A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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Llangower, or Llangywair, (Llan-Gower)
LLANGOWER, or LLANGYWAIR, (LLAN-GOWER), a parish, in the union of Bala, hundred of Penllyn, county of Merioneth, North Wales, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Bala; containing 368 inhabitants. This parish, which is about five miles in length and three in breadth, is beautifully situated on the south-eastern side of Bala lake, and on the turnpike-road leading from Dinas-Mowddwy to Bala and Corwen. The surface is in some parts rocky and mountainous, and in others swampy and marshy, producing a great abundance of peat, which forms the principal fuel of the inhabitants. In some places the scenery is highly picturesque, the parish comprising part of the Berwyn range of mountains, from which is a fine view of Bala lake, of the Aran and Arenig mountains in the distance, and of the intervening country, rich in every variety of beauty.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £5. 5., and endowed with £200 royal bounty; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £182; there is a glebe-house, and the glebe comprises three acres and a half, valued at £15 per annum. The church is dedicated to St. Gwyr, or Cywair, whose festival is held on July 11th. It is an ancient structure, in the early style of English architecture, and is beautifully situated, with the small village around it, on the side of the lake: in the churchyard is an old yew-tree of remarkable growth. There are one or two places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, and three Sunday schools are supported by the same body. At the north-eastern extremity of the lake are two mounds of earth, one of which bears the name of Castell Gronw Bevr o Benllyn, "the castle of Goronow the Fair of Penllyn," from its having been the site of a stronghold occupied by that chieftain, who is said to have lived in the time of Maelgwyn Gwynedd, about the beginning of the sixth century. Near this place is Fynnon Gwyr, a well to which, under the auspices of St. Gwyr, extraordinary virtues were attributed. The Rev. Edward Lloyd, A.M., known as the author of a work in the Welsh language, entitled Meddyginiaeth, a tract on the Sacrament, which he translated from that published by Bishop Patrick, was for forty years incumbent of the parish; he died in 1685.
LLANGRANOG (LLAN-GARANOG), a parish, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, Lower division of the hundred of Moythen, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 20 miles (W. by N.) from Lampeter; containing 884 inhabitants. This place derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Caranog, who flourished towards the close of the sixth century, and is said to have had a small chapel or oratory among the rocks on this part of the coast, where he spent his days in religious seclusion. The parish is situated on the shore of Cardigan bay, by which it is bounded on the north-west; and on the turnpike-road from Cardigan to Aberystwith. The village is seated in a deep dingle, sheltered by hills on each side, and opening at one extremity towards the sea. Its situation on the bay of Cardigan, affording excellent opportunities for bathing, occasionally attracts to it a few visiters during the summer. The scenery is pleasingly diversified; and from the higher grounds are obtained fine views, extending over the bay and the adjacent country. At some distance above the village stands Pigeonsford, formerly the seat of the Parry family. The herring-fishery is carried on to a considerable extent during the season; and in the trade of limestone and culm, the former being burnt into lime on the sea-shore, from eight to ten small vessels are generally engaged, in the management of which from twenty to thirty men are occupied. Below the village is a small creek, affording shelter to the craft employed in the fishery, and also a facility of communication with other places on the coast. A fair is held on May 27th.
The living is a vicarage not in charge, annexed to the living of Llandysilio-Gogo, and endowed with £600 parliamentary grant: the commutation for the tithes of Llangranog amounts to £240, of which £130 are payable to the impropriator, and £110 to the vicar: there is also a glebe of sixty acres, valued at £42 per annum. The church is a neat plain edifice without either tower or spire, consisting of a nave and chancel separated by a pointed arch; the font is square, and is supported by a circular pillar. A small but elegant vicarage-house has been built on the glebe land under Gilbert's Act. There are places of worship for Baptists and Independents. A schoolroom has been lately built, partly by subscription, and partly by a grant of £52 from the Committee of Council on Education; and there are three Sunday schools in the parish, one of which is in connexion with the Church. Above the harbour is a rock, which, from its fancied resemblance to a large chair, has obtained the appellation of "Eisteddva Cranwg," though by some writers the name is supposed to be derived from its having been anciently a place of meeting for the bards; and on the summit of an eminence in the immediate vicinity is a large tumulus, in form resembling an inverted pan, and thence called Pen Moel Badell.
LLANGRYSTYOLYS (LLAN-GRIST-IOLUS), a parish, in the hundred of Malltraeth, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 3 miles (S. S. W.) from Llangevni; containing 938 inhabitants. This parish takes its name from the dedication of its church to St. Christiolus, who flourished about the middle of the seventh century. It is situated on the great road to Holyhead, and is bounded on the north-east by the parish of Llangevni, on the east by that of Llanvihangel-Ysceiviog, on the southeast by that of Llanidan, on the south-west by that of Trevdraeth, and on the north-west by that of Cerrigceinwen. In its southern portion it reaches nearly to the upper part of the Malltraeth marsh, over which a road is continued by a noble embankment, extending about a mile in length. In 1788 and 1790, acts of parliament were passed for constructing an embankment to secure this low tract from the encroachment of the sea, and for inclosing it: the whole formed an extent of about 3000 acres, of which about 800 are comprised within the limits of this parish. Under the provisions of these acts considerable progress had been made in the execution of the work, and many thousand pounds expended on it, when, in 1796, a violent irruption of the sea destroyed the greater part of the embankment, and the enterprise was for some time abandoned. This desirable work was, however, resumed under the sanction of an act of parliament obtained in 1815, and the undertaking was successfully completed in 1819.
