An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 3, the History of the City and County of Norwich, Part I. Originally published by W Miller, London, 1806.
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CHAPTER XXXVIII. OF THE BISHOPRICK.
The Eastangles were first converted to the Christian faith by
Felix, a Burgundian, whom King Sigebert brought with him from
France, and encouraged to preach the Gospel to his subjects; which
had good success, for he brought the whole province (according to the
signification of his own name (fn. 1)) to the knowledge of true and eternal
happiness, upon which account he was made the first Bishop of his
own converts, and placed his see at Dunwich, then a most populous,
but now almost a desert place; so great was the service, and so much
good did he by his life and doctrine, that he was canonized the first
saint of these parts, by the name of St. Felix, Bishop and Confessor;
Capgrave, in his Life, tells us, (fn. 2) that he was a man every way learned,
and what he daily taught, he carefully practised by his holy conversation, and charitable good works; he was consecrated by Honorius
Archbishop of Canterbury, and having governed his see seventeen
years, died the 8th of March, (on which day his festival is celebrated,)
in the year 647, and was buried at Dunwich in a church of his own
foundation; but after a time, his bones were taken up and conveyed
to Soham in Cambridgeshire, and solemnly incoffined in the chancel
of the church there, (which he likewise built,) for fear the Danes
should get them from Dunwich, which was near the sea; here they
rested till King Canute's time, and then were taken up by Etheric, a
monk of Ramsey, where, by Ethelstan, then abbot of that monastery,
they were solemnly enshrined; of whom Hardyng in his Cronicle in
mecre, cap. 91, hath this,
It Dunmok than was Felix furst Byshop, Of Estangle, and taught the Chrysten fayth, that is full hye in Bevan I hope.
2. THOMAS, his deacon, who was born in the Fens near Ely, (fn. 3) being trained up in the Christian doctrine, under Paulinus Archbishop of York, and served in the church as one of his deacons, till the death of King Edwin; but then Paulinus being driven thence, Thomas came to the Eastangles to Felix, and there served him in the same office to his death; having sat five years, he died in 653.
3. BONIFACE was successour to Thomas; he is called by some Bersigel, by Bede, Berchtgist, by Florence of Worcester, Bertgil, by the Monk of Rochester, Beortitgil, and by Godwin, Bregil; he was born in Kent, was a priest of the church of Canterbury, was consecrated by Deus-dedit, Archbishop there, (fn. 4) sat Bishop 17 years, and died in 669; in which year,
4. BISUS was consecrated by Theodore Archbishop of Canterbury. He is called Bosa, by some writers; about 673, growing very old and sickly, he divided his diocese into two, as Bede says, one he continued at Dunwich, and the other he placed at North-Elmham in Norfolk, whose jurisdiction extended over that county, as the other did ever Suffolk.
Bishops of Dunwich,
11. Wibred, Wyred, and Wildred, who, according to Wharton in his Anglia-Sacra, vol. i. fo. 404, at the death of St. Humbert, was Bishop of both sees, which he united and fixed at Elmham. Godwin, p. 480, says, that by reason of the Danish incursions, both sees were void near 100 years, but Wharton, with much more reason, observes that as it is certain that Humbert and Weremund died about 870, and that Wildred succeeded them; if he lived to be old, there is no occasion to suppose any such vacancy, for we meet with Bishops at Elmham agreeable to the time a man may be supposed to have lived, including the time that Theodred might have been Bishop before 945.
Bishops of North-Elmham,
1. Bedwinus, Baldwinus, Beadwine, Eadwine, consecrated in 673, and in 675 he and Acca veiled St. Osith. He died in 679, being a man of great virtue and learning, for though his works are lost, Pitts, p. 826, says, he wrote several treatises, and by solid arguments confirmed many in the Christian faith.
6. Athelwolf, Æthelwolf, Athewlf, and Athelwulf: he sat in 811, for then he witnessed the charter of Kenulph King of Mercia, of the foundation of Winchcomb monastery. (fn. 5)
10. St. Humbert, Humbrict, Humbrit, Humbernt, and Numberch, was consecrated about 826: he crowned Edmund King of the Eastangles, 25 Dec. 856, and with him was martyred by the Danes, Nov. 20, 870, or 871, of whom Draiton in his Polyolbion, cant. 24, hath this,
Into our bed-roule here, her Humbert in doth bring, (A counsellour that was, to that most martyred King, Saint Edmund) who in their rude massacre then slaine, The title of a Saint, his martyrdome doth gaine.
Bishops of Elmham
1. THEODRED the First, or Tedred, is misplaced in the catalogue by all authors, for the Life of St. Edmund in Register Curteys, fo. 213, says, that in 945, (which according to the common account was in the time of Athulph,) Theodred Bishop of Elmham was an eyewitness of St. Edmund's body being uncorrupted, for having fasted three days, he opened the coffin, and not only touched, but washed the saint's body, and putting him on new garments, reposited him in his coffin. He was succeeded by,
2. THEODRED the Second, the same person that was sirnamed the Good, who was first a long time Bishop of London, afterwards of Elmham, both which sees he held till after 962, and is also misplaced in the printed catalogues, for he succeeded Theodred the First, and preceded Athulf. (fn. 6) Of this Theodred there is much extant in the White Register of Bury abbey, to which he was a great benefactor; the first mention that I find of him there is, (fn. 7) that in the time of King Edmund, father of St. Edith the Virgin, and of Theodred Bishop of London, Earl Alfgar, after the death of Ethelfled his daughter, gave his manor of Cokefield in Suffolk to that abbey; and then King Ædgar gave to the said Ethelfled, Chelesworth manor, which she gave, together with Cokefield, to the abbey, according to her father the Earl's will; (fn. 8) and in the same Register, there is a grant, (fn. 9) by which King Edmund, father of King Ædgar, gave to this Theodred the island of Sutherey in Norfolk, in the 3d year of his reign, and in the year of our Lord 962, in which it seems the said Bishop died, for his will immediately follows the aforesaid grant, (fn. 10) which being so very remarkable both for its antiquity, and the language of that age, I shall transcribe it literatim, from the said Register.
"In nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi. Ic Theodred, Biscoph, wille biquithen mine quiðe mines er fes þat ic begiten habbe & get bigete Godes þankes and hise halegen for mine Soule and for mine Loverdes (fn. 11) [that] ic under begat. & for mine Elderne. and for alle þe Mannes Soule [that] ic fore þinge. and ic almosne underfongen habbe. and me sie richlike for to bidden þat is þan erst þat he an his Loverd his herigete. þat is þanne tueie hundred pundes of Goldes. an tue Cuppes Silverene. and four Hors so ic best habbe. an to Swerde so ic best habbe. & foure Childe and foure Spere. and þat Lond [that] [ic] habbe at Dukesworth. and þat Lond þat ic habbe at Ilsington. and [that] Lond þat ic habbe at Carmigton. and ic an Edgive (fn. 12) mi Levedi (fn. 13) fifti Marc of rede Goldes. and into Seinte Paules Kyrke mine to beste Messe hakelen. þo ic habbe mið alle þe þinge þe þere to bereð mið Calice and on Cupe. and mine beste Masseboc. and alle mine Relikes. þo ic beste habbe into Seinte Poules Kyrke. and ic an þat Lond at Tid into Seinte Poules Kirke þen howen to Bedlonde mið al þat þer on stant. boten þe Men þe þer aren Fremen alle for mine Soule. and ic an [that] Lond at Surreie (Sutherey) mið alle þe Fiscoden þo þer to bireð þen howen into Seint Edmunde Kyrke. and Fremen þo Men for þe Biscopes Soule. and Theodred Biscop an þat Lond at Tilingham into Seinte Paules Kyrke þe howen to here & Fremen þo Men for mine Soule. and ic an þat Lond at Dunmowe over mine Dai into Seinte Poules Kyrke þen howen. an ic an [that] Lond at Mendham. Osgoth mine Suster Sone over mine Day. buten ic wille þar þe Ministere and hise Londes at Myndham to pere Kyrke. an ic an [that] Lond at Scotford (Shotford in Mendham) an Midicaham into Myndham Kyrke þe Godes howen. and ic an Osgot [that] Lond at Silham and at Istede (Irstede) and at Chickeringe, & at Asfield and at Wrinham (Wrentham) and alle the smale Lond [that] þerto bereth. and ic an þat Lond at Horham and at Elingtone into Hoxne into Seinte Ethelbrichtes Kirke þer Godes howen. and ic an [that] Lond at Luthinglond (Lovingland) Offe mine Suster Sune and is Brother and Fremen þo men halve and at Myndaham also for the Bischopes Saule. and ic an Osgot mine Mey Edulues Son þat Lond at Bertone and at Rucham (Rougham in Suffolk) and at Pakenham. and ic an þat Lond at Neutone. and at Hornigesherðe. and at Ikworthe and at Whepsted into St. Edmundes Kyrke þen Godes howen. to are for Deodred Biscopes Soule. and ic an [that] Lond at Waldringfeld Osgot mine Sustres Son. and min Hage [that] ic binnen Gypeswich (Ipswich) bouthe. and ic an Wlstan [that] Lond at Wortham so it Stant. and ic an [that] Men dele at mine Biscoperiche binnen LONDONE and buten London. (fn. 14) x pund for mine Soule. and ic an [that] at HOXNE at mi Biscoperiche [that] Men dele x pund for mine Soule. and ic wille þat Men meine þat or fe þat al Hoxne stant. [that] ic per to bigeten habbe. and dele it Man on to. half into the Ministere. and þe togerdel dele for min Soule. and lete Men stonden so michel so ic þer on fond an fre Man þo men alle for min Soule. and ic wille [that] men lete stonden at Lundone byri so nikel so it per found. & mine [that] ic þer to bigat. and dele on to. half into þe Ministere, and half for mine Soule. and fire men alle þe men. & ðo men [that] ilke at Wunemannedune. (Windham) & on Steou. (Stow) & lete men stondon at Fullenham so it nu stant. buten hwe mine Manne fre wille & on Donesige (fn. 15) (Dunwich) let stonde so mikel so ic þer on fond. and dele it man in to. half into the Ministere. and half for mine Soule. and ic an in to Glastingbyri (Glastenbury) v pund for mine Soule. and ic an Deodrad min wyte Messe hakele þe ic on pani bouthe. and al þat þer to bireð. and Simbel & Calice & þere Messebok þe Gosebrich me biquath. and ic an Odgar þe Gelewe messe hakele [that] is [that] ic on pani bouthe. and [that] þer to bireð. and ic an Gundwyne [that] oðer gelewe Messe hakele [that] is mi gereuað & þat þer to bireð. and ic [an] Spratache pe rede Messehakle. & al [that] þe þer to bireð. and who so mine quithe ofter. God him ofter Hevene Riche, buten he it er is ende it beter."
3. ATHULF, Adulf, or Eadulf; (who is placed in the catalogues before the Theodoreds;) (fn. 16) in the year 963, (fn. 17) he signed King Edgar's charter to the church of York, and constantly resided at Elmham, according to Weever, (fo. 875,) and could be Bishop no long time, (fn. 18) for in 966,
4. AILFRIC, Alfric, or Alfrid, the first of that name, sirnamed the Good, confirmed King Edgar's charter to Croiland monastery; he was formerly a monk of Glastenbury, (as Bishop Theodred seems to have been, by his bequest to that abbey,) and had his obit kept there, on the 5th of April, that being the day on which he died. He is misplaced in the catalogues, being put after Athulf and before the Theodreds; he died in King Edgar's time, for,
5. EDELSTANE, Athelstane, or Elstan, lived in King Edgar's time, and so must be consecrated some time before 975, in which year that King died: Thomas the monk of Ely says, that he outlived the year 981, and at his death was buried in Ely monastery, to which he was a great benefactor.
6. St. ALGAR, or Algare, was priest and confessor to St. Dunstan Archbishop of Canterbury, and was remarkable for his morals and learning, at that Archbishop's death Ao. 988. He succeeded Adelstane in this see, in 1012, and subscribed King Atheldred's charter to the church of Rochester, and that of King Canute to the church of Canterbury, in 1018; the book of Ely says, he resigned the bishoprick, and lived till his death in that monastery, which, according to most accounts, happened on the 24th day of Dec. (fn. 19) 1021, on which day his festival was kept in that monastery to its dissolution.
7. ALWIN, Ailwin, Alfwin, Elfwin, Helfwin, Aldwin, and Ealdwin, succeeded in 1021. It seems he was first a monk of Ely, afterwards of Bury, for in the year 1010, he being then a monk there, translated the body of St. Edmund from Bury to London, for fear of Turkill Earl of Denmark, who then infested the Eastangles; (fn. 20) but three years after, he was brought back again; and then the said Alwin was deputed by the bishop (his predecessor, who had then all spiritual jurisdiction over that monastery,) to be custos or keeper of that saint's body, by reason of the pretended insolence and irregularity of the clerks of that monastery, who the very year that Ailwin was consecrated, were ejected thence by King Canute at his request, and monks introduced, he favouring them, having been brought up a regular himself, which seems to be the true reason of the ejection of the seculars there: as soon as they were introduced, he was so weak, as to grant the abbot and monks exemption from all episcopal and spiritual jurisdiction of his see, not only within the precinct of the monastery, but all the inhabitants of the town, and a mile round it, were exempted and subjected solely to the monastery; by which means he saddled his successours with the burthen of an exemption, which continually harassed them to the dissolution of that monastery, which had no sooner got such exemption, but they set out their jurisdiction by erecting four crosses, a mile distant from each part of the town, and getting it confirmed by the Pope, and afterwards by Hardicnute son of Cnute, Agelnoth Archbishop of Canterbury, Alfric Archbishop of York, and all the nobles of England, 30 talents of gold (which is about 10,000l.) being added as a penalty upon any one that should so much as attempt to break their privileges; which sum, Will. Bateman Bishop of Norwich was condemned by the King to pay for so doing. (fn. 21) Immediately after the monks introduction, the Bishop began to build the church of St. Edmund the King and Martyr, in the very same place where Sigebert heretofore had built his monastery, in which he lived in the time of Bishop Felix; the charge of building the church was paid in the following manner; when the people of Norfolk and Suffolk fled to St. Edmund as their patron, from the cruelty of Swain the Dane, that saint killed the Dane, and delivered his country; (fn. 22) upon which, the people voluntarily granted their protector 4d. a year for ever, out of every carracute of land in both counties, (fn. 23) towards building this church; with this, and other benefactions it was begun, and finished in 12 years time; and in 1032, was consecrated by Agelnoth Archbishop of Canterbury, in honour of St. Mary and St. Edmund; and thus this Bishop was a great benefactor to this and Ely monasteries, to which last he retired after he had resigned his bishoprick, and died there, if we may credit the Ely historian; (fn. 24) Mr. Willis, in his History of mitred Abbots, Priors, &c. (fn. 25) says that Adelstan and Alwyn, Bishops of Elmham, were buried in Ely cathedral, their pictures being painted on the wall of the choir there, next the great cross isle, whose bones are said to be there included: it seems as if he resigned in 1032, soon after the consecration of Bury church, at which time he was bishop.
8. AILFRIC, Alfrik, Elfric, Aluric, and Elric, the second of that name, sirnamed the Black, (fn. 26) died in 1038; he seems to have been a monk of Bury, by the great benefactions he gave to that monastery, viz. his part in Brockford, Wirlingworth Hunstanton cum Holme, and as much land in Tichwell and Dockynge, as would sell for 60l. (fn. 27) His will is extant in the White Register of Bury, fo. 22, b. and is this:
"Hir swyteleþ on þis write ihu Alfrik Biscop wille his are beten þe he under Gode ernode and under CNUT King his true Loverd and Sithen have ð rithlike healden under HAROLD King, [that] is þanne erst [that] ic an [that] Lond at Wirlinworth into Seinte Edmunde for mine soule. and for mine Loverde's, so ful and so forth so so he it me to hande let. and ic on [that] Lond at Hunstanestune be esten broke and an mið [that] Lond at Hulme into Sancte Edmunde. and ic wille [that] þe Monekes on Biri tellen sixti Pund for þe Lond at Tichewelle & at Dockynge. and [that] þer to bireð. and ic an Lefstan Dyakne [that] Lond at Grimistone, so ful and so forth. so ic it achte. and ic an mine kine Loverd Harold ij. Marc Goldes. and ic an mine Leuedi i. Marc. Goldes. and listeman Ailrich iiij pund mine fat Silvere. & sellen Men mine cuthes þo mine Stywardes wyten. xl pund. & v. into Ely. & v. pund into Holm. (St. Bennet's in the Holm in Norfolk.) and v. pund Wluuard Munet mine mey. and v. Pund Aelfethe mine Sescemaistre. and ic wille [that] Men sellen [that] Lond at Walsingham so Men best mai and rekne Men ihunge brun an Marc on Goldes & mið þa laues sette Men mine Burges. and ic an Alfwyne mine Prest at Walsingham xxx acres at Egemere. and Oui min Prest habbe þer oþer Acres. and ic an Edwyne Monek þe Milne at Goysete [that] Ringware hachte. and ic an Aylwin Prest [that] Lond at Reydone þe ic bouchte to Leofwine. and ic an þe Milne [that] Wolnoth haute into Seint Edmunde. an ic an Sibricht [that] Lond [that] ic bouchte on Multone. (fn. 28) and ic an [that] Fen þa Durlac me selde into ELMHAM þo Prestes to fede. (fn. 29) and ic an into HOXNE þo Prestes an Thusand Werdfen. and ic an [that] Fen [that] Alfrik me selde into Holm. and ic an þan Hage (Hagh or Hawe) bynnen NORWIC for mine Soule and for alle [that] it me vthen into Seint Edmunde. & ic an þan Hage into Seinte Petere binnen Londone. (fn. 30) and ic an ihungere Brun [that] halfe susand fen." (fn. 31)
9. AILFRIC, the third of that name, succeeded; he was sirnamed the Little, was Prior of Ely, and sat not long here; for at his death in 1139, (fn. 32)
10. STIGAND, who was the first chaplain to Queen Emma, and afterwards to King Harold Harefoot, (fn. 33) having gained the bishoprick by simony, succeeded; (fn. 34) and for siding with the interest of the said King, after his death, when Hardicnute obtained the crown, was ejected from this bishoprick in 1040, by
11. GRIMKETEL, Grinketel, Griketel, or Grunketel, who held it with the bishoprick of the South-Saxons: (fn. 35) Hardicnute, who succeeded his brother Harold in that year, turning out most of his brother's friends: but he dying in two years time, the scene was changed, Hardicnute's friends were ejected, and Harold's restored; when, Grimketel being turned out,
12. STIGAND was restored and made Edward the Confessor's
chaplain; (fn. 36) for in a register of Bury it is said, that St. Edward the
Confessor, in the first year of his reign, came to Bury, and then gave
Mildenhall manor to that monastery; soon after which, Stigand his
chaplain was made Bishop of the Eastangles, to whom they granted
the said manor for life, and he held it all the time he was bishop, and
after be was Archbishop of Canterbury; he by way of retaliation, got
the bishoprick of the South-Saxons to be taken away from Grimketel,
and the administration of it committed to himself, and so governed both
sees to 1047, and then at the death of Alwin Bishop of Winchester,
he took that see, leaving this to his brother Egelmare; he sat at Winchester five years, and then Robert Archbishop of Canterbury being
banished, he seized that see in 1052, Robert being alive and not deposed, and held it with Winchester. Godwin says, he was a man of a
very great spirit, though very illiterate and exceedingly covetous;
for after Robert's death he held both sees till William the Conqueror
conquered all the land except Kent, the people of which county, by
Stigand's, advice, assembled together, and every man taking a bough
in his hand, surprised the King at Swanscomb, as he passed through
that county and forced him to promise them that they should be
governed by their ancient laws and customs, which he performed, but
did not forget Stigand, though he dissembled his anger at that time,
and seemed to be his great friend for some time after; (fn. 37) he first
showed it by being crowned by the Archbishop of York, instead of
Stigand; and when he went into Normandy, under pretence of doing
him the greater honour, be took him with him, but the truth was, he
was afraid to leave him at home; and after he had settled every thing
in Normandy, and was come home, he thought of nothing more than
to degrade him; and in order thereto sent privately to the Pope, who
sent three cardinals into England, to examine, place, or displace
the Archbishop, and the rest of the English clergy; upon which
Stigand, fled into Scotland, and after that, hid in Ely monastery; at
last a general synod of the clergy being called at Winchester, (fn. 38) Ao.
1070, (fn. 39) he was not only deprived, but even degraded of all his orders,
and condemned to perpetual imprisonment, for these three crimes, (or
rather pretences,) first, because he held two bishopricks, which was no
more than what Dunstan and Oswald, two of the Pope's saints, had
done before. The second was because he took it unjustly when Robert
was alive, who could not enjoy it when he was banished, neither could
he have kept it against the King's will. The third and true reason
why the Pope was so unmerciful to him, was, because he received the
pall at the hands of Pope Benedict the Eighth, whom the cardinals
had deposed, and would not take it again of Leo the Ninth, or any
other lawful Pope. (fn. 40) From the time of his deprivation, he was kept
his whole life a close prisoner at Winchester, where he lived very
meanly, wanting even common food, being so covetous that he
would advance no money out of his vast treasures, which at his death
were found under ground, and seized by the King, and carried to the
treasury. (fn. 41) He was buried at Winchester in a lead coffin placed on
the top of the wall, on the north side of the presbitery, thus inscribed,
Hic jacet Stigandus Archiepiscopus. (fn. 42)
13. EGELMAR, Ailmar, or Almer, brother to Stigand, succeeded him in 1047, and was deprived by the synod at Winchester, in 1070, on account, most likely, of being Stigand's brother. (fn. 43) He gave to Bury abbey, Hindringham, Langham, Hindolveston, and Swaneton; and 60 marks of silver. (fn. 44) His will is recited at large in the Sacrist's Register of Bury Abbey, fo. 49. This Ailmar was a married man, and had the manor of Blofield with his wife, as her portion, (fn. 45) before he. was bishop, and left it to the bishoprick.
Bishops of Thetford.
1. HERFAST, or Arfast, the Conqueror's chaplain, was made Bishop about Easter, 1070, at Ailmer's deposition; and in 1075, by order of the Council held by Lanfrank Achbishop of Canterbury, (fn. 46) which appointed that all bishops sees should be removed from villages to the most eminent cities in their dioceses, he removed his see from Elmham to Thetford. (fn. 47)
This man was a Norman by birth, Chancellor of England, and in great favour with the Conqueror: (fn. 48) he attacked the abbot of Bury in relation to his exemption from his episcopal jurisdiction, and not only endeavoured to set Ailwin's exemption aside, but relying on his interest with the King, would have removed his see and fixed it at Bury, great part of the revenues of that monastery being given, as he said, by his predecessors, from the see; (fn. 49) the contest at last was given by the King and nobles against the Bishop, Ao. 1081. (fn. 50) He sat bishop till the year 1084, and was then buried in this cathedral at Thetford, (fn. 51) leaving Richard, his eldest son, his chief heir. (fn. 52) He was succeeded by,
2. WILLIAM GALSAGUS, (fn. 53) Belfagus, de Bellofago, or Beaufo, (fn. 54) who was nominated to the see on Christmas day, 1085, by the King, at Gloucester, and the year following was consecrated by Lanfrank Archbishop of Canterbury; he was excellent both for learning and conduct, and though he was exceeding wealthy, is nowhere (that I have met with) branded either with pride or covetousness; he was the King's chaplain, and Chancellor also, in such favour with the Conqueror, that he gave and confirmed to him and his heirs above 30 manors in fee, in this county, besides lands and rents in above 40 other towns, most of which he left to the see at his death, being the greatest benefactor that ever this see had from its first foundation to the present time: (fn. 55) he died about 1091, leaving his family, as well as see, very rich, and so it continued many ages, at Herling, and elsewhere in this county. (fn. 56)
In his time Domesday Book was made, in which is an exact account of all that belonged at that time to the bishoprick, (at fo. 143,) and all that belonged to the said William in fee and inheritance, either of the Conqueror's gift, or otherwise, (at fo. 148, (fn. 57)) much of which he left to the see, so that thereby appears most of the ancient revenues of the bishoprick in this county, all which Henry VIII. took away at the exchange; an account of which may be seen under the revenues and liberties of the see.
Bishop of Norwich.
1. HERBERT LOSINGA, or Losing, (fn. 58) Prior of the-monastery
of Fiscamp (fn. 59) in Normandy, and as some say, Prior of Bec, in that
dukedom; (fn. 60) was in great favour with William Rufus, who brought him
from Normandy, made him his Chamberlain, and kept him in his
court; Bale says, "First was he here in England by fryndeshyp
made abbot of Ramseye, and afterwardes by-shop of Thetforde by
flattery, and fat payment, in the yeare of our Lorde 1091, for the
which he is named in the chronicles to this day, the kyndelyng
match of simony, and that noteth him no small doar in that feate;" (fn. 61)
for he gave no less than 1900l. (fn. 62) (a prodigious sum at that time) for
this see, and had, during his intimacy with the King, amassed such
a sum, that he bought for Robert de Losing, his father, the abbacy of
Winchester for 1000l. (fn. 63) notwithstanding he so repented of that simony,
(they say,) that he designed to go privately to the Pope to obtain absolution for it, for which he was stopped by the King, and deprived
of his pastoral staff: (fn. 64) but not long after, with his leave, he went thither
in 1093, (fn. 65) and resigning up his ring and staff to the Pope, was enjoined
to build certain churches and monasteries as a penance, which he performed in a most sumptuous manner, as the cathedral, St. Nicholas's
in Yarmouth, St. Margaret's at Lyn, the church of St. Mary at NorthElmham, and that of St. Leonard's on the Hill, and the church of St.
Mary in the Marsh, over against the cathedral, sufficiently testify. (fn. 66)
When he was there, he obtained license to remove his see, and accordingly at his return, on the 9th of April, 1094, translated it from
Thetford to Norwich, and was there consecrated by Thomas
Archbishop of York, on the same day; (fn. 67) most probably in the church
of St. Michael on Tombland, which was then the head church of
the city, and belonged to Roger Bigod Earl of Norfolk, of whom
he procured in exchange not only the said church and churchyard, but all the land and revenues belonging to it, (fn. 68) and those of the
Earl's thereto adjoining; (fn. 69) and also purchased of the King and citizens,
a certain place by Norwich castle called Cow-holm, then a pasture
belonging to the manor of Thorp, the inhabitants of which place had
their sacraments and burial at Thorp, and answered before the King's
justices, with the men of the hundred of Blofield, as Thorp did; as far
as a certain way on the north part called Holm-street, though the
extent of the whole of Cow-holm, began where now is St. Martin's
bridge, and extended to the river as far as Lovel's stath southward,
and then came by the lane (now called St. Vedast's or Faith's-lane)
leading to the common street of Nether Conisford, and so through
the site of the Minor Friars, and by Newgate-lane, (fn. 70) joined to the site
of the Earl's palace, and passing by it as the monastery walls now
stand, extended to the wooden cross which stood on Tombland, opposite to the charnel-house or free-school, and then went by the corner of
the monastery wall directly to St. Martin's bridge, including all St.
Martin's plain; all which precinct, the Bishop got confirmed both by
King and Pope, and privileged and exempted, from all spiritual and
temporal jurisdiction whatever, the whole being reserved to himself
and his successours; and on this land, in the year 1096, be began to
build his cathedral, laying the foundation stone in the name of the
Holy Trinity, on which this was cut,
ODWINUS EPISLOPUS MERBERTUS POSUIT PRIMUM LAPIDEM, IN NOMINE PATRIS ET FILII, ET SPIRITUS SANLTI. AMEN.
Lord Bishop Herbert laid the first stone, In the name of the Father and of the Son, And of the Holy Ghost. Amen. (fn. 71)
The Bishop built his palace on the north side, and the monastery or monks houses on the south, and had so far perfected them, that in the year of our Lord 1101, having got together 60 monks, he placed them in his monastery, (fn. 72) and in September, sealed their foundation deed, (fn. 73) thereby ascertaining the possessions of the see, and the property of his successours, as well as that of the succeeding priors and monks.
Before this time, the clergy attending the Bishop were canons, in in whose places he was licensed by Archbishop Anselm to substitute monks, (fn. 74) "dyspossessynge the prestes and theyr wyues, and placynge the monkes in their roomes, to make that church a Sodome," saith Bale. It is plain he joined strenuously with that Archbishop, in his project of priests divorces, but found a general opposition in his diocese, for his clergy would keep their wives, and in spite of all he could do, the married priests traversed their cause with scripture and reason, and desired nothing but justice; but justice making more use of her sword than balance in this case, not weighing their arguments, peremptorily enjoined them to forego their wives; but the Norfolkmen (always remarkable for their subtility in the law, as Fuller saith) were not so easily ejected out of that whereof they had long pre scription and present possession, no wonder therefore if they stickled for their wives, and would not let go a moiety of themselves; (fn. 75) besides, it was strange that Herbert, who was himself an abbot's son, and whose predecessor Arfast was a married man, should be such a stickler against lawful matrimony: however, it is plain that this very thing made him generally hated by the secular clergy, who took care to remember his faults so much, that though great suit was made by the monks of Norwich to have bad him canonized and made a saint, such impediments were always in the way, that it could not be obtain'd; (fn. 76) for many strange things were written of him, covertly and craftily, to hide the open shame of his evils, some scoffingly bestowed upon his predecessor Arfast and him, the text in the 18th of St John, verse 40, Not this man, but Barrabas, intimating Arfast (whom they had formerly slighted) to he a good man, and himself a robber. Another applied this in the 26th of St. Mathews, verse 50, Friend! wherefore art thou come? silly comparing him to Judas. And a poet of that age made these verses on him: (fn. 77)
Surgit in ecclesia monstrum, genitore Losinga, (Simonidum secta, canonum virtute resecta,) Petre nimis tardas, non Simon ad ardua tentat, Si præsens esse, non Simon ad alta volaret, Proh dolor! ecclesiæ nummis venduntnr et ære, Filius est præsul, pater abbas, Simon uterque, Quid non spereinas, si nnmmos possideamus? Omnia nummus habet, quid volt, facit, addit, et aufert Res nimis injusta, nummis fit præsul et abbas. (fn. 78)
A monstre is up, the sonne of Losinga, Whyls the lawe seketh, symony to flea, Peter thou slepest, whyle Simon taketh tyme, If thou wert present, Symon shulde not clyme; Churches are prysed, for silver and golde, The sonne a byshop, the father an abbot olde.
In Herbertes wave yet, it is a fowle blot, That he by symonye, is byshop and abbot. (fn. 79)
Notwithstanding all this, Bartholomew Cotton, a monk of Norwich, author of the Norwich Annals, and of an History of the Bishops of Norwich, both which are printed in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, (fn. 80) gives him an excellent character, affirming him to have been a man learned in all parts of secular and divine learning, incomparably eloquent, and so very beautiful and grave, that those who knew him not, might dicover him to be a bishop, the graces of his mind shining in his countenance, wise in all be did and said, faithful, charitable, and honest, which character could not altogether become any historian to give a person thus branded for simony and perfidy. (fn. 81) However, be his character as it will, it is plain his good works were many; and all agree, that in his riper years he much bewailed his youthful follies, and blotted out their guilt, by the multitude of his future virtues; for having been a patron of simony, he became a particular enemy to it, always professing with St. Jerom, that the errours we commit when we are young, we must amend when we are old. So that he bears the character of a true penitent, and indeed the preamble of his foundation charter (fn. 82) makes it sufficiently appear to be so.
