A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1849.
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LLANLLUAN (LLAN-LLWYN), with Trêcastell, a hamlet, in the parish of Llanarthney, hundred of Iscennen, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 9½ miles (E. S. E.) from Carmarthen; containing 1053 inhabitants, of whom 677 are in Llanlluan, and the remainder in Trêcastell. The hamlet lies near the northern declivity of Mynydd Mawr. Llanlluan takes its name from an ancient chapel which existed here.
LLANLLWCHAIARN (LLAN-LLWCH-AIARN), a parish, in the union of Aberaëron, Lower division of the hundred of Moythen, county of Cardigan, South Wales, 7 miles (W. S. W.) from Aberaëron; containing 1475 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the shore of Cardigan bay, has, from its maritime position, risen into some degree of notice, and is rapidly increasing in population and importance. It is traversed by the road from Cardigan to Aberystwith; and bounded on the east by the parish of Llanina, on the south-east by that of Llanarth, and on the south by that of Llandysilio-Gogo. The computed number of acres is 3000, of which about 1500 are arable, 100 meadow, and the remainder pasture and waste; and the lands consist of large open tracts, nearly bare of wood, and possessing no scenery of interest, but commanding fine views of the sea. The soil is various, but a grey light earth is most prevalent, alternating occasionally with portions of clay; and the chief agricultural produce is grain. Building-stone of excellent quality is wrought in several places, and near New-Quay is a very large quarry, from which blocks of stone have been raised thirty feet in length and fourteen tons in weight. Soles, turbot, and oysters are found in great abundance and of superior quality on this part of the coast, and a herring-fishery might be advantageously established here, if an adequate demand existed. The trade has increased so much, as to give rise to the port of New-Quay (described under its own head), which has already attained a considerable degree of note, and maintains a regular intercourse with Bristol.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £6. 7. 8½.; present net income, about £210, with a glebe-house; patron, the Bishop of St. David's. The church, dedicated to St. Llwchaiarn, is situated about a quarter of a mile from NewQuay, and is an ancient edifice in the early English style, consisting of a nave and chancel, separated by a pointed arch. The nave was once embellished at each angle with the king's arms carved in wood, but all that now remains is the motto, with the date 1621; the font, which is of great antiquity, is square, and ornamented at each corner with a human head. The edifice is sixty-eight feet in length and eighteen in breadth, and contains about 350 sittings, nearly half of which are free; but on account of the increase of the population, the accommodation is insufficient, and a church of larger dimensions is considered necessary. The parsonage-house is contiguous; and in the churchyard, which commands a delightful view of the sea and the Carnarvonshire mountains, are the remains of a stone cross. There are places of worship for Independents, and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists; and five Sunday schools, conducted gratuitously, one of which is in connexion with the Established Church. Some trifling vestiges of an ancient earthwork still exist, called Pencastell.
LLANLLWCHAIARN (LLAN-LLWCH-AIARN), a parish, partly in the newly-created borough, and wholly in the Upper division of the hundred, of Newtown, in the union of Newtown and Llanidloes, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 1 mile (N. E.) from Newtown; containing 3616 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the bank of the river Severn; and bounded on the north by the parish of Bettws, on the west by Aberhavesp, and on the east, south, and south-west by Newtown. It comprises, according to computation, about 4400 acres, of which two-thirds are arable, and the remainder meadow and pasture, with a very small portion of woodland. The surface is hilly, the scenery for the most part picturesque; and the lands are all inclosed, and in a good state of cultivation. An act was obtained, in the 36th of George III., for improving the waste lands within the manors of Cedowain, Hopton, and Over Gorddwr, under the provisions of which about 900 acres were allotted to this parish, in 1804, and inclosed.
The manufacture of flannel is carried on to a great extent, affording employment to about 720 persons, of whom 606 are engaged in the principal factory, 66 at Milford, and the rest at Beyander mill. About 300 houses were erected not long since, in the course of a few years, in those parts of the parish called Peny-Gloddva, Frankwell, and the Basin, which are connected with the town of Newtown by a bridge of three arches, over the river Severn, completed in the year 1827, at an expense of £4000, defrayed by the county. The Montgomeryshire canal was extended, in 1819, from Garthmill to this parish, in which it terminates, near Newtown; and the basin, with some wharfs, lime-kilns, and other works connected with that line of navigation, is within its limits. The road from Newtown to Welshpool, and that from Newtown to Machynlleth, afford facilities of communication. The townships of Gwestydd and Hêndidley, in the parish, are comprised within the boundaries of the contributory borough of Newtown.
The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £7. 7. 6., and endowed with the great tithes of two of the four townships, with £100 private benefaction, and £200 royal bounty; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph; impropriators of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, D. Pugh, Esq., and the Saunders family. The tithes have been commuted for £470, of which a sum of £220 is payable to the impropriators, and £250 to the vicar, who has also a glebe of thirty-three acres, and a house, together valued at £120 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Llwchaiarn, who flourished at the commencement of the seventh century, was erected on the site of the ancient structure, in the year 1816, at an expense of £1200, and is a neat edifice of brick, with a tower of the same material, surmounted with pinnacles; the interior measures sixty-four feet by twentyfour, and there are 370 sittings. Here are one or two places of worship for dissenters; a British school, a small dame-school, and some Sunday schools. Mr. Thomas Austin gave a rent-charge of £1; Mrs. Richard Mytton, the sum of £40; and Mr. John Hughes, £20: the produce of all which is annually distributed in money or coal to the poor, except that of the last gift, which has not been paid for some years, owing to the insolvency of an attorney at Newtown, in whose hands it was placed. To the south of the turnpike-road from Newtown to Welshpool are vestiges of a Roman road, which anciently communicated with Caer-Sws, and the Gaer near Montgomery.
LLANLLWNY (LLAN-LLAWNWY), a parish, in the union of Lampeter, Higher division of the hundred of Cathinog, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 9 miles (S. W.) from Lampeter; containing 908 inhabitants. The name of this parish is derived from the dedication of its church to St. Llonio, one of the congregation of St. Illtyd, an eminent preacher of Christianity, who flourished in the fifth century. It is situated on the southern bank of the river Teivy, by which it is separated from the county of Cardigan; and is intersected by the turnpike-road from Carmarthen to Lampeter. The area is 6624 acres, of which 1700 are common or waste. The land is generally in a good state of cultivation, and the soil in most parts fertile; the scenery is pleasingly diversified, and the distant views extend over a country abounding with picturesque beauty. Maes Criggie, an old family seat, forms an interesting feature in the scenery of the parish: and Perthyberllan is agreeably situated under the shelter of some thriving plantations, on the edge of an extensive common.