The parish comprises by admeasurement 3683 acres, of which 823 are woodland, marsh, and waste, and the remainder arable, to a great extent inclosed, and well cultivated. Its surface is varied, gently sloping to the marsh; and the scenery is ornamented with clusters of various kinds of trees, ash and sycamore being the most prevalent: there are several rivulets, and the Cevni, the most considerable stream, running along the eastern boundary of the parish, separates it from that of Llanvihangel-Ysceiviog. The soil on the more elevated grounds is clayey, and in the other parts is a fine rich loam, producing good oats, barley, and potatoes, which, with the cattle reared here, constitute the chief disposable produce. Limestone, grit, and freestone, of excellent quality, are quarried; and beds of coal exist, but they are not at present worked. The only gentleman's seat is Hênblâs, which is an ancient mansion, built in the seventeenth century, and beautifully situated on the brow of the slope, commanding an extensive view of the range of the Carnarvonshire mountains: it is the property of Charles Evans, Esq., of whose family were, Dr. William Lloyd, of St. Asaph, one of the seven bishops prosecuted by James the Second; and Dr. Henry Rowlands, Bishop of Bangor in 1600.
The living is a perpetual curacy, with that of Cerrigceinwen annexed. The Rev. Dr. Lewis left £25 per annum, for a sermon to be preached every Sunday in each of the churches of Llangrystyolys and Cerrigceinwen, of which latter parish he was a native. The rectorial tithes of the parish have been commuted for a rent-charge of £331. 12. 4. The church is supposed to have been originally founded about the year 550; it is uncertain when the present structure was built: it is seventy-nine and a half feet in length and twenty and a half in breadth, and contains some interesting architectural features. There are one or two places of worship for dissenters, and a Sunday school is held. The Rev. Hugh Jones bequeathed to the parish £100; John Griffith Lewis, £10; Owen David ab Owen, £10; and various other benefactors, smaller sums of money; amounting in the whole to £140. This sum was placed on mortgage; but having been received from the late mortgager by an attorney, he expended £100 of the amount in building six cottages, now occupied by poor families rent-free, and the residue, £40, was never paid, as he died insolvent shortly after. Two other donations amounting to £8, and a rent-charge of 10s., have been lost; and the only charity now available to the poor is £2. 10., arising from a bequest of £50 left by the Rev. Dr. Lewis, above mentioned, whose bequests for education and other purposes, not particularly connected with this parish, are noticed in the article on Cerrigceinwen, his native place. Dr. Henry Maurice, of Jesus' College, Oxford, and Margaret Professor of Divinity in that university, was born in this parish, in 1648; he accompanied his patron, Sir Leoline Jenkins, to Cologne, and greatly distinguished himself as a polemical writer.
Llanguicke, or Llanguic (Llan-Gîwg)
LLANGUICKE, or LLANGUIC (LLAN-GÎWG), a parish, in the union of Neath, hundred of Llangyvelach, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 8½ miles (N. N. E.) from Swansea; containing 2813 inhabitants. This place is situated on the road leading from Neath to Llandilo and Llandovery; and is bounded on the north by the parish of YstradGunlais in the county of Brecon, on the south-east by that of Kîlybebill, and on the south-west by Llangyvelach. Upon the south-east side, the river Tawe flows along the romantic vale to which it gives name, affording in some parts pleasing views, and sheltered on both sides by lofty hills of varied appearance, and rich in mineral wealth. The parish comprises by admeasurement 12,000 acres, a large portion of which is common land. The scenery is diversified, many parts being wild and dreary, and others beautifully picturesque. Much of the land is swampy and stony, with a clayey soil, but that on the banks of the river is fertile, and produces good grain, which, with sheep and cattle, constitutes the chief produce. The mines of anthracite or stone-coal, culm, and argillaceous ironore, which are almost inexhaustible, are worked to a very considerable extent: there are large iron-works at Ystalyfera, six collieries in the parish, and some brick-works at Ynysmydw. The gentlemen's residences are Gelligron, Garth Hall, and Alltycham. The Swansea canal, passing through the parish, affords the means of conveying produce to the port of Swansea; and the road above mentioned, and a road from Swansea to Brecknock, which passes by the village, give a facility of intercourse with the neighbouring districts.