After the death of William Rufus, he was in great favour with his successour, Henry the First, whose chancellor he was in 1103; (fn. 83) in 1109, he was by the King's command at St. Paul's at the consecration of Thomas Archbishop of York; and in 1114, at Canterbury at the inthronization of Ralf, Archbishop there. (fn. 84) In 1116, he went as the King's ambassadour to Rome with that Archbishop, about the affair of the legantine power in England, then usurped by the Pope, and got it acknowledged to belong always of right to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
He was a great promoter of the foundation of the Cluniac monks at Thetford, (fn. 85) in order to make some small amends thereby, for his carrying the see thence, which was as great a detriment to that city, as his fixing it here was advantage to this; (fn. 86) which Roger Bigod, then Earl of Norfolk, who had a mind to bring the see to the castle, his chief mansion, at the request of the citizens, persuaded him so to do; for his great endeavour and earnest design, as well as his predecessor's, was to have fixed it at Bury; and when he went to Rome in 1101, (fn. 87) about the difference between Henry I. and Archbishop Anselm, being disappointed, he tried his interest with the Pope, to recover the jurisdiction of his see over that abbey, which Ailwin his predecessor had so foolishly given away; (fn. 88) but in his journey, Herbert leaving his companions, was seized, and imprisoned by one Guy, a powerful man of the province of Lyons, and was obliged to swear that he would move nothing at Rome against Archbishop Anselm, (fn. 89) and not only so but also pay 40 marks of silver before he would release him; which money he carried to solicit his cause as to the jurisdiction over the abbey, which being thus gone, according to the old proverb of no penny, no Pater-noster, he was forced to rest content; however, to make some amends, he got from that monastery part of the carvage granted that church, (fn. 90) which is thus related in the White Register of that abbey, "In the time of Herbert, the first Bishop of Norwich, who translated the episcopal see thither, the Bishop coming to the convent, and seeing their church near finished, informed them that he was building a magnificent church for the mother church of his see; and as the expense would be large, begged of the convent to lend him their annual carvage towards building it till his church was finished, which was incautiously done, according to his request, except the carvage within the liberty of St. Edmund, the hundred of Stowe in Suffolk, and the deanery of Bilihowe (fn. 91) in Norfolk, with which their church was thoroughly finished; but afterwards the carvage of Stowe and Bilihowe also were detained by the sacrist of Norwich, who used to farm them of the sacrist of Bury, at 10s. a year, and then the sacrist of Bury used to send a bull once a year as a gift, which when denied to the sacrist of Norwich, he refused payment of the 10s.; and when the cathedral was finished, the Bishop, contrary to promise, would not return the carvage, but detained it to his see for ever." (fn. 92) By which account it is plain to perceive, that they (whatever they may pretend) gave the carvage to the Bishop, the better to enable him to build the cathedral and fix his see, by which means they were totally freed from the fear of more trouble from any of his successours, on that score. And this is the carvage (corruptly by some called carnage) anciently paid from the several parishes to this church.
After he had settled his foundations thoroughly, and adorned his church with all manner of ornaments, robes, books, and other necessaries, he departed this life in the year 1119, on the 22d day of July, (fn. 93) and was buried in his own cathedral before the high-altar, in a tomb fit for so great a man. (fn. 94)
This tomb stood where the altar tomb now stands, it was above an ell high; but when the pulpit in the late civil wars was placed at the pillar where now Bishop Overal's monument is, and the aldermen's seats were fixed at the east end, and the mayor's seat in the middle, at the high-altar, the height of the tomb being a hinderance to the people, it was pulled down. (fn. 95)
Inclytus Herbertus, Jacet hic, ut Pistica nardus,
Virtutum redolens Floribus et Meritis,
A quo fundatus, Locus est hic Edificatus,
Vir fuit hic Magnus, probitate suavis ut agnus,
Vitâ conspicuus, dogmate precipuus.
Pro quo qui transis supplex orare memor sis, Ut sit ei saties, alma Dei Facies. (fn. 96)
On the 22d of July, being St. Mary Magdalen's day, his anniversary was kept with great splendour, the bishop, prior, monks, &c. attending constantly in their copes: and the day following Midsummer day was the anniversary of the father and mother of Herbert, with his brothers, sisters, and whole family; when there was 50s. yearly laid out in a pittance for the monks at dinner; paid out of Lakenham mill, which the Bishop gave the convent for that use. (fn. 97)
On the vigil of St. Mary Magdalen, immediately after service, a pall was laid over the founder's tomb, and a wax taper lighted up at the head, and another at the feet of the tomb, which were kept burning that day and night; and then four wax tapers were lighted up and kept the next day and night, and the day following, till after high mass, which was then celebrated for his soul, and those of his family: and then the four tapers were to be put out, and other two to burn there till after compline (fn. 98) was said, and then they were put out and the tomb uncovered. (fn. 99)
It appears that there was a grand feast on the founder's day, many lands, &c. being held of the church by payments made for that purpose. Girard, the sixth prior, and his convent, with the consent of the then bishop, granted to Richard de Snaringes all the land that Thomas Fitz-Ralf held of them in Norwich, and the land of Stoches (or Stoke) which he the said Richard had surrendered to the prior, to be held of the church by the yearly payment of 13 pints (fn. 100) of wine by the Norwich measure, on the anniversary of Bishop Herbert; and 20s. at each synod, on condition that every heir should pay a mark of silver for relief, and swear fealty to the church of Norwich. (fn. 101)
His tomb continued demolished till 1682, when the present altar tomb, standing enclosed in an iron palisade in the midst of the choir, near the steps of the altar, was erected by the dean and prebends, with the arms of the bishoprick and their own, on the sides and ends thereof. viz.
Memoriæ Sacrum Herberti de Lozinga hujus Ecclesiæ Episcopi, & Fundatoris, qui Oximi in Normania Natus, in Fiscanensi Monasterio Se pietati & bonis literis devovit, Quarum merito ejusdem Prior evasit. Deinde A Gulielmo Rufo in Consiliarum assumptus, Com eo An. Dom. MLXXXVII. (defuncto Gulielmo Conqaestore) in Angliam Trajecit Eique in capesseodo Regno consilijs valde adfuit.
Eodem anno fit Ramesiæ Abbas, & triennio post Hujus Diæceseos Episcopus. Sub Henrico primo summi Cancellarij officio, & duabas ad Papam Legationibus Optime fungebatur; Sub utroque Rege sapientissimi Consiliarij in Republica Munus exequebatur, necnon Sanctissimi Episcopi in Ecclesiâ' Præcipue in Diæcesi sua, Cui semper intentus, quas favore Regum obtinuit opes, Hic inter proprium Gregem in Promovenda Pietate expendit.
Ecclesias item Linnæ, Jaremuthæ, Elmhamiæ Aliasque plures extruxit. Sed maximum Landis Monumentum est hæc Cathedralis Nostra: Cujus prima Fundamenta posuit An. Dom. MXCVI°. Deinde Anthoritate Regia &. Papali instructus, in eam Cathedram Suam Episcopatum Theodfordo transtulit. Cænobiun Etiam adjecit, & cum amplis reditibus Ditasset, sexaginta Monachis Benedictinis ad divina In Ecclesia sua celebranda replevit. Quos postea Henricus VIIIus. Anno Regni XXX°. in Decanum & Capitulum transmutavit. Tandem cum bunc Episcopatum XXIX annos tenuisset, XI. Cal. Aug. A°. Dni. MCXIX°. vita quam optima Egerat Defunctus exuvias carnis suæ in spem Felicis Resurrectionis Hic Reposuit.
But it is a feigned coat, in allusion to that of the Earl of Pembroke, Lord Chancellor in 1088; (fn. 102) and indeed I believe he never bare any, unless the arms of the bishoprick, viz.
For on his seal there are no arms at all. (fn. 103)
2. EBORARD, Ebrard, or Everard, Archdeacon of Salisbury, after a vacancy of the see for three years, succeeded, being consecrated June 12, 1121, by Ralf Archbishop of Canterbury; (fn. 104) he was chaplain to Bishop Herbert, (fn. 105) and witness to his deed in 1101; (fn. 106) being son of Roger Earl of Arundel, by Adeliza or Alice, his second wife, daughter of Everard de Pusachio, and was chaplain to William Rufus, and Henry I.
In his time the Jews crucified a boy named William, who being canonized, brought much honour and profit to this church, by the accession of pilgrims to visit his shrine; the account of which is recited at large before, at p. 26.
H. Huntingdon says, he was deposed for his cruelty; and others acknowledge they know not wherefore: the Norwich Annals saying only that he retired from Norwich in 1145; (fn. 107) the truth was, he was not reconciled to the King, for joining with the Earl of Norfolk, who revolted from him; (fn. 108) for which reason, he entered the abbey of Fountains in Yorkshire, (fn. 109) and there continued to his death, which happened Oct. 12, 1149; (fn. 110) according to Cotton; and was interred in his own cathedral, but in what part is not known, there being no memorial now remaining.
He confirmed under his seal, the gifts of his predecessor to his convent, added many of his own, (fn. 111) and granted a manor in Blickling which belonged to the church, to John, son of Robert, to be held by the service of a knight's fee. (fn. 112)
He was at the consecration of Canterbury monastery, according to the Saxon Chronicle, (fn. 113) and at a council held at Westminster, when Robert Bishop of Bath was consecrated; and was a married man, his sons being mentioned in a charter granted to the abbey of Wimondham: (fn. 114) he divided the archdeaconry of Suffolk into two archdeaconries, (fn. 115) and founded the hospital and church of St. Paul in Norwich, (fn. 116) of which, more hereafter. The arms ascribed to him are,
Ralf, son of Eborard, had his anniversary kept in this church, and 14s. was settled for a pittance for the monks on that day. (fn. 117)
3. WILLIAM TURBUS, Turb, Turbes, de Turba-Villa, or Turbervile, which was his true name, was a Norman by birth, but in his youth coming over into England, was placed among the first monks that Herbert introduced here.
About 1130, by the name of William Turbervile, he witnessed Bishop Everard's charter of confirmation of the cell at Rumburgh, to the abbey of St. Mary at York; and was then sub-prior of this monastery, and afterwards prior here; from which office he was elected Bishop, by his monks, in 1146, (fn. 118) at the deposition of Bishop Everard, and consecrated at Canterbury by Theobald, Archbishop there, the same year.
He gave his monks the manor of Sechesford to hold in fee-farm for ever, by the rent of 20l. a year, in order to recompense them for their kindness shown him: (fn. 119) for this Bishop, sticking close to the cause of Tho. Becket Archbishop of Canterbury, (fn. 120) who was then beyond sea, notwithstanding the King's prohibition, openly excommunicated Earl Hugh and others, in his cathedral, as he was enjoined by the Archbishop, and then coming down from the pulpit, walked to the highaltar, and laid down his pastoral staff thereon, saying, Let him that dare, seize either the lands, goods, or possessions of my church? and then entering the monastery, lived with the monks. Not content with this, to show his great zeal and friendship to the Archbishop, he called a synod of all his clergy, and openly excommunicated Gilbert Bishop of London, and others, for resisting him; (fn. 121) which so enraged the King, that he dared not leave the monastery, but kept himself in sanctuary till his wrath was appeased.
In 1152, he was witness to the charter of covenants between King Stephen, and Henry Duke of Normandy, about his succession to the crown. (fn. 122) In which it is to be noted, that he is mentioned before Richard Bishop of London, &c. which shows there was then no precedence as since settled, but each took place according to their consecration. (fn. 123)
About this time he advised the foundation of Old Bukenham priory, which he also confirmed. (fn. 124)
In 1158, he paid 200 marks for scutage to King Henry II. for the army in Wales, (fn. 125) and bis knights paid 53l. 6s. 4d. for that purpose: and in 1160, two marks for every knight's fee for the 3d. scutage when the King besieged Tholouse. (fn. 126)
In 1164, he was one of the witnesses to the deed of the nobility and clergy, of the recognizance of the King's laws in the King's presence, and of part of the customs and privileges of them and their ancestors.
In 1168, he confirmed the gift of Helman de Bidun, and of the Lady Agnes, daughter of Pain Fitz-John, his wife, to the canons of St. Mary at Missenden, of a mark of silver issuing from the lands of their tenants in Sutton. (fn. 127)
In 1171, the cathedral was much injured by an accidental fire; (fn. 128) and in the evening of Christmas day, 1173, as the people went to vigils, a light brighter than break of day appeared on a sudden, and continued all night, and oftentimes was seen, with exceeding redness, like the morning sun; so that our auroræ boreales are no new phænomena, as some modern philosophers would pretend. (fn. 129)
By the first he confirms to Robert his butler six acres of land in Dedeholm, which Nigel formerly owned, and voluntarily gave the monks of Norwich; who with consent of John their prior, granted them in fee to Robert aforesaid, paying 18d. per annum to their church: this deed is witnessed by William the Archdeacon, Jeffry his steward, Master Stangrin, Nicholas and Roger, his chaplains, and Josceline, brother to the Archdeacon, &c.
The other is, the confirmation of a patron's presentation of a clerk to his portion in the church of Stoke, and at that time was the same as institution is now; which being the oldest original of this kind that I ever met with, I have added it by way of note, (fn. 130) for such of my readers as are curious this way.
A seal of this Bishop remains fixed to the instrument of profession of Silvester Abbot of St. Austin's in Canterbury, A°. 1152, (fn. 131) among the archives of that church.
4. JOHN, Dean of Salisbury, succeeded; sirnamed of Oxford, the place of bis birth and education, according to the fashion of that time, when it was customary for a learned spiritual person to drop his father's name, although worshipful and ancient, and assume that of the place he was born in. (fn. 132)
Before his consecration be was one of the King's chaplains, and in 1164, (fn. 133) standing firm to him against Becket, was sent to Pope Alexander III. with a complaint against the Archbishop, where he did so much for the King's cause, that he got him elected with the consent of all the monks, Bishop of this see, at Eynaham, Nov. 26,1175, (fn. 134) and he was consecrated by Richard Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambhithe, on the 14th of Dec. following.
Being highly in favour with Henry II. in 1176, he was sent his ambassadour into Sicily, (fn. 135) to deliver Joan his daughter in marriage to the Sicilian King, which he performed at St. Giles's, Nov. 9, and returned to the King at Notingham, before Christmas.
In the mean time, Hugh Petro Leon Cardinal Deacon of St Angelo, called a convocation, in which he granted the King some liberties, contrary to the privileges of the clergy; (fn. 136) in recompense of which, at the request of this Bishop, joined by the Bishop of Ely, another favourite, employed by the Arcbishop for this purpose, he obtained of the King,
He was present in the great council when the grand cause between the Kings of Castile and Navarre was tried, who submitted all their differences to the King's decision. (fn. 137)
In 1179, he was sent, with three more, to the council of Lateran, in the name of the clergy of England. (fn. 138)
And now, the King being exceedingly desirous to have the laws in general strictly executed, and justice faithfully administered to all men, tried all orders of men in his nation, by making them justices: and finding his design not answered, hoped to find among the clergy such as would not be corrupted by bribes, nor for fear or friendship, swerve from just judgment, and therefore he made the Bishops of Norwich, Ely, and Winchester, principal justices of his realm. (fn. 139)
In 1184, he settled all differences between Givarius Prior of the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, and H. Prior of Dunstable; and afterwards being at Waltham with the King, when he made his will, he was appointed to dispose of his charities. (fn. 140)
In 1187, he took the cross, as a devotee to the Holy Land. (fn. 141)
In 1190, he paid 20 marks into the Exchequer for the scutage of Wales: (fn. 142) and
In 1197, sat in the court of Exchequer, and determined causes there, with his other associates. (fn. 143)
He built the church of the Holy-Trinity at Ipswich, and consecrated it, and repaired its offices lately destroyed by fire. (fn. 144)
The cathedral, which till now was never perfectly finished, he not only completed, but repaired that part which was burnt in his predecessor's time, and restored it to its ancient beauty, adding all such ornaments as were then wanting: being a great benefactor to the convent, he built some alms-houses for the poor and impotent thereto belonging. (fn. 145)
So much was he famed for politicks and learning, that Daniel Morley, who travelled even to Arabia for knowledge in the mathematicks, dedicated his most celebrated treatise on that subject to him. Pitts says, (fn. 146) he was indefatigable in his studies, much busied in reading and writing history, especially that of his own country, being of a solid judgment, great eloquence, and very expert in transacting all weighty affairs.
Besides divers Epistles and Orations to Richard Archbishop of Canterbury, and such like. (fn. 147)
I have seen two of his original deeds, one is in my own collections, but hath lost its seal, by which he confirms the grant of Girard Prior of Norwich to Henry son of Algar of Flegg, of 8 acres and three roods of land at Winterton, and 10 acres in Dodeholm, which Nigel formerly held, paying 3s. 4d. per annum to the convent. Jeffry the Archdeacon, Master Rob. de Waxtenesham (or Waxham,) Robert de Chipenham, Warine de Rollesby, William de Burgh, Ric. de Ramesle, Roger de Martham, Gervase de Hemesbi, and others, being witnesses.
The other is in the collections of Mr. Tho. Martin, and is a confirmation of 6 acres and an half in Humersfield, to Robert de Sandcroft, ancestour to the late Archbishop of that name, which Rob. Husebond, the Bishop's man, (or tenant,) gave him, and of 3 acres and an half which Gervase, son of Rob. Husebond, sold to the aforesaid Rob. de Sandcroft, for 4s. and released and abjured it, in the Bishop's own chamber at Humersfield, to be held by the rent of 16d. a year to the Bishop's manor of Humersfield, and 5d. to every aid or tax laid on that town.
He died June 2,1200, and was buried in the choir of the cathedral, (fn. 148) on the north side of Bishop Turb, and is called John the First, being the first bishop of that name.
5. JOHN the Second, sirnamed de Grey, Grai, or Graa, as I find it sometimes spelt, was descended from Anschilel de Grey, a Norman, who came in with the Conqueror, and had large possessions of his gift, being second sen of Richard de Grey, son of the said Anschitel, and uncle to Robert de Grey Bishop of Litchfield and Worcester, (fn. 149) and afterwards Archbishop of York, who was son of Hawise de Grey, (fn. 150) sister-in-law to the said John.
The first considerable mention I find made of him, is, in the first year of King John, A°. 1199, when that King, by charter dated the 6th of April, granted Kersale hermitage to the monks of Lenton in Nottinghamshire; which charter was given by the hands of Simon Archdeacon of Ely, and John Grey: whereby it appears, that he was one of the keepers of the great seal; by another, of lands granted to Bury abbey, he is called Archdeacon of Cleveland; and in another of the same date, Archdeacon of Gloucester.
In 1200, he was the King's secretary, chaplain, and a justice itinerant: and being elected Bishop of Norwich, was consecrated in the chapel of St. Catherine at Westminster, by Hubert Wolter Archbishop of Canterbury, on the 24th of Sept. contrary to the appeal of the monks of Canterbury, who pleaded, that no Bishop could be consecrated out of the metropolitical church of Canterbury, without their license, whose impertinence, though Hubert minded it not, yet the monks afterwards gained their point; and about 1235, got a solemn charter from Edmund their Archbishop, that no bishop belonging to the jurisdiction of their church should be consecrated any where but there, without their license.
Immediately after his election, before he was consecrated, he had license to resume to his church of Norwich, all manors, lands and churches, which had been aliened by his predecessors, to the damage of the church.
In 1201, being grown rich, and a great favourite of the King's, he gave 4000 marks (a vast sum at that time) to have the custody of the land and heir of Oliver D'eyncourt, with his marriage, with the King's consent, and without disparagement; (fn. 151) and the same year being then also the King's chaplain, and one of the itinerant judges, he built the palace and all the buildings thereto belonging, at his manor of Geywood by Lynn, which palace and towns belonged to the see till the exchange made by Henry VIII.
In 1203, he had a grant of the custody of the land and heir of Hugh de Hastyngs, a potent baron, and of the marriage of Helen his widow, at the same time procuring a market to his town of Lyn, (fn. 152) and the custody of the manor of Swaffham in Norfolk, which then belonged to the Earl of Britain. And what was it this rich Bishop could not obtain? For this year the King being in great necessity for money, pawned his regatia to him, viz. his great crown, the gilt sword, the surcoat, cloak, dalmatick, (fn. 153) girdle, sandals, gloves, and spurs; (fn. 154) all which afterwards, he acknowledged to have received by the hands of John de Ufford, the Bishop's chaplain.
In 1205, the 7th of King John, being then president of the council, (fn. 155) he was elected Archbishop of Canterbury, by the monks, approved by the Pope, and confirmed and put into possession by the King. But the Pope finding him unfit for his turn, would undo all again, and have Stephen de Langton made Archbishop. This contest is recited at large in the English historians, as Brady, Tyrrel, &c.; and is said by some of them to have given rise to all the troubles and wars which ensued: as Archbishop of Canterbury elect, in 1206, he witnessed the grant of the Emperor Otto, whilst he was Earl of Poictou, to the monks of Charron in France. (fn. 156) Holingshed, (fn. 157) Mat. Paris, (fn. 158) &c. say, that on the death of Hubert Archbishop of Canterbury, before he was buried, the young monks elected Reginald, their Sub-prior, Archbishop, without the King's knowledge; but the rest disdaining that election, desired the King to let them choose a fit pastor, which he readily consented to, and privately prevailed on them to elect John de Grey, his chaplain, and president of his council, who was then at York about the King's business, where they sent for him, and after he had done it, he came to Canterbury, and there, in the presence of the King and his nobles, the Prior of Canterbury proclaimed him legally chosen, and the King immediately dispatched some monks to Rome, for the bull of Pope Innocent III. to confirm him; but the Bishops, suffragans of Canterbury, complaning to the Pope against the monks, that they had chosen an Archbishop rashly without them, the Pope, to please both sides, as he thought, annulled both the elections, (fn. 159) so that he was never consecrated; and decreed all future elections to be in the monks, for which service they at his request elected Stephen Langton, a cardinal, but an Englishman; for which the King proscribed the monks, whence arose a great quarrel between the King and Pope.
In 1207, he gave the King one palfrey for letters patents for all the liberties of Magna Carta to be allowed amply to his church; (fn. 160) and another, to have duplicates (fn. 161) of the charter which he had obtained for his town of Lyn; for it was owing to this Bishop that Lyn ever had a charter, as the original charter of King John, now in the custody of that corporation, testifies. (fn. 162) The whole of its liberties before that time being in the Bishop; and consequently he, as well as the King, was obliged to grant them a charter also, or else the King's had not been valid against his successours; wherefore by charter dated at London, he confirmed the King's charter; and says, that whereas the King gave him leave to grant to his town of Lenn, the same liberties that any burgh had in England, which ever he would choose, he declared that be chose Oxford; for two reasons perhaps, because their liberties were large, and in respect to John of Oxford, his predecessor, whom he had a good value for.
Soon after this, he confirmed the appropriation of the church of Binham to the monks there. (fn. 163)
Sir James Ware, Knt. in his catalogue of the chief governours of Ireland, under the year 1210, mentions this Bishop to have been Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, (fn. 164) which is confirmed by Mr. Wharton's notes on Cotton's history; and that he was there, is certainly true; (fn. 165) for from the rolls of the archives of Dublin it appears, that he wrote to the King out of Ireland, to certify him that be had given seizin to Alan of Galaway, of the lands he had given him. And indeed he was of great service to Ireland, for he reformed the coin, so that the Irish money was current there and in England also, being made as heavy and as fine as the English coin was. Weever, fo. 790, says, that when the King had repressed the rebellious Irish, and broken and dispersed their forces, he left this Bishop as an hardy, able man, of singular wisdom, and tried fidelity, Prorex or Lord Deputy of Ireland, that by such his commission he might keep that stiff-necked nation in obedience.
A MSS. chronicle formerly belonging to Bury abbey, (fn. 166) recites, that in 1212, this Bishop gathered an army, entered the King of France's territories, and took several castles; (fn. 167) but that King meeting him with his forces, put him to flight, but could not retake his castles. This year he answered for 35 knights fees, that he held, and in 1213, had a quietus or acquittance by writ, from the scutage of Scotland, for 48 knights fees and an half, and a fourth part; (fn. 168) so great were the revenues belonging to this bishoprick at that time.
In 1214, he was sent with William Earl of Salisbury, the King's brother, to the Emperor Otho, and was a witness to King John's agreement, to pay 12,000 marks a year,till restitution should be made to the several bishops, according to the Pope's decree. (fn. 169) After his return from Ireland, (fn. 170) he was sent on an embassy to the Pope, (fn. 171) and died as he returned home, at St. John de Angelo, near Poicters, Oct. 18, 1214, (fn. 172) and his body being brought hither, he was buried in his own cathedral.
In the 5th year of his consecration, he confirmed the charters of his predecessors to the prior and convent, at which time they released to him all their right in the profits of the fairs of Lyn and Geywood, and the Saturday market at Lynn, and all their salt pans, lands,rents, houses, and lay-fees, which belonged to the priory of Lyn; for which he gave them in exchange all his right in the manor of Sechesford, (now Sechey by Lyn,) and the manor of Great Cressingham, except the advowson, and the service of the knights fees there, reserving to himself and successours, the same authority that they had in the other manors of the monks.
At his death, he left the church of Swetford in Oxfordshire, with the chapel of Senewell, which he had of the grant of Henry de Oylly, to the Austin canons of Osney in that county, which gift the said Henry confirmed. (fn. 173)
He persuaded King John to found the gild of the Holy Trinity at Lyn, the brethren of which were bound under the penalty of a gallon of wine, to have mass celebrated every Trinity Sunday in St. Margaret's church, for the souls of the said King and Bishop.
He was a great historiographer, well versed in the laws of the land, and thereby fit for chief justice of England, which great station he managed with such prudence and dexterity, that he was deservedly entirely beloved by the King; for he was a pleasant and facetious companion, of great learning, ready counsel, merry and jocund where it was, seemly, and yet reserved when necessary so to be; and notwithstanding what Mat. Paris says, (fn. 174) was a lover of virtue and despiser of vice; he was a great antiquarian, and writer. His history he entituled, Schale-Cronicon, as Pitts (fn. 175) says. He wrote also a book of Epistles; and Mr. Thompson in his preface to Jeffry of Monmouth's History, (fn. 176) says that he wrote against Will. Parvus or Petit, (fn. 177) in defence of Jeffry's History standing up for the truth of the existence of King Arthur, (fn. 178) who, because Gildas and Bede have not metioned him, Petit and his adherents would wholly deny.
6. PANDULF, sirnamed Masca, obtained it in this manner; the Pope being angry that King John had driven Stephen Langton, whom he had made Archbishop contrary to the King's mind, out of the land, stirred up his nobles against him, which filled the kingdom full of troubles: at last he sent this Pandulf, (fn. 179) who was a learned and subtile man, as his Legate into England, who by his interposition made a general peace, which, whether good or not, at that time pleased all parties so well, that the King, at their request, got the convent to choose him Bishop here in 1218, (as most authors say,) but by a record I have seen, he was called by the Pope, Elect of Norwich, in 1215; (fn. 180) and probably might be so, before he came over, and got it confirmed here: however it was, in 1218, he was acknowledged elect of Norwich; and returning to Rome in 1221, having there laid down his legateship, was ordained priest, and consecrated Bishop by Pope Honorius III. May 29, 1222.
While he was at Rome, being a cunning man, he obtained a grant from the Pope, on showing that his see was in debt, that he, and all his successours, should have all the first fruits of the clergy of the diocese for their own; which they always enjoyed till Henry the Eighth's time. (fn. 181)
In 1220, he was acquitted from paying the scutage of 48 fees and an half, and a 4th part, belonging to his bishoprick. (fn. 182)
It is plain that both King and Pope sometimes had shares in the taxes raised on the subjects, though the Pope would never allow the King's share to be of right, but only lent; for on the King's agreeing that Pandulf, as legate to the Pope, should levy a twentieth part of the value of the clergy's benefices, it appears he lent the King, for so doing, 2700 marks out of it. (fn. 183)
The oldest institution that I have seen to any vicarage was made in 1226, by this Bishop, who then instituted Rodfrid, his nephew, to the vicarage of Aylesham in Norfolk, (fn. 184) he collated also John Indicis de Urbe, an Italian, to the vicarage of Suthereie, &c. (fn. 185)
He was sent on divers ambassies by several Popes, as to Genoa, by Calestine III. Ao. 1196, to compose the differences between the people and the Pisans: to Tuscia with a cardinal, Ao. 1198, to annul the league made by the cities of Tuscany without the Pope's consent: and lastly, into England, to appease the civil wars between King John and his barons; and to speak truth, (as most authors (fn. 186) say, he was the chief instrument who persuaded that King most ignominiously and shamefully, to resign up his crown and kingdom to the Pope, to become his vassal to his eternal infamy, and submit himself to Stephen Langton and those prelates, who had not only interdicted the realm, so that for six years space all ecclesiastical sacraments, except baptism, confession, and the viaticum, (fn. 187) ceased, but also excommunicated the King, published the Pope's deprivation of him from the crown, and instigated the French King to invade the realm, and usurp the crown thereupon.
This Bishop died in Italy, 16 Sept. (fn. 188) 1226, (fn. 189) and was brought and buried in his cathedral of Norwich, as Cotton says; but the place of his sepulcre is not known. He was a benefactor to the monks; (fn. 190) and among other things gave them a chest of relicks that he brought from Italy, to be reposited in the church, and died very rich, being of a covetous disposition; (fn. 191) for which vice all his countrymen were very remarkable.
7. THOMAS DE BLUMVILLE, Blundeville, or Blunnel, (fn. 192) for by all these names he is called; it appears by his arms that he was of the same family with the Blundeviles of Newton Flotman in Norfolk; and being nephew to Hugh de Burgh, then chief justice of England, was first by his interest made a clerk of the King's Exchequer, and afterwards Bishop here, being elected by the convent soon after Pandulf's death, to which the King gave his royal assent, Nov. 5, (fn. 193) and discharged him from his service, and all accounts in the Exchequer; and on Sunday the 20th of Dec. 1226, he was consecrated in St. Catherine's ehapel at Westminster, by Stephen Archbishop of Canterbury.
In 1227, he purchased lands in Playford in Suffolk: (fn. 194) and in 1233, by fine then levied before Robert de Lexington, William de York, Raff de Norwich, William de Lisle, (fn. 195) and others, between the mayor and burgesses of Lyn querents, and the said Bishop tenant, it was granted by the Bishop, that for the future, the Burgesses of Lyn might choose their own mayor, without the Bishop's consent, and also tax themselves at their own pleasure; which they could not do before, it being then the Bishop's burgh, and for the more certainty of the thing, the King was present in court, and gave his own consent to it. And this year, by special order of the Pope, he visited his diocese. (fn. 196)
In 1235, he gave the King, 100l. to have the manor of Baketon, (now Bacton in Saffolk) confirmed to his bishoprick, that manor being of right an escheat to it. (fn. 197)
He was present at the grand feast held on St. Edmund's day at Bury monastery, and submitted so far, (to show the exemption of that monastery from episcopal power,) that the abbot, in the hood belonging to the secular clergy. gave the blessing after evening service to the people, and not the Bishop, though present, as the Register of that house observes. He died Aug. 16, (fn. 198) 1236, having born the arms of
Simon de Elmham, then Prior of their monastery, a grave and reverend man. not justly to be excepted against, for their Bishop: but the King would not consent to their election, but kept the bishoprick vacant till 1239, in which year the election was voided at Rome, and they were ordered to elect another, upon which, they chose
9. WILLIAM DE RALEIGH, Ralee, Rayley, Radley, or Rawleigh, a favourite chaplain of the King, prebendary of Kentish town, Prebend in St. Paul's, Treasurer of the church of Exeter, and Prebendary of Litchfield, who contrary to the knowledge of the monks, was just before elected Bishop of Chester; upon which the King gave him his option, and he accordingly chose the see of Norwich, and was consecrated thereto by Edmund Archbishop of Canterbury, in St Paul's at London, Sept. 25; (fn. 201) and not long after, the monks of Winchester chose him for their Bishop; which so displeased the King, that they were forced to choose another, and then they chose Ralf Nevile the chancellor, which so provoked the King against him, that he took away the seal, and with much trouble and expense got his election vacated at Rome, (fn. 202) and much ado there was for five or six years about it; at last, the monks rechose this Bishop, according to their first determination, which was quickly confirmed at Rome: but yet he met with much vexation before he was settled; (fn. 203) however, in 1243, he was confirmed to the see of Winchester, and afterwards by the Pope's letters to the King and Queen, was received into favour in 1244, and had leave to return into England. He died at Turen, July 20, in 1250.
