A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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LLANDOW, called by the Welsh LLANDWV, a parish, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Ogmore, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Cowbridge; containing 125 inhabitants. This parish is situated in the southern part of the county, at a short distance from the Bristol Channel, and is bounded on the north by St. Bride's Major, and Colwinstone, on the south by Lantwit Major, on the east by Llysworney, and on the west by Wick, and St. Andrew's Minor. It comprises by admeasurement an area of 1046 acres, 1 rood, and 6 perches, of which 577 acres are arable, 395 pasture, and about 4 woodland. The soil is tolerably good, chiefly clay, producing wheat, barley, oats, and turnips; and the surface, though in some parts undulated, is generally level, presenting no prominent features in respect to scenery. There are some quarries of limestone, which is burned into lime for manuring the land. The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £7. 4. 4½., and in the patronage of the Principal and Fellows of Jesus' College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £197. 12.; there is an old but good glebe-house, and the glebe contains by admeasurement sixty-nine acres, two roods, and twelve perches, valued at £80. 12. per annum. The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, is a very small edifice of considerable antiquity. A Sunday school in connexion with the Church is held here; and two small charities, the principal of which is one of £15 by Mrs. Bassett, in 1720, produce £1. 10. annually, for the poor at Christmas.
LLANDOWROR, a parish, in the Higher division of the hundred of Derllŷs, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 2 miles (W. S. W.) from St. Clear's, and on the road from Carmarthen to Haverfordwest; containing 392 inhabitants. This parish appears to derive its name from its situation between the two waters of the rivulet Hîrwaun and the river Tâf; the latter abounds with salmon and excellent trout, and is here navigable at high tides for boats. The lands are partly inclosed and cultivated, and a considerable portion is covered with underwood; the scenery is pleasing, and characterized by some richly wooded heights, following the courses of the two streams. Within the limits of the parish is one of the finest quarries in the county, producing stone of excellent quality for building, and the working of which affords employment to such of the labouring poor as are not engaged in agriculture. A new line of road, constructed to avoid the steep ascent of Llandowror Hill to Tavarn 'Spytty, on the border of Pembrokeshire, was completed in 1830, and extends from the village of Llandowror, until it joins the road to Milford, considerably south of the former.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £6; patron, Lord Milford: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £116, and the glebe comprises eighteen acres, valued, with the house, at £40 per annum. The church is dedicated to St. Cringat. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, with a Sunday school held in it. David Lloyd, of Woodhouse, in the parish of Laugharne, in 1711, bequeathed £40, the interest of which is appropriated to the instruction of four or five children in a day school here which, with these exceptions, is attended by pay-scholars. The Welsh "circulating charity schools" originated with the Rev. Griffith Jones, who for forty-five years was rector of this parish. He died in 1761, in the seventy-eighth year of his age, and was buried in the church, in which a handsome mural tablet was erected to his memory by Mrs. Bridget Bevan, of Laugharne, who had for many years attended his ministry, and after her death, in 1779, was, by her own earnest request, interred by his side. Mrs. Bevan bequeathed £10,000 for the permanent support of the schools, and that sum, during a course of litigation for twenty years, accumulated to £30,000, vested in the three per cents., and at present amounting to £31,486. 12. There are now twenty-seven of these establishments in South Wales, and ten in North Wales, periodically circulating from one parish to another. They are under the control of a committee of management, and subject to annual visitation; each schoolmaster receives £25 per annum, and the master of the central school at Newport, where the teachers are instructed in the National system, receives a salary of £40.
LLANDRILLO (LLAN-DRILLO), a parish, in the union of Corwen, hundred of Edeyrnion, county of Merioneth, North Wales, 5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Corwen; containing 875 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church, is situated on the banks of the river Dee, and near the rivulet Ceidio, which, after heavy rains, becomes a torrent. It comprises 28,200 acres, and is bounded on the south by the noble range of the Berwyn mountains, of which the highest point, called Cader Verwyn, is within the parish. An inclosure act was passed in 1843 for this and other parishes. Peat is procured in great quantities for fuel; and on the Berwyn mountain is a quarry of excellent slate. The village is pleasantly situated on the turnpike-road from Corwen to Bala, at the entrance of an extensive glen in the vale of Edeyrnion, terminated by the lofty range of mountains which forms the southern boundary of the parish. The scenery is in some parts diversified with features of rich luxuriance, and the distant views are grand: from Cader Verwyn are seen the beautiful vales of Edeyrnion and Penllyn, in all their variety of scenery; and, in the distance, the principal mountains in North Wales, and in the counties of Chester, Salop, Denbigh, Worcester, Stafford, and Lancaster. Fairs are held annually on February 25th, May 3rd, June 29th, August 28th, and November 14th.
The living is a discharged vicarage, in the patronage of the Bishop of St. Asaph, rated in the king's books at £7. 17. 1.: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £531. 10., two-thirds of which belong to the rector, and one-third to the vicar; and there is a rectorial glebe of nearly ten and a half acres, valued at £12. 15. per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Trillo, is a small ancient structure, in the early style of English architecture, with a square embattled tower at the western end. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Independents, and Calvinistic Methodists; a British school, established in 1846; and six Sunday schools, held in the meeting-houses. Hugh Jones in 1736 bequeathed £75, the interest of which, £3. 7. 6., is distributed among the poor, on Good Friday, according to the will of the testator.
Bwlch Maen Gwynedd, a pass in the Berwyn range, is memorable as the place where Roderic the Great appointed a meeting of the Princes of Gwynedd and Powys, in order to adjust any differences which might arise between those chieftains; and on the same range, and within the limits of the parish, is a large flat stone, probably the table stone of a cromlech, called Bwrdd Arthur, or "Arthur's table." In a field named Cae'r Bont is a circular intrenchment, surrounded with a fosse and defended by ramparts of considerable strength; and on the summit of a hill immediately above it is a circle of stones, twelve yards in diameter, within which was formerly a circular cell, six feet in diameter: at the distance of one hundred yards are the remains of a large carnedd, eighteen yards in diameter, and about twenty yards from these the remains of two smaller carneddau. On a hill a little above the village are vestiges of another intrenchment, and on the hills in various parts of the parish are other remains of British antiquity. Fynnon Maen Milgi, "the spring of the greyhound stone," a remarkably fine stream, issues from the Berwyn mountains; and near the village is a spring called Fynnon Trillo, to the waters of which, miraculous efficacy in the cure of various diseases was anciently attributed, and which is still thought to be highly beneficial in several cases.
LLANDRILLO-YN-RHÔS (LLAN-DRILLO-YN-RHÔS), a parish, in the union of Conway, partly in the hundred of Creuddyn, county of Carnarvon, but chiefly in the hundred of Isdulas, county of Denbigh, North Wales, on the shore of the Irish Sea, 4 miles (N. E.) from Conway; containing 1176 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the great Holyhead road, and bounded on the south by Llansantfraid, on the south-west by Llŷsvaen and Llanelian, and on the north by Abergele bay. It comprises by computation 1890 acres, of which 610 are arable, 1220 pasture, &c., and 60 wood. The soil is a light clay with a substratum of limestone, and the chief produce from the lands under tillage is wheat: oak has been hitherto the prevailing kind of timber, but it is gradually giving way to plantations of fir. Pwllycrochon, Mînydòn, Glànydòn, and Bryndinerth, are gentlemen's seats here. The village of Llandrillo is composed of two houses only, of which one is the vicarage; that of Colwyn, in the eastern part of the parish, has of late years greatly increased in size, and is resorted to for sea-bathing. The townships in that part of the parish which is in Denbighshire are united for the maintenance of their poor; while that of Eireas, which forms the Carnarvon portion of it, supports its poor separately. The Chester and Holyhead railway intersects the parish. There are two weirs along the shore, where an immense quantity of fish, of various kinds, is taken during favourable seasons, particularly mackerel, salmon, and herrings: one only of these, namely that which belonged to the monks of Conway, pays tithe, the capture at every tenth tide being divided between the rector and the vicar; three-fourths to the former, and one-fourth to the latter.