The living is a discharged vicarage, with the living of Llanmihangel-Rhôsycorn annexed, rated in the king's books at £5, and endowed with £600 parliamentary grant; present net income, £103, with a glebe-house; patron, the Bishop of St. David's. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £233, payable to the Bishop of Lincoln; and there is a glebe attached of eighty-six acres, valued at £55 per annum. The church is romantically situated on a rocky eminence, commanding a fine view, and overlooking the river Teivy, which flows at its base. There is a place of worship for Independents; also a Church day school, and three Sunday schools, of which one is of the Established Church, one appertains to the Independents, and the third to the Baptists. On a farm called Maes Nonny, or the "nuns' field," in the parish, it is said there was anciently a nunnery, but nothing is known of its foundation or its history. A tumulus, designated Y Castell, still remains on this farm; and near it is a spring, termed Fynnon Nonny, or the "nuns' well." Near the church are some vestiges of a priory, styled by the inhabitants "Hên Briordŷ," and said to have been a cell to the great abbey of Strata-Florida; but neither the nunnery nor the priory is mentioned in Tanner's Notitia Monastica.
LLANLLYVNI (LLAN-LLYFNI), a parish, composed of the Upper and Lower divisions, in the hundred of Uwchgorvai, union and county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 7 miles (S. by W.) from Carnarvon; containing 2017 inhabitants. The name of this place is derived from the river Llyvni, which rises in the Nanlle lakes, in the upper part of the parish, and, after a short course, falls into Carnarvon bay. The parish is intersected by the road from Carnarvon to Tremadoc, upon which the village is pleasantly situated; and is bounded on the north by Llandwrog, on the south by Clynnog, on the east by Llanvihangel-y-Pennant, and on the west by the bay just named. It extends from three to four miles in length, and from one to two miles in breadth; and comprises 7521 acres, of which 2500 are arable, 1500 meadow, and the remainder sheep-pasture and turbary: a large portion of the land was common, but a great part has of late years been inclosed, and many houses have been built upon the former wastes. The scenery is strikingly diversified, the parish consisting of a ridge of hills, sloping in gentle undulations to the sea, and at the base of which is stretched out a number of lakes and turbaries. Two fine pieces of water, called Nanlle, one more than half a mile in length and nearly a quarter of a mile broad, and the other, nearly adjoining it, of equal breadth, but not quite so long, add greatly to the beauty of the scenery, and formerly abounded with fish of superior quality, the quantity of which has been greatly diminished by the influx of water from the copper-works in the vicinity. There are also two smaller lakes in the mountainous parts, named respectively Cwm Silin and Cwm Dûlyn, both of which afford better sport to the angler. One side of the parish is bounded by a fine range of mountains, the appearance of which is highly picturesque; and the lofty Snowdon, though eight miles distant, is seen with more strikingly romantic beauty from the parsonage-house here, than from any other point in the county.
The district once formed part of the forest of Snowdon, but it is now almost entirely denuded of timber, having neither natural wood nor plantations, on which account, being unsheltered, it is exceedingly bleak, and in many parts of dreary aspect. The soil is sandy and gravelly, producing chiefly oats and barley, but the principal source of profit is fat pigs: some of the farms have existed for a very long period, and are mentioned in ancient records as of considerable note. In common with the adjacent country, the parish abounds with mineral wealth: beds of slate, intersected by veins of copper, extend through the whole of it, in a direction from south-west to north-east; manganese of superior quality has been discovered, and considerable quantities of it are shipped for Liverpool. A tramroad, eight miles in length, extends to Carnarvon, for the conveyance of the slate and other mineral produce to that port, where it is shipped. In 1845 an act was passed for the formation of a railway from Porth-Dinllaen, through Llanllyvni, to Carnarvon and Bangor: the design, however, has been since abandoned.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £7. 17. 6., and endowed with £200 royal bounty; patron, the Bishop of Bangor: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £260; and there is a glebe of above two acres and a half, valued at £10 per annum. The church is dedicated to St. Rhedyw, whose tomb within it was destroyed about seventy years since; his memory is still preserved in the name of a well termed Fynnon Rhedyw, and in that of a stone called Eisteddva Rhedyw. It is a spacious cruciform structure, supposed to have been enlarged into its present form about the year 1032, which date was discovered over the east window of the chancel, while repairing it some time ago. Above the window of the Eithinog chapel, in this church, is an image of St. Rhedyw, formerly held in great veneration, but now nearly defaced. There are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, Baptists, and Independents; a day school, and five Sunday schools. A rent-charge of 10s., left by Richard Evans, is distributed at Christmas in bread and money among the poor.
No Druidical monuments are actually remaining in the parish, but the existence of such within its limits at some former period is indicated by the names of various fields, such as Y Gistvaen, Cae-y-Cynghor, Tàl-y-Garnedd, &c. On the banks of the river Llyvni are the vestiges of an ancient fortification, called Craig-y-Dinas, of British origin: it is about a mile from Pont-y-Cim, and comprises an area of about two acres, inaccessible, owing to the precipitousness of the ascent, on the side next the river, and defended on the other sides by two walls of stone, with a fosse between them. In the upper part of this, and also in the neighbouring parishes, are numerous remains of the dwellings of the aboriginal inhabitants, commonly designated Cuttiau'r Gwyddelod, or the "Irishmen's huts." They are either circular or elliptical in form, and generally from five to six yards in diameter. Several of them are grouped together within a quadrangular area, inclosed by a single, and in some instances by a double, wall; they also occur occasionally in concentric circles, and when cleared are generally found to contain great quantities of ashes.