In the year 1240, the King wrote to him, to certify him how many Italian clerks were beneficed in his diocese, and what was the value of their benefices; (fn. 204) and whether they were admitted by the Pope's provision, or by their proper patrons presentations: and what were the names of such clerks: and also to make diligent enquiry, and certify him before the octaves of St. Martin, how much money was granted the Pope in. his diocese in the late contribution; and how much was collected and paid, and what still remained; for which he would owe him special thanks: but it seems he did not use much diligence in the affair, which something displeased the King. However, the next year he gave him his letters patent, (fn. 205) acknowledging that whereas the Bishops of his realm had freely given him an aid of 40s. from each knight's fee, well knowing his urgent necessity to sail into Gascoign, he owned it to be of their free liberality, and that it should not be any way prejudicial to their ecclesiastical liberties for the future.
His anniversary was celebrated in this church on the 20th of July, (fn. 208) being St. Margaret's day, when the almoner received of the sacrist two marks to be distributed to the poor, and the pittancer received two more, to be laid out for a pittance or exceedings for the monks dinner in the refectory or hall.
He is said to bare,
Gul. a bend lozenge arg. (fn. 209)
10. WALTER DE SUFFIELD, so called from Suffield in Norfolk, the place of his first preferment, his sirname being Calthorp, a name assumed by his ancestoars from Calthorp in Norfolk, the ancient place of their residence, which manor this bishop bought, with that of Erpingham, of Peter, son and heir of Sir Peter de Hautboys, and settled them on William de Calthorp, his nephew and heir, and on the heirs of William; so that by this and other gifts, he raised his family very considerably.
He was regent or doctor of the decrees in the University of Paris, (fn. 210) according to Cotton, and was elected by the monks here in 1243, confirmed by Boniface elect of Canterbury, in 1244, and soon after consecrated in the abbey church of Carhow by Norwich, at which time he granted an indulgence to all those that would give any thing to the repairs of St. Paul's in London. (fn. 211)
In 1246, this Bishop, as parson of Hoxne, granted to master William de Horham and his heirs, 30 acres in Chickering, which formerly were glebe of Horne church, paying 28s. per annum to the Bishop and his successours. (fn. 212)
In 1949, he resided at bis palace at Eccles, and in 1250, obtained a charter of free-warren for him and his successours there, and in all the manors and lands belonging to the bishoprick; and the same year settled 10 marks yearly rent in Lenn on Geffry de Lodnes for life only. (fn. 213)
In 1252, he confirmed the foundation of the free-chapel of St. Andrew in Hales by Lodne, (fn. 214) which was then founded and amply endowed by Sir Roger de Hales, son of Walter de Suffield; (fn. 215) it was dated at Charing, (by London,) where the ancient palace or city house of this bishoprick stood, VIII. of the calends of Sept. Sir Robert de Lisle Archdeacon of Colchester, Tho. de They, his chaplain, William de Whitewell, William de Pakenham, (fn. 216) Thomas de Walcote, Will. de Ludham, clerks; Giles de Whitewell, Will. de Wichingham, and others, being witnesses.
In 1255, by the bull of Pope Alexander, he was joined with the abbot of Peterburgh, to collect the tenths, and the money paid by those who vowed to go a journey to the Holy Land, and were willing to redeem their vows for money. (fn. 217)
This year, the Bishop, according to the command of Pope Innocent, which he received the year before, drew up a description of the value of all the revenues belonging to the clergy of England, certified upon oath, and having reduced it to exact order, it was sent to the Pope, who confirmed it in 1256; it was called the Norwich, or Walter's taxation, (fn. 218) and was used in all the following ratings of the clergy to all taxes.
He built and endowed St. Giles's hospital (fn. 219) in this city, for the reception of pilgrims, travellers, and poor people: and founded that fine chapel of the Virgin Mary, (fn. 220) at the east end of the cathedral, before the high altar of which he was interred.
He was a person well versed in all divine and human laws, of exceeding charity and great devotion, according to the religion of those times; as an instance of the former, when Corn was very dear, he sold his plate and bought bread for the poor with the money; and of the latter, our histories afford us this, that on the 13th of Oct. 1247, when there was a portion of the holy blood of Christ (as it Was then believed) showed in a most reverend wise in a solemn procession, the King himself carrying it in a chrystal glass under a canopy through the streets, from St. Paul's to Westminster abbey, with a mighty throng, this Bishop preached a sermon there in commendation of that relicts, pronouncing 6 years and 116 days pardon granted by the Bishops present, to all that came to reverence it; yea, of such an eminent sanctity and affable behaviour was he, that the common people believed many miracles were wrought at his tomb; (fn. 221) which afterwards became so enriched thereby, that it was esteemed a shrine to which pilgrimages were made; by which resort the chapel was made so remarkable and beautiful, that many persons of distinction were afterwards interred in it.
He was a most eloquent preacher, and one of the most famous bishops of his time. (fn. 222)
He died on St. Wulstan's day, May 20, 1257, at Colchester, (fn. 223) and bare the arms of his family, viz.
His will bears date at the palace of Hoxne, on Monday before Midsummer day, Ao. 1256, being the 12th of his pontificate; in which he commended his soul to God, the Virgin Mary, St. Anne, St. Giles, and all the saints; and ordered his body to be buried before the high altar of the new chapel of the blessed Virgin by him founded at the east end of the cathedral, at which altar he founded a monk daily to celebrate mass for his soul, and each monk having done so for a week, should enter his name in a book kept for that purpose, that all the monks might do it week after week in their several turns, for which service he gave the convent 100 marks, on further condition that they kept his anniversary for ever, and allowed 20s. on that day to the convent for a pittance, and distributed 20s. more by their almoner to the poor.
He gave 100l. for his funeral, ordering that wheresoever he died, as his body was brought hither, at all places he passed through, there should be large contributions made to the poor, and that where his body rested, all the aged, widows, and poor, whatever, that stood by it till it was carried on, should have every one a silver penny, and that none should stay by him above one day or one night, that others might come for that benefit.
He ordered all his debts to be justly paid, and that 25 chaplains should be found in the diocese for one whole year, to celebrate mass for his soul, the souls of his benefactors, and of those that he had been executor to, or administrator for, according to the use of the church of Norwich, for which he left 100 marks; and a 100 marks more to be distributed by his executors at their discretion, among the poor of the diocese: and 100 marks more to be distributed by Will. de Whitewell, Jeffry de Lodne, and Will. de Pakenham, in money and clothes, among: the poor of bis several manors; and 20 marks to be given by Daniel de Beccles, for the relief of poor oppressed persons in his jurisdiction.
He gave his great cup and cupboard thereto belonging, to reposite our Lord's body in: and other relicks to the cathedral, with the two horses that drew his body to the burial; and all the furniture of his chapel entire as he received them, with one other horse.
He gave an annuity of 16 marks a year, granted him by Martin lately rector of Denham, during the life of the said Martin, to the monks, for the honour, services, and kindnesses they did him, in preferring him to be their Bishop, and the belter to enable them to keep his anniversary, &c.
Also to the Hospital of St. Giles's in Norwich, which he built for remission of bis sins, 300 marks, to be used any way for the advantage of that hospital, by the consent of the master thereof and his executors; which hospital he recommended to their care to benefit it all they could out of his goods, which be trusted to their fidelity, ordering that the hospital should have no action against them. He gave also to this hospital, the gilt cup which was the blessed St. Edmund's, and the remainder of the lease of the land of William Manduyt in Therting, with the two ploughs there.
He bequeathed 20 marks to be distributed by Sir Roger de Tremelye, to the poor of the diocese, for the soul of William le Encyse; and 30 marks for the soul of Dionise de Cotton, to be distributed by William de Whitewell, to the poor of the diocese, and Cotton in particular, where Dionise was born; and 20 marks more to the poor of Henyngham for Dionise's soul: and to the monks or St. Faith's one mark; to the poor of Beccles and Wyrlingworth. and the poor parents Jeffry de Beccles, 20 marks, by the hands of Sir Philip, his register, and Daniel de Beccles.
Sixty marks to be distributed to the poor of the several manors in the diocese, in which Maud Countess warren (fn. 224) had her. dower, for her soul.
To the lady Ela, his sister, a ring of 20s. To Agnes de Therling, his sister, the like. To Ela, his niece, 5l. to find her provision in her cell; (fn. 225) to the children of John de Banningham, senior, because they had no support, 5 marks; and the same to Henry de Ingworth's; and 20 marks to all his poor relations on his mother's side.
To his poor parishioners of Winterton and Somerton, (fn. 226) 4 marks, and the same to each town of Burgh in Freg, Burgh in Suffolk, and the chapel of St. Butolph there, to be divided among his poor parishioners; and to his poor parishioners of Cressingham and Narringes 3 marks each town.
To the Archdeacon of Norwich, his brother, (viz William de Calthorp alias Suffield,) that ring which was Sir Roger's, (fn. 227) his brother, and his great cup and mazre out of which he generally drank at table
To Walter de Calthorp, his nephew, a cup, and his decretal, which was master John de Offington's, the summary then lent to master John de Atlebergh, all his divinity books bought of the executors of Adam de Bromholm, and his other books of decretals and philosophy: for which he required him as long as he lived, to feed yearly 100 poor people on the day of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, and for three years after his death, to celebrate an annual, and every day of his life, that he was at home in his own house, to feed a poor person for his soul.
He gave also to William de Calthorp, brother to the said Walter, all his armour, the fine standing cup, and his emerald ring; and for the many kindnesses and services done him, commanded him also, every year, to feed 100 poor people on the Assumption day, for his soul; and give a poor person a dinner every day in the year, and cause a mass to be celebrated every week for his soul, by his own chaplain in his private chapel.
To his faithfull and beloved William de Whitewell be bequeathed the image of the Virgin, given him by Master Roger de Raceningham, and his picture drawn by Master Peter, 2 books of sermons, and his great girdle to gird him with when he grew old,; and his cup and plate that he constantly used.
A ring to the Archdeacon of Colchester. Another to Master Hervy de Fakenham. A standing cup and great Bible to Master Hugh de Corbrige. To Sir Giles his chaplain, a mazer, a furred cap, a missal, a silver cup, and 5 silver spoons. To William, the clerk of bis chapel, 40 shillings, and a book of pricked songs, which was John Bygot's. To Mathew his chaplain 5 marks, and his best gown. To William de Wichingham, a standing cop, and 5l. To Hugh his chamberlain, his bed and all its furniture, except the silk coverlets, all which he gave to St. Giles's hospital; ordering that if he died any distance from Norwich, his body should be opened, and his Heart taken out, and carried and re posited in the chapel of this hospital, (fn. 228) in a cavity made in the wall by the high altar.
He quitted H. de Caylli of all his debt; and gave to Ralf de
Crakeford a cup. To Reginald de Refham 5 marks. To John his
cook 5 marks. To Gilbert his Salter, a corrody in the hospital, viz.
food and clothing there during life. To Adam the groom 5l. to
Coleman, Hugh the butler, Wakke and John the hostiler, 5 marks
each. To The. Ward 5l. To Seman the cook 5 marks. To Gille
2 marks. To Jeffry de Lodne, formerly clerk of his kitchen, 2 marks.
To Ralf groom of the chamber, 3 marks. To Jeffry his baker, 3
marks. To Nicholas his malster 20s. To Capun 20s. To Little
Simon 30s. To John the carter 3 marks, and one of his second best
gowns. To Richard the carter 3 marks. To Dusing 30s. To Hobbes
the carter 20s. To Roger, the carter at his house at Horne, 3 marks.
To Simon his smith 3 marks. To Jeffry his watchman and porter 1
mark. To Maud his washer 20s. To Stephen his messenger 2 marks.
To Windelaboys x.s. To William his own messenger 5l. To Buleys
x.s. To Peter the baker 20s. and 20s. to his servants. To William
the malster 20s. and his boys a mark. To Nicholas and William, his
two own pages, 3 marks. To Guse x.s. Saundre x.s. Neeve x.s. To
Banningham, who took care of his bed, 1 mark. To the 2 water
carriers to his kitchen 25s. each. To Martin the scullion 1 mark.
To Robert Kidort a mark. To Jeffry under-cook 1 mark. And to
Godwin, the other under-cook, x.s. To William his bullet-maker.
service, a livery of his suit; and to such as had not legacies before, half a mark each.
To the ringers, and those that kept the cathedral dean, 1 mark. Henry and Richard his shoe-makers, 5s. each To Jeffrey his underchamberlain 20s. To Trot, Nic. Syre, and Gwyliot, 5s. each; and the same to Warde of Hasingham. To Jugeram, Scot, Cruste, and the porter's boy, each 3s. To Will. de Wichingham and Hugh the chamberlain's boys, half a mark each.
To Will. de Foteston, clerk, a silver cup. To Daniel de Beccles a standing cup and 20 marks, for the goods he had of Master Will. de Horham's, all expenses that he did about Grundesburgh church being deducted.
Twenty marks to Hugh, chaplain of Dingineton (or Dennington), which he owed him. 10 marks to Brunedis (or Brandish) poor, as desired by William, rector of Dingineton. To Will. de Pakenham, junior, 5 marks. To Osbert Trenchefotie, Robert de Islington, Will. de Lega, (or Leigh,) 2 marks each. To Masters Nigell and William, a ring each.
To Brother Philip de Flitcham 2 marks. To Robert, vicar of Ludham, a standing cup. To Tho. de Bukenham and John de NorthEhnham, a silver cup each. To Richard de Branteston, Robert de Crakeford, William de Heningham, and William de Harpele, 5 marks each. To Jeffry de Crakeford a ring.
To Robert his servant at Baketon (in Suffolk) 4 marks. To his servant at Wykes 20s. To Will. of England or English, and Scot of Hoxne, 4 marks each. To Scot of Therling 5 marks. To Pruet at Geywood 3 marks. To William Sopere 1 mark. To Shyming 1 mark. To Hamon de Fincham 20s. To William his smith 20s. To John Stuket 3 marks. To Walter de Grey, who kept his bouse at London, 20s To Adam, his steward at Len, 5l. and 10 marks a year as long as he was steward. To Richard, his goldsmith at Len, 3 marks; and money for 2 annuals to be celebrated in the diocese for the souls of all his deceased servants.
To John, the clerk of his courts, 20s. To Adam of Wichingham 20s. To Gotte of South-Elmham 3 marks. To Adam the warner of Eceles 20s, To all his warners (fn. 229) in common 3 marks. To every boy in his service, a livery of his suit; and to such as had not legacies before, half a mark each.
To his successour in the see, his ancient cup of curious workmanship, beseeching God to direct him in the way of eternal salvation; recommending to him next the care of his bishoprick, the hospital of St. Giles, and all his servants, who had faithfully served him and the church; for which doing he gave them God's blessing and his own, declaring that if they had offended in any point, he forgave them; absolving them as much as he could, (fn. 230) from all their sins, in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
And to perform this his will, he gave all his silver and gold, jewels and horses, corn, sown and unsown, wards and farms, and all debts due to him, with all his goods whatever. moveable and immoveable, to Walter de Calthorp, his nephew, Jeffry de Lodne, William de Whitewell, William de Pakenham, Sir Hamon, master of St Giles's hospital, Master Hugh de Corbrig, and William de Wichingham, his executors, commanding them to forgive all amerciaments due from poor people, either from his temporalities or spiritualities, and all debts due from poor clergy, on account of sequestrations or otherwise.
From which we may learn, what hospitality was kept in those days, when the Bishops had houses in all parts of the diocese, that each part might have its share of their hospitality; this prelate having no less than seven houses for that purpose, viz. Norwich, Geywood by Lyn, Eccles, and North-Elmham, in Norfolk; Hoxne, South-Elmham, and Baketon, in Suffolk; besides his city house at London, and his country house at Terling in Esscx.
11. SIMON DE WALTONE, born at Wauton, or Walton D'eyville in Warwickshire, was chaplain to Henry III. one of the justices of the court of Common Pleas in 1245, and so continued in 1255. (fn. 231)
In 1259, by reason of the great poverty of the canons of Peteristan, he appropriated the church of West-Lechesham, (or Lexham,) which was of their patronage, after the death of Nicholas, sirnamed the Englishman (or English) then rector there, to their convent, assigning all the corn, and half the house and glebe to them, the rest to the vicars; it is dated at Krec (or Crec) 4 id. Aug. 8. (fn. 232)
In 1259. he was summoned, among others, to appear at Shrewsbury, ready with horse and arms to attend the King going against the Welsh; (fn. 233) when all the tenants in capite in the county, who held a whole knight's fee, were also summoned to do their service.
In 1260, he granted an indulgence to Pynelye nunnery in Warwickshire. (fn. 234)
In 1268, the King directed his writ to him, to levy immediately according to Walter's taxation, and send him the tenth of all the ecclesiastical benefices in his diocese, (fn. 235) which had been granted by the prelates to be laid out for the common benefit of the kingdom; (fn. 236) and if he delayed, the sheriff had orders to levy forthwith.
At his consecration, he obtained license of the Pope to hold all his former livings and preferments in commendam, for four years. (fn. 237)
He died in a good old age, Jan. 2, 1265, (fn. 238) and was buried by his predecessor in the chapel of the Blessed Virgin, at the east end of the cathedral; leaving Simon de Wautone or Walton, his brother's son, who dwelt at Chesterton, and Walton D'yville in Warwickshire, his heir. His arms are,
12. ROGER DE SKERNING, or Scarning, so called from a town of that name in Norfolk, (fn. 239) the place probably of his birth, was first a monk of Norwich; (fn. 240) in 1257 was elected Prior there, and 1265 chosen Bishop by the unanimous consent of the monks, and was consecrated by Ottobon, the Pope's Legate, at Canterbury, Sept. 19, 1266; in which year he appropriated the church of Whitewell to Pentney monastery; (fn. 241) and the disinherited barons sacked the city on the 16th of December, carrying away seven score carriages laden with plunder, as the Bury Registers say; for which affair see p. 53. The Bishop fled to Bury, and took refuge there, because the liberty of St. Edmund was much valued by the barons, who would not presume to infringe the same.
In 1267, Febr. 6, the King came thither, and the next day, Ottobon, the Pope's Legate and Deacon, Cardinal of St. Adrian, held a council there, with many bishops and nobles, and publickly excommunicated the disinherited barons that sacked Norwich; if they did not submit themselves to the King's peace in 15 days.
In 1275, Alan Musard prosecuted the Bishop and monks for sporting in his manor of Denham in Suffolk, he having the liberty of freewarren belonging to it. (fn. 242)
In 1276, he was summoned, with the rest of the bishops, to attend King Edward I. against Llewelyn Prince of Wales, who had rebelled against him. (fn. 243)
He died at his manor of South-Elmham in Suffolk, on St. Vincent's day, Jan. 22, 1278, (fn. 244) and was buried at Norwich, in the chapel of the Virgin, by Bishop Suffield, on the octaves of St. Agnes, Jan. 30, and is said to bear for arms, a rebus, viz.
13. WILLIAM DE MIDDLETON, who had been Archdeacon of Canterbury above two years, (fn. 245) succeeded to this bishoprick, being elected by the monks, according to the King's license dated at Dover, Feb. 11, (fn. 246) and on the 24th of the same month, being St. Matthias's day, was consecrated in the King's presence with great solemnity, by Robert Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambhithe, May 29, 1278, and had the temporalities of the see delivered to him the 5th of Nov. following. (fn. 247)
He was prebend of Bromesbury in St. Paul's at London, and official or dean of the arches-court at Canterbury: (fn. 248) and was inthroned at Norwich on Advent-Sunday, when the cathedral, which was then repaired and finished since its burning, was rededicated by him, in the presence of the King and Queen, and divers bishops and nobles, (fn. 249) as yon may see at p. 62.
Being a person excellently well versed in the canon and civil law, he was particularly concerned in the statute of circumspecte agatis, which passed in his time; of which I shall take notice under the liberties of the see.
He was of a good family, an eloquent preacher, remarkable for his morality and learning; and a great favourite of Archbishop Kilwardby. (fn. 250)
In 1279, when the King and Queen went to France, to do homage to the French King her father, for the province of Poictou, which he had with her, this Bishop was appointed one of the guardians of the realm in their absence. (fn. 251)
In 1286, on the 2d day of April, this Bishop consecrated the church and churchyard of Great Yarmouth, to the honour of St. Nicholas the Bishop, and translated the feast of the dedication for the future, to be held on the day of the Translation of St. Nicholas, April 7; (fn. 252) the dedication of the ancient church there being in honour of St. Benedict. (fn. 253)
In 1287, the King sent him into Gascoign, having made him his capital steward of the city of Burdeaux, where he kept such hospitality, and behaved so affably, that he was praised beyond all the nobility then there. (fn. 254)
In 1288, returning thence, he came to the country seat of his bishoprick at Terling in Essex, where he died, on the last day of August; (fn. 255) and being carried to Norwich, was there buried the 12th of Sept. following, in St. Mary's chapel, at the head of Bishop Suffield. (fn. 256) He bare for his arms,
He raised the family of the Middletons, lords of the manor of Middleton-Hall in Mendham in Suffolk, of which family was Richard de Middleton, a monk of Norwich, who in 1424 was rector of Marsham in Norfolk, and had the Pope's dispensation to hold any benefice that he could get, with cure of souls, although he was a monk. From this family the Middletons of Wichingham were also descended.
The very day the Bishop was buried, two of the Norwich monks were sent by the convent, according to the custom of England, to the King, (fn. 257) to obtain leave to elect a bishop, and they found him in the kingdom of Arragon, and having got his license, returned on Saturday before the feast of St. Martin, being the 6th of Nov. and on Thursday Nov. 11, being St. Martin's day, they proceeded to election by way of compromise, naming 8 persons to choose a bishop for them all, who unanimously chose,
14. RALPH DE WALPOLE, S.T. P. Archdeacon of Ely; which election displeased the whole diocese, so that every body cursed the convent in general, and the electors in particular; notwithstanding Which, they immediately dispatched a messenger to acquaint him with his being elected, and soon after sent three monks, to beg his consent to it; and then the Bishop elect, and two monks, went beyond sea to the King, and found him at a place called Le Bon-Guard, at the entrance of the kingdom of Arragon, who readily gave his consent, and on the day of St. Paul's Conversion, Jan. 25, they returned into England, and on the Sunday following, came, to the court of the Archbishop of Canterbury, where they were joyfully received; and on the Tuesday he was confirmed by the Archbishop, Bishop elect, at South-Mallinge in Kent, where the Norwich monks were publickly commended for their good management, and honest regular coarse of life, this election being much pleasing to the King, Archbishop, and other nobles; and on Midlent Sunday, March 12, (fn. 258) 1288, he was consecrated at Canterbury, by John de Pecham Archbishop there, who then accosted him in this manner.
"My Lord elect, there is a great abuse in the diocese of Norwich, in taking the first fruits of all benefices vacant in it, and it displeaseth both God and man, because it proceeds from a root of covetousness. (fn. 259) Wherefore I exhort you for the safety of your soul, that for the benefit of the churches of your diocese, you would not continue it, because it ought entirely to be laid aside."
"My Lord and reverend Father, I will readily do what you have advised, and as far as in me lies, I promise it shall be done." (fn. 260)
In 1298, he had a writ directed to him, among other bishops and nobles, to appear at the marriage of John Earl of Holand, and Elizabeth, the King's daughter, on Monday, before the Feast of the Epiphany. (fn. 261)
After he had governed his see with great piety and prudence about 11 years, the convent of Ely disagreeing among themselves as to choosing a bishop, the greater part being for John Salmon their prior; and the other part for John Langton Chancellor of England: (fn. 262) they both went to Rome, where they were persuaded to resign their interests into the Pope's hands, upon which he ordered a new choice, so that they chose any abbot in England, except those of Westminster, Bury, or St. Augustine's of Canterbury, which he did not like; but the proctors of the convent would not agree to it; which so angered his Holiness, that upon his own absolute authority he translated this Bishop to Ely, July 15, 1299, and gave Norwich to the Prior, and made the Chancellor Archdeacon of Canterbury; but he enjoyed it not long, for he died in the 13th year after his consecration, March 22, 1301, and was buried in his cathedral at Ely.
This Bispop is said to begin the building of the cloister, which is the fairest in England. (fn. 263)
He much advanced the Walpoles; (fn. 264) and being of the same family with the present  Earl of Orford, bare the same arms, viz.
15. JOHN SALMON, or son of Salomon, called also de Melreth, (fn. 265) the place probably of his birth, Prior of Ely, and for that reason, commonly called John de Ely, was promoted to this see by the Pope's own authority as aforesaid, July 25, 1299, and was confirmed by Archbishop Winchelsea, at Chartham, the 3d of Oct. following, and on the 15th of November was consecrated by him in Canterbury cathedral.
In 1303, he published an hortatory letter to the people of his diocese, to encourage them to contribute to the repair of St Paul's. (fn. 266)
In 1308, he was sent with divers lords to Rome; (fn. 269) and in 1309, summoned with other bishops, to bring the whole services they owed to the King at New-Castle, on Michaelmas day, to accompany him into Scotland, the Scots having broken the truce. (fn. 270)
In 1309, he was one of those bishops chosen to make ordinances for the government of the King's house and kingdom. (fn. 271)
In 1310, he was, with others, employed by the King to enquire after the injuries done by the French to the English. (fn. 272)
This year, he was appointed one of the commissioners to treat with the ordainers, about correcting the ordinances. (fn. 273)
And in 1315, promised for the King, that he would perform all the ordinances made by the prelates and great men, and moved the Earl of Lancaster to put away all doubt, assuring him the King had a good value for him.
In 1316, he was sent, with others, to the Pope at Avignion, to whom the Pope gave a receipt for the thousand marks pension for the kingdoms of England and Ireland, due for the year 1317, which pension the subsequent Kings were forced to pay, if they had any thing to ask of the Popes.
He was sent for by the King to consult with him before the coming of the cardinals, when the King acknowledged the receipt of 12,442l. 4s. 7d. 3q. (fn. 274) for a year's tenth, (fn. 275) of the clergy of the province of Canterbury, granted by the late Pope Clement the Fifth, at which time this see paid 2, 286l. 13s. 4d. of the said sum to the King, by command of Pope John XXII. who lent the same, in the name of the Roman church, to the King, on promise to repay it to the Pope or his order, in five years time.
And this year, he openly espoused the King's part, against the Earl of Lancaster, (fn. 276) who ruled all matters at that time.
In 1318, the Bishop sent a letter to the Prior, from the parliament at York, acquainting him, that to his great grief and insupportable expense, he was obliged to attend the King there till Lent, and so could not come to his diocese. (fn. 277)
And this year, he had license to purchase 47 perches and 4 feet of land in length, and 23 perches and 12 feet in breadth, to enlarge the. site of his palace at Norwich, which he was then building. (fn. 278)
In 1319, he was ordered, as were the other bishops, to have publick prayers through their dioceses, for the King then going against the Scots. (fn. 279)
And in 1320, was so much in favour, that in full parliament he was made Chancellor of England, and had the pieces of the old great seal allowed him as his fee. (fn. 280)
In 1321, he and the rest of the bishops and nobles were summoned to give the King counsel at New-castle: and the next year, the King being at Bishop's Thorp, by York, called this Bishop, then his Chancellor, and others, to a great and secret council, to be held on the 30th of May, when Henry de Beaumont, for denying to give the King his counsel, was committed to prison. (fn. 281)
In 1324, on the day before St. Andrew, the Bishop was at Rochester, for then he sent the Prior of Norwich an order to take a hogshead of white, and another of red wine, out of his cellar; (fn. 282) and on the 12th of December, he, and all his family and horses, were at Whitsand, going ambassadour to the King of France, and got to Paris the 3d of Jan.
In 1325, being still in France, he wrote to the Prior, then his ricargeneral, ordering him to admit no persons to benefices without testimonials, and knowing something of them; saying, that if he was present, he would not admit by their proctors (as was commonly done) any persons unknown or unseen, it being against his conscience, but would rather stand against their appeals, than injure that; and by a letter from Paris, dated May 31, he sent word, that peace was made between England and France.
Soon after, growing ill, he returned home, and died in Kent, at Folkestan priory, by Dover, (fn. 283) on Saturday July 6, 1325, and was brought and buried here, (fn. 284) most probably in the chapel belonging to the palace, which he himself built. (fn. 285)
Many and great were the works of this man, for he founded the charnel chapel, (now the free-school,) and ordained four priests to sing mass in it continually, for the souls of Salomon his father, Amy his mother, his own soul, and those of the Bishops of Norwich, his predecessors, and successours, and endowed it accordingly. (fn. 286)
He was summoned before the Pope's sequestrators, for exacting the first fruits of vacant benefices, from the clergy of his diocese, which he justified, and obtained a grant of confirmation thereof from the Pope, an account of which will occur under the liberties of the diocese.
16. ROBERT DE BALDOK, the King's Chancellor, and Archdeacon of Middlesex, was elected July 21, after the burial of his predecessor: the King gave his consent July 28, and he was confirmed by the Archbishop at Lambhithe, Aug. 11, and the 16th of August, he constituted Robert Prior of Norwich, his vicar-general; but being informed for certain, that the Pope had reserved the collation of this bishoprick to himself, and had collated another, he resigned the temporalities to the King, and the spiritualities to the Archbishop, in the monastery of Langdon by Dover, where they both then were, on Sept. 3, 1325, and it was notified to his vicar-general, Sept. 9. (fn. 287)
This great man "being evillie beloved, for the old English chronicle (calleth him a false peeld priest,) was apprehended in 1326," (fn. 288) laid into Newgate by Prince Edward and Isabell his mother, as favouring and being concerned with Hugh Dispenser, that haled minister, where he died of grief, and was buried in St. Paul's at London, May, 2, 1327.
In 1313, he was made Prebend of Oxgate in St. Paul's; Aug. 17, 1314, prebend of Bugden, in the church of Lincoln; Febr. 23, 1315, prebend of Masham in the church of York; Aug. 20, 1316, master of the house of the converted Jews in London; Dec. 3, following, he had the prebend which Thomas de Nova Haia (or Newhagh) had in the church of St. Andrew of Aukland; June 11, 1317, the King gave him the prebend of Preston, in the church of Salisbury, he being now parson of Weremouth, had the King's letters of protection July 8; and on Nov. 16, in this year, that prebend in the church of Westbury which William de Briston had. (fn. 289)
In the year 1319, saith F. Thinne, in his Catalogue of England's Chancellors, and out of an old anonymal Latin chronicler, this William Ayremin was keeper of the great seal, and was taken prisoner by the Scots: the words of his author are in effect thus in English.