The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £8. 15. 10., and in the gift of the Bishop of St. Asaph; net income, £343, with a glebehouse attached. The church, dedicated to St. Trillo, is a large handsome structure principally in the later English style, situated on a rock of limestone, and consisting of a nave, chancel, and north and south aisles, with a curious tower. It has an early tomb near the altar, and a Norman font. The east window contains some elegant specimens of ancient stained glass: in one compartment is a fine head of Marchûdd, founder of one of the fifteen noble tribes of North Wales, above which are the arms of Ednyved Vychan, councillor of Llewelyn the Great, and a successful warrior against the English; in the others are figures in flowing drapery, supposed to represent the tribes of Wales. Ednyved Vychan obtained a license from the pope to build a chapel here, the only remains of which are part of two old arches in the north wall of the church, thus proving the chapel to have been the more ancient erection. Much care is displayed in the preservation of the structure; the churchyard is also kept up with good taste, and commands fine prospects. At Colwyn is a church or chapel dedicated to St. Catherine: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the Vicar's gift; income, £100. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, Calvinistic Methodists, and Independents. A large building of stone, roofed with slate, was erected in 1819, for a National school, at an expense of nearly £400, raised by subscription, aided by a grant of £50 from the National Society; it presents a singular appearance, from its situation in the midst of lofty limestone rocks: the school is supported by voluntary contributions, and affords instruction to children of both sexes. Of six Sunday schools, one is in connexion with the Church. The farm of Ty'n Tervyn, in extent about eight acres, has from time immemorial been the property of the poor, but there are no records of the donor; it is the custom to distribute the rent, which amounts to something more than £10 a year, among the most necessitous persons, on St. Thomas's day. There are some other bequests of small amount, which yield an additional sum of about £7 per annum, the interest having been allowed to accumulate for some time; and a rent-charge of one guinea on the Glànywern farm, is also appropriated to the poor, and dispensed with the preceding at the same period of the year.
On the shore, at the distance of a mile north-east of the church, stands a very small chapel or oratory called St. Trillo's, of an oblong form, with a vaulted roof, a window on each side and at the east end, and entered by a small door: it is built over a well, and was used for the purpose of praying for the success of the adjoining weir. A quarter of a mile southward from the church is a strongly fortified hill, called Bryn Euryn, at the foot of which are the ruins of a large building, called Llŷs Bry Euryn, erected as a residence for himself and his descendants by Ednyved Vychan, who procured a license from the pope, as above stated, to build a chapel near it, with permission to give all his tithes and oblations to the officiating chaplain. It was burned down, in 1409, by Owain Glyndwr; but the remains were restored, and occupied by some descendants of Sir Tudur ab Ednyved (one of the commissioners for negotiating terms of peace between Edward I. and Llewelyn), who continued to be resident here so late as the reign of Charles II. They contributed largely towards defraying the expense of erecting the tower and south aisle of the church.
LLANDRINDOD, a parish, in the poor-law union of Builth, hundred of Kevenlleece, county of Radnor, South Wales, 4 miles (S. by W.) from Pen-y-Bont; containing 270 inhabitants. This place derives its name from the dedication of its church to the Holy Trinity, and is celebrated for the variety and efficacy of its mineral springs, the virtue of which appears to have been discovered at a remote period, most probably by the Romans, of whose occupation of this part of the country numerous vestiges are found in the immediate vicinity. The parish is bounded on the west by the river Ithon, a stream noted for its trout and graylings, and which separates it from the parish of Llanyre; on the east it is bounded by the parish of Kevenlleece, and on the south by that of Disserth. It comprises by computation 2800 acres, consisting of nearly equal portions of arable, meadow, pasture, and waste or common land; the surface is generally hilly, with several extensive commons of lower elevation. The horizon is bounded by an entire amphitheatre of hills, the sides of some of which are agreeably diversified by small plantations; and although the prevailing aspect of the country is remarkably wild, it has in its more retired parts numerous scenes of picturesque beauty. The soil is for the most part exceedingly barren, and extensive tracts are allowed to remain uncultivated: wheat, barley, and oats are raised; and the timber consists of oak and ash. Lead-ore has been found at different periods, and some tons of it were dug up in 1790.
The MINERAL Waters to which the place owes its importance, appear to have been used from time immemorial by the inhabitants of the immediate neighbourhood; but their efficacy was not generally known till about the close of the seventeenth century, when, their reputation being published at a distance, the village first became the resort of strangers. Its rise, notwithstanding, was very slow, and frequently interrupted; and it was not till about the year 1749 that it attained any note as a place of fashionable resort for invalids. About this period, Mr. Grosvenor, of Shrewsbury, took the leases of several houses in the parish, with a considerable tract of land. One of the buildings he converted into a spacious hotel, capable of accommodating numerous families; and among the alterations and additions which he made was a suite of rooms for balls, concerts, and billiards, with shops for supplying various articles of use or luxury for which the visiters might have occasion during their residence at the place. The land he laid out in pleasure-grounds, with plantations, shrubberies, and walks, tastefully disposed and ornamented; fishponds were formed in different parts, and a portion of the land was appropriated for a race-course. This extensive and complete establishment, which formed one of the most fashionable places of resort in the principality, continued to flourish for nearly fifty years, when, becoming a rendezvous chiefly for gamesters and libertines, the then proprietor of the estate, from religious motives, caused the greater part of the house to be taken down, and nothing now remains to remind the visiter of its former attractions but the sites of the fishponds, and a small farmhouse occupying the site of one of the old dining-rooms of "Llandrindod Hall."
In the course of a few years, the place began to recover from the decay into which it had fallen, and the reputation of its waters attracted the attention of numerous visiters. The want of accommodation, however, continued to be a subject of reiterated complaint, and a great obstacle to its prosperity, until remedied by the exertions of the proprietor of the Pump-House Inn and Boarding-House. This establishment makes up from forty to fifty beds, and though there is no other boarding-house, lodgings can be obtained at the Rock House, a comfortable place in the dingle below Llanerch inn, and also at several farmhouses in the vicinity.
Here are three different springs, called, respectively, the rock or chalybeate, the saline pump water, and the sulphureous spring; there is also a spring called the eye water, supposed to be efficacious in diseases of the eye. The rock, or chalybeate, water issues from a slaty rock, near the lodging-house to which it gives name. According to an analysis to which it has been subjected, a gallon of this water contains fifty-seven grains of muriate of lime, fortyeight grains and three-fourths of muriate of magnesia, two hundred and thirty-nine grains of muriate of soda, three grains and two-fifths of carbonate of lime, one grain and a third of silex, and nearly six grains and one-fifth of carbonate of iron. The saline spring is within the grounds of the Pump-House. One gallon of this water contains sixty-seven grains of muriate of lime, twenty-five grains of muriate of magnesia, two hundred and forty-two grains of muriate of soda, five grains and one-fifth of vegetable matter, and three-fifths of a grain of carbonate of magnesia. The sulphureous spring is situated within a hundred yards to the south of the saline spring. One gallon of the water contains fifty-four grains of muriate of lime, thirty-one grains and twofifths of muriate of magnesia, two hundred and sixteen grains and three-tenths of muriate of soda, and six grains of vegetable matter. This water is best adapted for artificial baths, but, like the saline water, is also taken internally. The Llandrindod waters are recommended to be drunk in the morning, and upon an empty stomach, in moderate quantities; and, when used both internally and externally, have been found very beneficial in numerous chronic cases, among which may be enumerated rheumatism, gout, inveterate ulcers, and scrofula. The saline and sulphureous springs have been recommended by the most eminent physicians, and their efficacy is thoroughly established in the following disorders; namely, diseased liver, indigestion, gravel, cutaneous distempers, and general debility, whether arising from sedentary habits, or from too free a use of vinous and spirituous liquors. The rock water is only drunk in particular cases, and then after a course of the former. The sulphur water is considered to be the best adapted to external applications, and is therefore sometimes used as a bath. Medical advice should be obtained before using the springs.
The air is remarkably salubrious, and the sequestered retirement of the situation is highly favourable to the attainment of health: the neighbourhood affords interesting equestrian excursions, and to sportsmen unlimited range for shooting and fishing; and in the vicinity of the village are numerous pleasant walks. These advantages, uniting with the powerful efficacy of the waters, have rendered the place a favourite resort of invalids; and the comfortable accommodations which are provided, and the agreeable society to be found in this secluded spot, attract to it in the season a considerable number of visiters. The season commences about the beginning of May, and generally continues to the middle or end of October, and is enlivened by occasional balls, under the arrangement of the parties living at the Pump-House. The turnpike-road from Builth, in the county of Brecknock, to Newtown, in that of Montgomery, passes through the parish, along which a coach from Bristol, Swansea, Merthyr-Tydvil, and Brecknock, runs three days in the week to the Pump-House: the inhabitants receive their letters from the post-office at Pen-y-Bont.
The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £600 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant; net income, £48; patron, the Bishop of St. David's: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £100, and there is an impropriate glebe of one acre and a half, valued at £1. 2. per annum. The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and situated at the edge of an extensive common, near the river Ithon, is a very rude edifice, built in 1603, without mortar, and covered with tiles; it measures sixty feet by twenty-four, and contains accommodation for 150 persons. A school in union with the Church was commenced in the year 1846. Two benefactions of £10 each, one of which was given by the Rev. Philip Lewis, and the other by Mr. John Bevan Meredith, are now secured on lands, and the interest is annually divided among decayed farmers: two other charities, one by John Jones of £10, and another by Evan Jones of £8, have been lost in consequence of the insolvency of a party entrusted with the principal.