LLANMADOCK, a parish, in the union and hundred of Swansea, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 15 miles (W.) from the town of Swansea; containing 269 inhabitants. This parish is situated on Whitford harbour, at the mouth of the Burry estuary; and is bounded on the east by the parish of Cheriton, and on the south by that of Llangennith. It comprises 450 acres, of which the arable and pasture lands are in nearly equal portions. The most striking feature of the surface is Llanmadock Hill, which is generally considered as the highest point in the peninsula of Gower, and is a well-known landmark to mariners off this part of the coast. The view from the hill is extensive and magnificently grand, comprising the whole of the peninsula of Gower, the entire course of the Burry estuary, the luxuriant woods of Penrice Castle, the lofty and precipitous cliffs that form the eastern side of Oxwich bay, with the vast expanse of sea beyond, the Devon and Cornish hills in the distance, and the coasts of Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire. The soil consists of a reddishbrown earth, resting upon gravel, with a substratum of limestone; and the chief produce is barley and wheat: the land in the parish is chiefly inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. The village, called Troglane, extends about half a mile along the base of the hill. It carries on a considerable trade in coal and limestone, in which about thirty vessels, varying in burthen from twelve to twenty tons, are employed: in these vessels, the coal is brought from Loughor and Llanelly, and the limestone conveyed to the counties of Devon and Cornwall. The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £9, and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £50, and the glebe comprises fifty-two acres, valued at £45 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Madoc, the son of Gildas, a saint in Gower, was rebuilt in 1748, and is fifty feet long and eighteen broad. There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, in which a Sunday school is also held. On Llanmadock Hill are traces of an ancient encampment, comprising a nearly circular area of about four acres, defended by triple ramparts, and commanding the entrance of Burry River. A stone axe of the early Britons, found at Llanmadock, is preserved in the museum of the Royal Institution at Swansea; its form is rather unusual, its length six inches, and weight twenty-three ounces. At Sprit-sail Tor is one of the five large bone-caverns that have been discovered in Gower: bones of hyenas, of a rhinoceros, a human lower jaw, were found in it in 1839.
Llanmaes, or Llanvaes (Llan-Maes)
LLANMAES, or LLANVAES (LLAN-MAES), a parish, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Cowbridge, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 1 mile (N. W.) from Lantwit-Major, and 5½ miles (S.) from Cowbridge; containing 196 inhabitants. This place was anciently divided into two parts. One belonged to the lordship of Glamorgan, and is called Bedford, from Jasper, Duke of Bedford, who was once its possessor. The other is called Malefant, from Edmund Malefant, who, in the reign of Henry IV., married the heiress of the Flemings of St. George's, in this county; it was long ago purchased by the Herbert family from the Vychans of Dunraven, to whom it had come from the Butlers by marriage, and to them by marriage with the Malefants. The whole is now in the possession of the Stuart family, Marquesses of Bute, and forms the lordship of Bedford and Malefant.
The parish is situated in a most fertile and salubrious part of the Vale of Glamorgan, within two miles of the Bristol Channel, which is on the south. It is bounded on the north by Llanmihangel and St. Marychurch, on the south-west by Lantwit-Major, and on the east by Eglwys-Brewis and Flemingston. The lands, which are almost entirely inclosed, are fertile and productive, and comprise by computation 967 acres, of which the portions of arable and pasture are nearly equal; the arable land of one year is usually converted into pasture the next, and vice versa. The soil is a stiff yellow clay, resting on a blue lias limestone, and, where richly manured, produces wheat, barley, and oats, in abundant crops. The surface, which is almost level, has a gentle descent to the sea, and the environs abound with varied and pleasing scenery. The road from Cardiff to Lantwit-Major intersects the parish, which is watered by a small rivulet that turns a mill and, passing by the churchyard, discharges itself into the Bristol Channel, about three miles below it. A handsome mansion which belonged to the ancient family of Nicholl, is now possessed by a younger branch of that family. The salubrity of the air is attested by several entries in the parish register, of the burial of persons whose lives had been extended to a protracted period. Among these, the most remarkable are the following, which have been extracted verbatim:— "Ivan Yorath buried a Saterdaye the XVII day of July anno doñi 1621 et anno regni regis vicessimo primo annoque ætatis circa 180; he was a Sowdiar in the fights of Boswoorthe, and lived at Lantwit Major, and he lived much by fishing. John Sherry was buried 8th of December 1624, aged 104 years. Thomas Watkin sepultus fuit octavo die Martii 1628, ætatis circa 100. Elizabeth Yorath wife of Edmund Thomas was buried the 13th of February, 1668, aged 177." The first and the last of these four entries are, doubtless, exaggerations.
The living is a rectory, rated in the king's books at £10. 2. 3½.; present net income, £294; patrons, the Stuart family: attached to it are seventy-two acres of glebe-land. The church, dedicated to St. Cadocus, is an ancient structure, of the style of architecture which prevailed in the time of Henry VI.; the present tower was erected in 1632, in lieu of one that stood on the north side. A Sunday school, attended by poor children of the parish, is supported by the incumbent, who has erected a building for the purpose. Mrs. Susannah Thomas, in 1747, bequeathed a rent-charge of £1, and Mrs. Jane Thomas, in 1761, a charge of one bushel of wheat, Cowbridge measure; both which charities are annually distributed among the poor to the extent of upwards of two bushels, by the present owner of the property. Owing to emigration and the removal of many families to the manufacturing districts northward, where better wages are obtained, a considerable decrease has taken place in the population since the census of 1831. Near the church are the remains, now inconsiderable, of the ancient castellated mansion of the Malefants, which is noticed by Leland, in his Itinerary, as belonging to the crown, and at that time in a state of great dilapidation.
LLANMEREWIG (LLAN-YR-EWIG), a parish, in the incorporation of Forden, Lower division of the hundred of Newtown, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Newtown; containing 167 inhabitants. This parish is said to have been formerly a chapelry within the parish of Llanllwchaiarn. It is situated in a pleasant part of the county, near the river Severn, and is intersected by a stream called the Mule, which flows through the eastern portion of it: the area is about 1000 acres. The scenery is diversified, and the road from Abermule to Kerry, along the bank of the Mule, is highly picturesque; the soil is fertile, and the lands, which are all inclosed, are in a good state of cultivation. On the Mule are some corn-mills and a flannelmanufactory.