The county of York, and the country adjacent, having received inestimable damage by the Scots, William de Melton Archbishop of York, John Hotham Bishop of Ely, and Treasurer, the Abbot of St.. Mary's at York, Sir William Ayremin, priest, Chancellor of England, the Dean of York; the Abbot of Selbie, and Sir John Pabenham, assembled together an army of 8000, to repress the violence of the enemy; this army consisted of clerks, monks, canons, and other spiritual men of the church, with citizens, and husbandmen, and such other unhapt people for the warrs. (fn. 290) With these the Archbishop came forth against the Scots, and encountered with them at a place called Milton, a little village upon the river Swale; over which river, the Englishmen were no sooner passed, but the expert warlike Scots came upon them, with a wing in good order of battle, in fashion like to a shield, eagerly assayling their enemies, who for lack of good government were easily beaten down and discomfited, without shewing any resistance: and there were slain by the sword and drowned in the river, above 4000, the residue being shamefully put to flight.
The Archbishop, the Bishop of Ely, the Abbot of Selbie, and divers others, with help of their swift horses, escaped. The Mayor of York, named Nicholas Fleming, was slain; and Sir John de Pabenham, (fn. 291) and Sir Will. Ayremin, priest, were taken prisoners.
April 4, 1322, the King gave him Wellington prebend in the church of Litchfield, and promoted him to the prebend of Fridaythorp, in the church of York, Aug. 31, 1323; and March 8, to the prebend of Stoke near Newark, in the church of Lincoln; Nov. 8, 1324, he was constituted one of the King's commissioners, to treat with Robert le Brus, and his accomplices, about a peace: he was now the King's chaplain, (fn. 292) keeper of the rolls, canon of Wells, (fn. 293) deputy to John Bishop of Norwich, chancellor of England, when he was sick; at whose death he obtained the bishoprick, contrary to the King's knowledge, for being sent ambassadour to the Pope, neglecting the King's business, he minded only bis own, and managed so, that at the request of Queen Isabel, whom be had a long time privately assisted in her wicked contrivances against King Edward II. was appointed Bishop here by the Pope's sole authority; which so provoked the King, that he sent down some of his guards to seize him at his landing; (fn. 294) but being advised of it, and getting safe to Norwich, the monks concealed him in their church, till by means of friends, and a very submissive letter to the King, his Majesty was reconciled: being appointed by the Pope July 19, 1325, (fn. 295) on Sunday Sept. 13, (fn. 296) he was consecrated in the church of St. Germain near Paris, and the 20th of that month, (fn. 297) made Sir Rich. de Ayremine, rector of Elvelay in York diocese, his chancellor; and Oct. 13, 1326, constituted his brother, Adam de Ayremyne, rector of Geyregrave in York diocese, jointly with John Skyren, rector of Rollesby, his officials and vicars-general or chancellors, Sir Richard having quitted that office. Nov. 9, 1326, he was admitted to his temporalities, and Dec. 19, had his mandate for inthronization. (fn. 298)
The next year, the power being devolved into the hands of Queen Isabel, and Prince Edward her son, he was made Chancellor of England, (fn. 299) and afterwards Treasurer: (fn. 300) and this year he collated his brother Adam, then his chancellor, to the archdeaconry of Norfolk, and had license from King Edward III. dated at Peterburgh, April 14, (fn. 301) in the first year of his reign, to enclose his palace, and all his manor houses with stone walls, and to embattle them, and so keep and leave them fortified in that manner.
In 1329, he purchased of Roger de Morteyn and Isabel his wife the manor of Silkeby, Northwillughby manor and advowson, and Lasford manor in Lincolnshire; (fn. 302) and the next year had a charter of freewarren granted him in his manor of Crathorne in Yorkshire, (fn. 303) and an allowance of free-warren in Osgodby manor in Lincolnshire, which was first obtained to that manor by Jeffry de Sancto Medardo, lord there in 1251.
In 1330, April 9, he returned home from beyond sea, and the 13th of the same month was sent over sea again, but returned May 17. (fn. 304)
In 1331, he purchased to himself and his heirs, of Tho. de Morle of Norwich, and Beatrix his wife, whose inheritance it was, (fn. 305) the advowson of the church of Thurverton or Thurton; (fn. 306) and the same year, sold to John Lely of Carleton, clerk, his lands and tenements in EastRuncton, which he had of Master John de Yaxley, tent-maker: before his death, he gave 200l. to purchase an estate to be settled on the cellerer's office, on condition the cellerer and sub-cellerer, should daily celebrate masses, after his death, for his soul; and distribute to the poor on his anniversary, two marks yearly; as was afterwards constantly done. He died at his house at Charing by London, (fn. 307) on Wednesday March 27, (fn. 308) 1336, in the eleventh year of his consecration, and was buried in the cathedral before the high altar, and his death was signified to the King April 3. (fn. 309)
This Bishop, by purchasing in Lincolnshire, seems to have been a native of that county, (fn. 310) and was the raiser of the family of Armines of Osgodby, (fn. 311) who are descended collaterally from him, they still bearing his arms: viz.
18. THOMAS DE HEMENHALE, so called from a village of that name in Norfolk, was first a monk of Eye in Suffolk, and afterwards removed to the monastery at Norwich, where he behaved so well, that at the death of Ayremine, the chapter elected him Bishop, on the 5th of April, 1337. (fn. 312) But it being certified to the convent that the Pope had reserved the turn of the bishoprick to his own provision, he wisely submitted his election to the holy father, who voided it entirely, but at the same time caused him to be consecrated Bishop of Worcester, at Rome, where he then was, in order to persuade the Pope to ratify his election here. He is falsely called by Godwin (p. 515) Thomas Hennihall. (fn. 313)
10. ANTHONY DE BECK, Bek, Beek, Beke, or de Becco, was descended from the ancieut family of the Beks of Eresby, of which Anthony de Beck Bishop of Durham died in 1311, (fn. 316) and his brother, Thomas, Bishop of St. David's, was translated to Lincoln in 1319, both which seem to be cousins to our Bishop, and the former being of the same name, hath been by some mistaken for the same person.
Our Anthony being doctor of divinity of Oxford, Dean of Lincoln, (fn. 317) and an old courtier and retainer at the court of Rome, having been some years a clerk there, was by the Pope's mandate made Bishop of Norwich, April 7, 1337, (fn. 318) and had his temporalities restored by the King July 9. (fn. 319)
Being at Rome, immediately after his consecration, he appointed brother William de Claxton Prior of Norwich, and Master John de Fentone Archdeacon of Suffolk, his vicars-general; and afterwards chose Benedict or Bennet of Norfolk, a famous Austin friar of Norwich, his suffragan, and got him ordained titular Bishop of Sardis. (fn. 320)
He was a person of an unquiet spirit, so imperious, that when John Stratford Archbishop of Canterbury designed to visit his church and diocese, because he did not observe the usual order of visiting other dioceses first, he declared he would oppose him; and accordingly, scorning to have his actions called in question by any body, when the Archbishop in person expounded his own cause, standing in a pulpit made for that purpose on Tombland before the church-gates, he was hindered by the citizens from fulfilling his intended visitation; and a monk of Norwich came forth, and in the same pulpit declared before them all, and pretended to prove, that the cause of the Archbishop's visitation was null and void; (fn. 321) when the King heard of it, and was informed that the people of Norfolk and Suffolk were prepared to resist this metropolitical visitation with an armed multitude, he wrote immediately to William de Bohun Earl of Northampton, and Bartholomew de Burghersh, commanding them to repair to these parts and enquire, attach, and commit to prison, all those who had opposed the Archbishop; and at the same time, by letter dated at Westminster Nov. 29, 1342, he ordered the sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk to keep them in prison. This quieted the people, but not the Bishop, who appealed to the court of Rome, affirming he would answer in no other place, to those things objected against him. (fn. 322)
After this, he began to tyrannize over the monks, bereaving them of divers of their ancient and long enjoyed privileges, suffering them to do nothing in their house but what he listed, plucking down and preferring among them whom he liked; and to carry on this, he summoned the prior and seniors of the monastery, to appear before him at his manor-house at Hevingham, where he then resided; and there he enquired into, and debated, who had the power to elect and settle the monks in the greater offices; and it was found and agreed to by the senior monks, that the election of the officers into the greater offices belonged only to the prior and seniors; but the settling and confirming them, to the bishop only; (fn. 323) which being granted and concluded, he dealt so rigorously with the monks, that it.got him the hatred of all men, which proved his destruction, for he never after came from Hevingham; but being poisoned by his own servants, instigated thereto probably by the monks, he died Dec. 19, Ao. 1343, in the 7th year of his consecration, (fn. 324) and was buried in the cathedral, but the exact place where, is not known.
20. WILLIAM BATEMAN, commonly called William de Norwico, or William of Norwich, from the place of his birth, was son of William Bateman of Norwich, and Margery his wife: who was no less than eleven limes one of the bailiffs, between 1301, and 1326, in which year he served in parliament as burgess for the city: be was a considerable owner both in Norfolk and Suffolk, and was lord of a freetenement or manor in Titshall. (fn. 325) Sir Bartholomew Bateman of Flixton, Knt. was his eldest son, and heir to his brother the Bishop, as well as his father; from him the Batemans of Mendham in Suffolk are descended in a direct line, (fn. 326) that family being seated there and at Flixton ever since the bishop's time, who chose to purchase much thereabouts, it being near the palace of South-Elmham, which he much delighted in, and chiefly resided at.
The nunnery of Flixton, in one of the parishes of South-Elmham, he much favoured, being so great a promoter of its foundation, that he gave them a body of statutes or rules to live by. (fn. 327)
He was educated at Norwich, most probably among the monks there; and taking a peculiar liking to the civil law, went and studied at Cambridge, and commenced doctor in that faculty, when he was about 30 years of age; and being always of a bright genius, was particularly remarkable for his great knowledge, not only in that, but most other branches of good literature: upon which account, Bishop Ayremine, in 1328, collated him to the Archdeaconry of Norwich, and recommended him to the court of Rome; where he was so much liked of, that rising from one inferiour office to another, at last ha became Auditor of the Pope's own palace; and one of his chaplains, and was afterwards made Dean of Lincoln, by his provision, in 1343; was twice sent ambassadour from the Pope to make peace between the Kings of England and France; the see of Norwich being void, he was unanimously elected by the convent, Bishop there, (fn. 328) they not knowing that the Pope had reserved the provision to himself, till his letters came to them, which made them much uneasy, but to their great suprise and satisfaction, when they were opened, his Holiness had provided the same person they had elected, for their Bishop, and he was confirmed accordingly by Clement VI. Jan. 23, 1343, and by the King shortly after, and staying some time at Rome, was there consecrated in 1344, being obliged to continue there, to execute the King's commission, directed to him, Mr. Tho. Fastolf Archdeacon of Norwich, and others, to treat with the ambassadours of Philip de Valois, the French King, before the Pope, not as judge, but as mediator between him and the King of England, (fn. 329) which being finished, he came home, and was received at Norwich by all sorts of people, with the greatest pleasure and honour that could possibly be, and as the former part of life had gained him universal esteem, he took the utmost care that the rest should be of the same kind; for though he was a person of a great spirit, and a zealous assertor of the rights of his church, yet his constant affability, generosity, morality, and diffusive charity, was such, that he was always admired and beloved by the generality of those that knew him.
In 1344, he was one of the commissioners with Edward Prince of Wales, and others, to treat with the Pope's Nuncio, the Archbishop of Ravenna. (fn. 330)
In 1345, he visited the prior and chapter, and whole diocese, and insisted upon visiting the abbey of Bury, (fn. 331) notwithstanding their exemptions; (fn. 332) upon which the Abbot impleaded him in the King's court; setting forth, that contrary to the privileges granted by Cnute, Hardicnute, and many other Kings of England, confirmed by divers Popes, Archbishops of Canterbury, and the grant of Ailwin Bishop of Norwich, the present Bishop of Norwich had cited him to appear in his ordinary visitation, and continued his prosecution against him, for nonappearance, contrary to the King's prohibition obtained, to stop all such proceedings, knowing at the same time, that the charter of Hardicnute subjects any one that endeavours to violate the privileges of St. Edmund, to the penalty of 30 talents of gold for so doing; to which the Bishop answered, that it was not to the detriment of the Crown, because he continued the suit in relation to spirituals only; but it was found by the jury, that he was culpable for so doing, and consequently incurred a premunire, and a writ issued to the sheriff to seize all his temporalities, and though for such contempt, the King might seize the body of any archbishop or bishop, (as the court affirmed,) yet out of reverence to the church, the caption of his body was respited to the octaves of St. Hilary, and his temporalities adjudged to remain in the sheriff's hands, till the 30 talents were paid into the Exchequer: and John de Lincoln, the King's Attorney-General, moving to know how much the 30 talents amouuted to, it was found to be 10,000l. and accordingly the King recovered that sum. The judgment being confirmed, on its being declared, that he incurred the premunire, for continuing the proceedings in his spiritual court, after the King's prohibition was served, and for excommunicating Ric. Freysel, the Abbot's attorney, who served it: (fn. 333) it being resolved that those proceedings were in defiance of, and to the lessening of, the King, injury of his royal authority, and open disherison of his crown and dignity. (fn. 334)
And the said Freysil brought his action against the Bishop, the Prior of Kersey, Master Hamon Belers, Master Simon de Sudbury, Doctors of Laws, John O. Canon of Hartford, Master James, rector of Wrabnese, and Lodowic, Official to the Archdeacon of Suffolk, the Bishop's clerks, for excommunicating him, and recovered 1000 marks damage; which being not immediately paid, Master James was imprisoned at Bury, and the rest either hid themselves, or fled the kingdom, till the Bishop paid the money for them; (fn. 335) but though judgment was given for the Bishop to pay the 10,000l. and his temporalities were seized till he had done that; and absolved Freysil from his excommunication; and a day was assigned for his body to be seized on non-compliance, yet he moved by writ of erronr, to hinder rt; but on a fall discussion of the matter, the judgment was confirmed: however, he would not pay it, nor absolve Freysil, neither did they seize his body, but assigned day after day till the year 1347, and then the Archbishop calling a council at London, in St. Paul's church, on the 25th of Sept. where he and twelve Bishops were present, the Bishop of Norwich complained, that the immunities of the clergy were daily infringed, by temporal officers; and in particular, set forth the great injuries done to the temporalities of his bishoprick, his cattle, corn, and other things on his manors being carried away; declaring that they went even beyond this very judgment, by seizing on donations to preferments merely spiritual, as archdeaconries, rural deaneries, &c. and above all, he expatiated on the contempt offered his body, which was then liable to be seized by judgment confirmed in the King's Bench, contrary to the express liberties of archbishops, bishops, and other ordinaries. (fn. 336)
Upon this, I am apt to believe he came off, because the final agreement made between the Bishop and Abbot is said to be in a chest in the vestiary of the convent, and is not copied into the register, it not being so much (I suppose) to the monks desire, as they expected: For it is evident he was in the King's favour this very year, by his being joined with the Earl of Lancaster and others to treat of a truce between France and England.
Yea, so strict was he in preserving the liberties of his church, that he would not suffer them to be infringed, through fear of the King, or any great men whatever; (fn. 337) for when Rob. Lord Morley, a great favourite, at that time lieutenant of Norfolk, taking advantage of the aforesaid judgment, and of the seizure of his temporalities, (fn. 338) had on pretence thereof committed waste upon his manors, killed his deer in his parks, and abused his servants who opposed him in so doing, he openly excommunicated him, and though the King and many nobles earnestly interceded for him, some time requesting, and at other times threatening, (fn. 339) yet so resolute was he, that he forced him, by way of penance, to walk through the publick streets of the city, to the cathedral church, bareheaded and footed, holding a wax taper of 6 pounds weight in his hand, and there in the midst of a great concourse, offer it at the high altar, and beg pardon for his offence.
About this time, he designed the foundation of Trinity-hall in Cambridge, (fn. 340) and for that purpose purchased a certain inn in Cambridge, (fn. 341) of John Crawdene, (fn. 342) the twenty-second Prior of Ely, who had bought it and used it as an hostel or inn, for the reception of the young monks of Ely, coming thither to improve in learning; for which reason, (fn. 343) the Bishop afterwards permitted John de Aslakby, rector of Sudborne, with the chapel of Orford in Suffolk, to resign them, and received a pension of 40l. per annum out of the Prior's manor of Sudborne, and then that rectory was appropriated by the Bishop to the Prior of Ely, and a vicarage instituted there. (fn. 344)
At first, he established a chest in the said inn, called Trinity Chest, and put in 100l. and by the benefactions of well disposed people to it, the students were supported there; and it seems to have continued so about two years, till that terrible pestilence happened, (which you have an account of at p. 92–94,) and swept away most of the clergy in Norwich diocese, so that there could not be found sufficient to supply the parochial cures, for which reason the Bishop resolved to found this college, for a constaut supply of clergy for his diocese, and for that purpose, he instituted a master, three fellows, (fn. 345) and three scholars, all of them to be students in the canon and civil law, in which faculty he himself was very eminent; and in honour of the Holy Trinity, (to which his own cathedral was dedicated,) he built and consecrated this college, between the years 1349 and 1354. (fn. 346)
And that their subsistance should not be altogether precarious, he resigned the rectory of Blofield in Norfolk, which he then held in commendam, by the Pope's bull, appropriated to his own table during life, it being of the patronage of his own see; (fn. 347) and on the 29th of April, 1350, (fn. 348) instituted Robert de Stratton, bachelor of laws, the first master of the college (fn. 349) to it, on condition that the profits should go to the college, towards building and endowing it for nine years; and if it was not finished and endowed at nine years end, then for nine years more, and at the end of that term, it was to be as ample a rectory as heretofore, and to continue in the gift of the see; the rector, in the mean time, being to have a pension of 10l. per annum out of the profits, or if he chose to live in college, he might; and have meat, drink, and clothing, as a fellow, and 10 marks a year for the first nine years; and the same, and 10 pounds a year, for the last nine years; or otherwise if he chose it, he might have 20 marks a year, and live where he pleased; so that he had the living served, all residence being dispensed with for 18 years.
The next addition he made to it was the advowsons of Briston and Brynyngham (Burningham) in Holt hundred in Norfolk, (fn. 350) which he procured, and had conveyed to divers trustees, who released them to Robert de Stratton, custos or keeper of his hall at Cambridge, (fn. 351) to whom the Bishop, with the consent of the Prior and Chapter, had granted license to receive and appropriate them, they being held in capite or chief of the bishoprick, (fn. 352) and accordingly the 14th of Aug. 1360, Briston and Kimberley (fn. 353) (which advowson he had also procured) were appropriated to the college, and vicarages ordained on each, (fn. 354) to which the college nominated two, and the Bishop chose which he pleased; and the 15th of Oct. following, Briningham was appropriated to them also, and no vicarage reserved, on condition they paid a pension of a mark per annum to the Bishop, and duly served it by a stipendiary curate,
And to augment his college still further, in 1351 he appropriated the church of Wood-Dalling (after having purchased the advowson) to the college; reserving a pension of 30s. to the see, and a vicarage of 20 marks a year, to be presented to by the Bishop one turn, and the other turn the college was to nominate two, and the Bishop to choose one of them.
The same year also, he procured the advowsons of Stalham in Norfolk, and Coulyng or Cowlidge in Suffolk, and appropriated them both to the college; on the first he ordained a vicarage worth 10l. per annum (fn. 355) and reserved the house for the vicars, who were to be instituted by the bishop, the college always nominating two persons, and he choosing one of them; the latter was to have no vicarage, but be served by stipendiary curates, paid by the college, who were to pay also a pension of 2 marks a year to the see, for the loss of its first fruits; with these, and other temporal revenues settled on them, he endowed his college, and got it confirmed by the King, Pope Innocent VI. (fn. 356) the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Chapter there. (fn. 357)
He is said to have persuaded Sir Edmund de Gonvile, priest, to found a hall in Cambridge, called after his own name, which was dedicated to the Annunciation or Salutation, of the Virgin Mary, in 1348; but the founder dying in 1350, left a large sum of money in trust to this Bishop, for "him to finish and endow the hall he had begun; upon which, the Bishop, to bring that hall nearer to his own, in order, I suppose, if opportunity served, to join them, and make one large college, obtained an exchange of divers messuages, and settled Gonvile Hall where it now stands, (fn. 358) in the year 1353, upon which account he is reckoned the founder of it by many, and as a founder is daily commemorated in the college hall; (fn. 359) though I can find but little service he ever did it, otherwise than settling a. manor in Triplow, (fn. 360) and appropriating the churches of Mutford in Suffolk, and Fuldone and Wilton (fn. 361) in Norfolk, to the support of it; it evidently appearing that he much more favoured and forwarded his own foundation than this; however, it must be owned, he settled both their foundations so far, as to give each of them a body of statutes of his own composing; for on the aforementioned roll of the rules of Flixton nunnery, is this, "this bishope that sett downe this order for the nonnes, was fownder of Trynyte Halle in Cambryge, and appoyntid and made the rules for the governemente of that howse, and at that tyme dyd also ordeyne and sett downe the rewleis and statutes for Gunwell Haule, at the request of the fownder, and dyd bestowe certeyne comodyte theron, whose name was Wyllyam Bateman, seconde brother to Sir Bartlemue Bateman knyght, and the sayd byshop beying embasyor, dyed beyond the se; Mr. Bartlemue dyed and was buryed in thys abbey of Flyxton."
Immediately after the exchange, an agreement was made between the three Norfolk colleges, (fn. 362) that as they were of one county, so they should be as one, assisting and supporting each other in love and friendship; and to hinder disputes among them at all publick times, Corpus Christi or Bennet college was to go first, Trinity Hall, next, (fn. 363) and Gonvile-Hall (now Gonvile and Caius college) last; to which instrument the seals of the colleges and Bishop are fixed.
This Prelate got the first fruits of his diocese confirmed again to the see by Pope Clement VI. notwithstanding his clergy opposed it; (fn. 364) and gave to the high altar of his cathedral church two images of the Holy Trinity, one of great value, very large, in a tabernacle or shrine of massy silver gilt, the other a small one, with reliques of 20 pounds weight.
He was a great favourer of the regulars, as we may imagine by the many appropriations he consented to be made to them; not less than forty in all, and among others, he appropriated the church of Frenge in Norfolk, to the convent of his cathedral, on condition the profits were applied to find the monks shoes, and to pay 4s. a year to each monk on St. Thomas's day, and All-Saints, and to erect a chantry at the high-altar in the choir, for a monk to sing daily for his welfare while alive, and when dead, for his own soul, his father's mother's friends, and benefactors souls, and each monk to take the service by weekly course, and receive at the week's end 2s. (fn. 365) he ordained also, that every monk should receive 2s. of the Prior of St. Leonard, on Midsummer-day, and 4s. yearly, on the Assumption and Conception of the Virgin Mary, of the precentor and keeper of the infirmary, and that the monks bread and ale should be kept by a monk for the future.
In 1352, there was a great dispute between the Bishop and the Mayor and Corporation of Lyn, concerning the veiw of frankpledge, husting court, cognizance of pleas, &c. which passed in the King's court, in favour of the Bishop, it being then determined that the election of the mayor was not in the burgesses, but in the Bishop only; (fn. 366) after which, the Bishop agreed, that the burgesses, might and should henceforward for ever annually choose one of their own burgesses mayor, who when chosen, should be presented by some of the chief burgesses to the Bishop, at his palace of Geywood, as lord of the burgh, and if he be not there, then to the capital steward of his barony, if present, otherwise to his steward of Lenn, or the official of Lenn, in his absence, and that within 8 days after every election, at which time, he was to promise to execute his office to the best of his power, and to preserve and defend all the liberties of the church of Norwich.
He was sent by the King with Henry Duke of Lancaster, to the Pope, to acquaint him, that the kingdom of France being fallen to him by hereditary right, he intended to recover it by force and arms, but desired to satisfy him as to his title, before he began; which embassage was no sooner finished, but he fell sick, and died at Avignon, (fn. 367) Jan. 6, about three in the afternoon, (fn. 368) and was buried there, (fn. 369) in the cathedral church of St. Mary near the Pope's palace, in which the Pope's themselves were usually interred: his body being attended by the cardinals, archbishops, bishops, and other great men, the Patriarch of Jerusalem performing the service.
John Paschall, a famous Carmelite of Ipswich, (fn. 370) was suffragan (fn. 371) to this Bishop, who afterwards was Bishop of Landoff, and then Robert Hyntlesham (fn. 372) succeeded him in that office.
21. THOMAS PERCY, brother to Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland, bachelor of arts in the University of Oxford, at the instant request of Henry Duke of Lancaster, was by the sole authority of the Pope (contrary to the inclination of the monks, who could not be prevailed upon to choose him) made Bishop here, though he was but 22 years old, being dispensed with on account of his noble descent and personal abilities; (fn. 373) the Earl having sufficient interest with the King, he had his consent, and was admitted to his temporalities April 14, 1355, (fn. 374) in which year he was inthroned, (fn. 375) for then Sir John de Caston, Knt. claimed a fee at his inthronization; and threatened to bring an armed power and take it by force: upon which the King wrote to Guy de St. Clere, sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, and John Mayn, his serjeant at arms, to make proclamation that none should dare to appear armed at that solemnity, (fn. 376) and if any did presume so to do, to commit them immediately to the King's prison in Norwich castle.
Being angry at first with the monks, he endeavoured to appropriate all the deaneries of the cathedral church to the chapel of StMary in the Fields in Norwich, but being hindered by them, he repented him of his design, and became a real friend to the convent.
Wharton says it seems as if he did not come to England till the beginning of 1361; because on the 16th of February in that year, he made profession of his obedience to the Archbishop of Canterbury at Lambhithe, and renewed it in the church of Canterbury on Saturday before Whitsunday, in 1363; but it is a mistake, for in 1358 he visited his diocese personally.
In 1355, he appointed Thomas titular Archbishop of Nazareth, to be his suffragan, whose seal I have seen, by which it appears to me that he was a Bedingfield, the arms of that family being under his effigies.
In 1361, on the 15th of Jan. the cathedral steeple being blown down, and the choir much damaged, he gave 400l. out of his own purse, and obtained an aid of nine-pence in the pound of the clergy in his diocese to repair it.
In 1368, so great was the fear of an invasion of the French after the war was broke out. that it was ordained in parliament that all men between 60 and 16, as well clerks as laicks, should be armed and arrayed according to their estates, professions, and faculties, and be distributed into companies, ready to go against the King's enemies, for the defence of the church and kingdom, if they should presume to enter it: (fn. 377) and accordingly the King sent his writ to the Bishop, (fn. 378) commanding him to arm and array all abbots, priors, religious, and other ecclesiastical persons, to be divided in thousands, hundreds, and twenties, to be ready at all times.
He died at his manor of Blofield, Aug. 8, 1369, (fn. 379) and was buried in the cathedral, before the rood-loft, and by his will (fn. 380) bequeathed to the precentor or chanter, and his successours, a farm and lands in Kimberley, (fn. 381) Carlton, Crownthorp, and Wiclewood, for mass to be daily said at the altar of St. Thomas, for his soul; which William de Swynflet Archdeacon of Norwich, and his other executors, settled accordingly.
22. HENRY DISPENSER, or Spencer, (fn. 382) canon of Salisbury, was preferred to the bishoprick by the Pope, being properly called the warlike Bishop of Norwich; for in his youth he was a soldier, with his brother Spencer, a gentleman so greatly esteemed for his valour, that he was chief commander in the Pope's wars, so that his own service, added to his brother's interest, easily procured him this dignity, to which Urban V. granted his letters of provision, dated April 3, 1370; and the 20th of the same month, he was consecrated at Rome, (fn. 383) and on the 12th of July following received his spirituals of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the 14th of Aug. next, bis temporalities of the King; (fn. 384) so that what the Atlas talks, of a vacancy of two years, and what Godwin says of his being promoted by Adrian V. are both mistakes.
He was inthroned by William de Swyneflet Archdeacon of Norwich, and being of a very generous, charitable, and cheerful spirit, (as John Capgrave says, (fn. 385)) gained the affection of the secular clergy of his whole diocese which he much favoured; not liking the regulars, who oppressed the seculars as much as possible; for which reason he gave them no countenance, but hindered what appropriations he could, being made to them.
Godwin says, there was great contention between him and the monks for 15 years, who were forced at last to give him 400 marks, to enjoy their privileges as heretofore, which may be the reason they give us no account of him, as of their other Bishops." (fn. 386)
In 1371, the clergy granted the King an aid of 5000l. to raise which, every parish was ordered to pay 5l. 16s. the greater to help the less; at which time the Bishop certified for this diocese, that the county had in it 806 parishes, and was to raise 3674l. 16s. and Suffolk had 515 parishes, and was to raise 2926l. but by reason of the great poverty of the Suffolk parishes, they were excused at 5l. 12s. 7d. ob. each. (fn. 387)
In 1377, he had a great controversy with his men of Lenn, so that the many injuries done to one another caused the King and his council to send for the persons concerned, and determine that controversy. (fn. 388) Mr. Fox, in his Matirology, fo. 428, gives us the following account of it; only calls it Lennam (fn. 389), by mistake for Lenn. "The Bishop of Norwich, a little after Easter, coming to the town of Len, belonging to his lordship, being not contented with the old accustomed honour due unto him, and used of his predecessors before, in the same town, required with a new and unused kind of magnificence to be exalted: insomuch, that when he saw the chief magistrate or mayor of that town to go in the streets, with his officer before him, holding a certain wand in his hand tipped at both ends with black horn, as the manner was; he reputing himself to be lord of the town, (as he was,) and thinking to be higher than the highest, commanded the honour of that staff due to the mayor to be yielded and born before his lordly personage: the mayor, with the other townsmen, courteously answered, that they were right willing and contented with all their hearts, to exhibit that reverence unto him, and would so do, if he first of the council could obtain the custom, and if the same might be endured after any peaceable way, with the good wills of the commons and body of the town, or else, they said, as the matter was dangerous, they durst not take in hand, any such new alteration of ancient customs and liberties, least the populace (always inclinable to evil) should fall upon them with stones, and drive them out of the town; wherefore on their knees they humbly besought him, that he would require no such thing of them, and that he would save his own honour, and their lives, which otherwise would be in great danger. But the Bishop youthful and haughty, taking occasion by their humbleness to swell the more, answered, he would not be taught by them, though all the commons, whom he called ribals, said nay. And also rebuked the mayor and his bretheren, for mecokes and dastards, for so much fearing the vulgar sort of people.
"The burgesses perceiving the willful stoutness of the Bishop, meekly answered, they would not resist him, but he might do as he thought good, and only desired him to give them leave to depart and excuse their waiting upon him, and conducting him out of the town, with that reverence he required, for if they should be seen in his company, the suspicion would be upon them, and so they should all be in danger of their lives. The Bishop upon this, not regarding their advice, commanded one of his men to take the rod, born before the mayor, and carry the same before him; which the commons perceiving, he went not far in that manner, for the populace runned first to shut the gates, and some coming out with clubbs, bows and staves, others with stones, they let drive at the Bishop and his men as fast as they could, in such sort, that both the Bishop and his horse under him, with most part of his men, were hurt and wounded, "and thus the glorious pride of this jolly prelate ruffling in his new scepter, was receaved and welcomed there; that is, was so pelted with battes and stones, so wounded with arrowes and other instruments fit for so great a skirmishe, that the most part of his men, with his macebearer and all running away from him; the pore wounded Bishop was there left alone, not able to keep his power, which went about to usurp a new power more than to him belonged; thus as it is commonly true in all, so it is well exemplified here, that pride will have a fall, and power usurped, will never stand."