Within the limits of the parish are several remains of British and Roman antiquity. On the common, just below the church, is a quadrilateral intrenchment, nearly one hundred yards in circuit, defended by a vallum, the angles of which are all rounded off: the remains of the rampart are still visible on the south and west sides. At the eastern extremity of the common, above the village of Howy, are some tolerably perfect remains of an encampment, nearly circular in form, inclosing an area about fifty yards in diameter, surrounded by an exterior vallum, and having entrances only on the east and west. It occupies the gentle declivity of an undulating surface, and, from its form, and contiguity to other Roman works, has been supposed to be the remains of a circus or amphitheatre for the celebration of games; but the area is quite inadequate to that purpose, and its position and construction are ill adapted for the accommodation of spectators. Near it are some very faint traces of another encampment, nearly square, with two of the angles rounded, and having the appearance of projecting bastions.
These various remains, which have been described in the Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries as "campi æstivi," are placed at irregular distances along the common, contiguous to the track of an ancient paved road, which is supposed to have been a vicinal way from a station on the banks of the Ithon, in the parish of Llanvihangel-Helygen, on a farm called Cwm. The form of the camps is quadrilateral, with the angles rounded off, and each generally contains within the embankment an area twenty-five or thirty yards square. They have entrances on each of the four sides, and adjacent to those in a few of them may be distinguished a slightly elevated spot, thought by some to have been the station of a centinel; but the valla, which in no instance are more than two feet in height above the ground, are very indistinct. The common on which they are situated is so deeply furrowed in every direction with the turf spade, and marked by embanked inclosures, that, except in some particular places, where the lines of the camps are very strongly defined, it is extremely difficult to ascertain their precise form, or to discover their origin.
On the same common are the remains of seven barrows, five of which are near each other, and the other two at a small distance from them; they have been opened, and were found to contain some rudelyformed urns, with ashes of human bones. Near the church is an ancient lead-mine, which is supposed to have been originally worked by the Romans: the shaft is three feet square, and is said to be 300 feet in depth, with a level three-quarters of a mile in length; it has been worked of late years, but is not at present in operation. The foundations of an old chapel were discovered in a corn-field some time since; it was called "Capel Vaelog," but nothing is known of its history. In a field belonging to the farm rented with the Pump-House, many silver coins of the reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I. and II., have been dug up.
LLANDRINIO (LLAN-DRINIO), a parish, in the union of Llanvyllin, Upper division of the hundred of Deythur, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 9 miles (N. E. by N.) from Welshpool; containing 781 inhabitants. This parish is situated at the eastern extremity of the county, on the road from Shrewsbury to Bala through Llanvyllin, in an angle near the confluence of the rivers Severn and Vyrnwy, over the former of which, not far from the church, is a stone bridge of three arches. It is considered to be one of the most fertile districts in the principality, the land contiguous to those rivers being covered, when they overflow their banks, with a rich slimy sediment, which contributes materially to increase its fertility; the waste lands were inclosed under an act of parliament passed in 1787, and are now in a good state of cultivation. The Severn, which is here navigable, bounds the parish on the east and south-east; and the Montgomeryshire canal intersects the western part of it, through which also passes the road from Welshpool to Oswestry.
The living was a perpetual curacy, rated in the king's books at £24. 16. 10½., but has lately been made a rectory; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £545, and there is a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Trinio, an ancient structure in the early style of English architecture, was thoroughly repaired, and the steeple rebuilt, in the year 1829, at which time thirty-eight additional sittings were formed: these, together with forty formerly appropriated, were made free, in consideration of a grant from the Incorporated Society for building, enlarging, and repairing churches and chapels. In the churchyard are thirteen yew-trees of luxuriant growth. There is a place of worship for Independents; and a National school is held, for which a building was erected in 1827, by subscription, aided by a grant of £100 from the National Society in London. Mrs. Margaret Pitts, in 1722, bequeathed £40 to the poor of Tredderwen Veibion Gwnas, in the parish; Mrs. Long left £20 to seven widows; and Mrs. Mary Derwas bequeathed £100, the interest of which she directed to be applied to the purchase of gowns: the interest of these sums, together with that of £50 left in 1783 by Miss Mary Bernard, of Welshpool, and of £15 left by Mrs. Aldersey, is annually distributed among the poor. Besides these donations, a sum of £6 a year is derived to the parish from a plot of ground called Poor's Patch, left to it by Mr. Robert Davies: the land that was originally given consisted of two small plots in the township of Tredderwen, and was exchanged by the Commissioners' award at the general inclosure of the common, in 1795, for the present ground, which consists of about three acres. The benefaction-table records the donation by Arthur Vaughan of twelve penny loaves of bread, to be given to twelve poor persons on every Sabbath day at church; the distribution is duly made by the churchwardens, and is provided for from the rent of a meadow called Cae Joiner, in the parish. Two bequests, one of £100, made by Mr. Evans, and the other of £15, made by Mrs. Sarah Austin, have been rendered invalid by the statute of mortmain. Offa's Dyke passes through the western part of the parish, and may be distinctly traced.
LLANDRYGARN (LLAN-DRYGARN), a parish, in the hundred of Llyvon, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 4 miles (S. W.) from Llanerchymedd, and on the old road from Bangor to Holyhead; containing, with the chapelry of Gwyndy, 485 inhabitants. This parish is chiefly distinguished as having been the residence of Rhŷs ab Llewelyn ab Hwlkyn, who, for his services at the battle of Bosworth Field, was by mandate of Henry VII. permitted to assume the surname of Bôdychen, from his family mansion, and appointed first sheriff of Anglesey, which office he held till his decease. Of this ancient mansion, one of the towers was formerly used as the county prison, and the other parts have been converted into a barn and farm-offices. The chapelry of Gwyndy appears to have derived that appellation from the White House, formerly the halfway hotel and posting-house between Bangor and Holyhead, but which, after the building of the suspension-bridge near Bangor, and the diversion of the road, became a private residence, being succeeded by the Mona Inn. A branch post-office is kept near Gwyndy, under the office at Bangor.
The parish formerly constituted part of that of Holyhead. The living is a perpetual curacy with that of Bôdwrog annexed, endowed with £400 royal bounty, and £600 parliamentary grant; net income, £115; patrons and impropriators, the Principal and Fellows of Jesus' College, Oxford, whose tithes in Llandrygarn have been commuted for a rent-charge of £276. 16. The church, dedicated to St. Trygarn, is a small and very ancient structure. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists. A National day school for this and the annexed parish of Bôdwrog was commenced some time ago; and a Sunday school connected with the Calvinistic body is held in the meeting-house. Dr. Wynne, or Gwyn, chancellor of Llandaf, in 1648, gave a portion of the tithes, amounting to £1. 5. annually, to the Principal and Fellows of Jesus' College, in trust for the poor of this place; and there are a few other small charitable donations and bequests, which are administered according to the will of the benefactors; the principal of these being a sum of 13s. 4d., forming a portion of a bequest by John Lloyd to this parish, Bôdwrog, and two others; the privilege of sending a poor aged man to inhabit one of the almshouses founded by David Lloyd, at Llanvechell; and a rent-charge of 5s., left by William Prees. Two other inconsiderable charities have been lost. In the chapelry of Gwyndy, large hammers rudely formed of trap rock, and handmills of different sizes, made of chert, marble, and freestone, of which the smaller were rudely, and the larger well, formed, have at various times been found, but not of late years.
LLANDUDNO (LLAN-DUDNO), a parish, in the union of Conway, hundred of Creuddyn, county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Conway; containing 1047 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the shore of the Irish Sea, and comprises the promontory called by the Welsh Gogarth, and by the English Great and Little Orme's Heads. It is bounded on the north and west by the Irish Sea; on the south by the estuary of the river Conway; and is connected with the main land, on the east, by a narrow isthmus of sand, intersected by a small valley, through which the tide formerly flowed, thus nearly insulating it. The parish comprises, besides mountain sheep-walks, a considerable portion of arable and pasture land, some of which is well adapted to the growth of wheat. The bay of Llandudno is one of the finest bays on this coast, extending, in the form of a crescent, from the base of the promontory to the Lesser Orme's Head, without interruption, and affording excellent and secure shelter to shipping during heavy gales. It was lately proposed to convert this bay into an asylum-harbour, by the name of St. George's Harbour; but Holyhead being found by government to be more advantageous, the design was abandoned. Llandudno is resorted to for sea-bathing.