The Ystalyfera iron-works, within the parish of Llanguicke, which are situated about thirteen miles from Swansea, and ten miles from Neath, were erected about ten years ago, and are conducted by the resident partner of the concern, James Palmer Budd, Esq., of Ynis-y-Daren. Seven or eight smeltingfurnaces are generally in blast here, and when the works are in full operation, there are as many as eleven furnaces, blown by two sets of engines, at opposite ends of the buildings. The fuel used is anthracite coal, which is said to make a quality of iron the nearest to that produced with charcoal; the quantity of iron, however, is not so great as if coke were used, the yield of each furnace not being above fifty tons weekly on an average. The produce is employed for making tin-plates, and other superior purposes, as malleable iron; and also as cast-iron, to mix with Scotch and other fluid but weak descriptions. In these works may be seen the application of the waste heat from the top of the blast furnaces, to save coal in the stoves and boilers, and also in the minekilns: Mr. Budd has a patent for this invention, which he states saves £1000 a year on each furnace at work. Besides the iron-ore raised on the spot, large quantities of ore are imported from Ulverston in Lancashire, and other places. The blackband ironstone has been discovered here, but has not as yet been introduced at the works.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £600 royal bounty and £1200 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Leach family, to whom the impropriation belongs; net income, £103: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £300. The church, which is dedicated to St. Ciwg, was built about five centuries ago, and contains 500 sittings. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans, two or three day schools, and seven Sunday schools. The late Mrs. Elizabeth Turberville, of Kîlybebill Place, by indenture in 1795 granted a moiety of £10 per annum, which is distributed at Christmas, among the poor of the parish, by the clergyman and churchwardens. In 1740, Mary Herbert gave a rent-charge of £5, one moiety to be distributed among the poor housekeepers not receiving parochial aid; and accordingly £2. 10. are so disposed of at Christmas and Easter.
LLANGUNLLO (LLAN-GYNLLO), a parish, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, Upper division of the hundred of Troedyraur, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Newcastle-Emlyn; containing 641 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Cynllo, is pleasantly situated on the turnpike-road from Cardigan through Troedyraur to Lampeter. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Troedyraur, on the south by the parishes of Hênllan and Llanvair-Orllwyn, on the west by that of Brongwŷn, and on the south-east by that of Llandyssil. It comprises by computation 3500 acres, of which 1000 are arable, 2000 pasture, and 500 woodland; the soil is in some parts stony, but in general fertile, running into several varieties, and the chief produce of the parish is corn, pigs, and horned cattle. The surface is undulated and mountainous; the upper grounds command some extensive and interesting prospects, and from the eminence on which the church is built is obtained a fine view over a beautiful vale, above which stands the mansion of Bronwydd. The only streams are two inconsiderable rivulets, which, however, contribute to the interest and beauty of the grounds through which they take their course, and are ornamented with several fine plantations of fir. Bronwydd, the residence of the late patriotic Colonel Lloyd, who commanded the Teivy-side volunteers, and subsequently the Fishguard and Newton fencibles, is a handsome mansion, beautifully situated on the summit of an eminence richly clothed with wood, and overlooking the abovementioned deep and sequestered vale, watered by a rapid and turbulent stream, which falls into the Teivy at Hênllan. Gernôs, formerly the mansion of the family of Lewis, afterwards of Major Parry, by marriage of his ancestor, Thomas Parry, of Cwm Cynon, Esq., with the heiress of that family, is a good house, pleasantly situated in grounds comprehending much varied and pleasing scenery. There is a flag-stone quarry in which two or three hands are occasionally employed.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £6. 13. 4., and in the patronage of the freeholders and leaseholders of the parish: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £175; and there is a glebe of 120 acres, valued at £80 per annum; also a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Cynllo, a saint of the fifth century, who was eminent for the sanctity of his life and the austerity of his manners, is a neat edifice, situated on a commanding eminence, and rebuilt at the sole expense of the parishioners; it is thirty-five feet in length and sixteen in breadth, and consists of a nave and chancel. There is a place of worship for Independents, with a Sunday school held in it; and a Sunday school is also held in connexion with the Established Church. A bequest of £20 by William Hugh, in 1779, for the benefit of the poor, has been lost by the party in trust becoming insolvent.
LLANGUNLLO (LLAN-GYNLLO), a parish, in the union of Knighton, county of Radnor, South Wales, 4 miles (W.) from Knighton; comprising the Upper and Lower divisions, in the hundred of Kevenlleece, and part of the township of Cwm-Heyop, in the hundred of Knighton; and containing, exclusively of the Cwm-Heyop portion, 444 inhabitants, of which number 284 are resident in the Upper, and 160 in the Lower, division. This place derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Cynllo, an ancient British saint who flourished about the middle of the fifth century. It is situated in the north-eastern portion of the county, about two miles west of the road leading from Knighton to Pen-y-Bont; and is bounded by the parishes of Beguildy and Heyop on the north, on the south by the parish of Blethva, on the east by that of Knighton, and on the west by that of Llanbister. It extends nearly four miles in length and three in breadth, comprising 5627 acres, of which 1000 are arable, upwards of 4000 pasture and common, and the remainder woodland. The surface is mountainous, and the scenery, though not distinguished by any striking peculiarity of features, is in general pleasing, and, on the side towards Knighton, in many parts highly picturesque. The Lûg, an inconsiderable stream, runs through the lands; the parish is rich in oak coppice, and commands from the more elevated grounds some interesting and finely varied prospects over the valley of Cwm-Heyop, which is partly within the parish. The hills are dry, and afford good pasturage for sheep; in the vale the soil is rich and fertile, and produces wheat, oats, barley, and turnips.