The living is a discharged rectory, rated in the king's books at £6. 13. 9.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph: the tithes have been commuted for a rentcharge of £132; and there is a glebe of eight acres, with a house. The church, dedicated to St. Llwchaiarn, a very small ancient edifice, within the last few years has received some costly repairs and additions, under the superintendence of Mr. Newnham, architect. A slender bell-turret has been erected in the decorated English style, with a cross at its eastern gable about fifty-four feet from the level of the ground, and at the western gable a boss of lily-work, around which appear the date 1840, and the Greek and Latin titles of the Saviour. The new front of the porch is an elaborate specimen of the same style when merging into the later English, having a trefoiled round arch over the entrance, adorned with mouldings, inscriptions, and sculpture; and wickets of corresponding style inclose the porch. In the interior the church is rich in similar decoration, partly in cast-iron and partly in carved oak, the panelled ceiling having carved bosses, with painted foliage in stencil. The chancel window is of stained glass by Evans, of Shrewsbury, and contains two shields under canopies, bearing the text "Thou shall worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve." The galleries, erected in 1833 and 1839, are plain as to their mouldings, but exceedingly rich in spandrils of tracery, bosses, pendants, open arches, and running borders, with inscriptions in the church-text alphabet; they contain forty additional sittings, the expense being partly defrayed by a grant of £20 from the Incorporated Society. Other carved work, mingled with castings, appears in the altar, pulpit, readingdesk, font, and doors and windows. A commodious vestry-room adjoins the north side of the chancel. A small day school is held, in connexion with the Church; and there are two Sunday schools, one of them conducted on Church principles, and the other held by the Calvinistic Methodists in a dwellinghouse, in which religious services are attended by that body. In 1792, Mrs. Mary Jacqueri bequeathed £100, the interest to be given on Christmas-day to the oldest and most infirm of the poor; but, on a division of this lady's effects, it was found that they were inadequate to provide for all her legacies, and the parish agreed to accept £63, the interest of which, £3. 3., is annually distributed according to the intentions of the donor.
On the summit of a hill above the farm called Giant's Bank, about half a mile from the road between Welshpool and Newtown, are the remains of a Roman camp, comprising a quadrilateral area, in which fragments of ornamental pottery and part of a spear-head have been found: from this camp are seen several of the principal mountains in North Wales. A Roman road leading from Caer-Sws, through the Vale of Severn, to the Gaer near Montgomery, and thence to Chester, and Wroxeter (the Uriconium of the Romans), may be traced in the lower part of the parish, near the river Severn.
LLANMIHANGEL (LLAN-VIHANGEL-Y-BONT-FAEN), a parish, in the union of Bridgend and Cowbridge, hundred of Cowbridge, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 2½ miles (S. by W.) from Cowbridge, on the road to LantwitMajor; containing 50 inhabitants. Llanmihangel Place, for many generations the seat of the family of Thomas, was sold to Sir Humphrey Edwin, lord mayor of London, in the seventeenth century. It was subsequently the residence for sixty years of John Franklin, Esq., one of the Welsh judges, and is now the property of the Earl of Dunraven. In the grounds belonging to it is the finest collection of evergreens to be met with in this part of the principality; and the yew-trees, hollies, and cypresses, which are remarkable for the luxuriance of their growth, are perhaps unrivalled by any in the country. The living is a rectory not in charge; present net income, £142, with a glebe-house; patron, the Earl of Dunraven. The church, dedicated to St. Michael, is a small edifice. At its east end is a low altar-tomb, bearing an effigy of the upper part of a small figure, with a ruff round the neck, and the hands elevated in prayer over the breast; below the effigy is a Calvary cross, and the tomb is inscribed to the memory of Griffith Grant, 1591.
LLANMIHANGEL-RHÔSYCORN (LLAN-FIHANGEL-RHÔS-Y-CORN), a parish, in the union of Lampeter, Higher division of the hundred of Cathinog, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 12 miles (N. E.) from Carmarthen; containing 709 inhabitants. It is situated in the northern part of the county, and comprehends, in addition to a considerable portion of mountainous and waste land, a large tract of inclosed arable and pasture. The total area is 6539 acres. The scenery is distinguished by features of a rather bold and striking character; and the higher grounds embrace extensive, and in some instances interesting, prospects over the adjacent country, which is finely diversified. In the parish is Forest, formerly the residence of Lady Rudd, who, according to an inscription on the building, caused it to be erected in the year 1724, under the direction of Richard Gwynne, Esq., grandfather of the late Mrs. Elizabeth Hughes, of Trêgîb, near Llandilo-Vawr: it is now a farmhouse, with some fine specimens of beech still remaining, which formed part of a noble grove of beech-trees, said to have extended to the church. The soil, though varying in different parts of the parish, is chiefly of a good quality on the cultivated lands. A woollen manufacture is carried on upon a limited scale, affording employment to a small number of persons. The living is annexed to the vicarage of Llanllwny: the church is a small edifice, undistinguished by any architectural details; and occupies a dreary elevated position, remote from all habitations. There are two places of worship for Independents, with a Sunday school held in each of them. Of the sum of £2. 6. per annum, charged on the estate of Pentre, £2 are appropriated to the minister for preaching four sermons, quarterly, and the remainder is distributed in bread to the poor. In the parish is a spring termed Fynnon Capel, situated near an ancient yew-tree, from which circumstance, combined with the evidence afforded by the name, it is inferred that there was once a chapel at the place. Near the eminence on which the church stands is a turbary of considerable extent.