The north side of Great Orme's Head is broken into craggy precipices of various elevation, and, during the breeding season, is the resort of various aquatic birds, among which are the gull, the razorbill, the guillemot, the cormorant, the heron, and sometimes the peregrine falcon: these occupy respectively their several stations in the rocks, the gulls having the lowest and the herons the highest localities; and a small number of puffins is scattered indiscriminately in various places. The eggs of the razor-bill are esteemed a delicacy, and the sale of them, generally at two shillings per dozen, affords a livelihood to several families employed during the season in procuring them. The western side of the promontory is one vast precipice: the mountain extends into the plain above the village, forming a precipitous eminence, the summit of which is called Dinas, and is surrounded with a wall of loose stones, very rudely formed, within which are the foundations of numerous circular buildings, varying in diameter from twelve to thirty feet, and arranged round the west and south sides of the mountain. In the centre is a rocking-stone, called Crŷd Tudno, or the "cradle of St. Tudno;" and close to this is the "Needle's Eye," which is, of course, very narrow. Upon the extreme northern point of the eminence are the ruins of a large square building, of which parts of the walls, apparently constructed without mortar, lie scattered in various directions; it was a place of some consequence at one period, and the abode of monks, who had a chapel here, incorrectly stated as the Bishop of Bangor's palace: the sea has made great encroachments of late years. On the highest point of the promontory, and near the Great Orme's Head, a signal staff was erected, communicating with Llŷsvaen on the east, and with the island of Priestholme on the west, and forming a post in the line of telegraph communication between Liverpool and Holyhead. In some parts the mountain, which is about five miles in circumference, affords good pasturage for sheep; and near the summit are some extensive copper-mines, from which about 3000 tons of ore, of a very pure quality, are raised annually and sent off for the purpose of being smelted: another mine has been opened at the bottom of the hill on the east, which is worked by a spirited company; and the copper-ore obtained is very valuable and of the best kind: the aggregate number of hands employed in the two mines is about 300. The mountain consists of alternate beds of chert and limestone, uniformly dipping from every side to a common centre, where the great mass of ore lies. In the mines is found a considerable variety of mineral curiosities, such as beautiful specimens of malachite, or green carbonate of copper, &c.
This place is the head of the great manor granted by Edward I. to the see of Bangor, and is one of the four parishes in the county which are in the east side of the river Conway. The living is a perpetual curaey, endowed with £400 royal bounty, and £1600 parliamentary grant; net income, £120 per annum; patrons, the Bishop of Bangor, and the Archdeacon of Merioneth. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £226. 11., and there is a glebe of four acres and a half. The old church, dedicated to St. Tudno, is about two miles distant from the village, and situated on the summit of the cliffs, overhanging the sea; it contained 450 sittings, and is supposed to have been built at two different periods, part it is said by St. Tudno, the founder, who escaped from the massacre at Bangor-Iscoed. This ancient structure has of late been abandoned, and is every year becoming more ruinous; a new edifice has been erected in the now growing village, at the foot of the promontory. Two coffin slabs, ornamented with highly decorated crosses flory, have been disinterred from beneath the flooring of the old church; they are formed of blue stone, apparently a kind of slate, and the foliated ornaments, which cover the entire surface, are carved in low relief. These remains were probably brought from the monastery at Gogarth, after the monks had quitted it; and according to tradition, a fine screen that was until recently to be seen in the old church, had been brought from the same place. There are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. Two schools are provided for the poor, namely, a British school, established in the year 1844, and a Church school, established in May 1846; they are supported by subscriptions and school-pence, and the latter has also an endowment of £3 per annum, the produce of £100 lying in the North and South Wales Bank. Three Sunday schools are likewise held, one of them in connexion with the Church, one belonging to the Calvinistic body, and the third to the Baptists. Lewis Owen, Esq., in 1623, left one-eighth part of the tithes of Conway for clothing poor old men and women, above sixty years of age, the portion for this parish varying from £10 to £18 per annum. Richard ab Robert, prior to 1732, bequeathed £40, and Thomas Evans, about the same time, £20; the produce of the former is annually distributed among the poor on St. Thomas's day, but the latter gift has been lost for some time. The poor are also entitled to participate in the distribution of barley, beef, and cloth, charged on the domain of Gloddaeth in the parish of Eglwys-Rhôs.
LLANDUDWEN (LLAN-DUDWEN), a parish, in the union of Pwllheli, hundred of Dinllaen, Lleyn division of the county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 5 miles (W. by N.) from Pwllheli; containing 86 inhabitants. The lands in this parish, consisting of about 1160 acres, and having for the most part a clayey, though in some places a peaty and gravelly, soil, are generally low and flat, and form one of the most fertile and best cultivated tracts in this part of the principality. The surrounding scenery is varied; and among the most striking of the objects it comprehends is Carn Madryn, at the base of which, within the parish, and occupying a romantic situation, is Madryn, an ancient mansion. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Rhiw: the church, dedicated to St. Tudwen, is a small neat cruciform edifice, in good repair. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists.
LLANDUGWELL, a township, in the parish of Llanvechell, hundred of Tàlybolion, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 7 miles (W.) from Amlwch: the population is included in the return for the parish. This township was anciently a distinct parish, but the church, dedicated to St. Dogvael, having been allowed to fall into ruins many years since, the place ceased to be parochial, and the rectorial tithes are now taken alternately by the incumbents of this parish and that of Llanrhyddlad. The inhabitants do not pay any church-rates to Llanvechell.
LLANDULAS (LLAN-DDULAS), a parish, in the union of St. Asaph, hundred of Isdulas, county of Denbigh, North Wales, on the road between Holyhead and Chester, 2 miles (W. by N.) from Abergele; containing 514 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the east by Abergele, on the west by Llŷsvaen, on the south by Bettws-yn-Rhôs, on the north by St. George's Channel; and comprises by computation 606 acres, mostly arable land. The bold and rocky mountain scenery, which in some places is very striking, subsides in the valley between the rocks and the sea, where are some fine plantations of most kinds of timber. Limestone of the best quality, and in which lead-ore is found, is abundant, and a number of families are employed in procuring it from the mountains; it is sent hence chiefly to Liverpool and other parts of Lancashire, and to Cheshire, to be burned for mortar. The bay of Llandulas, though spacious, is not considered secure on the least appearance of foul weather: a lofty wooden pier was erected in 1822, projecting some distance into the sea, to which a tramroad extends from the limestone-quarries, so that vessels can conveniently receive their cargoes at certain states of the tide. The Chester and Holyhead railway intersects the parish. Though there are no seats of any consequence, a few good houses here are occupied by gentlemen of moderate property: the village, of small size, is situated on the banks of the river Dulas, over which is a good stone bridge, and near its influx into the sea.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £6. 1. 5½.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph: the tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £147. 13. 4., and the glebe comprises several acres, valued, with the house, at £30 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Ceinbryd, is a small plain structure, built in 1732: in 1832 the late Colonel Wynne, at his own charge, erected a gallery for the accommodation of the inhabitants; and a north transept and vestry-room were built in 1841: there are 220 sittings. A school was endowed by Colonel Wynne with a rent-charge of £15 per annum on a farm called Pentredû, in the parish of Llanvair-Talhairn. There are also four almshouses, erected in 1767, by three brothers named Lloyd, but which, not being endowed, are inhabited by paupers, and kept in repair out of the rates. A few bequests of very small amount are appropriated, conformably with the wishes of the testators, to the aid of the poor.
LLANDURY, a chapelry, in the parish of Penbrey, union of Llanelly, hundred of Carnawllon, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 2½ miles (S. E. by E.) from Kidwelly: the population is included in the return for the parish. The chapel is spacious, and service is regularly performed in it in the afternoon.
LLANDWROG (LLAN-DUROG), a parish, in the hundred of Uwchgorvai, union and county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 5 miles (S. by W.) from Carnarvon, on the road to Pwllheli; consisting of the Upper and Lower divisions, and containing 2688 inhabitants. This place is of considerable antiquity, and during the ninth century was the residence of Cilmin Troed-Ddû, one of the fifteen tribes of North Wales, the remains of whose palace at Glynllivon were existing till of late years. From this chieftain descended the Glynnes of Glynllivon, ancestors of the present Lord Newborough, who has a noble mansion near the spot, deeply embosomed in trees, and commanding extensive views over St. George's Channel, the Menai strait, the Isle of Anglesey, and the country towards Carnarvon. The parish, which is from seven to eight miles in length, and from two to three and a half in breadth, is situated on the eastern shore of Carnarvon bay. It is bounded on the north by the parish of Llanwnda, on the south by the parishes of Llanllyvni and Clynnog, and on the east by that of Bettws-Garmon. It comprises about 9000 acres, the surface, scenery, and soil of which are each exceedingly various; and comprehends part of Morva Dinlle, a sandy marsh covering 2500 acres, which was inclosed under an act of parliament obtained in 1806, the remaining portion being situated in the parishes of Llanwnda and Llanvagdalen. The land next to the marsh, stretching towards the interior of the parish, is excellent arable and pasture, and many parts of it are well wooded: this is succeeded by dreary wastes and commons, which reach to the high mountainous ground. The chief produce is barley and oats, and cattle, very little wheat being raised. The only stream, with the exception of a few brooks, is the Llivon: it contributes somewhat to enliven the scenery; and the hills called Kîlgwyn and Moel Tryvan, with part of the mountain of Mynydd Mawr, supply a striking and bold relief to the long range of level grounds. Glynllivon, the seat of Lord Newborough, having been destroyed by fire, was lately rebuilt.
