museum at Oxford. This tumulus was on one side of a causeway, supposed to be a part of a Roman road.
TROWSGOED, a township, in the parish of Gwenddwr, hundred of Tàlgarth, union and county of Brecknock, South Wales, 5½ miles (N. E. by N.) from Brecknock; containing 65 inhabitants. This township is situated in the western portion of the parish, and in a vale through which flows a tributary of the river Llynvi.
TRYDDIN (TRUDDYN), a parochial chapelry, in the parish and hundred of Mold, union of Wrexham, county of Flint, North Wales, 5 miles (S.) from Mold; containing 1069 inhabitants, the population having increased more than a fourth since the census of 1831. This place is situated among lofty hills in a rich mineral district, in the south-eastern part of the county. It abounds with coal and ironstone of superior quality; and of late years some very extensive works have been established, which are carried on with great success. The Coed Talon collieries and iron-works were first erected in 1817, when the proprietors opened some mines of coal, which being found of good quality and in abundance, induced them to erect furnaces, in 1821, for the manufacture of iron. These works, after being conducted with profit for some time, were sold in 1825 to the Welsh Iron Company, who erected additional furnaces, and greatly extended the mines and every department of the establishment, and in 1830 sold them, under the provisions of an act of parliament, to Edward Oakeley, Esq., the present proprietor. The principal produce of the works is pig-iron of a peculiar quality, which is in great demand, and much used in making lighter articles of machinery; and the whole of the iron manufactured here is purchased by the makers of machinery at Liverpool and Manchester. About 650 men are constantly employed in the collieries and other works. In the coal and ironstone shale are found numerous marine and vegetable impressions, and, in some instances, fossilized bones and shells.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £300 royal bounty, and £400 parliamentary grant; net income, £105, with a glebe-house; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph: the tithes have been commuted for £381. 12. 11., of which a sum of £317. 18. 8. is payable to Mr. Knight, the impropriator, and £63. 14. 3. to the incumbent. The church or chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, is a neat small edifice, in good repair. A Church school, containing about fifty children, is partly supported by an endowment of £12. 12. a year. Of this sum, £9. 10. form a portion of the rent of 13¼ acres of land in the parish of Holt, now producing £25 per annum, granted in 1664 by Griffith Roberts, who directed £3 a year should be paid to the curate for preaching six lectures. From the sale of timber on the property, in 1803, a sum of £40 was raised, with which a piece of ground on Loughton Mountain was purchased, now yielding a rent of £1. 9., which is divided between the two schoolmasters of this place and Nerquis: the Tryddin portion is included in the sum of £12. 12. above mentioned. A school-house was erected here in 1753, by Mrs. E. Hyde, of Nerquis; and her successor, Mrs. Giffard, built a residence for the master in the garden adjoining it. There are places of worship for dissenters, and Sunday schools are held. Some donations, producing about £2 per annum, have been lost to the poor, owing to the insolvency of a churchwarden.
Offa's Dyke, which commences on the bank of the Wye, in Herefordshire, after passing through that county, and the shires of Radnor, Montgomery, Salop, and Denbigh, appears to terminate very abruptly on a farm called Cae Twn, about a mile from the chapel of this place. But there is every probability that Offa completed this great work by continuing it to the sea near the Point of Air, in the parish of Llanasaph, as there are several remains of an earthwork in the line between that place and Tryddin, still retaining the appellation of Clawdd Offa, especially near the race-course between Holywell and Caerwys, where it has been partially levelled only of late years, and also below the stables, and to the north of the grand stand. By early writers this line of demarcation has been confounded with a similar work called Wat's Dyke.
TWINNEL'S (ST.), a parish, in the hundred of Castlemartin, union and county of Pembroke, South Wales, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Pembroke; containing 234 inhabitants. This parish is pleasantly situated in the southern part of the county, and comprises a considerable portion of inclosed and cultivated land, and a small tract of open downs affording good pasturage for sheep and young cattle. Limestone is found in it, and quarries have been opened, in the working of which some of the inhabitants are employed. The village is neatly built, on an eminence, and is of prepossessing appearance. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £3. 17. 11.; present net income, £150; patrons, the Dean and Chapter of St. David's. The tithes have been commuted for £184, of which £80 are payable to the Dean and Chapter of Hereford; a like sum to the vicar, who has also a glebe of 1½ acre, which, with a house, is valued at £10 per annum; and £24 to certain impropriators. The church, dedicated to St. Deiniol, is an ancient building, with a very lofty tower, and, from its elevated situation, is an interesting and conspicuous object from all parts of the surrounding country. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, and one or two Sunday schools are held.