LLANNON (LLAN-NON), a parish, in the poor-law union of Llanelly, hundred of Carnawllon, county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 6 miles (N. by E.) from Llanelly; containing 1769 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church, is situated on elevated ground, in the south-eastern part of the county. It is bounded on the north by the parishes of Llanarthney and Llandarog, on the south by the parish of Llanelly, on the east by that of Llanedy, and has those of Kidwelly, Llandeveylog, and Llangendeirn on the west. It extends six miles in length from north to south, and four and a half in breadth from east to west; and comprises by admeasurement, made in the year 1807, 11,466a. 1r. 13p., of which 2507 acres are in the hamlet of Blaenau, 3011 in that of Glyn, 3130 in that of Goytre, and 2000 in that of Ismorlais; exclusively of 381 acres forming part of the Great Mountain (Mynydd Mawr), of 350 consisting of the Little Mountain, and of a few acres occupied by roads, &c.: 7400 acres are arable, 3480 meadow and pasture, and 586 woodland. The surface is varied, in some parts hilly and mountainous; and the scenery in general is similar to that which usually characterises such districts. The lands, with the exception of a comparatively small portion, consisting of part of the Great Mountain, the Little Mountain, and Mynydd Sylan, are mostly inclosed, and in a good state of cultivation; the soil is chiefly a clayey loam, and the principal produce, corn, hay, and butter, for the last of which the parish is much celebrated. Coal-mines are in operation, and the smelting of iron-ore with anthracite or stone coal has of late years been commenced. The district is watered by the rivulets Morlais, Gwilly or Guilly, and Gwendraeth-Vawr, and contains three gentlemen's residences, one of which is ancient; one of the others is a new residence in the Elizabethan style, at Gelly-wernen. There is no manor, the parish being situated within the lordship of Kidwelly. The road from Swansea by Pont-ar-Ddulas to Carmarthen intersects the parish, and the tramroad from the works in the Great Mountain is continued through it to the port of Llanelly. Fairs, which are in general well attended, are held annually on July 6th and December 12th. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £1200 parliamentary grant; net income, £86; patron and impropriator, Rees Goring Thomas, Esq., whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £775. The church, dedicated to St. Non, the mother of St. David the patron of Wales, was rebuilt in 1841 in the early English style; it is fifty-nine feet in length and thirty-four and a half in breadth, and contains 606 sittings, of which 326 are free. There are places of worship for Independents and Calvinistic Methodists; a National school, completed in 1841, at the expense of Mr. Thomas, aided by the National Society; and four Sunday schools, one of which is in connexion with the Church. The National school is supported by Mr. Thomas, who pays the master £30 a year; and the scholars, except a few farmers' children who pay for their instruction, are the children of labourers. Robert Williams, in 1761, bequeathed £50 to the poor, the interest arising from which is annually distributed among them; but several other small benefactions by various individuals are now unavailable.
LLANNOR, a parish, in the poor-law union of Pwllheli, chiefly in the hundred of Dinllaen, and partly in that of Gaflogion, Lleyn division of the county of Carnarvon, North Wales, 2 miles (N. W.) from Pwllheli; containing 1227 inhabitants. This parish, which is very extensive, lies in the southwestern portion of the county, and nearly in the centre of the great promontory that separates Cardigan bay from the bay of Carnarvon. The village is beautifully situated near the junction of two small streams, in a fine plain, open to the sea on the one side, and sheltered on the other by a range of mountains: the surrounding scenery is varied, in many parts strikingly picturesque; and the distant views embrace numerous interesting objects. Bôdegroes, the ancient seat of the Glynne family, was occasionally the residence of Bishop Glynne, and of his brother Geoffry, Dean of the Arches, and founder of the free grammar school at Bangor: it is an elegant mansion, in grounds tastefully laid out, and comprehending much fine scenery. Fairs are held on April 12th, and October 18th and 29th.
The living is a discharged vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Denio annexed, rated in the king's books at £12, and endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £800 parliamentary grant; present net income, £151; patron, the Bishop of Bangor. The tithes of Llannor have been commuted for £430. 7. 1. payable to the bishop, and £60 to the vicar. The church, dedicated to the Holy Cross, is a long edifice in the later style of English architecture, with a small tower at the west end, and contains some windows of good design, enriched with tracery. There are places of worship for dissenters; a National day school; and four Sunday schools, belonging to the dissenters. The produce of various charitable donations and bequests has been partly appropriated in building eight cottages, the rent of which, and the residue, are annually distributed at Christmas, according to the will of the several benefactors; and a distribution of bread is made weekly to the poor frequenting the church, for which purpose Mr. John Evans bequeathed £104. Elizabeth Jones also left £100, the interest of which, £4, now paid by the proprietor of Bôdegroes, is divided among six of the poorest old men, and six of the poorest old women. In a field called Maen Hîr, near Bandŷ-yr-mynydd, in the parish, a very curious grave was discovered, containing some remains of human bones: the body appeared to have been deposited on the gravel, with two covering slabs, a head-stone, a foot-stone, and, on each side, an hexagonal pillar placed lengthwise; the two side stones inclosed the grave on the east and west, and bear inscriptions in rude Roman characters.
LLANOETHIN, an extra-parochial district, locally in the parish of Llancarvan, in the hundred of Dinas-Powys, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 3½ miles (E. S. E.) from Cowbridge; containing 29 inhabitants. This district is situated near the left bank of the river Ddaw. It contains within its limits the farms of Llanbithou, Caer-Maen, and Velin Vâch, which are exempt from church, poor, and county rates; and those of Trêguf, Carn Llwyd, Llancadle, and Llanbythery, each subject to a modus. A chapel formerly existed here.
LLANPYMPSAINT (LLAN-Y-PUM-SAINT), a parish, in the hundred of Elvet, union and county of Carmarthen, South Wales, 7 miles (N.) from Carmarthen; containing 525 inhabitants. This parish, the name of which signifies "the church of the five saints," is traversed on the east by the turnpike-road leading from Carmarthen to Lampeter, and is intersected by the small river Guilly or Gwilly, which has its source in the neighbourhood, and falls into the river Towy at Aberguilly. It was formerly a chapelry in the parish of Aberguilly, from which it was separated by act of parliament; and comprises a large tract of land, by far the greater part inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. The scenery is pleasingly diversified, but not distinguished by any peculiarity of features; and the views of the adjacent country are interesting and extensive. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to that of Llanllawddog, and endowed with £1000 royal bounty: the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £180, payable to the Dean and Canons of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. There are places of worship for Baptists and Calvinistic Methodists, and three Sunday schools, one belonging to the Established Church, and the others respectively to the Baptists and the Methodists. Thomas Lloyd, in 1781, bequeathed a rent-charge of £2, and Elizabeth Jones in 1722 £20 in money, the former of which, together with the interest of the latter, is annually divided among the poor. There is a waterfall at Cwm Cerwyni, near the village of Llanpympsaint, to which some centuries ago invalids repaired for cold bathing.
LLANREITHAN (LLAN-RHIDIAN), a parish, in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Dewisland, county of Pembroke, South Wales, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Solva; containing 182 inhabitants. This parish, which derives its name from the dedication of its church, is situated in the northwestern part of the county, and comprises some fertile tracts of land, inclosed and in a good state of cultivation. The surrounding scenery, though in general pleasing, is not distinguished by any peculiarity from that which prevails generally in this part of the principality. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant; net income, £86; patrons and impropriators, the Subchanter and Vicars Choral of the Cathedral Church of St. David's, whose tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £102.