The truth is, though this is represented indeed, much to the prejudice of the Bishop, who was really of a high spirit, yet it seems as if he was not so much to be blamed in the affair, the gentry of the diocese, and the council themselves, inclining more to his side, as appears by their determination, and by the universal blame laid on the Lin men, who it was generally thought, exasperated the populace, and retired on purpose to raise a fray: for this prelate having laid aside the use of arms for several years, since he was bishop, during that time, had acted so well in general, as to be reverenced by the clergy, loved by the gentry, and looked upon by the poor as their father; (so untrue is that censure passed on him by Godwin; (fn. 390)) but yet when it was necessary, he made it appear he had not banished his courage, or lost his skill in warlike affairs; (fn. 391) for upon the rising of the commons in Norfolk, under that arch rebel Litester, in 1381, he attacked and totally subdued them; the whole of which affair being related before, p. 106–111, I need not repeat it here, only shall observe, that if the conspiracy formed against him the year following had not been happily discovered, (fn. 392) he had not lived to have performed any further services in war, either for the King or Pope.
The fame of his courage and skill in martial affairs being now revived, Pope Urban VI. having his title still questioned by the French, who adhered to the Anti-pope Clement VII. refusing to acknowledge Urban to be lawful pope, sent his bulls to this Bishop to levy men and arms to prosecute and fight his cause against the Antipope, constituting him general commander of all his forces in France; (fn. 393) and the French being enemies to England, King Richard II. by letters patent dated at Westminster Dec. 6, (fn. 394) confirmed those bulls, and issued a proclamation to raise men and arms accordingly, by virtue of which, the Bishop got great sums of money, jewels, necklaces, rings, and plate, especially of ladies, and other women, to obtain the benefit of absolution from their sins; (fn. 395) it being declared by the balls, that all those who either went with the Bishop, or contributed towards the expense of the expedition, were to have the same indulgence, as was usually granted to those, who went to the assistance of the Holy Land, so that by preaching up this croisade (fn. 396) in all places, many went in their own persons, others found men at arms, others archers, &c. Upon which, the Bishop seeing the forwardness of the people, and being pushed on by the Pope, after a strong opposition of most of the nobles, (fn. 397) obtained a fifteenth to be granted him for this service by the commons, upon his proffering in open parliament to raise 3000 men at arms, and 3000 archers, well mounted, to relieve Gaunt, reduce Flanders, and make war against the King's enemies in France, which was so approved of, that they agreed to it, (fn. 398) and confirmed to him the tax of the fifteenth on the laity; (fn. 399) the clergy also granted him a tenth, and the commons voluntarily offered him the 2s. per ton upon wine, and 6d. in the pound upon goods imported, which duties they had granted for the guard of the sea: for which be agreed absolutely to serve the King for one whole year, with 2500 men at arms, and 2500 archers, arrayed and mounted; of which 1000 men at arms, and a 1000 archers should be ready within 20 days after he had received the first payment; the Bishop being to pay the transports; all which the parliament gladly accepted, and the King assigned Sir Thomas Gerberge, Knt. Richard Hembugg, and John Morwell his Serjeants at arms, to provide quarters for the soldiers, and lodgings and provisions for the Bishop, and other nobles that attended him, in their passage through Kent, the Bishop paying for them: (fn. 401) and April 6, 1383, the King authorised Sir John Philpot, Knt. to press and ships men to the Bishop and his forces. (fn. 402)
Encouraged thus on all sides, the Bishop taking with him divers experienced captains and commanders, (fn. 403) as Henry Lord Beaumont, Sir Hugh Spencer his nephew, Sir Hugh Calverly, Sir William Farrington, Sir Thomas Trivet, Sir John Ferrers, Sir William Elmham, and Sir Mathew Redman, captain of Berwick, and many other knights, esquires, priests, and persons of distinction, taking ship at Dover and Sandwich, arrived at Calice, April 23, and was joyfully received by Sir John Delvarnes, captain there, who lodged the Bishop in the castle; here they staid till the 4th of May, expecting their marshal, Sir William Beauchamp, a valiant man, whom the King had sent for. from the marches in Scotland, where he kept frontier against the Scots; the King having ordered the Bishop and his company to stay for him, as a person fit for council and conduct in war: but the Bishop having tarried so long, could not bridle his courageous spirit, but contrary to order, (for which he afterwards sufficiently suffered,) made an inroad into Flanders, by consent of all the chief men in his army, except Sir Hugh Calverly, the most experienced soldier among them, who would not agree to it, both because the King ordered them to stay for their marshal, and because the people of Flanders were Urbanists, though they were conquered by the French, and they were to fight against the Clementines only; and lastly, because the forces did not seem to him sufficient for such an undertaking, without the additional forces the King had promised to send with their Marshal Beauchamp; however, all being determined to stay no longer, he marched with all his forces, being about 2000 horse, and 15,000 foot, into Flanders, (fn. 404) attacked Graveline, and took it in two days; and going to Dunkirk, the English encountered 12,000 Flemings, killed 9000 of them, and took the town; (fn. 405) and going thence to Burborough, that town yielded at once, and sitting down before the castle of Driceham, wan it in three days, and placing a garrison there, went and took and plundered Cassel, and the minister of St. Venant, and winning Newport, &c. became masters of great part of Flanders; and at last, closely besieged the town of Ipre, the men of Gaunt coming thither to the Bishop's assistance; and while the siege continued, the English made many skirmishes, and took many prisoners. (fn. 406) In the mean time, Sir William Beaumont, and Sir William Windsor, were made chief captains, and sent with divers other lords and great men, with strong forces to Dover and Sandwich, in order to be transported to Callice, to assist the Bishop; by which means the Duke of Lancaster's intended voyage into Portugal (fn. 407) was laid aside for this season; the whole realm favouring the Bishop's expedition before the Duke's: which angered that Prince so, that he privately worked against the Bishop, and endeavoured to hinder his progress, by retarding the forces that should speedily have been sent to his succour, for want of which he was forced to raise the siege of Ipre, and retreat into the garrisons of Graveline, Burborough, and Bergues, and being forced thence, returned into England with disgrace; (fn. 408) which was so much blazed abroad by the Duke of Lancaster and his adherents, that it was openly reported that he, Sir Tho Tryvet, and Sir William Elmham, (fn. 409) had sold Graveline (fn. 410) and Burborough, to the French King, so that those knights were committed to the Tower, and the Bishop was accused in parliament for not doing his service according to promise, and for receiving several sums, as well on this side the sea, as beyond; (fn. 411) and in particular with the receipt of 10,000 francks of gold for giving up the castle of Graveline to the French: of which the Bishop fully purged himself; but in repeating the matter, it appeared that 5000 francks of gold, given for the said castle, were then in the hands of Sir Robert Farmer's man, who being brought before the house, owned that he had it, but made a fair excuse for the secret taking of it; however, he was committed to prison till it was paid to the King, and till the house gave order for his enlargement, and a proclamation was issued Nov. 16,1383, that all such who had received any money beyond sea of the King's enemies, for any cause other than for due wages, should Immediately bring the same into Chancery, or else be taken as traitours to the realm.
3. Though it was agreed in the last parliament, that the (Duke of Lancaster) King of Castile, or some of the King's uncles, should have gone as general for the honour of the realm, yet it was not done, and thereupon the voyage was lost, for that the Bishop promised as good a general.
4. Though the King appointed to have some other temporal lords chosen, or a sufficient general, yet that was not done, because the Bishop took the same upon himself, by which means all this mischief happened.
1. That his commission was to go speedily to rescue Gaunt, which he performed, and that being done, both the people of Gaunt as well as his own captains, thought it best to besiege Ipre, where loosing many men by dint of sword and diseases; finding he could do no good, by general consent he removed.
4. He declared, he refused no lieutenant at the King's hands, but on the contrary, when the King wrote to him touching a general, he gave him many thanks for his great care of him; as by his letters appeared.
However, the Chancellor insisted his answer was not sufficient, but that he should make fine and ransome to the King; for payment of which the King might seize his temporalities whenever he pleased; and the Bishop was desired to declare the names of all such as were waged to serve the King one year in the wars, that they might serve him in other places; to which he answered, that upon delivery of Sir Robert Hulmer, his clerk and treasurer, he would do so, and he was enlarged accordingly; but yet the Chancellor not satisfied without the Bishop's further disgrace, declared, that though the King might pass judgment on the Bishop, as on a temporal lord, by reason he took upon him to serve as a soldier, and had the sword carried before him contrary to his profession, yet for that time his Majesty would spare laying hands on his person, for his imprisonment; but for his defaults, the lords by the assent of parliament adjudged him to make fine and ransome at the King's pleasure; to which he should be compelled by seizure of his temporalities; and he was commanded from thenceforth, no longer to have the sword carried before him: and accordingly his temporalities were seized in 1384, but the King being a great favourer of him, at the humble request of Thomas Arundel Bishop of Ely, they were restored in 1385, Oct. 24, and a writ directed to Sir Ric. Walgrave, Knt. Sir Edmund de Thorp, Knt. William Winter, and Robert Wayte, who had the custody of them, to restore them forthwith.
When the Bishop of Ely requested this restoration of the King, Michael de la Pole Earl of Suffolk, then Lord Chancellor, being much offended, brake out in these words; "What is that, my Lord, which you ask of the King? seems it to you a small matter for him to part with that Bishop's temporalities, when they yield to his coffers above one thousand pounds by year? little need hath the King of such counsellors, or of such friends, as advise him to acts so greatly to his hinderance." Whereunto the Bishop of Ely, not less truly, then freely, replied; "What sailh your Lordship, my Lord Michael? know that I require not of the King that which is his, but that which he (drawn thereunto by you, or by the counsel of such as you are) withholds from other men, upon none of the justest titles, and which (as I think) will never do him any good: as for you, if the King's hinderance be the thing you weigh, why did you so greedily accept of a thousand marks by year, at such time as he created you Earl of Suffolk?" the Chancellor was hit so home with this round retort, that he never offered any further to cross the restitution of the Bishop's temporalities. (fn. 412)
And thus ended this croysade or pontifical war, after an expense of no less than 37,475l. 7s. 6d. (fn. 413) raised for that purpose, besides other large gifts and aids, expended on that account; for all which, in 1391, the Bishop obtained a general discharge from the King, as well as pardon of all offences whatever.
In 1316, Richard Earl of Arundel, appointed admiral, and Thomas Mowbray Earl of Notingham; the Earl of Devonshire, and the Bishop of Norwich, went to sea, and took, a warlike power of men of arms, to watch for the fleet of Flanders, that was ready to come from Rochle with wines, and meeting with them, they set upon them, and took of them 100 vessels, all fraught with wines, so that wine grew so plentifull, that it was sold for 13s. 4d the ton, and the best and choicest for 20s. (fn. 414)
Besides this, they landed in Flanders, where they relieved and fortified Brest, and demolished two forts the enemy had built against it; but this happy service those that continued about the King seemed to envy, rather than commend, so that they had not at their return due thanks and commendations for their valour, either from the King or his ministry, though it was well known to all the commons, they really deserved it.
In 1387, he had license to embattle his two manor-houses of NorthElmham and Geywood. (fn. 415)
1389, the King wrote to him, and all the bishops in the realm, telling them he was bound by his coronation oath to withstand the incroachments of the Pope and his creatures, and that the commons in parliament had petitioned him to do so. (fn. 416)
The same year, the Duke of Lancaster came from Spain into England, and it seems had not quite forgot his dislike to our prelate, for the very next year was a great suit depending in the court of chivalry, between the Bishop, and William Baron of Hilton, concerning the voyage of the croisade, and the Bishop recovered against him, upon which he appealed, and Walter Bishop of Durham, Henry Earl of Northumberland, Rich le Scroop, and Will. Cawode, clerk, were assigned commissioners, and gave it against him; and then the Bishop appealed, and the King ordered his Chancellor to appoint judges to hear the Bishop's appeal, who recovered thereon. (fn. 417)
In 1396, Sept. 9, the Bishshop constituted William Carleton, LL. D. his vicar-general, it being said in his patent, that his Lordship was then going again beyond sea, in defence of the King's right and the Pope's jurisdiction, (fn. 418)
In 1398, the King having granted the custody of the manor of Breydeston (or Brason as it is now called) to Will Feriby, clerk, and Thomas Upton, during the minority of John son and heir of Sir Robert Carbonel, Knt. lord thereof, the Bishop had an inquisition taken before Robert Cavendish, then escheator for the county, and it being found that Sir Robert held that manor and advowson in right and inheritance of Margery his wife, who was then living, and that the said manor, with the advowsons of the churches of Braydeston, Strumpeshagh, South-Birlingham, North-Birlingham St. Andrew, and the chapel of Brundale, were held by knight's service of the bishoprick, the grant was recalled;
And now the Bishop granted license in mortmain to John de Brunham, John Waryn, and Rich. Dunz, to alien 3l. 16s. yearly rents in Len to the master and brethren of Corpus Christi gild in Len, those rents being held of the barony of his bishoprick. (fn. 419)
This year, John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster died, and the King seized his estates, (fn. 420) which much increased the people's hatred towards him, and so exasperated Henry Duke of Lancaster, his son, that he immediately projected matters to oppose him, and soon after, things being ripe, he was openly solicited to expel Richard; many of the principal towns, and among others, the city of Norwich, openly declared for the Duke, who now came with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Sir Thomas Erpingham, and others, to the English coast: Edmund Duke of York, who was left Governour in England during King Richard's absence in Ireland, was much surprised, and being assured that his nephew the Duke of Lancaster was arrived, endeavoured to assemble an army, but all in vain, nobody being willing to serve against the Duke; upon this the Duke of York, the Bishop of Norwich, the Lord Berkley, and others, went to meet the King in Wales, at his coming from Ireland, and at Berkley castle, being besieged by the Duke, the Duke of York perceiving they were not able to resist him, on Sunday after St. James's day came out of the castle into the church that stood without it, and communed with the Duke, and was there arrested and committed to custody, together with Sir William Elmham, and Sir Walter Burley, Knts. Laurence Drewe, John Golafer, Esqrs. and the Bishop of Norwich, who was not liked by the Duke of Lancaster, on account of the misunderstanding between him and his father, and was greatly hated by Sir Thomas Erpingham, whom the Bishop had been so rigorous with on account of Lollardy, (fn. 421) (fn. 422) he being a favourer of Wickliffe, that be had enjoined him to build the gate at the entrance of the precinct over against the west end of the cathedral, as a penance, which still remains with the word pena many times insculped thereon, and over it, in a niche, is his own statue in armour, on his knees, as begging pardon for his offence: however, King Henry IV. knowing his abilities, and how much he was esteemed by the populace, not only set him at liberty, but on Wednesday the 9th of February, 1400, the Bishop of Norwich came to the parliament, and the King caused him to be seated in his accustomed place, and then the King spake to Sir Tho. de Erpingham, his vice-chamberlain, then being between the Duke of York, and the Earl of Warwick, who sat there in their places, and said, that he took the accusations of the said Thomas, against the Bishop, to be good, and to proceed from great zeal born unto him, but yet considering the order of the Bishop, and that he was of the King's lineage, and being assured of his better behaviour, he frankly pardoned him all misprisions done against his person; for which, all the bishops gave the King thanks in open parliament, and desired him to make the Bishop and Sir Thomas shake hands and kiss each other, in token of friendship, which they did, and it afterwards proved real, Sir Thomas becoming a great benefactor to the cathedral, and a firm friend to the Bishop as long as he lived. (fn. 423)
He was a great enemy to all disturbers of the publick peace, as factious and seditious persons, and corruptors of justice; and such persons as being warned on juries and assizes, and acted contrary to their oaths, he diligently sought out, and as severely punished them; (fn. 424) and thus he wielded the spiritual sword, with as great courage as he had done the temporal, being exemplary for pious and charitable acts to the day of his death, which happened August 23, 1406. (fn. 425)
Denricus Ratus le Spenser, Miles amatus, Presul sacratus hic Rormicensis humatus, Florens Progenie Regali birgo putatur, Et Pugil Ecclesie, per eum quia Srisma fngatur, Lollardi Mores damnabit deteriores, Insurrectores perimens, necat et Proditores, Spirat ad Astra bom Pastoris Mens, Matutinis Dicendo, Domini est Terra; (fn. 426) fuit sibi Finis. M. Ouadringenn Uigili ser Bartholomei Christo sereno Regi peragrat Requiei. (fn. 427)
He died intestate, and Sir John Salmon, chaplain, administered; the right Rev. John, titular Archbishop of Smyrna, was his suffragan, being by him collated to the rectory of Threxton, in the year 1400. (fn. 428)
He was the first Bishop that put the arms of the see and his own on his seal; he bare on a penon, when he warred against the Anti-Pope, (fn. 429) his paternal arms in a bordure gul. as the difference of the youngest of the
23. ALEXANDER DE TOTINGTON, who had been Prior of Norwich some years, the day after the death of Bishop Spencer, called a chapter, in which it was agreed, that they should proceed to an election, upon the feast of the exaltation of the Holy Cross, commonly called Holy-rood day, Sept. 14, when all that had a vote came to the Chapter-house, and Alexander, who by his office was president, having made a speech to the assembly, Master William Stukle read the decretal, in which the method of a canonical election was ordained; which being done, Master Thomas Linne, the Sub-prior, at the instigation of Alan Quaplode, the precentor, none of the assembly expecting it, went to Alexander the Prior, and said, "I Thomas Lynne, in mine own and the chapter's name, do choose thee Master Alexander, Pastor and Bishop of the church of Norwich;" upon which, the whole convent was amazed, but none of them opposing this election, Master William Stukle began with a loud voice to say, We praise thee, O God, &c. Then they all rose and led him to the church, and placing him at the high-altar, one of the monks declared his election to be canonically made; but when the chapter, according to custom, presented it by their proctors, to King Henry IV. he refused to accept it, and imprisoned the Bishop elect in Windsor castle for almost a year, declaring he would not suffer him to enjoy his episcopal dignity quietly at all. (fn. 430)
It is certain he was a man universally beloved in his country, having behaved with moderation and affability to all men, during the many years he was prior here, for on the 17th day of Sept. the city, in a publick assembly, sealed two letters with the common seal, one directed to the Pope, and another to the King, (fn. 431) requesting he would confirm his election, it being agreeable to the whole diocese; however, he would not as then be persuaded to do any thing in his favour, but continued the custody of the temporalities of the see, which were then in his hands, in Sir Thomas Beaufort, Knt. who had them committed to him at Spencer's death: but at last, by the earnest entreaties of Dr. Thomas Arundel Archbishop of Canterbury; and several other nobles, who were much taken with the character of the good old man, he was received into favour, after having publickly resigned all right in the bishoprick by virtue of Pope Gregory's bull of provision, dated Jan. 19, and on the 23d of Oct. 1407, he was consecrated at Gloucester by the Archbishop, and the same day did his fealty to the King in the castle of Gloucester, and had then restitution of his temporalities, as the original writ in my own collections informs me; (fn. 432) and on the 6th of Nov. following, Thomas Prior of Canterbury, proctor for Master Robert Hallum Archdeacon there, who was then beyond sea, deputed John de Hoo, S.T.P. and William de Thetford, monks of Norwick, to inthrone the Bishop, the inthronization of all bishops in the province of Canterbury, and the fees thereof, by ancient custom, belonging to the Archdeacon of Canterbury for the time being, (fn. 433) to whom brother Will. de Thetford certified, that he had inthroned the Bishop, on the 20th of Nov. 1407, as the certificate in my hands testifies.
He died April 28, 1413, in the first year of the reign of King Henry V. and in the sixth year of his consecration; and was buried at the feet of Walter de Suffield, his predecessor, in the chapel of St. Mary, at the east end of the cathedral.
Being descended from Warner or Warine de Totington, lord of Totington in Norfolk, (fn. 434) whose arms he always bore, viz.
24. RICHARD COURTNEY, or Courtenay, LL. D. was son of Philip Courtenay of Pouderham in Devonshire, who was fifth son to Hugh Earl of Devonshire, by Margaret, daughter of Humphry de Bohun Earl of Hereford, and consequently kinsman to Will. Courtney late Archbishop of Canterbury, who was fourth son to the said Hugh and Margaret. (fn. 435)
The Archbishop being his godfather, took care of his education, and brought him up at Exeter college in Oxford, and in 1394, got him promoted to the prebend of Sneuting in the church of St. Paul in London, and dying in 1396, gave him a legacy in his will, in these words: Item, I bequeath to my son (fn. 436) Rich. Courtney an hundred marks and my books, in case he be a clergyman, (fn. 437) and my best mitre if he happens to be a Bishop. Which wish and omen Richard was not wanting to himself in obtaining; for about 1402, he was made dean of St. Asaph, admitted canon of York in 1403, went into Denmark with Phillipa, the King's youngest daughter, for wife to the King of Denmark, in 1405; (fn. 438) became canon of Wells in 1408, dean there in 1409, chancellor of the University of Oxford in 1407, and 1411, (fn. 439) and in 1413, (fn. 440) at the request of King Henry V. was elected Bishop of Norwich, and was consecrated by Archbishop Arundel at Canterbury, in the presence of the King and his nobles, and had restitution to his temporalities, on Sept. 11, in that year. (fn. 441)
The right rev. John, titular Archbishop of Smirna, who had been suffragan to his two immediate predecessors, was placed by him in his palace, where he constantly ordained in the chapel, and performed all other episcopal duties: the multiplicity of affairs which the King entrusted this Bishop with, hindering him even from installation, which he did not choose to have done by proxy, and so died before that ceremony was performed at all.
Being a person of excellent learning, great virtue, pious conversation, graceful personage, and above all, of uncommon eloquence, he so gained the affections of mankind, that he was universally esteemed, but particularly by the King, who employed him in the most intimate affairs of state.
In 1414, he was sent ambassadour to the French King, (fn. 442) with others, to demand the crown of France, and was appointed orator of that ambassy; the next year he had orders to put all the clergy in his diocese in condition of array suitable to their estates, quality, and revenue, and to return a certificate thereof into Chancery. (fn. 443)
He attended the King into Normandy, and was present at the siege of Harflue, and died there, of a dysentery or bloody flux, (fn. 444) Sept. 15, 1415, (fn. 445) and his body being brought over, was sumptuously buried among the Kings at Westminster, on the north part of St. Edward's shrine, behind the high-altar, just as you enter the door of that chapel.
And it appears by the inquisition taken at his death, that he died seized of the manors of Powderham, Plymton, Morton, Honyton, Alsington, and many others in Devonshire, which descended to him as eldest son and heir of Sir Philip de Courtenay, Knt. those manors, at the death of Hugh Courtenay Earl of Devonshire, his grandfather, being left to Sir Peter de Courtenay, Knt. his youngest son, and Sir Peter dying without issue, they came by entail to the bishop, at whose death they descended to Philip de Courtenay his kinsman and heir, be being son of John de Courtenay, Knt. the Bishop's deceased brother, and of the age of 11 years only.
25. JOHN WAKERYNG, so called from a village of that name in Essex, was instituted to the rectory of St. Bennet Sherehog in London, Febr. 21, 1389, being presented thereto by the Prior and convent of St. Mary Overy in Southwark. (fn. 446)
In 1405, March 2, he was made Master of the Rolls, and in 1409, Canon of Wells, and in right of his canonry or prebend of Shalford in that church, he presented to Shalford vicarage the same year; (fn. 447) and soon after became Archdeacon of Canterbury, (fn. 448) then Lord Privy Seal, and one of the select council to King Henry VI; (fn. 449) afterwards, in 1410, Lord Keeper of the great seal; (fn. 450) and in 1416, being elected Bishop here by the monks, was confirmed by the King, (fn. 451) and had his temporalities restored May 27, (fn. 452) and on the last day of the same month, was consecrated in St. Paul's church at London, by Henry Chichely archbishop of Canterbury, (fn. 453) and the very next day sent his commission to John Archbishop of Smirna, constituting him his suffragan, to consecrate, and reconcile or reconsecrate churches, churchyards, altars, cups, patins, corporals, vessels vestments, and other ornaments, and to confirm and confer the clerical tonsure on learned men, and to ordain to all orders, during the Bishop's pleasure. (fn. 454)
About the time of his promotion, there was a kind of general schism in the church, three Popes claiming the chair, at the same time, for which reason, least the English bishops should adhere to any of them, the Archbishop confirmed him himself.
The general council of Constance being called to remedy this schism, he was sent with Richard Earl of Warwick, the Bishops of London, Salisbury, Bath, Litchfield, and Hereford, the Abbot of Westminster, the Prior of Worcester, and the Abbot and Dean of York, with divers other doctors and learned men, besides knights and esquires, to the number of 800 horses, so well equipped both men and horses, that all nations marvelled to see such an honourable company, come from a country so far distant; being one of the six nominated by the English nation to elect the Pope, he behaved so well, that for learning and wisdom, he gained the applause of that learned assembly, and by the wise conduct of this council, the schism was composed, and Martin V. chosen Pope by the council, who after his instalment, freely ratified this Bishop's confirmation and consecration, without expense. (fn. 455)
Soon after, he was sent with Sir Thomas Erpingham to France, to Beauvais, to treat with the French commissioners about a peace, which took no effect. (fn. 456)
In 1418, he ordained in the chapel belonging to his palace at Hoxne, and his suffragan conferred orders at all the appointed times of ordination, either in the Carmelites church or chapel, sometimes in the chapel of the Bishop's palace, or at St. Giles's hospital church, the cathedral, or elsewhere, within the city: and this year, the Bishop, Sir Thomas Erpingham, and John Wodehouse, Esq. of Kimberley, were appointed by the privy council, to summon the gentry of the county before them at Norwich, to persuade them to go over into France, to the King, to recruit his army, diminished by the siege of Roan, and other toils of war; who returned answer on the 22d of March, that all whom they had summoned, had made excuses, by reason of their poverty, or bodily infirmities, and that the stoutest and ablest men of the county were with the King already. (fn. 457)
In 1420, he granted the place of park keeper in his park at Hoxne, to John Talbot, for life, with a salary of 2d. a day, a robe, and whole suit of the Bishop's livery every Christmas, issuing out of his manor of Hoxne, and also the mansion or lodge to be kept in repair by Talbot: the like grants were made for his parks at North and South Elmham; the same year, he constituted a bailiff for the liberty of his town of Lin.
In 1423, he granted to John Polleyn, for life, the office of keeper of his palace of Norwich, with a pension of 3l. 8s. a year out of his manor of Thorp by Norwich, a chamber in the palace for his dwelling, and a robe and livery every Christmas, with power to exercise his place by himself or deputy; this patent was confirmed by the Prior: at the same time, he also granted to Nic. Fitz Simond, for life, the office of bedal of the consistory court of Norwich, with all customary and reasonable fees thereto belonging: and on the 24th of June, he directed an inhibition to the dean of the deanery of Norwich, and the masters or guardians of the barbers craft there, inhibiting them opening their shops on Sundays, and from shaving, unless on the Sundays between Lammas day and Michaelmas day, on account of harvest, under pain of excommunication, and 6s. 8d. penalty. (fn. 458)
In 1424, April 1, at the death of John Archbishop of Smirna, he constituted Robert Bishop of Emileth, Melice, or Emly, his suffragan; (fn. 459) and also directed a commission to Master Henry Wells Archdeacon of Lincoln, to certify whether Curteys's fee in Emneth was in Norwich diocese or not.
In 1425, he granted license in mortmain, to Sir Simon Felbrigge, and Sir Edmund Berry, Knts. John Wodehouse, Esq. William Paston, John Manning of Elingham, and William Lexham, to convey to the Prior of Walsingham, the manor and advowson of Egmere, 2 messuages, and 160 acres in Egmere, Wharles, and Waterden, which were held in capite of the see, every new prior being to pay 5l.
This prelate had the character of a pious, chaste, bountiful, and affable person, showing much prudence during his governance of this see, in which having sat nine years, he died in 1325, on Easter Monday, at eight in the evening, at his manor of Thorp by Norwich, (fn. 460) and was interred on the south side of the founder's tomb in the cathedral, before the altar of St. George, where the iron grates still  stand, in the arch next Bishop Goldwell's tomb; at which altar he founded a perpetual chantry, for a monk daily to sing for his soul, and those of his relations. To support which, the Prior settled the rents of divers houses before the church gates.
He built the cloister from the Bishop's palace to the church door, at his own expense, and beautified it with a pavement of divers colours, chequer-wise, and covered it with a handsome roof of stone work; all which, was demolished in the late civil wars. He built also the chapter-house on the south side of the cathedral, which is now demolised, over the door of which still remains a defaced image of the Virgin Mary, and the arms of the see impaling.
on one side, and on the other, Wakeryng impales the arms of the priory. (fn. 461)
And did not bear his paternal coat on his seal; but instead thereof, a pelican vulning her breast proper, to represent, perhaps, his zeal, which indeed was so very rash against the Lollards and followers of Wickliff, (fn. 462) that it ought to be much condemned, he deserving no better name on that account, than that of a cruel persecutor, (fn. 463) the natural consequence of a proud spirit; for let historians say what they will as to that, the following action, among others, will sufficiently declare his haughty mind; for as he passed through Windham, observing the bells did not ring for him, he was so angry, that he interdicted the whole town, for not showing him episcopal respect, so that Sir John Beverich, John Spicer, and other chaplains, attended by the principal townsmen, were forced to appear at Norwich, and earnestly beseech him to take off the interdict, which was done July 12, 1419, on his enjoining them a penance for such disrespect.
In 1424, he certified into the Exchequer, all the livings held appropriated by the poor nuns, and hospitalers, in order to exempt them from the tenths granted to the King, and there appeared to be no less than 63 in this diocese. (fn. 464)
26. WILLIAM ALNWYK, priest, LL. D. was sprung from a family so named, from the town of Alnwick in Northumberland, which had before his time produced two famous men for learning, viz. Will. Alnwick, S. T. P. who flourished in 1332, and Martin Alnwick, monk of Newcastle, who died in 1336, leaving many monuments of their learning behind them. (fn. 465) The first preferment that I meet with bestowed on our William, was by that brave prince King Henry V. who, when he founded the monastery of Sion in his manor of Isleworth, in the parish of Twickenham in Middlesex, for 60 nuns, 13 priests, &c. of which priests one should be confessor, he named Alnwyk the first confessor there. (fn. 466)
In 1420, he was appointed Prior of Wimondham in Norfolk, by the Abbot of St. Alban's but resigned it the same year; (fn. 467) he was Keeper of the Privy Seal, (fn. 468) Confessor to King Henry VI. and Archdeacon of Salisbury, (fn. 469) being collated Dec. 4. (fn. 470)
By the provisory bull of Pope Martin V. dated Feb. 27, 1426, he was appointed Bishop of Norwich, had his temporalities restored May 4, and was consecrated by Archbishop Chicheley, in Canterbury cathedral, (fn. 471) the 18th of August following, and the 22d Dec. was installed at Norwich; (fn. 472) at which time he constituted Robert Bishop of the isle of Gathy (fn. 473) in Ireland, his suffragan; and William Bernham, bachelor in the decrees, who had been guardian of the spiritualities for the Archbishop during the vacancy, his vicar-general and official, and Will. Sekington, LL. B. his corrector John Frank, bachelor in the decrees, official of the Bishop's town and liberty of Lyn, and also official of the jurisdiction of the manors belonging to the bishoprick.