In ancient writings this place is styled "Llan Gynllo cum Capellis," and the parish church of Pilleth is said to have been formerly a chapel to the church of Llangunllo. The living is a discharged vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Pilleth annexed, rated in the king's books at £5. 1. 0½., the vicarage endowed with £200 royal bounty, and the perpetual curacy with £800 royal bounty; patron, the Bishop of St. David's. Three-fourths of the tithes of this parish and Pilleth belong to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar; they have been commuted for a rent-charge of £400, of which a sum of £300 is payable to the impropriator, and £100 to the vicar. The incumbent also has a glebe of four acres, valued at £5 per annum, and a glebe-house. The church is an ancient edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel; it is eighty feet in length, and thirty in breadth in the middle, and contains about 200 sittings. There is a place of worship for Baptists.
A Church day school is endowed with a house and four acres of land, purchased in 1766 with a bequest of £40 by Thomas Holland; it is further supported by school-pence, and by subscription. A Sunday school in connexion with the Established Church is also held. John Blashfield, in 1795, left £30, the interest to be expended in clothing the poor not receiving parochial aid; and it is distributed accordingly, after being allowed to accumulate for two or three years. William Bryan, in 1829, bequeathed £40, the interest of which, £1. 16., is divided on Good Friday, agreeably to the will of the donor, among such poor people as have attained the age of eighty and upwards. Andrew Clarke, in 1752, bequeathed a rent-charge of £2; and Thomas Meyrick, in 1764, gave a charge of £1. 10., to be annually distributed among the poor; but these two charities have been either lost, or never came into operation, under the Mortmain Act.
LLANGUNNOCK (LLAN-GYNOG), a parish, in the Higher division of the hundred of Derllŷs, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 6 miles (S. W. by S.) from Carmarthen; containing 800 inhabitants. This parish is situated a little to the north of Carmarthen bay, and is bounded by the parishes of Mydrim and Merthyr on the north, by the parish of Llanstephan on the south, on the east by that of Llangain, and on the west by that of Llanvihangel-Abercowin. It comprises about 5429 acres of good land, chiefly arable, and has been greatly improved since the year 1806, when an act of parliament was obtained, under the provisions of which more than 5000 acres within its limits have been allotted and inclosed, the greater part of it being now in a good state of cultivation. The home scenery, with few exceptions, is tame and uninteresting, though some of the distant views are picturesque; and the only stream, except a few brooks, is the river Cywyn, which falls into the Tâf some miles below St. Clear's. The soil is in many parts poor, rocky, and barren; the chief produce is oats and barley, with a little wheat. The manor of Penryn, which is co-extensive with the parish, contains an ancient family mansion called Cwm, situated in a well-wooded, romantic spot, and which appears to have been formerly a place of considerable extent and importance. There is also a neat, genteel residence, named Fern-hill, which is pleasantly situated.
The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to that of Llanstephan; the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £252. The church, dedicated to St. Cynog, is a very plain edifice, consisting of two aisles, and had originally windows in the early English style, which have been changed for modern sash-lights; it is sixty-three feet in length and thirtytwo in breadth, and contains sittings for 200 persons, all of which are free, except those in two large pews, the property of the Cwm estate. There are places of worship for Baptists and Independents. On the common in the manor of Penryn is a parochial school, founded, it is said, by Judge Vaughan, of Derllŷs, and endowed with two cottages and about two acres of land, which endowment was subsequently augmented, by Mr. John Vaughan, with a rent-charge of £5: the school has also an allotment of above an acre, assigned on the in closure of the parish in 1808. This establishment, called the New Well Charity, is traditionally said to have originated from a cure performed on Judge Vaughan with the water of a spring called the New Well, near the site of the present school-house, over the entrance to which is a stone with the following inscription: "This is a charity school for ever, built at the recommendation of the Archbishop of Canterbury, by the lord, freeholders, and inhabitants of this manor of Penrin, A. D. 1705." There is also a Sunday school, held in the Baptists' meeting-house. Mr. John Popkin, in 1713, bequeathed £10, now lost; and in 1771, Mr. David James left £100, the interest of which, together with the dividends arising from £214 three per cent. Bank annuities, bequeathed in 1822 by Miss Theodosia Laugharne, of the town of Laugharne, is annually distributed among the aged and infirm poor of the parish.