TŶBROUGHTON, a township, in the parish of Hanmer, poor-law union of Ellesmere, hundred of Maelor, county of Flint, North Wales, 8½ miles (N. E.) from Ellesmere; containing 190 inhabitants. The tithes have been commuted for £169. 6. per annum, of which £135. 7. are payable to the impropriators, and £33. 19. to the vicar of the parish of Hanmer.
TYDWEILIOG (TUDWEILIOG), a parish, in the union of Pwllheli, partly in the hundred of Commitmaen, but chiefly in that of Dinllaen, Lleyn division of the county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 8 miles (W.) from Pwllheli; containing 433 inhabitants. This parish, which is but of small extent, is situated on the coast of St. George's Channel, by which it is bounded on the south; and the inhabitants carry on a considerable herring-fishery. The lands are inclosed and cultivated; the soil is in general fertile, and, except during the fishing season, the population is wholly employed in agriculture. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1000 royal bounty; net income, £80; patron and impropriator, Sir J. S. Piozzi Salusbury. A tithe rentcharge of £166 is paid to the impropriator, one of £23 to the perpetual curate, and one of £6 to the parish-clerk. The church is dedicated to St. Cwyvan, or, according to some, to St. Gwynen. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, with a Sunday school held in it; and a day and Sunday National school is conducted, in connexion with the Established Church. William Jones bequeathed £10, and Thomas John Morris made a donation of £1, to the poor; the interest of which sums, together with £1 the rent of a piece of ground, is distributed among them at Christmas.
TYTHEGSTON (LLAN-DUDWG), a parish, comprising the Upper and Lower divisions, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Newcastle, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 3½ miles (W.) from Bridgend; containing 794 inhabitants, of which number 698 are in the Upper, and 96 in the Lower, division. The present name of this place is only a modification of its ancient Welsh appellation, Llan Dudwg, signifying "Dudwg's town," and originally derived from the dedication of the church to St. Dudwg, or Tudwg, one of the disciples of Cenydd, who flourished about the middle of the sixth century. The parish comprises 2871 acres, of which 278 are common or waste. The Upper division abounds with iron-ore, coal, and clay for brickmaking, of which considerable quantities are procured, and, by means of a railroad communicating with the harbour of Porthcawl, shipped off.
Within a few hundred yards of the railway, in the Upper hamlet, are situate the Cevn Cwsc ironworks, having three blast-furnaces. These works are the property of the Galvanized-Iron Company, who are likewise the proprietors of iron-works in the parish of Llangonoyd, and of the Corbyns Hall and Lee-Brook works in Staffordshire, making altogether ten furnaces belonging to the company. They have also in the county of Stafford extensive mills and forges for the manufacture of galvanized iron, which, from its anti-corrosive quality, is much in request, and in many instances has superseded copper as sheathing for vessels. The roofs of the enginehouse and other buildings at the Garth works, in Llangonoyd, are made of this material. A vein of the blackband species of ironstone has recently been discovered on the Cevn Cwsc property, by which a considerable saving will be effected in the manufacture of iron here; the supply of blackband having been hitherto obtained from Garth, at an expensive rate of tonnage. The company have a yard at Bridgend for the sale of coal, which is conveyed to that town by railway, a distance of six miles.
The living is annexed to the vicarage of Newcastle; the church is a small ancient edifice, not distinguished by any architectural details. There are one or two places of worship for dissenters, a day school, and several Sunday schools. Catherine Lougher, by will, in 1722, gave 20s. for a sermon to be preached every year, and she gave to Robert Knight £100, to purchase lands for the purpose; but her intention does not appear to have been fulfilled. Thomas Leyson, in 1737, left two sums of 10s. each, for two sermons to be preached yearly, and 10s. to the minister of the parish where he should be buried, for a sermon on the Sunday next after every anniversary of his death: these sums (and Catherine Lougher's bequest) are incorrectly mentioned in the returns of 1786 to have been for the poor; and though paid to the minister down to 1825, they have been discontinued since that period, owing to the difficulty of identifying the land.