He built the principal entrance into the Bishop's palace, on the north side of the precinct, opposite to St. Martin's church, (for distinction sake called St. Martin at the palace gate,) which is a lofty and magnificent stone pile, vaulted over; but it seems he did not finish his designs wholly, for the wooden gates remaining there were put up by Walter Hart, as is evident from the many mitres and hearts cut thereon, though that Bishop, to preserve Alnwyk's benefaction, (fn. 474) caused his arms only to be affixed there, as they still remain.
And the effigies of King Henry VI. with another of himself on his knees, receiving the instrument of his confirmation, with other bishops, &c. which were all made at his own expense. (fn. 475)
He also contributed to the building of the publick schools at Cambridge. (fn. 476)
In 1433, at Christmas, King Henry VI. came to the abbey of Bury, with his nobles, and confessor, the Bishop of Norwich; and the King, and many of them, entered themselves in the bead roll of that monastery, becoming brethren thereof; (fn. 477) and it seems, the Abbot, by insisting too strenuously upon his exemption from the Bishop's power, and acting too disrespectfully to him, gained his ill will; for the year following, the Bishop not willing to appear in person, least the same fate should attend him that attended Bishop Bateman, his predecessor, in the like cause, directed his commission to Clement Chark, alias Denston, Archdeacon of Sudbury, and proctor of the Suffolk clergy, ordering him to collect the tenths granted to the King in parliament, of the Bury clergy, as well as of the rest of the diocese, thereby attacking privately the exemption of the Abbot, but to no purpose, for the Abbot collected them by John Cranewys, sacrist and archdeacon of his jurisdiction, and returned them into the Exchequer; (fn. 478) which bred great disputes between the Monastery and Archdeacon, and one Nic. Bagot, rector of Icklingham St. James, who was supported by the Bishop, resisted the Abbot's jurisdiction, which according to their own register, was carried to an intolerable height: however, matters were now so far advanced, that the King himself took it in hand, and by Simon de Islep, keeper of his privy seal, commanded the Bishop and Abbot to give the kiss of peace to each other; appointing the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishops of Winchester and Bangor, John de Orford Dean of Lincoln, Chancellor of England, and Master Henry de Chaddesdon, to examine into the affair, which he at last determined in the Abbot's favour; and so the Bishop, Archdeacon, and Rector, were forced to submit.
He sat in this see till the 19th of Sept. 1436, and was then translated to Lincoln, by the bull of Pope Eugenius IV. where he sat Bishop till Dec. 5, 1449, when he died, and was buried in the nave of that cathedral, having his own arms, those of the see of Lincoln, and those of the see of Norwich, on his tomb, and this epitaph circumscribed: (fn. 479)
Mortis bi rapide, de mundi balli bocatus, Alnmyc sub lapide iacet hic, Wilhelmus humatus, Ouondam pribati Custos fuit ille Sigilli, Noluit ille pati falsum, dum constitit ille, Primo Norbici Pastoris fulsit honore, Postea multiplici stetit hic, non absque labore, Multos sudores pro, errores, sua sicut ror petibit, Et heris aularum proprius sit Participator, Oui preciosarum Domuum fuit Edificator. (fn. 480) Anno C Christi, quarter M, quarter I. Derade dempto Uno, mors isti nocuit, precio Crucis empto.
At the feet of his portraiture in brass, is this,
In cinerem rediet cinis, et neguit hic remanere, Mortem non fugiet homo, natus de Muliere, Ut flos egreditur, etate birente decora, Et cito conteritur, cum mortis benerit hora: Pic labor, hicque dolor, hic languor, t hic ululatus, Omnis transit honor, homo nunc, cras incineratus. Si belis, si nolis, tua non hic gloria stabit, Et patris et prolis, fera bitam mors superabit. Decessit Solomon sapiens, mitis quoque Dabid, Fortis erat Sampson tamen illum Mors superabit. Me mundus renuit, potior nunc iure paterno, Quem Uirgo genuit, regnum cum Rege superno.
27. THOMAS BROWNE, Brounse, Brows, or Brounce, was doctor of laws, and dean of Salisbury in July 1431, and on May 1, 1435 was consecrated Bishop of Rochester, at Canterbury, (fn. 481) having been many years vicar-general to Henry Chicheley Archbishop there, (fn. 482) and going to the council of Basil, to supply the place of John Langdon, his predecessor, who died there, when Alnwyk was translated to Lincoln, Pope Eugenius IV. translated him to the bishoprick of Norwich, by bull dated Sept. 19, 1436, (fn. 483) which translation being disagreeable to the King, the Bishop cheerfully renounced the bull, and all therein contained, and submitted himself to the King's grace, who accepted his fealty, and restored his temporalities by writ dated the 15th of February following, which was directed to Robert Chapeleyn, mayor of Norwich, his escheator in the city, who answered that the King's writ of seizure of the temporalities never came to his hands, and so he had no profits, they being not seized: and therefore the bishop, in whose hands they were, was to account for them. (fn. 484)
In his time, the citizens not having forgotten the advantages the monks had got over them, (fn. 485) unanimously contrived to deprive the church of all its liberties and privileges, (fn. 486) but the Bishop, by himself and friends, though not without great expense, opposed them so manfully, that he stood up like a tower for the house of God, and its immunities, (fn. 487) but this troublesome contest was not altogether finished in his days, nor was peace fully restored, yet their attempts and endeavours were wholly disappointed by his prudence and vigilance. (fn. 488)
He died at his palace at Hoxne in Suffolk, on the 6th of Dec. being St. Nicholas's day, in the year 1445, (fn. 489) and being brought to Norwich, was buried according to his will, in the upper part of the nave of the church, (fn. 490) at the altar of St. William, (fn. 491) before the great rood loft which he had new made; at which altar he had service said for his soul.
He ordered a marble to be laid over him, with his effigies and a circumscription of copper, his own and the founder's arms impaled, with his name, obit, &c. in gilt letters, and the same arms, on laton, were to be fixed on every pillar in the church.
He left a sum, to be given to such poor scholars of his diocese, as followed their studies in either of the Universities; and to the city of Norwich 40l. towards payment of the city tax; (fn. 492) which proves him to be a man of a forgiving spirit.
In 1440, John Heverlond, Prior of Norwich, having refused the Bishop his due reverence in his cathedral church, denying to carry the crucifix before him, &c. the dispute arose so high, that the bishop appealed to Rome, where the prior fearing to be humbled as he deserved, in 1441, Apr. 6, promised to do it for the future as he ought to do, and agreed to add a new honour of censing him, (fn. 493) whenever he officiated in the cathedral, in his pontificalibus. (fn. 494)
28. JOHN STANBERY, a Carmelite friar of Oxford, D. D. and Confessor to Henry VI. was by him nominated provost of his new erected college of Eaton, (fn. 495) but it doth not appear he ever took possession, for Henry Sever is styled the first provost in 1441. (fn. 496)
At the death of Bishop Browne, the King got him chosen Bishop of Norwich, but he was never consecrated, because William de la Pole Earl of Suffolk had sufficient interest with the Pope, to get his chaplain, Walter Hart, promoted to this see; and accordingly his Holiness set aside Stanbery's election; such unreasonable authority did he then exercise in this realm.
However, in 1448, the King found means to prefer him to the see of Bangor, and five years after to Hereford, where he sat 21 years, and died in the Carmelites house at Ludlow, May 11, 1474, and was buried on the north side of the high altar in Hereford cathedral, with an inscription in Latin, printed by Godwin, fo. 545, leaving behind him the character not only of a learned, but good man: but above all, his constant and unmoveable fidelity to his distressed master, Henry VI. ought not to be forgotten, for being taken prisoner at the battle of Northampton, in 1460, he was committed to the castle of Warwick, and laid in durance there a long time.
29. WALTER LYHERT, Le Hert, or Hart, as he was commonly called, (who was descended from Robert le Hert, citizen of Norwich in the year 1261,) was appointed Bishop of this see by the Pope, at the request of the Earl of Suffolk, whose chaplain he was. (fn. 497)
The first preferment that I find given him, was the living of Nettleton in Wiltshire, and afterwards he had the rectory of Hygham in Wells diocese. (fn. 498)
In 1427, being then master of arts, he was instituted to the rectory of Lammersh in Essex, which he next year resigned in exchange with Simon Alcock, and took West-Tilbury in that county, which he also resigned in 1434. (fn. 499)
He was some time fellow of Exeter, being then bachelor in divinity; and after that, fellow, and then provost of Oriel college in Oxford, and master of St. Anthony's hospital in London, being then doctor of divinity, (fn. 500) and confessor to Queen Margaret, (fn. 501) wife to Henry VI.
He was declared Bishop of Norwich by papal provision, Jan. 24, 1446, (fn. 502) and was consecrated at Lambeth the 27th of Febr. following, (fn. 503) and had his temporalities restored by the King, the day before his consecration. (fn. 504)
In his time, the citizens attempted many things against the church, but such was the singular wisdom of this Bishop, that he defeated all their enterprises, and being of a peaceable spirit, kindly composed all differences, (fn. 505) so that they had a great value for him, as appears by their making him handsome presents. (fn. 506)
In 1449, he entertained the King at his palace of Norwick, by whom he was sent the same year, ambassadour into Savoy, where by his persuasive arguments, he prevailed upon Felix V. who was chosen Anti-pope, to renounce his papacy to Nicolas V. for the peace of the church. (fn. 507)
This Bishop paved the cathedral, made the beautiful carved roof of the nave of the church, and built that transverse stone partition, reredos, or rood-loft, which now remains, on which he placed the principal rood or crucifix, and on the north side of the door his own arms, and opposite to them a hart in the water, as a Rebus for Water (or Walter) Hart. (fn. 508)
He died on Whitsunday, May 24, 1472, between 6 and 7 o'clock in the afternoon, at his manor of Hoxne, in the 27th year of his consecration; (fn. 509) and being carried to Norwich, was interred in the cathedral there, on the right hand of his predecessor Brown, directly before the holy rood, that he had erected, at the very entrance of the door there: his stone, which was a very large one, was removed this year, and laid at the eastern door of the south isle; it was robbed long agone of the effigies and inscription, part of which is preserved in Weever, fo. 795:
Vic jacet absconsus sub marmore presul Vonestus. Seclo defunctus, olim Pastor, quoque Sponsus, Istius Ecclesie, rum digno rulmine morum, Prefuit egrcgie Dictus Malterus, Lyhert cognomine Rotus, Ehellens arriter mala germina frurtus accrbi, Dispersit pariter Dibini semina berbi, Anno Milleno, T quater Septuageno Anneris binis, mstabat ei prope Fimis.
Septima rum Decima Lur Maii sit numerata, (fn. 510) Jpsius est anima de corpore tunc separato. Fili Christe Dei, Fons bite, spes Medicine, Propitieris ei, donans requiem sine fine.
The last day of March, 1471, he made his will, (fn. 511) as to the disposition of his temporals only; by which he gave his manor of Lyngges, with its appurtenances, in Batisford in Suffolk, and all his estates in Batisford, Berkyng, Ringeshall, Badle, and Combs, lately purchased of Richard Fillade of Ipswich, to find a chaplain, either a secular or regular, if learned in divinity, to celebrate daily service for ever at the altar (fn. 512) on the north part of his grave, for his own soul, and the souls of his family, and of John Lyhert, his kinsman, and of Richard Hedge, his servant, and for the souls of all his predecessors, but more particular for Tho. Browne, late Bishop of Norwich; for which the chaplain was to have 10l. per annum on further condition, that every year in Advent and Lent, he should preach every Sunday to the people of the diocese; and he ordered his executors and feoffees, either to settle the estate for these uses, or else sell it, and with the produce get a chaplain settled accordingly.
His testament bears date at Hoxne, May 13, 1472, (fn. 513) by which he constituted William Pikenham, LL. D. archdeacon of Suffolk, John Bulman, his chaplain, James Hobart and Henry Smith, his executors, and Richard Fowler, supervisor, and gave his executors 20l. each, and his supervisor 10l. for their pains, and also gave to each poor person at his burial, and at his trental, (fn. 514) 2d.; and to the prior of the church, if he attended at his funeral, trental, and mass of requiem, 40s.; and to every monk for the like, 6s. 8d.; the vergers and officers of the church, for ringing the bells on those 3 days, 26s. 8d.; to every secular priest or clerk attending his funeral, whatever reward his executors pleased; to James Hobard 100l. a cup of silver gilt, with his arms at the bottom, on condition he claimed nothing more of his goods; to Margaret, daughter of Ralf Shelton and Joan his wife, deceased, 100 marks at the day of marriage; to Eliz. Shelton, her sister, the like legacy; to the poor tenants of the manors belonging to his church 100l.; 20l. to be laid out in beds and clothes for the poorest of them, and the rest to be distributed in money; to Oriel college, his best suit of vestments for priest, deacon, and subdeacon, with the cope for the bishop, of the same suit, all of gold cloth embroidered with silver, with an antiphonary, gradual, and missal, used in his own chapel; to Exeter college one antiphonary, a gradual, and missal; to All-Souls college a priest's vestment of scarlet cloth embroidered with gold, and a cope of the same suit; to Ganvile hall and Trinity hall in Cambridge, 5l. each; and the same to St. Giles's hospital, and the Chapel in the Fields in Norwich; 10 marks to Plimouth hospital, by Master William Green, late entered there; to each of the prioresses of Carrowe, Flixton, and Redlingfield, 20s.; and to every nun in those houses 3s. 4d.; to every order of begging friars in Norwich and Lenn 40s.; to the anchor at Carrowe 20s.; to each of his parishes of Netilton, West-Tilbury and Bradwell, xl. to repair their churches; to John Halse Bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, his barrel cup of silver gilt with the cover; to John Heydon his cup that he daily used, of silver gilt with the cover; to Edmund Bedingfield his silver chased cup, with the knop at its top; his great Bible covered with blue velvet, to the archdeacon of Norfolk; to every one of his gentlemen that lived with him at his death 4l.; to every valet de chambre 40s.; and each servant 26s. 8d.; to John Lopham 10l.; his executors were to keep house for his servants three months after his death, and pay them their wages, that they might have time to provide for themselves; all his clothes were to be divided between Oriel and Exeter colleges, and the overplus of his personals he ordered his executors to expend in maintaining poor scholars at Cambridge and Oxford, desiring his executors should be sworn not to deliver up any bonds for first fruits due to him, or give any acquittances, unless by the knowledge and consent of three, or at least two of them.
1. His episcopal seal is oblong; (fn. 515) in the midst, under the entrance of the church, is a representation of the Trinity; the Father sits on his throne, holding our Saviour on the cross, with a dove in his bosom; on the right hand stands the prior, with a book in one hand, and the pastoral staff, which he used on principal holidays to bear before the Bishop to the high altar, in the other; opposite to him is a monk in his habit; at top is the Virgin sitting on a throne with our Saviour in one hand, and a sceptre in the other; at the bottom is the Bishop himself, on his knees, with his pastoral staff, praying to the Trinity; on his right hand are the arms of his sée, and on his left, his paternal coat, viz.
2. His seal used for wills, administrations, &c. is of the same form, but much less, and hath only the like representation of the Trinity, and under it the arms of the see, and his own, in two shields. (fn. 516)
30. JAMES GOLDWELL, son of William Goldwell and Avice his wife, who died in 1475, (fn. 517) was born at Great Chart in Kent, and was educated in All-Souls college in Oxford, to which he was a good benefactor.
In 1455, he was instituted to the rectory of St. John the Evangelist in London, (fn. 518) which he resigned the same year, being instituted to Rivenhall rectory in Essex; (fn. 519) and Oct. 28, 1457, was collated to the prebend of Wildland in the church of St. Paul, London; (fn. 520) but resigning that, in 1458, was collated to the prebend of Sneating, in the same church, May 16; and resigning that also, the next year was collated to the prebend of Isledon: Aug. 5, 1461, installed Archdeacon of Essex, which he resigned, with Rivenhall and Isledon, in 1472, as well as his deanery of Salisbury, to which he was admitted in 1463; he was president of St. George's hall in Oxford, doctor of laws, prothonotary to the Pope, and this King's proctor at the court of Rome, where he was sent in embassy by King Edward IV. to Pope Sixtus IV. who made him Bishop of Norwich by papal provision, (fn. 521) and consecrated him himself, Oct. 4, 1472. (fn. 522)
At his return he had his temporalities restored Feb. 25, following, being then principal secretary of state to King Edw. IV. (fn. 523)
At his coming to the see he made his brother, Nicholas Goldwell, LL. B. (fn. 524) who had been rector of Roding Alta, which he resigned for St. Mary Wolnoth in London, collector of his first fruits in his diocese; (fn. 525) and in 1479, collated him to Sudbury archdeaconry, which he resigned in 1483, for the archdeaconry of Norwich, and that, in 1497, for the archdeaconry of Suffolk, being also rector of Worlingworth, and vicar-general in 1482.
It is said in a MS. in Caius college Library, that the Bishop had been rector of Chart, the place of his nativity, and also canon of Windsor and Chichester; (fn. 526) which seems true, for he repaired, if not wholly rebuilt, Chart church, and founded a chapel on the south side, in which he settled a chantry for his father, mother, self, and family, to be prayed for in; (fn. 527) and, in Mr. Weever's time, (fn. 528) in the midst of the east window was a picture of this Bishop kneeling, and in every quarrel, a gilt or golden well, the rebus of his name, and under him this,
Before he left Rome, understanding that the repairs of the cathedral, much defaced by fire (fn. 529) in 1463, were not finished by his predecessor, he obtained of the Pope an indulgence to last for ever, towards repairing and adorning the church, (fn. 530) by which there was granted to all that came yearly to the cathedral on Trinity Sunday, and Lady day, and offered there, 12 years and 40 days pardon; which had its desired effect, for the sacrist annually accounted for the offerings received by Bishop Goldwell's indulgence.
He received of his predecessor's executors, a mitre and crosier, and 2200 marks for dilapidations, with which, and other money added of his gift, he finished beautifying the tower, made the noble stone carved roof of the quire, in the same manner as his predecessor had done the nave, and fitted up the chapels under the arches on the sides of the quire, but more particularly adorned that in which he was buried; dedicating it, and the altar therein, which stood at the feet of his tomb, to the Holy Trinity, and his two namesake Apostles, St. James the Greater and Less, placing his own arms over it, viz.
Az. a chief or, over all a lion rampant arg. gullé de poix. Crest, a gilt or golden well, with a bunch of leaves and flowers placed in it. (fn. 531)
In this chapel now stands his tomb, on which he lies in his mitre and pontificalibus, with a lion at his feet, and a priest on his knees praying, with a book before him, but the inscription is lost, and the tomb defaced.
He died Feb. 15, 1498, in the 27th year of his consecration. (fn. 532)
The Bishop's will is dated June 10, 1497, (fn. 535) at his manor of Hoxne, where he died, and was produced and declared before Roger Kent, clerk, publick notary, in his chamber at Hoxne, Feb. 7, 1498, but a week before his death; in which he ordered 30 quarters of wheat to be given to the poor at his burial, and 20 quarters the 13th day after, 20 quarters more the one-and-twentieth day after, and 30 quarters at his trental on the 30th day after his burial; every quarter to be baked into six score loaves.
To the Carmelites, Minorites, and Friars-preachers in Norwich, 40s. each; and to the Austin-friars 5l. to St. Giles's hospital 40s. and to Chapel-Field college 2 silver dishes, with the image of the Virgin in the middle; to every house of nuns in the diocese 20s.
His executors were to distribute every Sunday, for the first three years after his decease, to 20 poor men, 6s. 8d. during the time of ringing to high mass; and when service began, they were to go to his tomb, pray for his soul, and stay there till service was ended: but those 20 poor men were to be none of them that were provided for that day in St. Giles's hospital, or elsewhere; and after the three years, they were to settle a rent of 20d. to be paid to 20 poor men praying for him at his tomb as aforesaid, for ever.
To St. Gregory's priory at Cant. one antiphonary, to perfect their set of antiphonaries, they having three before, on condition they daily prayed for him at the altar of the B. Virgin, and yearly kept his anniversary.
To James le Vyndale of Great Chart, his godson, 6s. 8d.; to Richard For Bishop of Durham, his best robes; to Hartesham church, an antiphonary; and to Cherynton church a silk vestment: to Salisbury cathedral, his best white damask vestment, embroidered with angels, and three hoods thereto belonging, and to the vicars there 40s. to mention his name, and pray for his soul every Sunday in their procession.
He constituted Nic. Goldwell Archdeacon of Suffolk, Robert Honywood Archdeacon of Norwick, Rob. Pokiswell, LL. B. Sir John Jollys, rector of Great Massingham, Bartholomew Northern, priest, Edmund Brygett, LL. B. John Coke, and Humphry Ballard, gentlemen, and James Hobard, attorney-general, his executors, leaving the surplusage of his fortunes to their good disposition, for his soul's health, giving each of them 10l. for their pains, and the attorney-general 30l. ordering them to pay to John Goldwell, his brother, and his wife, 20l. and to John Goldwell, their son, and his wife, 20l. on condition they do not meddle with his concerns: and to William, John, James, Nic, Henry and James, the six sons of Jeffry Goldwell, his nephew, 10 marks each; and 100 marks to their sisters, to be equally divided at their days of marriage: by which it appears, the Bishop must be an old man at the time of his death; for the very year he died, he collated his brother's grandson, Henry Goldwell, to the united deaneries of Cranwich and Breecles.
This family continued at Chart some time, as appears by Goldwell's inscription in Great Shelford church, in Cambridgeshire, Ao. 1596. (fn. 536)
Christopher Urswyke, Dean of Windsor, who refused it: (fn. 537) for being contented with his condition, and desiring no further honour or riches, he retired to Hackney, and there spent his years in a close and religious retirement even to his death, in 1521: a rare example! worthy the imitation of those having a decent sufficiency, as he had, On his refusal,
31. THOMAS JAN, Janne, or Jane, was promoted to it. He was born at Middleton, in Dorsetshire, (fn. 538) educated in Wykeham's school near Winchester; (fn. 539) became fellow of New College in Oxford, in 1456; doctor of decrees, and commissary, (the same as vice-chancellor is now) of that University, in 1468; instituted rector of Bursted-Parva, April 9, 1471; and the 15th of August following, had the prebend of Reculverland; resigning Bursted in 1472, he was admitted to the chapel of Foulness, Sept. 26, in that year; and Oct. 14, following to the vicarage of Prittlewell, all in Essex; the last of which he resigned the year following.
In 1479, he was instituted to the vicarage of St. Sepulchre's, London; and six days after, to Rugmore prebend, when he voided Reculverland: and in 1480, being collated to the archdeaconry of Essex, he resigned St. Sepulchre's.
In 1484, he became vicar of Walden in Essex, but resigned it the same year, on his institution to St. Bride's, London; his prebend of Rugmore he voided by cession in 1487, on his collation to Browneswood prebend in St. Paul's.
In 1499, was promoted to the see of Norwich; upon which his archdeaconry of Essex became void; he was confirmed by the Archbishop July 24, his temporalities being restored by the King three days before: (fn. 540) he obtained license to be consecrated out of the church of Canterbury, Oct. 17, which being soon after done, he came down to Norwich, and was there inthroned the same year: (fn. 541) but he sat a little while only, for he died in Sept. 1500, (fn. 542) and according to his will, (fn. 543) was buried in his own cathedral; (fn. 544) dying (as I take it) at Norwich; for what is mentioned in Browne's Posthumous Works (p. 19) of his having been Prior of Ely, and in Le Neve's Fasti (fo. 211) of his dying at Folkestan abbey near Dover, is a mistake.
32. RICHARD NYKKE, or Nix, (fn. 545) born in Somersetshire, son of Richard Nykke and Joan his wife, daughter of John Stillington of Nether Akastre in Yorkshire, doctor of laws of the University of Oxford, (fn. 546) was collated to Ashbury rectory in Salisbury diocese in 1470; was rector of Chedsey in Somersetshire, in 1489; and prebend of Yetton in the church of Wells.
In 1494, made archdeacon of Wells, with the prebend of Huish annexed, on the resignation of Will. Nykke, LL. D. his uncle. (fn. 547)
In 1496, made canon of Windsor, and registrary of the most noble Order of the Garter; he had one or more benefices conferred on him in the diocese of Wells, as also the rectory of Weremouth, in the diocese of Durham, besides the archdeaconry of Exeter: and in 1494, July 13, he was made canon of York, and being Dean of the King's chapel, was promoted to the see of Norwick in 1500; (fn. 548) and on the 17th of April following, had license to be consecrated out of the church of Canterbury, and had restitution of his temporalities April 24, 1501. (fn. 549)
In 1505, he and the Bishop of Exeter, had a pardon passed the seal. (fn. 550)
In 1508, he deputed Sir James Hobart, Knt. Rob. Honywood, archdeacon of Norwich, and John Toke, Esq. executors of Bishop Goldwell, to be judges between him and the prior and convent, concerning the payment of an annual pension of 4l. to the prior and convent, for the chapel belonging to the palace in Norwich, which had been withdrawn all Bishop Goldwell's time; (fn. 551) but was now decreed to be paid, it appearing that the convent had immemorially enjoyed it.
In 1512, King Henry VIII. by letters patent dated at Westminster, Nov. 24, in the 4th year of his reign, at the request of the Bishop, confirmed all the revenues of the see, with the rights and liberties thereto belonging: the charters from the foundation, to that time, being recited by way of inspeximus; the account of which I shall refer to the chapter concerning the Revenues of the see.
This Bishop was certainly a man of a bad character, and vicious life. The Atlas, p. 382, finds fault with Bishop Godwin's character of him; saying plainly that if true, it had better been omitted; contrary to all reason, and the original design of History; which, as it tends on the one hand to encourage virtue, by recording the virtuous and praiseworthy acts of virtuous men, so on the other hand, it discourages vice; by setting in a true light the acts of the vicious; to the intent, that others, seeing the difference between good and bad, continued down to posterity, may thereby be diverted from doing the like; for which reason, I shall in no wise add or diminish from the account historians have left of him, thinking that the argument used in the Atlas is of little force; when it says that it can scarce be probable, that such an infamous person could obtain so many preferments as we find he had, "more, perhaps, than the men of most merit in his time enjoyed." But was it not often so in all ages? are not men of much worth often neglected, and others far their inferiours greatly advanced? when was that golden age, when merit and learning only, was a step to preferment? or when was it, that they, who had much interest and great friends, ever missed of their wished for success? and so it was with this prelate; who, by means of his great interest with the leading men of that age, got all he could desire.
Godwin's account of him is, that though he took his name from snow, (fn. 552) such were the luxurious thoughts boiling in his breast, that nothing of that snowy whiteness appeared there, but that he rather deserved to be marked with a black coal, for his lusts; (fn. 553) and Nevile adds, that his character was so notorious, that few were to be met with, that had not heard of the fame of the blind Bishop of Norwich. (fn. 554)
That he was a cruel persecutor, the blood spilt by his judgments in this diocese, planly demonstrate, for Robert Adams, clerk, Thomas Ayers, priest, Thomas Bingy, Thomas Norrice, priest, and that holy maytyr, Thomas Bilney, all passed the fire for the truth of the Gospel in his time. (fn. 555)
So great an adversary was he also to the then begun reformation, that he obstinately opposed it to the utmost of his power, (fn. 556) and though he had by his solemn oath openly renounced the Pope's supremacy, in order to keep his bishoprick, yet he secretly held a correspondence with the court of Rome, of which he was accused to the King, and convicted, and being committed to the Marshalsea, was kept prisoner there a long time; so that his own sufferings may a little palliate his vices, by showing his sincerity in religion, though erroneous; as the Atlas justly observes. (fn. 557)
However, after long imprisonment, and a fine of 10,000 marks, promised, as is said, to be paid, he obtained an act of pardon, for suing in the court of Rome, and appealing thither in matters concerning the King, contrary to a former statute; (fn. 558) but being unable to pay his fine, he leased out many of the revenues of the see for long terms, (fn. 559) at small reserved rents, in order to do it; but that not answering, he was forced to agree to the King's desire, of exchanging the large revenues of his see, for the revenues of the abbey of St. Bennet in the Holm, in the parish of Ludham in Norfolk, which he did not live to complete; for being very old, and having been many years blind and decrepid, and being much vexed at the times, he died January 14, 1535, (fn. 560) and was buried in the cathedral, between the 7th and 8th pillars, on the south side of the nave, as you go from the west door.
His tomb is low and broad, and had an altar at the bottom of the eastern pillar; the iron work on which the bell hung was lately visible on the western pillar; the arch above the tomb, and that opposite to it in the south isle, are beautified with the arms of the see, impaled with his own, and together made a chapel; the tomb being formerly enclosed with iron palisades on its north side.
That we may not omit any thing praise-worthy of this Bishop, it is to be remembered that the cathedral suffered much in 1509, by fire; at which time, the roofs of the north and south transept iles were entirely consumed, (fn. 561) both which he rebuilt of stone, arched and adorned in the same manner, as the other roofs of the nave and choir are; on the stone work of which, his arms may still  be seen.
In Browne's Posthumous Works, at page 25, it is said, that the statute over the north transept door, on the outside as you go to the palace, was lately discovered upon repairing and whitening that end of the isle, it having many ages been covered with plaister, and it is there supposed to be the effigies of this Bishop, who is said to build this isle, but they are both errours, for he only rebuilt the roof, and is the effigies of Herbert the founder, it being exact in the same manner, as that on his seal; and the antique rough carving, shows it to be the original made at the very time of the foundation.
This Bishop incurred a premunire also, for extending his jurisdiction over the mayor of Thetford, and was fined for it, with part of which fine, tis said the beautiful painted glass windows in King's college chapel at Cambridge were purchased. (fn. 562)
He was lord of the manor of South-Hall, in the parish of Rainham in Essex, and patron of All-Saints chantry in that chapel, in the churchyard there; (fn. 563) which, by his consent, was dissolved Oct. 12, 1521.
This Bishop and his predecessors enjoyed the first fruits and tenths of all his diocese, till 26 Henry VIII. and then they were taken away by the King, who got an act passed for that purpose. (fn. 564)
His first suffragan was John Underwood, son of William Underwood, goldsmith, and Alice his first wife, of St. Andrew's parish in this city, who was consecrated titular bishop of Calcedon; and in 1505, was collated to the rectory of North-Creke, and held it united to the rectory of Eccles by the sea, till 1525, and then resigned Creke to Roger Townesend, for a pension during life of 17l. per annum.
He was a zealous Papist, being the very person that degraded Bilney; (fn. 565) for which reason, when the King had obtained an act to be passed to have chorepiscopi, or suffragan bishops chosen in the larger dioceses, (fn. 566) a few days before his death, Bishop Nix nominated four persons to the King, who chose two of them for his suffragans, viz. Thomas Manning, (fn. 567) late Prior of Butley, suffragan Bishop of Ipswich, and John Salisbury, late Prior of Horsham St. Faith's his suffragan Bishop of Thetford, (fn. 568) who were consecrated at Lambhithe by Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury, March 19, 1536, after whose deaths, I find no more suffragans appointed in this diocese.
33. WILLIAM RUGG, or Reppes, was son of William Rugg of North-Reppes in Norfolk, and assumed the name of Reppes, from the place of his nativity; (fn. 569) his family being originally of Shropshire, taking their name-from Rugg or Rudge, a village where they lived, and were considerable owners, being also lords of the manor of Picheford in that county. (fn. 570)
Being educated in Norfolk, he was sent to Gonvile hall in Cambridge, where he became fellow, and doctor of divinity; (fn. 571) and in 1530, was installed Abbot of St. Bennet's in the Holm, April 26, by the name of Dr. William Reppes, (fn. 572) at which time, he gave security in five years time, to pay 50l. for the first fruits of the churches appropriated to that abbey.