LLANGUNNOR (LLAN-GYNYR), a parish, comprising the Upper and Lower divisions, in the hundred of Kidwelly, union and county of Carmarthen, in South Wales, 1 mile (E.) from Carmarthen, on the roads to Llanelly, LlandiloVawr, &c.; containing 1229 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the river Towy, by which it is separated from the borough of Carmarthen. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Aberguilly, on the south by that of Llangain, on the east by the parishes of Llandarog and Llanarthney, and on the west by Carmarthen; and comprises, according to computation, 5770 acres, of which 1400 are arable, 4200 pasture, and 170 woodland, comprehending several species of fir, with oak, elm, ash, sycamore, hazel, &c. On the bank of the river is a ridge of elevated ground, at the eastern extremity of which stands the church, commanding a very fine view of the most interesting portion of the fertile and picturesque Vale of Towy. This beautiful prospect embraces Merlin's Hill on the left, and on the right the luxuriant woods of Middleton Hall, with an elegant tower, raised to the memory of Nelson, crowning one of the loftiest hills in the vale. Opposite to these are, Grongar Hill, and the abrupt eminence on which are the venerable ruins of Dryslwyn Castle, almost surrounded by a bold sweep of the river; and a little higher up in the vale is Dynevor Castle, embosomed in stately oaks, above which, in romantic grandeur rise the dilapidated towers of that once famous pile. The vale is studded on each side with handsome seats and villas, amongst which the newly-restored palace of the Bishop of St. David's, and the pleasing little village of Aberguilly, are conspicuous. The whole extent of country beyond Llandilo, through which the Towy pursues its winding course, lies open to the view, forming a grand combination of objects, and a continued succession of scenery of unrivalled beauty, terminated by the Black Mountains in the distance. The lands of the parish, with the exception of a small portion, are inclosed and cultivated; and the soil, though varied, is generally fertile, producing wheat, barley, oats, clover, and hay. The gentlemen's seats are, Mount-Pleasant, Mount-Hill Cottage, MyrtleHill, with several others. Lead-mines were formerly worked, but not with much success. The Carmarthen race-course is situated on the bank of the Towy, in the parish.
The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £3, and endowed with £200 private benefaction, and £200 royal bounty; present net income, £225; patron, the Bishop of St. David's; impropriator, the Rev. Sir E. H. G. Williams, Bart. The church, dedicated to St. Cynyr, is a neat edifice, and, though possessing no architectural details of importance, derives from its beautiful situation an interesting and romantic appearance. It was rebuilt about the year 1806, and, including the chancel, is seventy-two feet long and thirty-five broad, containing 312 sittings, all of which are free: there is a neat monument to the memory of Sir Richard Steele, who, for some time prior to his decease, lived in retirement in this vicinity, partly at Carmarthen, where he died and was buried, and partly at a farm in this parish, called Tŷ Gwyn, or the "white house," situated near the base of Llangunnor Hill. On that hill, within a short distance of the church, the incumbent has erected a commodious vicarage-house, which commands a fine view of the Vale of Towy. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists, and five Sunday schools, one of which is in connexion with the Church. The parish participates in the benefit of Dr. Lawrence's and Mrs. Stephenson's distribution of blankets in Carmarthen.
Llangurig, or Llangirrig (Llan-Gurig)
LLANGURIG, or LLANGIRRIG (LLAN-GURIG), a parish, in the union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Upper division of the hundred of Llanidloes, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 5 miles (S. W.) from Llanidloes, on the road to Aberystwith; containing 1951 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the northern bank of the river Wye, at no great distance from its source in the adjacent mountain of Plinlimmon. It is bounded on the north by the parishes of Llanidloes and Trêveglwys, on the south by those of Cwm-Toyddwr and St. Harmon in the county of Radnor, on the east by Llandinam and Llanidloes, and on the west by Llanbadarn-Vawr and Llanvihangel-y-Creiddyn in the county of Cardigan. A new road leading from the village to Rhaiadr in the shire of Radnor, formed in 1830, has placed it on the nearest route from London to Aberystwith, and added materially to its interest and importance; this line of road is nine miles and a half in length, and winds along the beautiful Vale of Wye, abounding with diversified scenery. The parish comprises by computation 35,000 acres, of which about 8000 are arable, 25,000 pasture and sheep-walks, and the remainder woodland. Its northern, southern, and western parts are mountainous and dreary, but the eastern portion is marked by less lofty elevations, is well-wooded, and ornamented with much romantic scenery. The distant views from several parts are interesting; from GlynBrochan is an extensive and delightful prospect, embracing the Vale of Llanidloes, with the windings of the river Severn, and the mountainous ridges by which this district is bounded. A few persons are engaged in quarrying flag-stones; and there are three or four flannel manufactories, giving employment together to about 150 men and children: four corn-mills employ three or four hands each.