The village, which is small, is pleasantly situated, and has been much improved by the late and present Lord Newborough. On the coast of the Menai, in the parish, the late lord, between the years 1770 and 1780, erected at his own expense, both in the grounds of Glynllivon, and also at Belan, near the entrance of the strait, commodious barracks for the county militia, of which, as lord-lieutenant of the county, he was colonel-commandant. These, which had become much dilapidated, have been restored and greatly improved by the present peer. The barracks at Glynllivon are called Fort Williamsburg, and those at Belan, Fort St. David. Off the latter is situated his lordship's yacht-dock.
Some of the inhabitants of the parish are employed in agriculture, and inhabit the low grounds around the church, but the greater part are employed in the mines and quarries at a distance of from six to eight miles, and high among the mountains, which are rich in mineral wealth, consisting principally of copperore and slate. The copper-mines of Drws-y-Coed, supposed to have been originally worked by the Romans, are still very productive, and give employment to about 150 hands. Among the slate-quarries are those of Cloddva'r Lôn, Tàlysarn, Pen-yr-Orsedd, and Kîlgwyn, the last of which has been worked for more than three centuries; these quarries, and some new ones lately opened on Moel Tryvan, afford constant employment to more than 700 men. The Llanllyvni and Carnarvon tramroad, which passes through the Upper division of the parish, was constructed under acts of parliament obtained in 1825, 1827, and 1828: it commences at the Cloddva'r Lôn slate-quarries, near Nantle, or Nanlle, and pursues a western direction for some distance; then takes a northern course, and terminates at the shipping-quay at Carnarvon. In 1845 an act was passed for the formation of a railway from Porth-Dinllaen, through Llandwrog, to Carnarvon and Bangor; but after the expenditure of a considerable sum of money, the design was altogether abandoned.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £11. 11. 5½.; patron, the Bishop of Bangor: the tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £490; and there is a glebe of nearly ten acres, with a house, the whole valued at £35 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Twrog, by whom it is supposed to have been originally founded in the sixth century, is a spacious and ancient structure, about sixty-six feet long and eighteen broad, and contains 450 sittings. A chapel, dedicated to St. Thomas, was erected in 1847-8, at Cevn, from the designs of H. Kennedy, Esq.; it is in the early English style, and capable of accommodating 300 persons. There are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, Independents, and Wesleyans. Two schools are kept, in connexion with the Church; and of thirteen Sunday schools in the parish, one is conducted on Church principles. Miss Ellen Glynne, in 1727, bequeathed several parcels of land, and tenements, in this parish and the parishes of Llanllyvni and Llangoed, for the purpose of founding and endowing an almshouse for twelve aged and unmarried women; the property and management to be vested in the Bishop of Bangor and the ministers of the respective parishes, as trustees. The property contains in the whole 281 acres, including an allotment of four acres on an inclosure in this parish, in 1812, and producing a rent of £188, exclusive of £14. 13. annual dividend on £488 three per cent. consols., purchased with savings of the charity. The almshouse is a substantial edifice, forming three sides of a quadrangle, and consists of twelve apartments with small gardens. Each tenant deposits £5 on her admission for the benefit of the charity, and £1 is annually paid to the minister for reading prayers for the inmates collectively on four stated festivals, both stipulations being agreeable to the will of the foundress. The full number is not always completed, and, therefore, the sum paid to each varies, but it is generally from £15 to £18 a year. The other benefactions to the poor consist of a rent-charge of 30s., by William Lloyd, in 1682; a sum of £5. 13., being a rent-charge of £3, and the interest of a gift of £50, by the Rev. Lewis Jones, in 1692; £5, the produce of a bequest of £100, by Ellen Glynn, in the year 1711; and an annuity of £1, out of certain lands, by Robert Wynn: all of these sums are distributed by the minister and churchwardens, generally at Christmas, as intended by the respective donors.
In the mountainous districts of the parish, at a place called Bala Deulyn, where two lakes are united by a rivulet, is Nanlle, an ancient mansion, in which Edward I. resided during the erection of Carnarvon Castle, and from which some of his decrees were dated. Near this place, in 1827, two gold coins were found, one of which had on the obverse a figure of that monarch, seated in a ship, and holding a sword, with the legend, in ancient characters, EDWARD. DEI. GRA. REX. ANGL. DNS. HYB. D. AQUI.; and on the reverse, four lions and four crowns, with the legend IPSE. AUTEM. TRANSIENS. PER. MEDIUM. ILLORUM. IBAT. The view of Snowdon from the Nanlle lakes is exceedingly grand. At a short distance to the north of the church is Dinas Dinlle, a fortification occupying the summit of a circular artificial mount on the shore of the Menai strait, and on the confines of the extensive marsh already mentioned. This work is of British formation, but appears to have been used by the Romans. The inclosed area, 400 feet in diameter, is surrounded by a vast rampart of earth, and defended in some parts by a second rampart and a deep fosse; and on the side near the shore, the eminence has been formed by the constant action of the waves, into an abrupt and precipitous cliff. The entrance is on the opposite side, and within the inclosure are vestiges of buildings of an oblong form, constructed of loose stones, and also a tumulus. This strong post, obviously an outwork connected with the station Segontium, adjacent to the present town of Carnarvon, was probably maintained to afford facility in landing supplies for the garrison of that place, when, from adverse winds, access to the port there became difficult or dangerous. Its occupation by the Romans, which has been inferred by Mr. Pennant and other antiquaries, from the discovery here of Roman coins, and from the necessity for such an outwork for the convenience of the principal station, is confirmed by vestiges of roads leading from Segontium, of which one, crossing the river Seiont, and pointing directly to this place, was found, in a very perfect state, at a distance of several feet below the surface of the ground, in laying down the tramway from Llanllyvni to Carnarvon. A further corroboration of the Roman use of the post is derived from the appellation of two ancient fords on a stream near the site, called "Y Vorryd," which still respectively retain the semi-British and semi-Roman names of Rhŷd Pedestre and Rhŷd Equestre, implying "the passage for the infantry," and "the passage for the cavalry." The Roman road from Dinas Dinlle to Segontium may still be traced in various places, and especially on its approaching the river Gorvai, near which it is plainly discernible. On the Kîlgwyn mountain, in the parish, was a Druidical circle, seventeen yards in diameter, but scarcely a vestige of it is left; and at Plâs Newydd, a large upright stone points out the grave of an old British warrior. BeddGwenan, and Carnedd Angharad, are also supposed to be the tombs of British chieftains.
LLANDYGWYDD (LLAN-DYGWYDD), a parish, in the Lower division of the hundred of Troedyraur, union and county of Cardigan, South Wales, 7 miles (N. W.) from NewcastleEmlyn; containing 1044 inhabitants. This parish is pleasantly situated in the south-western part of the county, on the banks of the river Teivy, and is intersected by the turnpike-roads from Cardigan to Newcastle-Emlyn, only four miles distant from the former town, though the latter is the post-town. The lands are inclosed and in a high state of cultivation; the soil is tolerably fertile. The scenery of the southern portion of the parish, bordering on the Vale of Teivy, is finely diversified, and enriched with groves of oak-trees and other majestic timber. The neighbourhood abounds with gentlemen's seats and pleasing villas. Blaenpant is a handsome mansion, beautifully embosomed in woods of stately growth, and surrounded with flourishing plantations: in the house is an extensive and valuable library, principally collected by Owen Brigstocke, Esq., ancestor of the present proprietor; and the grounds, which are judiciously and tastefully laid out, comprehend much picturesque scenery. Stradmore Vale, an elegant mansion, on the bank of the Teivy, has been pulled down, and even its site obliterated; but some vestiges of the noble forest of oak which sheltered it in the rear, and descended to the margin of the river, still form a prominent feature in the scenery of this part of the vale. Neuadd Trêvawr, once a place of great importance, is a good family house, pleasantly situated; and Penlan commands a rich and extensive prospect over the high grounds on the opposite side of the river. Parkygors, Killwch, and Dôl, all within the parish, are handsome residences on a smaller scale. The manor and lordship of Llandygwydd formerly belonged to the Bishops of St. David's, but were sold to the Rev. Thomas Griffith, together with the estate of Llwyndyrys, under an act of parliament for the redemption of the land tax; and near the site of the old episcopal palace, he subsequently erected the mansion now the property and residence of his descendants.