He was one of those Cambridge divines that took abundance of pains to procure King Henry VIII. such a judgment from the University, about his divorce from Queen Catherine, as he desired, which at last he effected, and thereby so pleased the King, who found he was fit for his turn, as being one that would stick at nothing he requested, that he determined to honour him with the title of this bishoprick, and at the same time make him contented with the revenues of his abbey only; (fn. 573) and accordingly, Febr. 4, 1535, the see being void, he obtained an act of parliament to be then passed; (fn. 574) whereby, under the specious pretence of advancing the see (which in truth was greatly damaged,) he severed the ancient barony and revenues from it, and annexed the priory of Hickling, and the barony and revenues of the abbey of Holm thereunto, in lieu thereof; in right of which barony, the Bishop of Norwich sits now in the house of lords, as abbot of Holm, (fn. 575) the barony of the bishoprick being in the King's hands, and the monastery being never dissolved, only transferred by the statute, (fn. 576) before the general Dissolution; the Bishop of this see is the only abbot at this day in England. (fn. 577)
By this act, the King declares that he designed to advance to this see one such person, which both for his knowledge in Scripture, and honest conversation in living, shall by setting forth of the true, plain, and sincere doctrine of Christ, and good example of life, concordant to the same, much edify his loving subjects of the diocese, to the only glory and honour of Almighty God, and the weal of the souls committed to his charge, and hereupon, maturely by great advice and deliberation pondering the premises, having plain and perfect knowledge of William now abbot of St. Bennet's in the county of Norfolk, to be a man of excellent learning and knowledge in holy Scripture, and also of good approved conversation in his living, is fully resolved and pleased, to dispose and give of his most excellent goodness, the dignity of the said bishoprick to the said abbot; and accordingly he was nominated by the act, (fn. 578) to the see, and then consented to the exchange aforesaid.
And indeed it was not much wonder that he so easily complied with whatever was requested: for when he himself was abbot, foreseeing the dissolution of abbeys at hand, he made divers long leases, and granted many annuities, corrodies, and pensions, (fn. 579) out of the revenues and lands belonging to his abbey; so that when he himself became Bishop, and this exchange made, he was not able to sustain the state of such an honourable place, with so small a revenue; and yet being provoked thereto by the old officers of the bishoprick, and the examples of all his predecessors in the see, who had very large and ample revenues before this spoliation, and kept great retinues, and honourable portes, he likewise began to follow the former presidents; and for his present need, collected and received the tenths of the whole clergy of his diocese, which should have been paid into the first fruits office, but was all spent, and more, before he was aware: whereupon, being suddenly fallen into deep debts, he was forced to make a lease of great part of the profits of the bishoprick, to Sir Wimond Carew, Knt. Treasurer of the First Fruits Office, Febr. 24, 1546, (1 Edw. VI.) in which, Robert Rugg his brother, who was mayor in 1537, joined with him, as security for the payment of a debt of 890l. due to the King, by 200l. a year, for which the manors of Northwalsham, Thugarton, and Tibenham, then belonging to the see, were assigned over to the King, with the reversions of Thurne, Ashby, and Gelhamhall manors, which the said William had leased out before.
The country murmuring much at this great spoil of the bishoprick, and many complaints being exhibited and preferred to the King's council, by the gentlemen of the diocese; his Majesty at length prevailed upon the bishop, to resign the bishoprick, (fn. 580) for an annuity of 200l. a year clear money; and accordingly, in 1549, King Edward VI. by letters under his privy seal, dated at Westminster Jan. 26, discharged him from all dilapidations and ruins made in the bishoprick, and confirmed the annuity of 200l. per annum to be paid quarterly during his life, by his successour in the bishoprick; acquitting the succeeding Bishops, not only of the lease of the 200l. per annum due till the King's debt was paid; but of all the pensions, annuities, and corrodies, granted either by Nix or Rugg himself, by which the revenues had been almost totally destroyed, so that an old officer of the bishoprick could not forbear making the following verses on his resignation:
First pay thy debts, and hence return to cell, And pray the blessed Saint (fn. 581) whom thou dost serve, That others may maintaine the pallace well, For if thou stay'st, we all are like to starve.
And truly it was time to get rid of such a man; for in short, he stood at nothing, but aliened or leased out at trifles, all that he could raise a penny by; not so much as excepting the very palace itself: (fn. 582) so that this first bishop of the new foundation would have quite destroyed the new-modelled see, by parting with even those supports, which were then joined to it, to keep it from being altogether sunk.
Being a rigid Roman Catholick, (fn. 583) and having had some discourse with Bilney and Latimer, about their Protestant principles, he so much misrepresented them, as to move Mr. Spencer, their friend, who was a monk himself, and strenuous Papist, to publish the Trialogue between Thomas Bilney, Hugh Latimer, and William Reppes, (fn. 584) to show the just complaints they had against him.
Besides this, there are many instances of his cruelty, and too forward zeal in religious matters, (fn. 585) for when one John Peke of Earl-Stonham in Suffolk was burnt at Ipswich, Dr. Reading declared, that to as many as would cast a stick into the fire for the burning of that heretick, (as they termed him,) this Bishop had granted 40 days pardon,
Whereupon Sir John Audley, Knt. Baron Curson, Knt, and many other gentlemen there present, rose from their seats, and with their swords cut down boughs, and threw them into the fire; whose example the populace followed, and did the like.
He lived after his resignation till Sept, 21, 1550, when he died, (fn. 586) and was buried in the middle of the choir of the cathedral; (fn. 587) but his stone hath been pillaged of its brass plates many years since.
The seal used by this Bishop was a representation of the Trinity, in the same manner as in Bishop Goldwell's with his name circumscribed; which seal Bishop Thirlby also used, having got it altered, and his own name circumscribed, and the two initial letters fixed one on each side of the head of the effigies.
34. THOMAS THIRLBY is said to be a Cambridge man born, and to be educated in Trinity-Hall in that University, (fn. 588) where he became Dr. of laws, and was the first and last Bishop of Westminster, being consecrated Dec. 19, 1540, King Henry VIII. then erecting that collegiate church into an episcopal see, on purpose, as some conjecture, to get its estates and revenues embezzled in that scandalous manner they were by this Bishop; (fn. 589) who having roasted his churches patrimony, as Fuller expresses it, surrendered it to the spoil of courtiers; by whose interest he was translated to the see of Norwich, with King Edward's consent, on the 1st of April, 1550. (fn. 590)
In 1551, he was ordered to be at Barwick by the first of May, as one of the commissioners to adjust the difference of the frontiers between England and Scotland, (fn. 591)
He was also appointed the same year, to sit in the court of requests, with William May, Dean of St. Paul's, Sir Nicholas Hare, Knt. Sir Richard Rede, Knt. Jo. Cockes, Jo. Lucas, Will, Cooke, Esqrs. &c. as commissioners, for hearing the causes of that court, which was instituted for such causes to be tried in, where both parties (or at least one of them) was so poor, that they were not able to prosecute their cause at common law. (fn. 592)
In 1553, Aug. 3, there were indentures sealed between the mayor and sheriffs of Norwich, and this Bishop, and Catherine, widow and executrix of William Rogers late alderman of Norwich; by which it was agreed, that the 300l. given by her husband to be lent yearly for ever without gain, for the relief of merchants and other inhabitants of the city, should be put out by his widow during her life; and after, by the mayor and three justices, by 5l. 10l. or 20l. at one time, to such persons as they thought fit, on certain conditions of forfeiture, if there be any part of it lost. (fn. 593)
In the month of August, Queen Mary sent her letter to the Bishop, commanding him not to suffer any preacher, or other person whatever, to preach or expound the Scripture openly, without her special license. (fn. 594)
Being then in great favour, and one of her Majesty's privy council, he was translated to Ely, and had restitution of the temporalities of that see, (fn. 595) Sept. 15, 1554; (fn. 596) and the next year, was sent, with divers others, on a gratulatory embassy to Pope Paul the Fourth, to tender England's thanks for his great favours conferred thereon; (fn. 597) the Parliament and Queen having submitted to the Pope's supremacy; and Cardinal Poole, by his power legantine, having solemnly reconciled England to the church of Rome; a sad and certain presage of that heavy persecution which immediately followed; though as to this point, our author says, this Bishop was a discreet and moderate man; (fn. 598) witness his meek behaviour at the degrading of Archbishop Cranmer, in order to his being burnt as an heretick, when he was so much concerned, that he shed abundance of tears at the doing of it. But can water and fire, weeping and burning, come from the same person? surely it did so here. For afterwards he singled out one John Hullier, (as the representative of all the Protestants in his diocese,) and caused him to be burnt at Cambridge, as an earnest of his zeal in the Popish cause; though afterwards he made no further payment of this kind: justly offending the Protestants for doing so much, and scarcely pleasing the Papists for doing no more. For though in his time and diocese, William Woolsey and Robert Pygot suffered under the notion of heresy, he was not concerned in that fact; but the guilt of it must lie upon Dr. Fuller, the chancellor, and the other commissioners.
He continued in this see till Queen Elizabeth's time, (fn. 599) and was then deprived for refusing the oath of supremacy, and sent to a prison to be envied; for Bishop Tunstal and our Bishop were committed to the keeping of Archbishop Parker at Lambhithe; where each of them, being fed at his table, instead of bishops, lived as well as archbishops, and having good chambers, beds, and plentiful firing allowed them, differed nothing from their former living, save that that was on their own charges; and this, on the cost of another; so that they lived in free custody, and all things considered, custody did not so soar their freedom, as freedom did sweeten their custody. (fn. 600)
Here he continued till 1570. in which year he died, and was buried
in the midst of the chancel of the parish church, (fn. 601) with this inscription;
Hic jacet Thomas Thirlby olim Episcopus Eliensis, qui obijt 26 die Augusti Anno Domini 1570.
35. JOHN HOPTON, who had been chaplain to the Lady Mary, and continuing such now she was Queen, was by her nominated to this see. (fn. 602) He was descended from the family of the Hoptons of Armely in Yorkshire; and as Wood says, was born at Myrfield in that county, being son of William Hopton, son of Sir Robert Hopton, Knt. and Alice his wife, daughter of Mr. Richard Harrison. (fn. 603)
Whilst he was very young, he became a black friar of the order of St. Dominick, (fn. 604) and was educated among the Dominican friars at Oxford, but what degrees he took there, is not apparent: however, in his travels to Rome, he took the degree of doctor of divinity in the University of Bononia, a city about 57 miles from thence, and being incorporated at Oxford, after his return in 1529, was soon after made Prior of the Black friars, or Dominicans there
In 1532, he was licensed to proceed in divinity, (as the same register which told us he was incorporated doctor in that faculty, says,) and in the act celebrated the 8th of July that year, he completed that degree, by standing therein.
He was rector ot Yeldham-Magna in Essex, and also of St. Anne's Aldersgate, London, to which he was instituted in 1538, and resigned it in 1548, for Fobbing rectory in Essex, and was presented to that church by the Lady Mary, being then chaplain and comptroller of her household. (fn. 605)
On the 2d of Oct. 1554, the Queen gave hex assent to his election, (fn. 606) and the day after he obtained a significavit of such her consent; and on the 4th of the same month, bad restitution of his temporalities; on the 20th following, a commission issued for his consecration, (fn. 607) which office was performed Oct. 25, when he was licensed to hold his rectory of Yeldham in commendam, during life.
This Bishop was a great persecutor, very unmerciful (fn. 608) in his visitations, (fn. 609) as you may see at p. 272; but not so exceeding cruel and bloody as his Chancellor Downing, who "plai'd the devill himself, saith Fuller, enough to make wood dear; so many did he consume to ashes." (fn. 610)
It is thought, that upon the death of Queen Mary, fearing to be called to account for his cruelty, which had gained him much hatred, he was so uneasy, (fn. 611) that he died chiefly of grief and fear, at his palace in Norwich, and was buried in the cathedral.
His will is dated August 24, 1558, and was proved Dec. 2, 1559, by which he gave part of his library to the black friars of Norwich, if they should be restored to their convent again; and the other part to the cathedral for a library there, and 5l. to buy ornaments for Myrfield church: (fn. 612) several legacies to the church of Leeds in Yorkshire; a legacy to Christopher Hopton of Leeds, Esq. his kinsman, (though not so named in the will.)
36. RICHARD COX, D. D. of the University of Cambridge, (fn. 613) a man so zealous for the Reformation and Common Prayer, as used in King Edward's days, that he, with many other English exiles, fled to Franckfort in Germany, for the truth of the Gospel; but before his consecration, the Queen designing to advance him further, preferred him to the see of Ely, and nominated
37. JOHN PARKHURST, D. D. Bishop here; who was born at Guildford in Surrey, being son of Mr. Geo. Parkhurst of that place. (fn. 614)
He was sent very young to Oxford, and was educated there in the grammar school joining to Magdalen college gate, under the famous Mr. Tho. Robertson; (fn. 615) was elected fellow of Merton college in 1529; and three years after, proceeding in arts, entered into holy orders, though better esteemed at that time, for poetry and oratory, than divinity: afterwards he became rector of the rich benefice of Bishop's Cleve in Gloucestershire, where he did a great deal of good by his hospitality and charity.
After the death of King Edward VI. he left all, for religion sake, and went into voluntary exile to Zurich in Swisserland, where he remained till the death of Queen Mary, not without great afflictions; and after her death, he durst not, for danger, (fn. 616) return with Mr. Jewell, (fn. 617) his former pupil, but went a securer way (as he supposed) by himself; which proved much the contrary, for Jewell came safe and sound home, while Parkhurst was robbed of all in his return, and was forced to be relieved by the other at his journey's end.
He was elected to this see, April, 13, 1560, consecrated Sept. 1, by Mathew Archbishop of Canterbury; (fn. 618) Gilbert Bishop of Bath and Wells; and William Bishop of Exeter: was installed by John Salisbury, dean of the church, the 27th of the same month, and had restitution of his temporalities the 24th of Oct. following. (fn. 619)
In 1566, by virtue of a commission from the prime ministers of the University of Oxford, directed to Laurence Humphry, the Queen's divinity professor, he, and four bishops more, were actually created doctors of divinity (Oct. 30) in the house of one Stephen Medcalf, at London, in the presence of William Standish, publick notary and registrary of the University, and others. (fn. 620) He published
1. A book of Epigrams, on the death of Charles and Henry Brandon, sons of Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk, who died of the sweating sickness. (fn. 621)
2. A book of Epigrams, which he intituled Ludicra, sive Epigrammata Juvenilia; (fn. 622) which book, though written in his younger days, and said to contain more obscurity than the epigrams of Martial, he would have reprinted, while he was Bishop, alleging that he would not be like Heliodorus, to lose his bishoprick for it.
3. A book, intituled, Epigrammata Seria, (fn. 623) or Serious Epigrams.
4. He took great pains in reviewing and publishing John Shepreve's Distichs on the New Testament, and added much thereto. (fn. 624)
In 1563, John Bale published his treatise intituled, The Reliques of Rome, and dedicated it to the Bishop; from which we may learn his character, when he gives his reasons why he dedicated his work particularly to him. (fn. 625)
2. For the fervent love that he always bore to the pure and sincere religion of God, for the defence of which, he was not only content to forsake his native country, relations, friends and acquaintance, but also to loose his worldly goods, and hazard even life itself.
3. For his exemplary life and conversation, in which nothing but what was good and godly was to be found, thereby giving a worthy example, to all spiritual ministers of the diocess, of life, doctrine, and hospitality, which was so notable, as to give place to none of his profession and degree: "Poore Christ in his members standeth not at your Dates to be fede at Leasure[saith he] with fragmentes and Scroppes many times to dyle for Dogges out of the almose Basket, but he is brought into your house, set at your cable habing ministred unto him al good Chings necessarye for the Releife of hys carefull State, according to this Commandment of God, Breake thy Bread to the hungrie: (fn. 626) And the nedye and Darfaryng bring thou into thy house. When thou secst the Rakey cober him, and hyde not thy face from thy neighbour. A Byshapo must be a Maynetayner and keeper of Dospitalitie, sayth the Apostle. And God sayth by the Prophet, bryng edery cythe into my Barne, that there man be meat in mine house. Therefore near Lordship is ready at al times to do good to al men, but syecially to them that are of the mousehold of fayth. And these iii Chings requireth our SabiourChrist of edery gooly f christen Bishop, when he santh thrice, Pasce, Pasce, Pasce. Feede, with wholesome Doctrinc. Feede with bertuous Conbersation. Feede with liberal nospitalitie heping. But many do so little passe of this latter Pasce, that they passe it cleane ober, and make a double Poste of it, so greatly hath Mammon blindeb their Cies."
Having lived much at his palace at Norwich, (which he beautified and repaired, placing his arms on the pillars, going out of the hall, which lately were visibly there, (fn. 627)) he died Feb. 2, 1574, and was buried in the nave of the cathedral, on the south side, between the 8th and 9th pillars; against the west part of the latter of which, is a monument erected to his memory, still to be seen.
There is a plate of it in Browne's Posthumous Works, in the treatise intitled, Repertorium, &c. p. 3, engraved by Henry Hulsbergh. (fn. 628)
But the fair monument of marble, on which was his proportion
engraven on brass, with a gown and square cap on, holding his hands
together in a praying posture, with this inscription on brass also, was
taken away in the civil war:
Johannes Parkhurst, Theol. Professor, Guilfordiæ natus, Oxoniæ educatus, temporibus Mariæ Reginæ pro Nitidâ Conscientiâ tuendâ, Tigurinæ vixit exul Voluntarius: Postea Presul factus, Sanctissimè Hanc Rexit Ecclesiam 16 An. obijt secundo die Februarij Ano. 1574, Ætatis suæ 63. (fn. 629)
Ralf Gunlter, father and son, both of Aurich, entirely beloved by Parkhurst, wrote epiceds on his death, (fn. 630) which if they could be procured (being very scarce) might satisfy a curious reader concerning some actions of this Bishop.
His episcopal seal is oblong, having his name circumscribed, twothirds of the upper part (which is elegantly cut) contains the prodigal son returning to his father, who receives him graciously; under them is a herd of swine, and under the whole these words cross the seal, perierat. et inventvs. Est. (fn. 631) and underneath is his own arms, (fn. 632) granted by Sir Gilbert Dethick, Sept. 24, 2d Eliz. viz.
In the Hanover edition (fn. 633) of Archbishop Parker's History of Britain, fo 37, all the arms of the bishops sees, with the then living bishops impaled with them, are exemplified in a cut, among which is this Bishop's; and in the midst are the Archbishop's arms, impaled with his see, and under them the arms of the city of Canterbury, the metropolis of his see, and of the city of Norwich, the place of his nativity.
There are other churches exempt in the dean and chapter of Norwich, excepting at an ordinary visitation; viz. in Norwich, St. Paul, St. James, St. Mary in the Marsh, and St. Hellen's; and the churches of Trows, Ameringhall, Lakenham, Eton, Sedgeforth, Hilderston, Hemesbye, Martham, and Catton.
And though the inhabitants of Windham will not be called out of their town by process, according to the ancient composition of my predecessors, yet they refuse not to be subject to my ordinary jurisdiction, so that my commissary sits among them in their own town.
At my last visitation, there appeared to be, 289 parish churches in the archdeaconry of Norwich. (fn. 636) 402 in Norfolk archdeaconry. (fn. 637) 236 in Suffolk archdeaconry. (fn. 638) And 224 in Sudbury. (fn. 639)
At last Easter, there were in Norwich archdeaconry, 168 rectories full, with incumbents, and 41 vicarages full; and the rest of the parish churches, viz. 80, were void; but some served with curates, which being not obliged to appear, I cannot certifie. There is no parish so large as to have a chapel of ease, except Winterton, which hath East Somerton chapel, and Wroxham, which hath Salthouse.
In Norfolk archdeaconry there are 184 rectories, (fn. 640) and 36 vicarages full, and the other 182 void, but some served with curates, (fn. 641) which can't be returned; Redenhall hath a chapel of ease, called Harleston; Derham another, called Hoe; Pulham also hath one, and so hath Titshall.
Suffolk archdeaconry hath 114 rectories, and 42 vicarages full. (fn. 642) Roydon hath a chapel of ease called Southwold; Sudbourne one, called Orford; Framlingham one, called Saxted; Tatington one, called Brundish; Braham one, called Bergholt; Barkyng one, called Dormisden; Blitheburgh one, called Walderswick; and Alburgh also hath a chapel of ease belonging to it.
Some of the churches void, in all the archdeaconries, are donatives, and heretofore belonged to religious houses; they not not being presentative, I can give no account of them. (fn. 643)
38. EDMUND FREKE, or Freake, an Essex man born, was wholly educated at the University of Cambridge, where he commenced doctor of divinity. In 1564, he was made canon of Westminster, and about the same time archdeacon of Canterbury; the next year he became canon of Windsor; and on the 10th of April, 1570, (fn. 644) was installed dean of Rochester, (fn. 645) in the place of Walter Phillips, the first dean, deceased: on Sept. 18, in the following year, he was made dean of Salisbury, (fn. 646) upon the promotion of William Bradbridge to the see of Exeter; but before he was settled in this deanery, he was made Bishop of Rochester, to which he was consecrated March 9, 1571; (fn. 647) being, as Archbishop Parker says, a serious, learned, and pious man.
In the Archbishop's Catalogue of Bishops then living, he is said to be a secular priest of Essex, aged 56. He held the archdeaconry of Canterbury in commendam, (fn. 648) with his see of Rochester, till his translation to
Norwich, to which he was elected by the Dean and Chapter, July 13, 1575, and had restitution of the temporalities the 12th of Nov. following, (fn. 649) and was confirmed Bishop here, two days after, the Queen having given her assent to the election the 4th of the same month. (fn. 650)
He was a zealous assertor of the church discipline, while in this see, as well as afterwards; being translated to Worcester in December 1584, (fn. 651) where he died about March 20, 1590, and lieth buried on the south side of the body of the church there, under a handsome monument near the wall. (fn. 652)
39. EDMUND SCAMBLER, born at Gressingham, in Lancashire, brought up at Cambridge, where he took the several degrees of bachelor and master of arts; and after that, bachelor and doctor of divinity, was incorporated in the University of Oxford in 1584, being household chaplain to Mathew Parker Archbishop of Canterbury, by whose interest he was promoted to the see of Peterborough, and was consecrated Bishop thereof, Feb. 16, 1560, by the said Archbishop, (fn. 653) Thomas Bishop of St. David's, Edmund Bishop of London, and Thomas Bishop of Coventry and Litchfield. Being then a secular priest, (fn. 654) he held in commendam with that bishoprick for three years, the prebendship of Wistow in the church of York, and a canonry in the sixth stall of the church of Westminster. (fn. 655)
He was a learned man, very zealous against the Papists, but so covetous, that he impoverished the bishopricks he was advanced to, in a notorious manner, for he granted to Queen Elizabeth the hundred of Nassaburgh, and all the liberties thereof, the Goat, the manor of Southorp, Thirlby, &c. (fn. 656) for which by way of reward, or what is more like for interest sake, in order to get such another grant, he was translated to Norwich; (fn. 657) however, Dr. Howland, his successour, brought a commission, and took a survey of the dilapidations of Peterborough, which were estimated at 1351l. 19s. 11d, (fn. 658) to which the Bishop answered in every particular, (fn. 659) expecting to have got off for nothing, though indeed he made it appear that he had laid out above 300l. and had received nothing of his predecessor; however, Feb. 9, 1585, he was awarded to pay 400 marks, and leave goods to the value of 20l. all which he deserved, and more also, if we consider the damage ehe had done to his successour by his leases.
He was elected bishop here December 15, 1584, and soon after his coming, began to impoverish this see also, as he had done Peterborough, granting a lease to the Queen, of many of the manors, farms, and revenues, belonging thereto, (fn. 660) (fn. 661) at a trifle of reserved rent, and among them, the two religious houses of Blakebergh, and Wormgey, or Wrongey, which had been granted and annexed to the see; "When Dr. Scambler was Bishop, he let a lease of above 80 particulars to Queen. Elizabeth (says the author) for 80 years, at a very small reserved rent, (for instance, one house for 4d. per annum, worth 40l. per annum,) when the now Bishop of Ely was Bishop there, [Dr. Wren] he gave his late Majesty an account of it, and what advantage it would be to the see, if they were raised to a treble rent when the lease expires; his Majesty approved of it, and gave order accordingly to Bishop Montague not to renew the lease. His Majesty [Car. I.] had it in his thoughts to divide the diocese into two, it being very great for the number of churches, [and make] Sudbury, or Bury, (where there are 2 very fair churches) [a see] and to constitute a dean and chapter, of such persons as had the best livings, near adjoining, either in the King's, or Archbishop of Canterbury's gifts; these 80 particulars, as it is thought, will bear 1000l. per annum."
Having sat Bishop here till 1594, he died at his palace in Norwich, on the 7th day of May, (fn. 662) and was buried on the 3d of June, with great pomp; (fn. 663) Ralf Brook, York Herald, as deputy for Richard Lea, Clarencieux, and Thomas Knight, Rouge Croix, attending the funeral, he was interred between the 9th and 10th pillars on the south side of the nave; and soon after, a monument of a yard and half high, with his effigies in alabaster lying thereon, was erected over him, and was enclosed with an high iron grate; (fn. 664) but in the time of the rebellion, the grate was taken away, the effigies broken, and the monument of freestone on which it laid, pulled down as far as the brick work, which being unsightly, was afterwards taken away, and the space between the pillars left void, as it now  remains.
Natus apud Gressingham in Com: Lanc. S.S. Theol. Prof. (fn. 665) apud Cantabrigienses, obijt Ætat. 85, An: 1594, Nonis Maij.
Since the Rebellion, James Scambler of Wolterton, in Norfolk, Esq. his great grandson, erected a handsome mural monument to his memory, on which are the aforesaid four verses, and the arms of the see impaling Scambler. And this
MONUMENTUM REVERENDI EDMONDI SCAMLER, sub MARIA Confessoris, sub ELIZABETHA Præsulis, primum PETROBURGENSIS, post modum, NORWICENSIS, Memoriæ Extructum, Furore antem, & Immanitate Temporum (circa ANNUM DOM. MDCLI) dissipatum, pietate ultima & Sumptibus Jacobi Scambler (Nepotis) de Wolterton in Agro NORFOLCIENSI, Armigeri restauravit JACOBUS SCAMLER Pronepos. ANNO DOM. MDCXCI.
In 1560, Sept. 3, Sir Gilbert Dethick, Garter King at Arms, granted the following coat to this Bishop, which he bare while Bishop of Peterborough. (fn. 666)
Arg. a chief sable, in fess a human heart gul. Crest, a garb or, within a ducal coronet gul. (fn. 667)
40. WILLIAM REDMAN, son of John Redman of Great Shelford in the county of Cambridge, Gent. and Margaret his wife, was educated in Cambridge; (fn. 668) and afterwards became fellow of Trinity college there, to which he gave 100 marks towards wainscoting the library. (fn. 669)
Being rector of Bishop's-bourn in Kent, he became Archdeacon of Canterbury, (fn. 670) was elected Bishop of Norwich Dec. 17, consecrated Jan. 12, by John Whitgift Archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Bishop of London, John Bishop of Rochester, and William Bishop of Lincoln, (fn. 671) and was inthroned on Monday, Feb. 24, 1594. (fn. 672)
He died at his palace in Norwich, on Saturday Sept. 25, 1602, (fn. 673) having sat Bishop seven years, nine months, and four days.
His funeral was honourably solemnized in the cathedral church, the 2d of Dec. next following, William Redman, his son and heir, being principal mourner, assisted by Sir Miles Corbet, Knt. Dr. Redmayne, Chancellor of the diocese, Dr. Norris, Archdeacon of Sudbury, and Mr. Haugh; Will. Cambden, Clarencieux King at Arms of the province, and William Smith, Rouge Dragon, attending there. (fn. 674)
In Brown's Repertorium, page 16, we have a representation of the standing herse used at this bishop's publick funeral, which is inscribed to Peter le Neve, Esq. Norroy King at Arms, who was at the expense of it.
41. JOHN JEGGON, son of Robert Jeggon, and Joan his wife, daughter of one Mr. White of the county of Essex, (fn. 675) was bora at Coggeshall in that county, Dec. 6, 1550, and bad his education at the grammar school there, and being sent to Queen's college (fn. 676) in Cambridge, was first Bible clerk, then fellow, and afterwards president of that college, from whence on the 10th of August 1590, he was chosen warden or master of Corpus Christi, commonly called Bennet college; and so continued 12 years, being four times vice chancellor of the University, doctor of divinity, and a strict disciplinarian; as appears by his so severely punishing all the under graduates for some offence, that with the molct he whitened the college hall, on the screens of which one of the young gentlemen fixed these verses,
Knew I but the Wag, that writ this in a Bravery,
I'd commend him for his Wit, but whip him for his Knavery. (fn. 677)
Being chaplain in ordinary to Queen Elizabeth, he was by her preferred to the deanery of Norwich, and was installed July 22, 1601, and on the 18th of Jan. 1602; was elected Bishop here, and was consecrated at Lamhithe, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Bishops of London, Rochester, and Chichester, on Feb. 20, the same year; (fn. 678) the Queen, who had nominated him, dying the next month, he was confirmed by her successour, James I. (fn. 679)
He bears the publick character of a grave, yet facetious, worthy prelate, (fn. 680) very zealous in requiring a strict conformity to the established worship: (fn. 681) however he was not liked by his diocese, as is evident from many things I have seen; being (I believe) too covetous and not so generous to the poor as he might have been, considering his large fortunes.
In his time, by the negligence of the brewer's servants, a fire brake out in the palace at Ludham in Norfolk, which reduced the whole to ashes, with the study, books, MSS. rolls, and many evidences of the bishoprick, except the gentlemen's and chaplain's lodgings, which being built by Bishop Freke, were tiled, and so escaped; the rest being all thatched. (fn. 682)
After this fire, having purchased an estate at Aylesham in Norfolk, he built a house there, which he commonly used as a country seat, instead of Ludham, thereby much disobliging the city of Norwich, and that part of the county, where his predecessors used to reside.
He died at Aylesham, March 13, 1617, (fn. 683) aged 67 years, 3 months, and 14 days, and was buried at the north east corner of the chancel of the parish church there, within the altar rails; his monument, though enclosed with an iron grate, is much abused, the head of the effigies being broken off; on it are the arms of Norwich see, impaling
which arms were granted by Robert Cook, Clarencieux. (fn. 684)
Primò Bibliotista, deinde Socius, et Propræses Collegij Reginalis Cantabrig' per Annos 25, Decimo die Augusti, Anno Dni' 1590, electus Magister, Sive Custos Collegij Corporis Christi Cantabrig' cui præfuit, Annos Duodecim; Academiæ Procancellarius quater, intra quinquennium fuit; Capellanus ordinarius serenissimæ Reginæ Elizabethæ constitutus est, Decanus Eccliæ: Cathis: Norwic', post biennium (fn. 685) in Epm: Norwicen: Consecratus Lambhithœ die vicesimo February Anno Dni: 1602.