The living is a vicarage, rated in the king's books at £9. 10.; patron, the Bishop of Bangor; impropriator, Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart.: the vicarial tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £177, and the impropriate for one of £420; the glebe comprises four acres. The church, dedicated to St. Curig, a saint of the seventh century, is an ancient structure in the early English style, with a tower containing three bells; it is thirty-seven yards long and fifteen broad, and will afford accommodation to about 600 persons; the remains of an elaborately carved screen and rood-loft, having become dilapidated, were lately removed. There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. A day school was established in 1832, by the Rev. E. James, M.A., curate; it is held in the vestry-room of the church, and is supported by school-pence and subscription. Of thirteen Sunday schools in the parish, one is in connexion with the Church. Mr. David Vaughan bequeathed £10 to the poor. In 1826, a noble, coined in the reign of Edward III., was dug up in the parish.
LLANGWILLOG (LLAN-GWILLOG), a parish, partly in the hundred of Llyvon, partly in that of Menai, and partly in that of Malltraeth, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 3½ miles (N. W.) from Llangevni; containing 260 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Cwyllog, a female saint, who flourished in the middle of the sixth century, is pleasantly situated nearly in the centre of the island, and on the turnpike-road leading from Llangevni to Llanerchymedd, from which towns it is equidistant. A sanguinary battle is said to have taken place on Maes Rhôs Rhyvel, in 1143, between the forces of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales, and the united armies of the Erse, Manks, and Norwegians, who had invaded the island; in which the Welsh prince was triumphantly victorious. Upon that occasion the whole naval force of Wales is said to have been brought into action, and to have succeeded in capturing all the ships of the enemy off Dulas bay. The victory is celebrated in Gray's ode to the memory of Owain Gwynedd, in which he eulogizes the exploits of that chieftain; but it is not noticed by any of the principal Welsh historians.
The parish is bounded on the north by that of Coedanna, on the south by Hêneglwys, on the east by Trêgayan, and on the west by Bodwrog; and comprises by computation about 1600 acres, nearly all arable, and in general inclosed and well cultivated, the surface being level and the soil light. There are two gentlemen's seats, called Trescawen, and Bryngoleu. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £400 private benefaction, £600 royal bounty, and £800 parliamentary grant; net income, £90; patron and impropriator, Sir R. B. Williams Bulkeley, Bart. The church, situated in that part of the parish which is in the hundred of Malltreath, was originally founded in the year 605: the present edifice, which is remarkably well built, measures thirty-eight feet by eighteen, and has an ancient and curious chapel at the west end of the nave; it contains sittings for eighty persons. There are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, the former of whom support a Sunday school. The only charitable benefaction in the parish is a rentcharge of 15s. bequeathed by John Griffith Lewis, and paid by Mrs. Prichard of Trescawen; other gifts, including one of £10 by William Prichard, have been lost, owing to the insolvency of the parties to whom they were lent. At a short distance from Maes Rhôs Rhyvel is a place called "Castell," the origin of which is unknown. Coins of Nero, Vespasian, and Constantine, have been found at various times, in a state of good preservation; in 1829 a gold coin of Vespasian was dug up, the impression on which was quite perfect.
LLANGWM (LLAN-GWM), a parish, in the union of Corwen, hundred of Isaled, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 6 miles (W.) from Corwen; containing 1017 inhabitants. It is stated that the inhabitants of North Wales, revolting against the government of Meredydd ab Owain ab Hywel Dda, Prince of South Wales, and nominally of all Wales, about the close of the tenth century, invited Eidwal, son of Meirig, to the throne: upon this, Meredydd immediately called together his troops, and the rival princes met at Llangwm, where, after a sharp conflict, Meredydd was totally defeated, and Tewdwr Mawr, his nephew, slain. The parish, which is of great extent, is situated in a moorland district, near the extremity of the county, bordering on Merionethshire, and is intersected by the road from Shrewsbury to Holyhead. It is bounded on the north by the parishes of Cerrig-y-Druidion and LlanvihangelGlyn-y-Myvyr, on the east by those of BettwsGwervil-Gôch and Corwen in the county of Merioneth, and on the south and west by the parish of Llanvawr in the same county; comprising about 10,000 acres, of which 3500 are arable, 2000 meadow and pasture, 500 woodland, and nearly all the rest common. The scenery is highly diversified, the parish consisting of lofty hills and fruitful vales sprinkled with fir, oak, and other trees, and watered by several pleasing streams, the principal of which is the Geirw, abounding with fine trout. In one part of its course this stream runs through a precipitous and romantic dingle called Glyn Diphwys, where it is crossed by a bridge, at which is a celebrated waterfall, contributing to the impressive effect of the surrounding scenery.
The soil, though not naturally rich, admits of great improvement, and where well cultivated produces excellent crops of oats and barley, potatoes and turnips, and sometimes small quantities of wheat; but husbandry has been much neglected, and the land left, to a great extent, to its own resources, in consequence of which, this district, in tillage, as well as in planting and draining, is behind many others in the principality. Both males and females are chiefly employed in the summer in agriculture, and in the winter in the spinning of woollen yarn, and the knitting of stockings, large quantities of which are sent to the neighbouring towns, and purchased for the London and Liverpool markets. Others of the males are occupied in tending herds and flocks, much live-stock being sold to the English drovers, to be fattened for the London market. The village is small, but is noted for the large black-cattle fair held in it, on April 18th.