LLANRHAIADR-IN-KINMERCH (LLAN-RHAIADR-YN-NGHYMMEIRCH), a parish, in the union of Ruthin, partly within the limits of the borough of Denbigh, and partly in the hundred of Isaled, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 3 miles (S. E.) from Denbigh; containing 2039 inhabitants. This very extensive parish is fourteen miles in length, and on an average three in breadth; and abounds with limestone, of which there are quarries in various parts, great quantities being procured to be burnt for manure in several kilns here, and for building. In the rock immediately under Cader-yrArglwyddes, an eminence about a quarter of a mile west of the church, large masses of silex are discovered imbedded in the limestone, which, when broken, are found to contain agate, jasper, crystallized sulphate of lime, and chalcedony: the agate and the chalcedony are very pure, and exceedingly beautiful. From the summit of this eminence, the name of which signifies "the peeress' chair," a most extensive and richly varied prospect is obtained, comprehending the whole Vale of Clwyd between Denbigh and Ruthin, diversified with woods, meadows, and corn-fields; and a fine view of Denbigh Castle, whose walls and towers are seen to great advantage. Several attempts have been made to obtain copperore, but it has not been found in sufficient quantity to remunerate the adventurers. The village is pleasantly situated on the turnpike-road from Ruthin to Denbigh. Courts leet and baron, with view of frankpledge, are held at Easter and Michaelmas by the steward of the Bishop of Bangor, for his lordship's manors of Llêch and Llan, which are in the parish. A fair takes place on October 17th.
The living is a vicarage, rated in the king's books at £28. 13. 4., and in the gift of the Bishop of Bangor: there is also a sinecure rectory, rated at £30, which was annexed to the bishopric by act of parliament in the reign of James II. The tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £1530, equally divided between the bishop and the vicar, and the incumbent has in addition a glebe of 17 acres, and a glebe-house. The church, dedicated to St. Dyvnog, is chiefly remarkable for its lofty east window of five lights, a fine composition in the decorated style of English architecture, and embellished with a beautiful specimen of stained glass: the subject is the Root of Jesse, and occupies the three central compartments of the window, on each side of which are some of the most distinguished patriarchs of the Old Testament; underneath is the date M.CCCCCXXXIII. This window is said to have belonged to Basingwerk Abbey, in Flintshire, and to have been removed hither at the Dissolution. There are some neat monuments, among which is a handsome effigy of Maurice Jones, Esq., in white marble, in a kneeling posture, under a canopy supported by weeping figures. In the churchyard are the tombs of Captains Wynne and Salusbury, who were both killed during the siege of Denbigh Castle, in 1646. Here are places of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, and Independents. A Church school is partly supported by an endowment of £7. 2. per annum; there is a British school, and the parish contains six Sunday schools, one of them in connexion with the Established Church.
Jane, widow of Maurice Jones, Esq., and daughter of Sir Walter Bagot, was a great benefactress to this parish; her gifts to the poor were various, and of considerable amount. A memorial in the church, in the Welsh language, records her donations in her lifetime, in 1729, of a set of communion plate to the value of £60, a cloth for the communion-table, three common-prayer books, and a Bible in folio; it further states these to be among numerous other donations, and refers to her erection of almshouses for the maintenance of eight poor persons of the parish for ever. The almshouses are now known as Llanrhaiadr Hospital, and over the archway, on the west side, is an inscription to the effect that the erection and endowment took place in 1722. The present inmates are four men and four women, most of them upwards of eighty years of age; each is allowed £8 per annum, with an additional pound at Christmas, and at certain periods is presented with articles of clothing, besides which £16 yearly are expended for the whole number in providing coal. These houses, which have all small gardens attached, were thoroughly repaired and greatly improved by Lord Bagot, grand-nephew of the foundress, in 1829. The sum originally appropriated to the foundation was £2300, subsequently increased by smaller sums; and the management of the fund was vested in trustees, who were directed to pay large donations of Mrs. Jones's to ten other parishes. Another benefactress of this place, was Mrs. Ann Jones, who, in 1823, bequeathed £200, now vested in the three per cent. annuities, the interest to be distributed among the poor for ever; and various other charitable gifts, producing in the whole upwards of £70 per annum, are dispensed to the most necessitous parishioners, chiefly by the vicar and churchwardens at stated periods of the year. The annual stipend to the schoolmaster, already mentioned, is derived from donations amounting to £142, made, among others, by Robert Jones, the Rev. Robert Roberts, and Dr. Wynne.
Near the church are the remains of an ancient bath, called Fynnon St. Dyvnog, which was formerly supposed to effect miraculous cures, and was much resorted to by patients, whose votive offerings were partially employed in decorating the church. The water, rising in great force from under the limestone rock, was long thought to be a remarkably copious spring; but it has since been ascertained to be a stream, which rises in the hilly part of the parish, in the township of Prion: the two branches of the stream, after flowing for nearly half a mile, sink into the rock, and pursue a subterraneous course for two miles, emerging at this spot.
LLANRHAIADR-YN-MOCHNANT (LLAN-RHAIADR-YN-MOCHNANT), a parish, in the union of Llanvyllin, composed of a Lower division, in the Cynlleth and Mochnant division of the hundred of Chirk, county of Denbigh, and an Upper portion, in the Upper division of the hundred of Llanvyllin, county of Montgomery, in North Wales, 12 miles (W. by S.) from Oswestry; containing 2620 inhabitants, of whom 1607 are in Denbighshire, and 1013 in Montgomeryshire. The parish comprises an area of 23,294 acres, of which 11,500 are, or until very lately were, all common or waste. It is intersected by the river Moch, in English signifying "rapid," which here separates the counties of Denbigh and Montgomery, and which, at the distance of four miles from the village, forms the much-admired waterfall called Pistyll Rhaiadr, rendering the place, especially during the summer months, the resort of numerous visitors on their route through this part of North Wales. The total perpendicular height of the waterfall is 240 feet; but the immediate vicinity of it is so crowded and overshadowed with the growth of recent plantations of firs and other evergreens, as to diminish the effect of this otherwise strikingly grand scene. The river, flowing along a narrow valley which terminates in a precipitous and bold declivity of the Berwyn mountains, after gliding over a shelving rocky projection for a short distance, precipitates itself with great impetuosity down a perpendicular descent of more than 150 feet (part of the 240), and, being interrupted by a projecting mass of rock, through which it has worn a channel, forms a second descent beneath a lofty arch to the base of the mountain. The road leading from the village to Pistyll Rhaiadr has been greatly improved. From the cataract the river pursues its course through the village into the Tanat, a larger stream, descending from the hills above Pennant, and flowing along an extensive valley commencing at Llangynog, and continued through the parish to Pen-y-Bont, below Llangedwin. In this parish the Tanat is also joined by another tributary, called the Twrch. The Vale of Tanat, along which is an excellent turnpike-road from Oswestry and Shrewsbury, through Llangynog, to Bala, is remarkable for the fertility of its soil, and the beauty and variety of its scenery, and is much admired by tourists, as affording a succession of interesting features. The lands bordering upon the Tanat are subject to inundation, but the rest of the parish, which has every where an uneven surface, is chiefly elevated: the soil is various, but for the most part gravelly. The manufacture of woollen cloth is carried on to a small extent, and several of the inhabitants are employed in making shoes. A small market is held under a building called "the townhall;" and fairs take place annually on the first Friday in March, on May 5th, July 24th, September 28th, and November 8th.