This parish until lately constituted a prebend in the collegiate church of Brecknock, valued in the king's books at £10. 12. 8½., and in the gift of the Bishop of St. David's. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £200 private benefaction, £400 royal bounty, and £400 parliamentary grant; net income, £130; patron, the Bishop. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £450. The church, dedicated to St. Ogwydd, as appears from the name so engraved on the old silver communion cup, is a neat modern edifice, built on the former site about the commencement of the present century. There were two chapels of ease; one at Neuadd, of which some vestiges may still be traced in a field called Parc-y-Capel; and the other near Cenarth bridge, which has totally disappeared, the site having been levelled in the formation of the turnpike-road. The Independents and the Calvinistic Methodists have each a place of worship. A school for boys, and another for girls, in connexion with the Established Church, are held in separate buildings; and three Sunday schools are supported, one of them being conducted on Church principles, and the two others belonging to the dissenters. To the east of the church are the remains of a small camp, called "Gaer," of which no historical particulars are recorded; and within a quarter of a mile to the south of it is a barrow: there are also two barrows on an eminence in the parish, called "Pen Bryn Bwa."
LLANDYRNOG (LLAN-DYRNOG), a parish, in the union and hundred of Ruthin, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Denbigh; containing 645 inhabitants. In the earlier periods of Welsh history, this place must have been of some importance, being connected with a chain of British posts established both as exploratory stations to watch the approach of an invading enemy, and as strongholds to which, in cases of imminent danger, the families of the neighbouring districts retreated with their flocks and herds for security. The parish is bounded on the north by the township of Aber-Whielor, in the parish of Bôdvari, on the south by Llanynys parish, on the west by Llanrhaiadr-inKinmerch, on the east by Llangwyvan; and is beautifully situated in the fertile and picturesque Vale of Clwyd. It is about three and a half miles in length, and three in breadth, and comprises a large portion of mountain common, of which the summit is covered with heath; the hills and lower grounds are divided into arable and meadow. The soil is generally sand and clay, and in some parts swampy; the chief agricultural produce is wheat and barley. The river Clwyd passes at the lower end of the parish. Glànywern, the seat of Mrs. Madocks, widow of the late J. Madocks, Esq., M.P. for the Denbigh boroughs, is a large, modern, stone mansion, surrounded by a spacious park with plantations.
The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £19. 19. 7., and held in commendam by the Bishop of Bangor, to whom it was given at the Reformation, in lieu of the mortuaries that had been previously paid throughout the deanery of Dyfryn Clwyd, in which the parish is situated: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £666, and there is a glebe of thirteen acres, valued at £20 per annum; also a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Tyrnog, from which circumstance the parish derives its name, is an ancient edifice in the later English style, supposed to have been built in the time of Henry VII. There are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. A Church school was established here in 1834, for this parish and the adjoining parish of Llangwyvan; it is held in a building erected for the purpose, and is chiefly supported by subscription. Of two Sunday schools, one is in connexion with the Church, and the other belongs to the Wesleyans. Henry Powell, in 1748, bequeathed £100, to be applied in apprenticing annually one or two boys of the parish, who should be appointed by the heir of the Glànywern estate. He having directed that the money should be invested in good security at five per cent., it was lent on bond to Powell Clough, Esq., in 1767, and the interest was paid until 1815; the Glànywern property then passed from the Clough family, and the principal must be considered lost. It was supposed that the interest paid by Mr. Clough was a rent-charge on Glànywern, which is now in possession of Mrs. Madocks; but the recent discovery of the bond has established the contrary, so that the annual donation of that lady to the above-mentioned school is a spontaneous benefaction to the parish. Foulke Parry bequeathed £40, Thomas Powell £20, and Mrs. Jane Salusbury £20, the produce of which, together with that of other smaller sums, is annually distributed among the poor.
The principal and most extensive of the military posts referred to in the beginning of the article, occupies the summit of one of the Clwydian mountains, and from its strong fortifications was called Bryn-y-Cloddiau, or "the hill of ditches." The line of circumvallation conforms to the shape of the hill; the inclosed area is one mile and three-quarters in circumference, and defended, according to the facility or difficulty of access, by single, double, triple, and quadruple intrenchments. The principal entrance is on the west side, where is only a single fosse; on the north, where it was more easily accessible, are five fosses. Within the inclosure are several hollows, as if designed for lodgments of men on guard, or probably as places of greater security, which are now filled with pools of water; and in the centre of the camp is a large tumulus. Vron Iw, the ancient mansion of the Williams family, has been converted into a farmhouse; a memorial of its former state is preserved in some lofty pillars among the ruins, which anciently formed a portico: in the grounds is a strongly impregnated chalybeate spring.
LLANDYSILIO-GOGO (LLAN-DYSILIO-GOGOF), a parish, in the union of Aberaëron, Lower division of the hundred of Moythen, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 18 miles (W. N. W.) from Lampeter; containing 1407 inhabitants, of whom 733 are in the Lower division, and 674 in the Upper division. This parish, which is situated on the shore of Cardigan bay, and is intersected by the turnpikeroad from Cardigan to Aberystwith, derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Tysilio, and its adjunct "Gogo," or more properly "Gogovau," from the numerous caverns worn by the sea in the rocks that line this part of the coast. The Earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., was entertained by Davydd ab Ievan at his mansion of Llwyn Davydd, in the parish, on the first night after his arrival in Cardiganshire, on his route to Bosworth Field; and to this circumstance has been attributed the origin of the family of Parry, or ab Harry, in consequence of an illicit intercourse which is reported to have then taken place between the earl and the daughter of his host. The parish comprises 9182 acres, of which 3440 are common or waste land. There is a small haven formed on the bay, at a place called Cwm Tydwr, where two or three small vessels are regularly engaged in conveying limestone and culm from their respective districts; the former is also burnt into lime for manure, and in that state sold to the farmers.
The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £3. 18. 1½., and having the living of Llangranog annexed; patron, the Bishop of St. David's. The tithes of Llandysilio-Gogo have been commuted for £350, of which £30 are payable to the Vicar: the tithes of Llangranog, and the parliamentary grant with which its living is endowed, are stated under the head of that place. The church is a plain modern structure, and consists of a nave and chancel, separated by a pointed arch; the font, which is octangular, is supported on a pillar of the same form. Capel Cynon, in the parish, was a chapel in the gift of the Vicar, but was suffered to fall into decay. It was rebuilt by the parishioners, in the year 1820, and was subsequently endowed by Major Parry, of Gernos, the proprietor of the Cwm-Cynon estate, with the sum of £200, to which have been added £2000 parliamentary grant. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar; net income, £75. There are places of worship in the parish for Baptists, Independents, Calvinistic Methodists, and Presbyterians. Of four Sunday schools, one is connected with the Established Church.
The ancient family mansion of the estate of CwmCynon is now a farmhouse. In Cwm-Tydwr are the foundations of some buildings, which, according to tradition, are the remains of the old castellated mansion of the Tudors. Llwyn Davydd, the residence of Davydd ab Ievan, is now become a considerable village; and not far from it are the remains of a fortress, called Castell Llwyn Davydd, comprising a circular area, nearly 200 feet in diameter, strongly defended by moats and ramparts. Within the area it has the appearance of a large tumulus, but nothing is positively known of its origin or history: by some it has been thought to be the castle of Mâb Wynion, which was taken by Rhŷs ab Grufydd, in 1164. On a farm called Ciliau, in this neighbourhood, is Garn Wen, or "the white heap," a circular inclosure about 200 feet in diameter, surrounded by a rampart of loose stones, and divided into three compartments: to the south-west of it is a space of three acres, which seems to have been defended by a mound of earth. It must have been a place of great strength, and appears to have furnished materials for building most of the stone walls in its immediate vicinity. The history of this work has not been satisfactorily ascertained; a hill to the west of it still retains the appellation of Cevn y Cwrt, or "the hill of the court," from which circumstance it has been supposed to have been originally a station for the administration of justice to the inhabitants of the district, during the earlier periods of the principality. About half a century since, a curious vessel was dug up in the parish, made of bell metal, and resembling a flagon in its form; it is thought to have been used for holding the sacramental wine, and from its having been found in a turbary, near the remains of a dilapidated chapel, the probability of that conjecture derives additional strength.