The living comprises a sinecure rectory and a discharged vicarage, both in the patronage of the Bishop of St. Asaph; the former is rated in the king's books at £11. 4. 7., and the latter at £6, and endowed with £200 royal bounty. The tithes have been commuted for £398. 8., of which £250 are payable to the rector, who has also a glebe of 22¾ acres, and £148. 8. to the vicar, who has a glebe of 12 acres, with a house. The church, dedicated to St. Hierom, is a neat edifice, seventy-two feet long and eighteen broad, with a gallery at the west end, and contains about 250 sittings. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists; and five Sunday schools, supported by the dissenters. Various bequests have been made for the benefit of the poor, but several of these have been lost, and in the report of the parliamentary commissioners for inquiring into charities only three are mentioned as now existing, namely those of Ellis Wynne, John Wynne, and David Williams, amounting together to £149, and producing £6. 5. 3. per annum, which sum is distributed in money and bread to the most necessitous parishioners, chiefly at Christmas. Llŷs Dinmael, an ancient mansion in the parish, is stated to have been the residence of Dinmael, a petty prince: courts for the lordship of Dinmael are held twice a year.
LLANGWM (LLAN-GWM), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Rhôs, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 5 miles (S. E. by S.) from Haverfordwest; containing 796 inhabitants. This parish, the name of which signifies "the church in the vale," is pleasantly situated on the western side of Milford Haven, about the same distance from Pembroke as from Haverfordwest. Great Nash, formerly the residence of the family of Owen, and long noted for its hospitality, is in ruins: Dumpledale is a handsome modern mansion, commanding a fine view of the Haven. From the village, which extends along the shore, is a horse-ferry to the parish of Coedcanlais. The inhabitants are principally engaged in a lucrative oyster-fishery, the produce of which is generally sold at two shillings per bushel (Winchester measure), to dealers from the coast of Kent, more especially from Chatham and Rochester, by whom they are taken away in sloops for the supply of the London market; the average annual profit of the fishery is about £2000, and in good seasons it frequently exceeds £3000. Coal and culm are found in great abundance; the mines are worked by Sir John Owen, Bart., who is the principal proprietor, and the produce is shipped at Hook Quay, for the supply of the neighbouring districts.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £7. 12. 11., and endowed with £200 parliamentary grant; patrons, alternately, Sir J. Owen, and Mrs. Owen Barlow: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £190, and there is a glebe of thirty-five acres, valued at £36 per annum; also a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Hierom, is a spacious and venerable structure, in the early style of English architecture, and contains some ancient monuments, among which are several to the family of Roch. It was in a very dilapidated state, but has been repaired, its interior neatly ceiled and thoroughly renewed, and the exterior preserved in its ancient style, at a cost of £300, including a sum expended by the incumbent on the chancel. There are places of worship for dissenters, in one of which a Sunday school is also held. Thomas Roch, Esq., in 1707, bequeathed a portion of a small rent-charge, amounting to £1, for the instruction of the poor; but the only school is the above-mentioned Sunday school, supported by voluntary contributions.
LLANGWNADL (LLAN-GWYNODL), a parish, in the union of Pwllheli, hundred of Commitmaen, Lleyn division of the county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 12 miles (W. by S.) from Pwllheli; containing 309 inhabitants. This parish is situated near the south-western extremity of the county, upon the shore of Carnarvon bay, by which it is bounded on the west; and comprises a small tract of arable and pasture land, in the cultivation of which the inhabitants are chiefly employed, except during the season of the herring-fishery, which is here conducted upon an extensive scale. The scenery is pleasingly diversified, and the distant views, extending over Carnarvon bay and the adjacent country, are peculiarly interesting.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1200 royal bounty; net income, £50; patron and impropriator, Sir J. S. Piozzi Salusbury, Knt.: the tithes have been commuted for £117. 8. 6., of which the amount payable to the impropriator is £102. 8. 6., and that to the perpetual curate £15. The church, dedicated to St. Gwynodl, who lived about the middle of the sixth century, is situated in a very picturesque spot, near the road from Nevin to Aberdaron, from which thoroughfare it is approached by following the course of a little torrent, that winds its way along a miniature ravine. The edifice is triplebodied, consisting of three nearly equal aisles, the southern one being of rather a later date than the others: over the middle aisle, at the western end, is a single bell-gable. In the eastern window of the middle aisle are a few fragments of stained glass; the font is sculptured, and there are some other features worthy of notice in the building. An account of this church, with some illustrations, is given in the Archæologia Cambrensis for April 1848. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, in which a Sunday school is also held. Richard Griffith, of Pen'r Orsedd, in 1788, bequeathed £40, with which two tenements in the parish were purchased; and the rental, with a moiety of Griffith Hughes' charity at Bryncroes, together amounting to £6. 11. per annum, is paid to the master of a Church day school here. Two cottages, erected on the common with a few small bequests, are occupied by paupers, at a nominal rent of 6d. each.