The living is a vicarage, rated in the king's books at £9. 3. 4.; patron, the Bishop of St. Asaph. The sinecure rectory, rated in the king's books at £18. 16. 0½., was appropriated by act of parliament of the 29th and 30th of Charles II., on the death of the rector, the celebrated Dr. South, to the maintenance of the choir, and the repairs of the cathedral church, of St. Asaph. The tithes have been commuted for £1392. 6. 6., of which a sum of £982. 6. 6. is payable to the Dean and Chapter of St. Asaph, who have a glebe of seven acres; £398 to the vicar, who has a glebe of seven acres and a half, and a house; and £12 to the parish-clerk. The church, dedicated to St. Docwan, and situated in that portion of the parish which is in the county of Denbigh, is an ancient and spacious structure, but not distinguished by any particular architectural features. Llanarmon-MynyddMawr, now a distinct parish, was formerly an integral part of this parish; and the neighbouring churches of Llancadwaladr, Llangedwin, and Llanwddyn were originally also dependent chapels on the mother church of Llanrhaiadr, from which they are respectively distant nine, four, and eight miles. There are places of worship for Independents, Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, and Baptists. The charity estates belonging to the poor, arising from lands and interest of money, amount to £110 per annum, which, by a decree of chancery procured some years ago, was ordered to be expended by five trustees, then named, as follows; £16 to be distributed among the poor, on Easter-Eve and St. Thomas's day; £74 towards placing out apprentices and clothing them; and £20 to the master of a school: the school is kept in the town-hall. Two or three other day schools are held, and thirteen Sunday schools. Dr. Morgan, author of the first translation of the Bible into the Welsh language, in 1588, for which he was rewarded by Queen Elizabeth with the bishopric of Llandaf, whence he was translated to that of St. Asaph, in 1601, was at one period vicar here; and Dr. William Worthington, Prebendary of York and of St. Asaph, and several other eminent divines, have also held the benefice.
Llanrhidian, or Llanridian (Llan-Rhidian)
LLANRHIDIAN, or LLANRIDIAN (LLAN-RHIDIAN), a parish, in the union and hundred of Swansea, county of Glamorgan, South Wales, 11 miles (W. by N.) from Swansea; comprising a Higher and a Lower division, and containing 1760 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated in the peninsula of Gower, contains coal and iron-ore, but of these minerals no strata are at present worked within the limits. The village is pleasantly situated on the south shore of Burry River, immediately opposite to the town of Llanelly in the county of Carmarthen. The manufacture of woollen cloth is carried on, but only upon a very confined scale, employing no more than from six to eight persons. At the village of Penclawdd, in the Higher and more populous division of the parish, were formerly extensive copper-works belonging to the Cheadle Copper Company; but they are now neglected, that company possessing others in more convenient situations. A canal, called the Penclawdd canal, in connexion with which are some short tramroads, opens a communication with the coal districts of Swansea, Loughor, and Llangyvelach, and joins Burry River at Aberkeddy, in this parish. A fair is held on Palm-Monday.
The living is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king's books at £12. 13. 4., endowed with £400 royal bounty and £1600 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Trustees of G. Morgan, Esq.; present net income, £99. The church is dedicated to St. Illtyd. In the Higher division is a chapel of ease, where divine service is performed every Sunday by a curate, who also solemnizes marriages, christenings, and burials at the chapel, which is four miles distant from the parochial church. There are places of worship in the parish for Calvinistic Methodists, Independents, and Baptists; two Church day schools; and ten Sunday schools, one of which is in connexion with the Church.
Within a quarter of a mile of the estuary of Burry River, and near the western extremity of the parish, are the ruins of Weobley or Webley Castle, occupying an eminence commanding the navigable estuary, and affording an extensive view of the adjacent country. It appears to have been anciently of great strength and extent, to have been the head of a considerable manor, and, it is supposed, the property of the De la Beres: it afterwards came into the hands of Lord Mansel, whose youngest daughter conveyed it to the Talbots. Next to Oystermouth Castle, this is the most interesting Norman structure in Gower. Part of it has been converted into a farmhouse. On Manselfold farm is a strong intrenchment in a very perfect state, which appears to have been formed to defend the passage of two valleys leading up to the castle. Several other intrenchments are visible in the parish, but by whom they were constructed is not known: one of these occupies the summit of a lofty hill just above the village, and is supposed to have been thrown up by Ivor ab Cadivor, a chieftain of Morganwg, about 1110, during his wars with the English, from which circumstance it has obtained the name of Cîl Ivor, or "Ivor's retreat."
On the summit of Cevn-y-Bryn is a large cromlech, called Arthur's Stone, a vestige of Druidical antiquity, which Camden and other writers describe as being composed of a different species of stone from any found in the district. This, however, appears to be erroneous, as it is the common pudding-stone, or millstone grit, of the country; and almost within the recollection of persons still living, a huge fragment, which had been broken off with great labour, by means of wedges, and intended for a millstone, was found totally unfit for that purpose, from the cavities left in the surface by the falling out of the pebbles of which it consisted. The principal, or covering stone, is fourteen feet in length and six feet and a half in its greatest breadth: it rests on several supporters, for fixing which the earth appears to have been excavated; and by the side of the cromlech lies the mass above-noticed. According to some accounts, the detached mass was only partly broken off by wedges, and subsequently fell into the place where it now lies in consequence of a severe frost and rapid thaw. A supposed miraculous well beneath the cromlech, which was said to ebb and flow with the sea, appears to be nothing more than a collection of water, after heavy rains, in the cavity formed for the insertion of the supporters, which fluctuates according to the weather, and which, as attested by intelligent persons residing near the mountain, is frequently dry in hot summers. This cromlech is thought to be alluded to in the historical triads of Wales, as one of the three herculean labours.