LLANDYSILLIO (LLAN-DYSILIO), a parish, in the union of Bangor and Beaumaris, hundred of Tyndaethwy, county of Anglesey, North Wales, 3 miles (W. S. W.) from Bangor; containing 871 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the shores of the Menai strait, and at the northern extremity of the Menai suspension bridge, which, over an embankment of considerable length, forms an approach to the village. It is in the route from London to Holyhead; and after the construction of the suspension bridge, for an account of which see the article on Bangor, a new line of road was formed from this place, communicating with that to Beaumaris. Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, while carrying on his desolating warfare against the Welsh, landed his forces at Cadnant, in the parish, in 1096, and, having encamped on the summit of an eminence called Dinas, at the upper extremity of the vale, commenced a series of devastations, which were characterized by the most barbarous and atrocious outrages. Cadnant was the most ancient ferry across this part of the Menai, and, having become a source of very considerable revenue prior to the time of Edward I., was granted by that monarch to Einian, Bishop of Bangor, who had performed the ceremony of baptism on the young prince Edward, at Carnarvon. During the civil war of the seventeenth century, this place, from its central situation and other local advantages, was selected as the line of his march by General Mytton, who landed his forces here in 1648, and, after encamping on Gorsedd Migyn, proceeded thence for the reduction of Beaumaris, which surrendered to him upon honourable terms.
The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to the rectory of Llanvair-Pwllgwyngyll: the rector's tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £113. 5. 7., and the glebe consists of 2a. 1r. 15p. The church is dedicated to St. Tysilio, one of the most celebrated saints of Wales, who flourished in the sixth century. It is a very unpretending edifice, consisting of a single aisle; but is remarkable for its situation on a rocky peninsula stretching into the Menai strait, by the waters of which it is completely insulated at every tide: during spring-tides, and the prevalence of a north-west wind, it is altogether inaccessible. The western end is surmounted by a bell-gable, and a pointed doorway occurs in the northern wall. The eastern window is a good specimen of the style prevalent in Anglesey during the latter part of the fourteenth and beginning of the fifteenth century; it is partly of decorated English character, and partly in the later English style. The church being of very limited dimensions, and the population of the parish having considerably increased from the rise of the village or small town of the Menai Bridge, a project has been lately entertained of building a new parish church to suit the wants of the inhabitants, and it is not improbable that another site may be chosen instead of that of the present edifice. There are places of worship for Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, with a Sunday school held in each of them. Three small benefactions, the principal of which was a donation of £5 by Mrs. Jones, were expended, with other funds of the parish, in the erection of six cottages, in which poor families are allowed to reside rent-free; and a rent-charge of 8s. the bequest of the Rev. Henry Rowlands, of Plâs Gwyn, is annually distributed among the poor on St. Thomas's day. Some vestiges of the camp constructed by Hugh Lupus at Cadnant are still visible, and near them are the remains of a small circular building. A very large hammer, rudely formed of hard stone, and of very ancient appearance, was found in the immediate neighbourhood some time ago, and has been preserved at Cadnant; and in the course of some subsequent researches, an immense rock of similar stone, equally hard and compact, was discovered, extending across the parish, of which it is thought the very few ancient hammers of this kind, which are found in some of the choicest collections of antiquaries, were in all probability made.
LLANDYSSIL (LLAN-DYSUL), a parish, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, partly in the hundred of Troedyraur, and partly in that of Moythen, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 8 miles (E.) from Newcastle-Emlyn, on the road to Lampeter; containing 2957 inhabitants. This parish derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Tysilio, an eminent British saint who flourished during the earlier part of the sixth century. It is situated in the southern part of the county, bordering upon Carmarthenshire; and comprises nearly 25,000 acres of land, forming two principal divisions, called respectively Llandyssil Is Cerdin and Llandyssil Uwch Cerdin, the former in the hundred of Troedyraur, and the latter in that of Moythen. The parish is bounded on the south by the river Teivy, which separates it from the parish of Llanvihangel-ar-Arth, in the county of Carmarthen; it is intersected by the Clettwr stream, which falls into that river, and also by several smaller streams. Llandyssil is divided into seven hamlets, in each of which, with the exception only of that containing the parochial church, was formerly a chapel of ease. The surface is what is usually termed, in this part of the country, mountainous; the ground rises in some instances into conical hills of considerable elevation, and is intersected by numerous narrow valleys. The soil is in general stony and shallow, but is well adapted for the culture of barley and oats, the principal kinds of grain raised: near Waun Ivor are some large bogs.
The village, which is of considerable size, is pleasantly situated on a beautiful reach of the Teivy river. The vale of the Teivy is here inclosed by a succession of bold and richly-wooded eminences, alternating with obtruding masses of barren rock, and lofty precipices of rugged character, forming scenery of great beauty. The views from the higher grounds embrace some pleasing and extensive prospects over the surrounding country, and the fine vale of the Teivy. Among the numerous interesting objects that enrich the scenery in this part of the vale are, a venerable bridge over the Teivy, the tower of the church, rising above the trees in which it is embosomed, an elegant little mansion on the right bank of the river, and Gilvâch Wen, in the midst of luxuriant plantations, backed by hanging woods that reach to the summit of the impending heights. Galltyrodin, the seat of the Lloyd family, is a good modern mansion, built on the declivity of a steep hill rising from the bank of the Clettwr, and sheltered from the keen winds which at times rush through the dingle, by the thriving plantations that inclose it: the library is enriched with a valuable collection of Welsh genealogical manuscripts. The grounds on the opposite bank of the river are tastefully and judiciously laid out. The Lloyds were originally of Castell Hywel, an ancient mansion which has been for some time deserted by its proprietors, and is now a farmhouse. Waun Ivor is a genteel house, delightfully situated on the bank of the Teivy, and commanding from its park-like grounds a picturesque view of the bridge of Llanvihangel-ar-Arth, and the church of that parish on the summit of a richly-wooded height overhanging the river. Gilvâch Wen is a small mansion, forming one of the most pleasing objects on the banks of the Teivy: it is situated in the midst of thick groves, and backed by extensive woods; but from the judicious disposition of the trees, and with the river winding beneath it, the house forms a conspicuous and beautiful feature in the landscape. A weekly market is held on Thursday; and there are fairs on February 11th, the Thursday before PalmSunday, on June 21st, September 19th, and November 11th.
The Living consists of a rectory and a vicarage; the rectory, which is a sinecure annexed to the headship of Jesus' College, Oxford, is rated in the king's books at £12. 16. 8., and is of the net annual value of £400. The vicarage, which is discharged, is rated at £10, endowed with £2000 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Bishop of St. David's; net income, £150, with a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Tysilio, is an ancient structure, displaying portions in the successive styles of English architecture, with a square tower at the west end; it consists of a nave and aisles, and from its situation is an interesting feature in the village. On a stone forming the entrance into the churchyard is an old inscription. Capel Dewi, or St. David's, a chapel of ease in the parish, was built at the expense of John Lloyd, Esq., of Galltyrodin, and the Rev. Mr. Bowen, of Waun Ivor. There are places of worship for Independents, Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, Baptists, and Unitarians. A school is supported in connexion with the Church; and nine Sunday schools are held, two of them conducted on Church principles, two each belonging to the Independents, Calvinistic Methodists, and Wesleyans, and the remaining one belonging to the Baptists. Thirty shillings per annum, charged on a farm called Cwmoidw, are distributed among the poor, at the discretion of the proprietor of Gilvâch Wen.
There are many interesting remains of antiquity in the parish, among which are several carneddau, or sepulchral heaps of stones: four of these are nearly contiguous, and on opening one of them, three rude earthen vases and the ashes of human bones were found. A Welsh manuscript of the sixteenth century contains the following notice, which may perhaps throw some light upon the origin of these sepulchral remains: "A.D. 1131, 5th of April, a desperate battle was fought in this parish, between Llewelyn ab Iorwerth and Davydd ab Owain, in which the former was successful, who buried the slain below the road, where the marks appear to this day." According to the same manuscript, another engagement took place here, in 1250, between the men of Bangor, in North Wales, and Davydd ab Cadivor. The former passed the ford now called Rhŷd Owain at daybreak on the 8th of March, and encountered Einon, who had come to the assistance of Davydd, with between 6000 and 7000 infantry and 600 cavalry. These two chieftains caused a deep trench to be dug for their defence; but the abrupt termination of the manuscript leaves the issue of the battle unknown.