Llangwyryvon, or Llangrwy-Ddon (Llan-Y-Gwyryfon)
LLANGWYRYVON, or LLANGRWYDDON (LLAN-Y-GWYRYFON), a parish, in the union of Aberystwith, Lower division of the hundred of Ilar, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 8 miles (S. by E.) from Aberystwith; containing 642 inhabitants. The name of this place signifies "the church of the virgins," and is derived from the dedication of its church to St. Ursula and the eleven thousand virgins. The parish is situated on the southern bank of the Wyrai river, and comprises a considerable tract of inclosed and well cultivated land, with a large portion of open and elevated common. The soil is generally fertile, and in some parts argillaceous: there are turbaries in various places, and some of the higher grounds are abundantly productive of corn and hay. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £1200 parliamentary grant; net income, £176; patron and impropriator, J. P. B. Chichester, Esq. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £225. The church, situated on an eminence, is a small ancient edifice, consisting only of a nave and chancel, formerly divided by a curiously carved screen. In the churchyard is an old monumental stone, highly ornamented, and having the figure of a cross sculptured upon it, but without any inscription; it is now used as a gate-post. Owing to the elevated situation of the church, the churchyard commands a fine view of the river and the surrounding country. There are places of worship for dissenters, and some Sunday schools. In the parish are the remains of an intrenchment, of a curvilinear form; but nothing is known of its origin.
LLANGWYVAN (LLAN-GWYFAN), a parish, in the hundred of Malltraeth, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 9 miles (S. W. by W.) from Llangevni; containing 193 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated in the south-western part of the county, on the shore of Carnarvon bay, is bounded by the parishes of Llanbeulan and Llanvaelog on the north, on the south by the parish of Aberfraw, and on the west by the sea. It comprises 1746 acres, three-fourths of which are arable, 125 acres common or waste land, and the remainder pasture; the surface is gently undulated, and the soil rich and fertile, producing excellent crops of wheat, barley, and oats, which, with sheep, cattle, and pigs, constitute the chief dependence of the farmer. Plâs Llangwyvan, an ancient mansion, is the property of Owen Fuller Meyrick, Esq., lord of the manor and owner of the parish.
The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Trêvdraeth: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £242, and there is a glebe of four acres, valued at £3 per annum. The church is dedicated to St. Cwyvan, who flourished towards the close of the seventh century, and from whom the parish derives its name. From its position, the building is one of the most curious churches in Anglesey, being situated on an island connected with the main land by a rude causeway only, of large stones, covered by spring tides. The island, which forms the churchyard, is daily falling a prey to the inroads of the sea; considerable portions of it are sometimes washed away, and from the nature of the soil, it is likely in future times to be entirely destroyed. Until lately, the church consisted of a nave, or principal aisle, with a chapel, or subsidiary aisle, added to it on the northern side; but the latter, needing repair, was taken down. The edifice is partly of the end of the fourteenth century, and is of small dimensions, not more than about forty-eight feet in length externally; the walls are only twelve feet high, and the gable to the summit is but eighteen feet. During the prevalence of easterly winds it is utterly inaccessible, on which account divine service is seldom performed in it during the winter months. The produce of some charitable gifts in land and money is annually distributed among the poor. The principal of these is the grant, by Margaret Wynne, of the farm of Cevn Bychan, in the parish of Newborough, containing thirty acres, now let at £9 per annum, to two poor aged women, one of this place, and one of LlanbedrGôch, the recipient of the bounty in this parish to be selected by the owner of the mansion of Rhôs Mor. There is also a rent-charge of 10s. for the use of the poor, payable out of Cae Gwyn, in Llanvaelog, the property of Lord Boston. Several other benefactions, which produced £2. 3. 6. annually, are lost.
LLANGWYVAN (LLAN-GWYFAN), a parish, in the union and hundred of Ruthin, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 5 miles (E.) from the town of Denbigh; containing 264 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church, is situated in the north-eastern part of the county, on the borders of Flintshire, and at the western base of the Clwydian range of mountains. The scenery is beautifully picturesque, and the views from the higher grounds over the fertile and extensive Vale of Clwyd are rich and magnificent; the surface is undulated, and the lands, with the exception of the mountainous part of the parish, are inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £7. 18. 9., and endowed with £200 royal bounty; patron, the Bishop of Bangor: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £256, and there is a glebe of thirteen acres, valued at £20 per annum; also a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Cwyvan, is a small neat edifice, undistinguished by any architectural details of importance; the pulpit and reading-desk are respectively placed on each side, and adjacent to the communion table. There is a place of worship for Independents, in which a Sunday school is also held. John ap Richards, by will, in 1725, left £3, and Mrs. Lloyd by will, the date of which is unknown, left the same amount, the interest of both bequests to be given among the poor annually. These sums were at interest in private hands until the year 1815, when they were called in and applied towards the new-pewing of the church; and the parish has ever since paid six shillings a year out of the poor's-rate as interest, to be distributed at Christmas.