There are several mineral springs in or near the parish, to which medicinal properties are ascribed. Of these, the most celebrated is Holy Well, on Cevny-Bryn mountain, to which, in former times, miraculous efficacy was attributed: it was generally frequented on Sunday evenings during the summer season, by numbers of persons, who drank the water, and, according to an ancient custom, threw in a pin as a tribute of their gratitude. On Llanrhidian saltmarsh a spring has been discovered within the last thirty years, strongly impregnated with iron, and perhaps also with sulphur, and of a fetid smell, to which the inhabitants have given the name of the Stinking Well; it instantly discolours silver, and is considered to possess very powerful medicinal efficacy.
Llanrhôs, or Llanvair-Yn-Rhôs
LLANRHÛDD (LLAN-RHÛDD), a parish, in the union, partly within the borough, and partly in the hundred, of Ruthin, county of Denbigh, North Wales, 1 mile (E.) from Ruthin; containing 840 inhabitants, of whom 162 are without the limits of the borough. The village is pleasantly situated in the fertile Vale of Clwyd, and the neighbourhood abounds with pleasing and finely varied scenery, the eastern part of the parish including some of the Clwydian hills. Bathavarn Park, in the parish, is a fine mansion in the Grecian style; and Llanrhûdd House, an ancient dwelling-place. There is a mill where agricultural implements are manufactured. That portion of the parish called the township of Llanrhûdd Isav is comprised within the limits of the contributory borough of Ruthin.
The rectories of Llanrhûdd and Ruthin were appropriated, in 1590, by Dr. Gabriel Goodman, Dean of Westminster, to the endowment of Christ's Hospital, in Ruthin, and are now held by the warden and pensioners of that institution. The warden appoints a curate for each of the parishes, but is occasionally required to perform duty himself: the wardenship is in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. The commutation for the tithes of the parish is included in that returned for Ruthin. The church, dedicated to St. Meugan, is a small ancient edifice in the later English style, forming a picturesque object in the vale, and is sixty-six feet long and twenty-four broad; the pews will hold about 170 persons, and in the gallery are fifty free seats, besides forty others in the body of the edifice. Here is an ancient monument to the memory of John Thelwall, Esq., and his wife Jane, whose effigies are represented in a kneeling posture, with ten of their sons and four daughters. In a niche near this monument is a well-exected bust of Ambrose, their ninth son, steward to Lord Verulam, lord high chancellor of England; and afterwards yeoman of the robes to James I., and Charles, Prince of Wales: he died on August 5th, 1653, aged eighty-two years.
There is a place of worship for Calvinistic Methodists, who have a Sunday school in their meetinghouse; and another Sunday school is connected with the Established Church: the poor children of the parish are also admissible to the National school, and those within the borough to the grammar school, of Ruthin. Almshouses for twelve men and women of this and adjoining places were erected, in a tasteful and elegant style, at the sole expense of the late Joseph Ablett, Esq., of Llanbedr Hall, near Ruthin. Mrs. Dorothy Myddelton bequeathed £20; Mr. Parry, in 1714, £20, and Mr. Jones £20; which sums, with other benefactions, amounting to about £105, have been invested in the funds of the Llandegla and Mold turnpike trusts, and the interest, together with a rent-charge of £8 left by Mr. Edward Griffith, is annually distributed among the poor. The union workhouse is situated in the parish. A chalybeate spring here, dedicated to St. Peter, was formerly in high repute for the supposed miraculous efficacy of its waters, but it is at present neglected; it is strongly impregnated with some mineral, and, if due care were taken to prevent its admixture with other waters, it might still be found highly beneficial. Some years ago, a remarkably fine Roman coin, of the emperor Nero, of middle size and in excellent preservation, was found on a farm at Llanrhûdd.
LLANRHWYDRUS (LLAN-RHWYDRYS), a parish, in the hundred of Tàlybolion, union and county of Anglesey, North Wales, 8 miles (N. W.) from Llanerchymedd; containing 158 inhabitants. This parish is situated at the northwestern extremity of the Isle of Anglesey, on a headland projecting into the Irish Sea on the north, and forming on the east the boundary of Cemlyn bay. It derives its name from the dedication of its church to St. Rhwydrus, by whom the building was originally founded in the sixth century. The scenery is strikingly diversified, in some parts highly picturesque; and the views of the coast and over the adjacent country are interesting and extensive. The area of the parish is 1143 acres, of which 120 are common or waste land. About two miles north-westward from the main land is Ynys y Moelrhoniaid, or the "isle of seals," commonly called Skerries, a long island composed entirely of craggy pointed rocks, in which are great numbers of rabbits, and which, during the breeding-season, is the resort of puffins and razor-bills. A lighthouse, exhibiting a steady light, was erected on the highest point of the island, in 1733, by the Corporation of the Trinity House, to facilitate the navigation of this part of St. George's Channel, and for the benefit of the numerous vessels employed in the trade between Liverpool and Dublin. It has been of essential use in the preservation of life and property, but the want of a superior elevation to render it visible at a greater distance has much tended to diminish the benefits it might otherwise have afforded. A more eligible situation might be found on the main land, at a point called Cader Rhwydrus, where the light would have an elevation of nearly 100 feet above that which it has in its present position. The Isle of Skerries anciently belonged to the monks of Bangor, and was the principal fishery appertaining to that see, the prelates of which having suffered it by neglect to be usurped by the family of Griffith of Penrhyn, Bishop Dean, in 1498, exerted himself for its recovery, and, after a considerable struggle, succeeded in procuring its restoration to the see. The living of Llanrhwydrus is annexed to the rectory of Llanrhyddlad; the tithes have been commuted for a rent-charge of £156. 3. The church is a small ancient edifice, situated nearly in the centre of the headland projecting into the sea, near the island called the West Mouse. There are two or three places of worship for dissenters, and two Sunday schools. John Hughes, in 1778, bequeathed £50 to the poor; but his widow dying in indigent circumstances, nothing was received by the parish from this donation.