In various parts of the parish are artificial mounds, which appear to have been anciently crowned with small forts. One of these, at a place called Kîl-yGraig, is thought to mark the site of Castell Abereinon, noticed in the Welsh annals, and said to have been erected by Maelgwyn, about the year 1205. Another, near the river Clettwr, is supposed to point out the site of a castle called Humphrey's, probably from some Norman adventurer, who had obtained possession of the territory, and built the fortress, which was afterwards strengthened and improved, in 1150, by Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd, from whom it subsequently derived the name of Castell Hywel. A little below the Galltyrodin Arms, in the village, is the ford of Rhŷd Owain, which, according to the tradition of the country, derived that name from Owain Gwynedd's having forded the river at this place, in one of his invasions of South Wales: near it is a barrow, called Tommen Rhŷd Owain, where some chieftain of celebrity may have been interred. On a hill above the church are some small remains of an old castle, with a moated tumulus, on which probably stood the keep: this castle, of which no account is preserved either in history or tradition, is thought to have been the baronial residence of the lords of Gwynionydd, and to have been the head of that lordship.
LLANDYSSIL (LLAN-DYSUL), a parish, in the incorporation of Forden, Upper division of the hundred of Newtown, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 2 miles (W. by S.) from Montgomery; containing 876 inhabitants. The village is pleasantly situated on the left of the road from Montgomery to Newtown, and the neighbourhood commands some varied and extensive prospects. From the Goronddû hill the rich Vale of Severn is seen to great advantage, with the windings of the river, which forms the northern boundary of the parish. The manufacture of flannel is carried on, upon a limited scale. The living consists of a rectory and a vicarage, united by an act of parliament in the 29th and 30th of the reign of Charles II.: the former, which was a sinecure, is rated in the king's books at £14, and the latter at £7. 10. 10.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £500; and there is a glebe of sixteen acres, with a house, together valued at £35 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Tysul, is an ancient structure. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Jeremiah and Anne Reynolds, in 1711, assigned a rent-charge out of certain lands, producing £4 per annum; Hugh Lewis gave a charge of £2; and Charles Jones and John Griffiths left charges of ten shillings each; the produce of all which is halfyearly distributed among the poor, together with a moiety of £3. 3., the interest of a bequest by Mrs. Mary Jacqueri, of Parson's-Green, Middlesex, which produced £63. On the lofty hill of Gronddû, and on the banks of the Severn opposite to Glànhavren, are remains of several ancient British encampments in a greater or less degree of preservation.
LLANDYSSIL-UWCH-CERDIN (LLAN-DYSUL-UWCH-CERDDIN), a division, in the parish of Llandyssil, union of Newcastle-Emlyn, Lower division of the hundred of Moythen, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 11½ miles (N. E. by E.) from Newcastle-Emlyn; containing 1612 inhabitants. It contains the vestiges of two or three chapels, which formerly existed here. The road from Lampeter to Newcastle-Emlyn, and the river Clettwr, run through it, the latter joining the stream of the Teivy, which bounds the division on the south. Galltyrodin and Waun Ivor are two beautiful and ornamental seats situated here; Castell Hywel, an old fortified mansion, is now occupied by a farmer. There are various remains of antiquity. Several of the inhabitants are employed in different branches of manufacture.
LLANDYVODOG (LLAN-DYFODWG), a parish, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Ogmore, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 6 miles (N. E. by N.) from Bridgend; containing 338 inhabitants. This parish comprises 4538 acres, of which 2645 are common or waste; the soil is various, in some parts affording rich pasturage, and in others being less fertile. Coal is worked for the supply of the immediate neighbourhood; and a few chalybeate springs of some efficacy are found, deriving their impregnation from ores of iron, which abound throughout the vicinity. The existence of some remarkable caverns in the parish has given rise to numerous conjectures: by some they are supposed to be exhausted mines, wrought by the Romans or by the ancient Britons, before the force of gunpowder was applied to the blasting of the rocks; by others they are thought either to be natural, or to have been formed for the purpose of concealment during the intestine and sanguinary contests which disturbed the peace of the principality. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £8. 13. 4., and endowed with £200 royal bounty; present net income, £89; patron, R. T. Turberville, Esq.; impropriator, C. R. M. Talbot, Esq. The church, dedicated to St. Tyvodwg, is an ancient edifice, and contains a monument to a lady who was a maid of honour to Queen Elizabeth. There are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, Particular Baptists, and Independents, with a Sunday school held in each of them. Some time ago four charities in the parish were consolidated, arising from bequests of £10 by an unknown person in 1685, and of similar sums by Ann Jenkins in 1746, by Robert Jenkins in 1766, and Ann Jenkins in 1771; the whole, amounting to £40, was lent at interest to Ann Evans, who on her death, in 1805, bequeathed a rentcharge of £2 on a freehold cottage as an equivalent, and this sum is divided among the poor at Christmas. Another bequest of £10, left by William Lewellyn in 1788, having been lent to Evan Lewellyn without security, was lost through his insolvency.
LLANDYVRÎOG (LLAN-DYFRÎOG), a parish, in the union of Newcastle-Emlyn, hundred of Troedyraur, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 1½ mile (E.) from the town of NewcastleEmlyn; containing 925 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Tyvriog, an eminent British saint who lived towards the close of the sixth century, is pleasantly situated on the northern bank of the river Teivy, and on the turnpike-road from NewcastleEmlyn to Lampeter. The hamlet of Atpar is within its limits, and forms a suburb to Newcastle-Emlyn, constituting that portion of the town situated in the shire of Cardigan. The area of the parish is 2615 acres; the lands are inclosed and in a good state of cultivation, and the soil is generally fertile. The scenery is of a pleasing character, in many parts enriched with thriving plantations, and diversified with well-wooded eminences: Atpar Hill, an elegant villa, is beautifully situated on an eminence commanding a view of the town, and the banks of the Teivy. The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £8, and endowed with £600 royal bounty, with the living of Llanvair-Trêlygon annexed; present net income, £147, with a glebe-house; patron, the Bishop of St. David's. The tithes of the parish have been commuted for £250, of which £166. 13. 4. are payable to the impropriator, who has also a glebe of twenty-six acres, valued at £52 per annum, and £83. 6. 8. to the vicar, who has a glebe of thirteen acres, valued at £15. The church, dedicated to St. Tyvrîog, is an ancient edifice, not distinguished by any features of importance. A Sunday school in connexion with the Established Church was commenced in 1840.
LLANDYVRYDOG (LLAN-DYFRYDOG), a parish, in the hundred of Twrcelyn, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 3 miles distant (N. E.) from Llanerchymedd; containing 721 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church, comprises about 2000 acres of level and well-cultivated land, and is situated near the road from Beaumaris to Llanerchymedd. The soil is generally argillaceous, and the parish is watered by numerous rivulets, by some of which a few acres are occasionally inundated: peat earth is found in the marshy land upon the banks of a rivulet descending from the Parys mountain; and from this earth, after burning it for the purpose, a considerable quantity of copper-ore is obtained. The living is a discharged rectory, with the perpetual curacy of Llanvihangel-Tre'r-Beirdd annexed, rated in the king's books at £14. 9. 7.; patron, the Bishop of Bangor: the tithes in this parish and Llanvihangel-Tre'r-Beirdd have been commuted for a rent-charge of £530. 3., payable to the incumbent, and there is a glebe of three acres, valued at £3 per annum; also a glebe-house. The church is dedicated to St. Tyvrydog (a great-grandson of Cunedda Wledig), by whom it was originally founded, about the year 450; and is a lofty and venerable structure, in excellent repair, sixty feet in length, and twenty-five in breadth, with a remarkably large chancel. The church of Llanvihangel-Tre'rBeirdd is distant about two miles. There are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic Methodists, to the former of which a burial-ground is attached. A Church school was established in 1816, and the Baptists hold a Sunday school. The sum of £3. 11., being a portion of the rent of seven or eight old houses in the town of Carnarvon, partly bequeathed to the poor by Owen Humphrey, is annually distributed at Christmas among the necessitous poor not receiving parochial relief: several other charities have been lost or misapplied. The rent of a field near the glebe-house, containing about three acres, let at £2. 10. per annum to the curate, and considered to be church land, is carried to the general funds out of which the church is repaired and its expenses defrayed.
About a mile from the village is a large upright stone, called Lleidr Dyvrydog, or the "thief of Dyvrydog," the origin of which is by tradition attributed to the conversion into stone of a man who had stolen the church Bible, and was carrying it away on his shoulder. Near this, on a farm called Clorach, are two copious springs, called Fynnon Cybi and Fynnon Seiriol, deriving their names respectively from St. Cybi, patron of Caer-Gybi, or Holyhead, and St. Seiriol, patron of Ynys Seiriol, or the island of Priestholme, who were in the habit of meeting at this place, which was about half-way between their respective abodes, to consult about the religious affairs of this part of the principality. The fame of these springs anciently extended to distant places, and they are still held in high estimation.