Sedit in Epatû: per annos quindecim, et Dies viginti duos; et decimo tertio die Martij Anno Dni: 1617, cum vixisset Annos 67, tres Menses, 8c quotuordecim Dies, placidè obdormivit in Christo, cui semper Invigilavit.
It appears, that besides his estates in Aylesham, he purchased much in Buxton, at which place Rob. Jeggon, Esq. his heir afterwards built a large house, and resided there; his motto, Dextera Tua Protegat me, being still in the windows of its hall. (fn. 686)
He was also patron of the rectory of Sible-Hedingham in Essex, (fn. 687) to which he presented his brother, Tho Jeggon, S. T. P. Aug. 30, 1594, and in 1611, being then master of Bennet college, (where he had got him elected, when he himself resigned,) he collated him to the archdeaconry of Norwich, Sept. 10.
He died seized also of the manor of Godrich's Thorp, alias Colstonhall, alias Lampets, in Thorndon in Suffolk, (fn. 688) and many estates elsewhere in that county; leaving a widow named Lilia, who was daughter to Richard Vaughan Bishop of London, and afterwards married to Sir Charles Cornwaleis, Knt. of Beeston in Norfolk; Robert, his son and heir, was then about 10 years old; John, his second son, was buried by him at Aylesham, in Sept. 1631, and Dorothy his daughter married to Robert Gosnold of Otley in Suffolk.
42. JOHN OVERALL, born at Hadleigh in Suffolk, was first student, and then fellow of Trinity college in Cambridge, doctor and regius professor of divinity in that University, being then master of Catherine Hall, (fn. 689) a man of great reading, accounted one of the most learned controversial divines of those days. (fn. 690)
In 1592, he was instituted to the vicarage of Epping in Essex, at the presentation of Sir Tho. Heneage, Knt. (fn. 691)
In 1602, May 29, he had the prebend of Totenhale conferred on him, being elected the same day dean of St. Paul's, then vacant by the death of Dr. Alexander Nowel, at the recommendation of Sir Fulk Grevil, his patron, who set forth his merits in a handsome manner to the Queen.
He held this deanery twelve years, and during that time, was one of the first Fellows, and the very first in order, of the college of Chelsey in Middlesex, (fn. 692) appointed by King James himself, May 8, 1610, was prolocutor of the lower house of convocation, called in 1603, (I. Jac.) and continued by adjournments and prorogations to 1610, and drew up in three books in manuscript, the acts and canons that passed therein, which were published in 1690, by Archbishop Sandcroft, under the title of Bishop Overall's Convocation Book. He is said also to have been rector of Tharfield and Clothal in Hertfordshire. (fn. 693)
From the deanery of St. Paul's he was promoted to the bishoprick of Coventry and Litchfield, to which he was consecrated, April 3, 1614, and from thence was translated to this see, by King James I. being elected by the dean and chapter, May 21, 1618, (fn. 694) and was confirmed the 30th of Sept. following.
Being strict in requiring conformity to that church of which he was Bishop, he incurred the displeasure of some, who dissented from the establishment; (fn. 695) and though he might not please them in that point, yet he satisfied himself that he did no more than his office required, and without which his conscience could not be easy.
On the 18th south pillar, which is the nearest to his grave, Dr. Cosins, Bishop of Durham, (who had formerly been his secretary,) after the restoration of Charles II. erected a mural monument in honour of his memory, as having been one of the most profound school-divines of this nation.
There is a plate of it in the Repertorium, at p. 48, (fn. 696) given by William Lord Bishop of Chester, and engraved by H. Hulsbergh.
Viri undequaque Doctissimi, & omni Encomio Majoris; Qui in Regia Cantabrig. Academiæ Cathedrâ, Et Professione S. Theologiæ D. D. Whitakero Suocessit, Aulæqu Stæ. Catherinœ ibidem præfuit, Postea Decanatum S. Pavli London. Episcopatvm Etiam Lichfield: ac tandem hanc Sedem NORVICENSEM Rexit, & Sexagenarius obijt, 12° Maij A. D. MDCXIX.
43. SAMUEL HARSNET, D. D. born in St. Buttolph's parish in Colchester, (fn. 697) was first scholar, then fellow, and at length master of Pembrook-hall in Cambridge, of which University he was once proctor, and twice vice-chancellor.
He had been likewise rector of St. Margarets Fishstreet, which he resigned in 1604; and his vicarage of Ghigwell the year following; and that of Hutton in 1609; and having resigned his archdeaconry of Essex, and prebend of Mapesbury, the same year; Archbishop Bancroft (to whom he was chaplain) gave him Stisted rectory in Essex, Sept. 28; and soon after, he was promoted to the see of Chichester, to which he was consecrated on the 3d of Dec. in the aforesaid year, by Ric. Archbishop of Canterbury, Lancelot Bishop of Ely, and Ric. Bishop of Rochester; (fn. 700) and was translated thence to Norwich, Aug. 8, 1619. (fn. 701)
He was advanced first, on account of his appearing with a becoming zeal against the Popish emissaries, viz. John Darrel, minister, and some other Popish priests, who wrote a book intituled "A Narration of the strange and grievous Vexations by the Devil of seven Persons in Lancashire, and William Summers of NotIngham." (fn. 702) But especially father Edmunds, alias Weston, who was a busy propagator of, and writer for, the Romish corrupt doctrines, particularly this of exorcism or casting out of devils, against which, this Bishop published a book intituled, "A Declaration of Egregious Popish Impostures, to withdraw the Hearts of his Majesty's Subjects, from their Allegiance to him, and Obedience to Christ, under the Pretence of casting out of Devils, practised by Edmunds alias Weston, a Jesuit." (fn. 703)
But notwithstanding this, being a zealous assertor of the ceremonies of the church, and much adverse " to conformable puritans, as " he called those who practised conformity out of policy, and yet " dissented from it in their judgment," (fn. 704) be was by them complained of to the commons in parliament, in 1624, for inforcing, praying to the east, not registring institutions and inductions, (fn. 705) putting down preaching, (fn. 706) setting up images, (fn. 707) &c. (fn. 708) However, notwithstanding all his enemies could do, he was much beloved in his diocese, for his affability, eloquence, and hospitality, and particularly, for his repairing the Bishop's seat at Ludham, where he chiefly spent his time when he was not at Norwich, as appears by the ordinations celebrated in that parish church, till 1627, when he built a chapel to his house there, and consecrated it on Christmas day, for divine service, matrimony, and burial only: (fn. 709) being also a good benefactor to the parish church of Ludham, which he repaired and adorned, and gave a sum of money to run their four bells into a peal of five, as they now remain. (fn. 710)
"My body I will to be buried within the parish church of Chigwell, without pomp or solemnity, at the feet of Thomazine my beloved wife, having only a marble stone laid upon my grave, with a plate of brass molten in the stone an inch thick, having the effigies of a bishop stamped upon it, with his mitre and crosier-staff, but the brass to be so rivetted and fastened clear through the stone as sacrilegious hands may not rend off the one, without breaking the other; and I will that this inscription be engraven round about the brass. Hic. jacet Samuel Harsnet, quondam Vicarius hujus Ecclesiœ, primò, indignus Episcopus Cicestrensis, dein' indignior Norwicensis, demum indignissimus Archiepiscopus Eboracensis."
After he was Archbishop, he founded and endowed a free-school at Chigwell, wherein are to be two masters, one to teach Latin and Greek, and the other writing and cyphering. And also some almshouses there.
44. FRANCIS WHITE, D. D. born at St. Neot's in Huntingdonshire, was educated in Caius college, where he encouraged the students to ply their books by his own example, telling them, that from a poor scholar in that house by God's blessing on his industry, he was brought to that preferment. (fn. 711)
Being made chaplain and almoner to King James I. he was by him. preferred to the deanery of Carlisle, in 1622. (fn. 712)
While he was dean, he was obliged, by the Duke of Buckingham, to confer with an honourable person, who began to revolt from the true faith and religion professed in the church of England; which occasioned three or four disputations with Fisher the Jesuit; at the second of which, the King himself was present: these were printed in folio at London, in 1624.
He also wrote a treatise in defence of his younger brother, John White, who having been minister of Eccles in Lancashire 17 years, was engaged against the Romish priests at his death; one of whom, named John Fisher, wrote a book against him, which he intituled White died Black" (fn. 713) To this the Dean replied in his book, which he called "The Orthodox Faith and Way to the Church, explained and justified." And because the Jesuit in his treatise had brought a triple accusation of impostures, untruths, and absurd illations against his brother, in his writings, called "The Way to the true Church, and the Defence of it," this treatise is printed with his brother's works, Lond. 1624, folio.
Afterwards, he was engaged in the Sabbatarian controversy, (fn. 714) in which" our Jonathan, with his armour bearer, Dan. Featly, D. D. were in their disputes jointly victorious, over the Romish Philistines," (fn. 715) his excellent and learned works, reducing many Romanists to our church.
While he was Bishop of Norwich, he contributed 400l. to the repairing of St. Paul's. (fn. 716) Having published many of his learned works, and left others unfinished, he died in Feb. 1637.
45. RICHARD CORBET was born of a gentile family at Ewel in Surrey, (fn. 717) son of
In 1605, he proceeded master of arts, being then esteemed one of the most celebrated wits in the University, as his poems, jests, romantick fancies, and exploits, which he made and performed extempore. showed.
Afterwards entering into holy orders, he became an elegant preacher, and was much followed by ingenious men. At length, being chaplain to King James I. who highly valued him for his fine fancy and preaching, he was by his favour, promoted to the deanery of Christ Church in Oxford, in 1620, being then D. D. senior student of that house, vicar of Cassington near Woodstock in Oxfordshire, and prebend of Bedminster Secunda in the church of Salisbury.
He died July 28, 1635, (fn. 720) and was buried in the choir near the founder's tomb, and had a freestone of a sandy colour laid over his grave, with this inscription, and the arms of this see, impaling,
His writings published are only, "Poetica Stromata, or a Collection of sundry Peices of Poetry, Lond. 1647, 8, &c." (fn. 721) made in his younger years, and never intended to be published by their author.
Wood says, he was hospitably disposed, and ever ready to express himself generous towards publick designs. Upon the repair of St. Paul's cathedral, Aug. 1634, he used his utmost endeavour, both by his excellent speech, and exemplary gifts, to advance that pious work, not only contributing largely himself, but also giving monies to some ministers that had to give, to encourage others to contribute, that could better afford it.
He married Alice, daughter to Leonard Hutten, by Anne Hampden, his wife, as Wood tells us in Hutten's life. (fn. 722)
46. MATHEW WREN, D. D. son of Francis Wren, (fn. 723) of the parish of St. Peters-Cheap in London, being an eminent scholar in his youth, became first a student in Pembroke-hall in Cambridge, then Greek scholar, and fellow of that house, and soon after, chaplain to Lancelot Andrews Bishop of Winchester; afterwards he was made master of Peterhouse, vice-chancellor of the University, chaplain to King Charles I. when he was Prince, ( whom he attended after he had taken his journey to Spain,) as also when he was King; prebendary of Winchester, dean of Windsor, where he was installed July 24, 1628; sworn registrary of the most noble Order of the Garter, 23d Sept. following; in 1633, became clerk of the closet; in 1634, prebend of Westminster; and March 8, in the same year, was consecrated Bishop of Hereford, from whence he was elected to Norwich see, Nov. 10, 1635, and was confirmed on the 5th of Dec. following; and having sat here till April 24, 1638, (fn. 724) he was then translated to the see of Ely,
At which city he resided much, though he died at Ely-house in Holbourn, April 24, 1667, being above the age of 81 years; whereupon his body being embalmed, was conveyed to Cambridge, and deposited with great solemnity in a stone coffin, in a vault at the east end of the chapel belonging to Pembroke-hall, which he new built, beautified with splendid furniture, and amply endowed with an annual revenue; and upon Sept. 21, being the Feast of St. Mathew, (fn. 725) (his namesake,) 1665, he solemnly consecrated, and by himself in person, by his episcopal authority, dedicated it to the honour of AlmightyGod. A noble and lasting monument of the rare piety and munificence of this great and wise prelate, and in every point agreeable to his character, which was then so well known, that the sole nomination of the founder was a sufficient account of the elegance and magnificence of the foundation. The building being executed (as is said) according to the design of that great King's architect Sir Christopher Wren, his son, who contrived the model of St. Paul's church.
"In all his offices, his deportment was with such gravity, exemplary piety, and his government with no less prudence, that upon the beginning of the unparalleled rebellion, raised by the Presbiterians, commonly called Puritans, who had an implacable hatred for him, for his pride, insolence, and high hand used towards them, as they frequently reported, he was by them miserably persecuted, and grievously oppressed, by plunder of bis goods, seizure of bis estate, and by a strait and tedious imprisonment in the Tower of London, which he endured with great patience and magnanimity, near 18 years. Being after his Majesty's return set at liberty, and restored to his bishoprick of Ely." (fn. 726)
1. Increpatio Bar. Jesu. Lond. 1660, qo. tending to free such places of Scripture from a false interpretation, as the Socinians in their catechism have perverted. This book is also printed in the 9th volume of the Criticks.
Among other articles of his impeachment by the commons, one was, that while he was Bishop here in 1636, he caused the figure of Christ upon the cross to be engraven upon the episcopal seal, besides the arms of the see, to manifest his Popish affection, as they said.
This Bishop resided much at his house in Ipswich, for which reason, Prinne in his libel intended chiefly against him, styled it News from Ipswich. (fn. 727) It is falsely said to be printed there, and contains only one sheet in quarto.
47. RICHARD MONTAGUE, D. D. son of Laurence Montague, minister of Dorney in Bucks, grandson of Rob. Montague of Boudney in the parish of Burnham in that county, was born at Dorney; (fn. 728) educated in grammar learning at Eaton, whence he was elected to King's college in Cambridge in 1594, took his degrees in arts, and became parson of Wotton-Courtney in Somersetshire, prebendary of Wells, rector of Stanford-Rivers in Essex, chaplain to King James I. archdeacon and dean of Hereford, being installed there Dec.9, 1616, but exchanged it for a prebendship in Windsor, being about that time also made fellow of Eaton college, (fn. 729) which he was licensed to hold with his prebend: he learnedly read the theological lecture in Windsor chapel, eight years together, and afterwards was made rector of Petworth in Sussex.
In this interval he wrote much; (fn. 730) as an answer to Selden's History of Tithes; which when King James I. read, he was exceedingly well pleased with it, and said he knew the man well, and thought he had beaten the then matchless Selden, at his own weapon, and shown himself the greatest philosopher of the two.
This book proved him so much skilled in ecclesiastical antiquity, that his Majesty looked upon him as the fittest person, and accordingly commanded him to view and purge the Church History, which was then judged by many of the most learned of the nation to be corrupted and depraved by various figments of the Romish writers, and especially by Baronius; (fn. 731) which he accordingly did with great industry, and admirable judgment. Leaving at his death, great heaps of papers fairly written with his own hand, concerning it; but nothing being perfected, or lighting into unskilful hands, it hath not yet appeared in the world, nor so far as we can find, ever will; though his skill that way is evidently apparent in his Origines Ecclesiasticœ, and his Acts and Monuments.
And Sir Henry Savile's excellent edition of St. Chrysostom in Greek only, may be almost said to be his; because, though Sir Henry was at the charge to provide MSS. he was the person employed to fit it for the press.
But that work of his which hath made the greatest noise in the world, as well as brought much trouble upon himself, was his Appello Cœsarem, or his Appeal to Cœsar, (fn. 732) of which it will be necessary to show the occasion of writing it, and the ill consequence of his publishing it.
The occasion of writing it was this: a certain Romish priest or Jesuit had written and dispersed a book intitled, "A Gug for the New Gospel." In answer to which, our author, after his satyrical manper (for his ink had much gall in it) put out a treatise intitutled, "The Gagger gagged, or a new Gag for an old Goose."
With this answer, some divines found great fault, and particularly two of the diocese of Norwich, Mr. Yates, and Mr. Ward, who informed against him for propagating dangerous errours of Arminianism and Popery, deserting our cause, instead of defending it. This charge upon him obliged him to write another book in vindication of himself; which having composed, and being promised the approbation of several Bishops, (though in the upshot they cunningly deceived him, so that nobody subscribed but Dr. White, then dean of Carlisle,) he began to print it when King James I. died, to whom he had dedicated it; but seeing his son King Charles I. seated on the throne, he had still a Cœsar, and accordingly he went on with his book, and published it under the title of an Appeal to Cœsar. Many passages in it gave great offence to several private men, as may be seen from the seven answers that came out all together almost against it, and most of them from men of note, as Dr. Carleton Bishop of Chichester, Dr. Sutcliffe Dean of Exeter, Mr. Anthony Wooton Divinity-professor in Gresham college, Francis Rouse, a layman by profession, but ingenious and learned; Mr. Yates, a minister of Norfolk, formerly fellow of Emmanuel college in Cambridge, Dr. Featly, and Henry Burton, a London preacher, notoriously known by his companions Pryn and Bastwick.
This opposition made by so many learned men and divines, it is probable, was the cause that the parliament took themselves obliged to call Mr. Montague in question for his book, intitled "An Appeal to Cœsar," which was represented to them, as contrived and published to create jealousies between the King and his well-affected subjects, and to contain many doctrines in it, contrary to the articles of religion, established by parliament, giving encouragement to Popery; whereupon he was brought to the bar of the house of commons, for his forenamed book, and there was appointed a committee to examine into the errours of it, obliging him to enter into a bond of 2,000l. for his appearance. These severe dealings with so learned a man, and his chaplain, being related to the King, his Majesty interposed on his behalf, and intimated to the house that their proceedings against Mr. Montague did not please him, being carried on without his privity, for he was his servant, and chaplain in ordinary, and he thought his servants might have as much protection in parliament-time, as the attendants of every burgess, and that he would take the business relating to him into his own hands. The commons were much displeased with this resolution of the King's; but still having Mr. Montague's bond in their hands, they summoned him to appear before them; and ordered the committee to go on in the examination of his book. Several Bishops interceded with the Duke of Buckingham on Mr. Montague's behalf, that he might be kept under his Majesty's protection; both the Duke himself falling under their cognizance, this parliament was dissolved, and another called, which proved nothing better for Mr. Montague; for the King being forced through necessities of state, to humour the commons, left him to his trial in parliament. Another committee was thereupon appointed, and these articles gathered out of his books exhibited against him, viz.
1. That whereas in the 35th article, and second book of Homilies, which contain the doctrines of the church of England, it is determined, that the church of Rome is so far wide of the nature of a true church, that nothing can be more; he, Richard Montgue, doth, in his said book, advisedly maintain and affirm, that the church of Rome is, and ever was, a true church.
2. Whereas in the same Homily it is declared, that the church of Rome is not built on the apostles and prophets, and in 28th article, that transubstantiation overthrows the nature of a sacrament, and in the 25th article, that the other five reputed sacraments are not such; he the said Rich. Montague, doth maintain, that the church of Rome hath ever remained firm upon the foundation of sacraments and doctrine instituted by God.
3. Whereas, in the second Homily against the peril of idolatry, which is approved by the 37th article, it is declared, that images teach no good lesson of God and godliness, but all errour and wickedness; he, the said Rich. Montague, affirms and maintains, that images may be used for the instruction of the ignorant, and stirring up of devotion.
4. Whereas, in the same Homily, it is plainly expressed, that the attributing the protection of certain countries to saints, as the Gentiles did to their Dii Tutelares, is a spoiling God of his honour; he, the said Mr. Montague, in his treatise concerning the invocation of saints, affirms and maintains, that the saints not only have a memory, but a peculiar charge of their friends, and that it may be admitted, that come saints (as also angels) have a peculiar patronage and power, over certain persons and countries, by special deputation from God.
5. Whereas in the 17th article, it is resolved, that God hath certainly decreed by his council, secret to us, to deliver from curse and damnation, those whom he hath chosen in Christ, and to bring them by Christ to salvation, by being effectually called and justified. He, the said Mr. Montague, in his Appeal, doth affirm and maintain, that men justified, may fall away and depart from the state they had, and may rise again, and become new men possibly, but not certainly and necessarily, alleging some words in article 16, to prove it.
6. That the said Rich. Montague hath, contrary to his duty and allegiance, endeavoured to raise factions and divisions in the nation, by casting the odious name of Puritans upon such of his Majesty's subjects, as conform themselves to the doctrines and rites of the church of England; as also intends to give encouragement to Popery, and withdraw the people of this nation from the true religion established among us, to the Romish superstition; and particularly in his Appeal, hath inserted divers passages dishonourable to the late King James I. of blessed memory, and disgraceful to many other persons, and worthy divines, both of this kingdom, and other reformed churches, &c. All which offences being to the dishonour of God, and mischievous to the church and kingdom, and other his Majesty's dominions, the commons assembled in Parliament do humbly pray, that the said Richard Montague may be punished according to his demerits, in such an exemplary manner, as may deter others from the like crime, and particularly that his book called the Appeal may be burnt. What answer was given to these articles by Mr. Montague, we find not; it is most probable none was; but the parliament being dissolved again, the King suppressed the controversy, by ordering his book to be called in, and all the Answers to be no more sold. Shortly after, he obtained a royal pardon of all errours at any time before committed by him; and not long after, upon the death of Dr. Charlton, the King nominated him Bishop of Chichester, and he was consecrated at Croydon, by Bishop Laud, and other Bishops, Aug. 24, 1628. At this solemnity it is usual for all persons to appear, to show cause, why the person elected may not be confirmed; (fn. 733) and when the question was asked, one Mr. Humphreys, afterwards a parliament colonel, and one William Jones, a stationer of London, excepted against Mr. Montague, as unfit for the episcopal office; because he (as Jones alleged) was so lately censured for his books, and rendered incapable of all preferments in the church, by the parliament; but his exceptions were over-ruled, because he brought them vivâ voce, and not by a proctor, and Dr. Rives the vicar-general, pronouncing him contumacious, declined taking notice of what he had said, and so the Bishop was confirmed.
This great man having obtained the see of Chichester, through many difficulties, continued Bishop of it 10 years, in which we find him employed in little else but his studies (and that is labour enough) to perfect his Church History; saying, that as he had laid out much money in repairing the parsonage-house of Petworth in his diocese, before he was Bishop, being rector there, so he did also upon the Bishop's house in Aldingbourn afterward; and then was translated to this see in 1638. (fn. 734) He arrived at Norwich with the evil effects of a quartan ague, which he had about a year before, and which accompanied or rather brought him to his grave; yet he still studied and wrote very much. (fn. 735) He died in April, 1641, (fn. 736) and was buried in the choir of the cathedral church here, under a plain stone, with this inscription,
48. JOSEPH HALL, D. D. born at Ashby de la Zouch in Leicestershire, July 1st, 1574, of reputable parents, (fn. 737) his father being the chief officer of that town, under Henry Earl of Huntingdon, then lord of it. (fn. 738) Being educated in grammar learning in the place of his nativity, he was sent to Emmanuel college in Cambridge, where he became fellow. Having passed all his degrees with great applause, being particularly noted for his ingenious thesis, Mundus senescit, that the world decays, though whilst he maintained it by strength of argument(whether true or false) his own parts confuted him, the quickness whereof did rather argue an increase, than decay of parts, in this latter age. (fn. 739)
Afterwards he was rhetorick-lecturer in that University, in which place he continued some time with much honour; but at length, thinking it a diversion from the calling he chiefly intended, he entered into holy orders, and with great approbation preached both before the University, and in the adjoining villages. Being now entered on the stage of the world, preferments rather courted him, than he them. Judge Popham offered him the well-endowed Tiverton school, (fn. 740) lately founded by Mr. Blundel, who intrusted him to provide a fit master; but as he was going to take it of the Judge, a messenger in the street delivered him a letter from the Lady Drury, offering him the rectory of Halsted or Hawsted, in Suffolk; which he thankfully accepted, saying, he was going to the east, but God had pulled him back, and he must turn westward. After two years residence at this his living, he was prevailed with by Sir Edmund Bacon, to accompany him to the Spaw in Germany, which he complied with, not so much out of curiosity, as a desire to make an occular inspection into the Romish church. In his travels through Flanders, he had a discourse with the famous Coster, a Jesuit of Brussels, about divine and diabolical miracles; which he found the Papists much in admiration of, but received no satisfaction from him, for he railed at our church, only for want of them.
Having spent a year and an half in these travels, he returned to London, where Prince Henry chanced to hear him preach, and was so pleased with him, that he took him for his chaplain; and whereas his other chaplains had their turns of waiting, the Prince enjoined him constant attendance. A little after he was thus entertained in the Prince's service, the Lord Denny, (fn. 741) presented him to the rectory of Waltham-abbey in Essex, which being convenient for his court attendance, he kept above 22 years; and in that time was made prebendary of Wolverhampton, (fn. 742) where he was the chief instrument of recovering some considerable rights and emoluments of that church, out of the hands of a wilful recusant, Sir Wilter Leveson, who bad swallowed them up, under the pretence of a fee-farm rent, for ever; (fn. 743) which done, he resigned the prebend to one Mr. Lee, on condition that he should reside there, and instruct that great, but long neglected people. Not long after this, he was required to give his attendance upon my Lord Viscount Doncaster's (afterwards Earl of Carlisle) embassy into France; whence returning with much ado, after an hard journey by land, in company with his dear friend Du Moulin, and an harder by sea, he was collated to the deanery of Worcester, (fn. 744) to the great disappointment of Dr. Field, Dean of Gloucester, who seeemed sure of it in his absence. He had scarcely recruited his strength from his former travels, when he was engaged to go with the Earl of Carlisle into Scotland; where he demeaned himself with such a winning carriage, that he pleased both priests and people, which was interpreted as a faulty compliance, and so represented to the King; but his Majesty knew it could not hinder his designs, and so easily admitted his sincere and just answer.
To decide these difficulties, the States of the United Provinces resolved to call a national synod at Dort: and to give the greater authority to their determinations, they desired some foreign princes to send their divines, and especially the King of Great Britain, who accordingly appointed Dr. Carlton Bishop of Landaff, this Dr. Hall Dean of Worcester, Dr. Davenant, Margaret-professor, and master of Queen's-college, Cambridge; Dr. Ward, master of Sidney-college, and archdeacon of Taunton; and Walter Balcanqual, bachelor of divinity, and fellow of Pembroke-hall. (fn. 745) After he had given them instructions how to carry themselves in it, to go and attend that synod, Dr. Hall accordingly went, but in three months time found such indispositions within himself, from the foggy and moist air of the country, that by an humble request to his Majesty, he obtained leave to return home; whereupon, he took bis farewell of the synod in a Latin speech, and so departed, Dr. Goad, the Archbishop's chaplain, being first arrived in his stead. (fn. 746) The States presented him at his going away, with a golden medal, (fn. 747) as a mark of their high esteem of him for his learning, which he had showed in his Latin sermon, and other performances in the synod. With the change of air he soon recovered his health, and lived long after, always retaining such a veneration for that synod, that when Mr. John Goodwin, the Arminian, charged the synodists with suffering themselves to be bound by an oath, at or before the admission thereto, to vote down the Remonstrants and their doctrines; howsoever he vindicated them from so foul an aspersion, declaring, as he hoped to be saved, that no other oath was put upon them but this, that they should impartially proceed in their judgment upon those controversies which should be laid before them, only out of, and according to, the written word of God, and no otherwise determining of them, than they should find in their conscience was most agreeable to the holy Scripture, in his letter to Dr. Fuller, Aug 30, 1651.
Being again settled in England, at his living at Waltham, after some years, viz. about 1624, he was offered the bishoprick of Gloucester, and refused to accept it: but about three years after, viz. in 1627, was prevailed with to take the see of Exeter, (fn. 748) whence he was translated to this see of Norwich in 1641. (fn. 749) Upon his entrance into this last see, episcopacy suffered a great eclipse, both in its reputation and authority; the commons brought up a bill to the lords, against all bishops and clergymen, desiring their concurrence in enacting,
2. Stirring up the people in all parts of the nation, to petition against the Bishops, as the great grievances of the nation, causing the decay of trade, obstructing the proceedings in parliament, &c.
3. Encouraging the prentices of London and Westminster to get together in great numbers, to hinder the Bishops from going to parliament, by pelting them with dirt and stones, so that without hazard of their lives, they durst not appear in their places.
This torrent of mischief did not discourage our Bishop from rescuing his order, as far as he was able, from the wrongs and injuries done it; for he wrote a treatise in defence of episcopacy, intitled, Episcopacy by divine Right. And was one of those Bishops, that being kept from the parliament by the insolence of the apprentices and others, did meet the next day in the Jerusalem chamber, and drew up a protestation, importing, that whereas they, in coming to do their service in the house of Peers, were so menaced and assaulted, that they dare not sit in that house, unless they be secured from danger of their lives, they did protest against all laws, orders, votes, resolutions, and determinations, made, or to be made in their absence, as null and of none effect, from Dec. 27, 1641. This instrument Archbishop Williams presented to his Majesty, but he would not meddle with it, but remitted the matter wholly to the parliament, to which, when it was brought by a privy counsellor, and read, the anti-episcopal party triumphed, and a conference being had in the painted chamber between both houses, it was concluded, that those Bishops should be impeached of high-treason, on pretence of their endeavouring to prevert the fundamental laws of the land, and the very being of parliaments: whereupon the next day, they were all (in number 12) voted to be committed to the Tower: but this Bishop, and Moreton Bishop of Durham, found the favour, partly in respect to their age, and partly in regard to the good they had done, by their writings and preaching; to be sent to the custody of the Black Rod.
In this durance the Bishop continued some months, till, at the request of the Earl of Essex, he was released, but had not his liberty long; for on a motion made by the commons, he was again seized, and imprisoned in the Tower, where his ten brethren had been hitherto kept prisoners. Here he remained some months, and was with them admitted to bail, and so dismissed, upon the payment of their fees, to their respective habitations. This Bishop, on his discharge, came directly to Norwich, where he learned that his imprisonment was both his ease and security, for as soon as he came here, he was harassed, sequestered, and abused, in the vilest manner; (fn. 750) all his estate real and personal seized; as likewise half a year's full rents, and several arrears of rents, which, in compassion to his tenants, he had given them time to pay. They came to his palace likewise, and took an inventory of all his goods, even to a dozen of trenchers, and would have inventoried the very wearing clothes of his children and family, had he not got an order to the contrary, from some then in power. (fn. 751) These, together with his library, were exposed to publick sale; but one Mrs. Goodwyn redeemed the household goods, paying the full price for them which the sequestrators had demanded, and then leaving them with the Bishop, till he could repay her. As for his books, they were viewed by several stationers; but at last, one Mr. Cook, a worthy divine of the diocese, gave bond to the sequestrators, to the full value which they appraised them at; and it was paid out of the poor pittance of fifths which the Bishop received. Nor was this all, they kept back his synodals also for some time, and afterwards all the other profits of his bishoprick. They also several times insulted him in his palace at unseasonable hours. Once, a London trooper, attended with some others, came in the morning, before the family were out of their beds, and threatened to break open the gates; but having got entrance, he ransacked the whole house, under pretence of searching for arms and ammunition; examined the chests, trunks, and vessels in the cellar, for this end, but finding none, was at that time content to take one of his two horses, whilst the good old gentleman told him, that his age would not allow him to travel on foot. And afterwards, understanding the Bishop had some way disposed of the other horse, he came and highly expostulated the matter with him. At another time, the mob beset his palace, for having ordained some persons in his own chapel, and had the insolence to demand his appearance before the mayor. At last they wholly turned him out of the palace, though he earnestly desired to tarry there, and offered to rent it; but he could not be heard, notwithstanding the sequestrators had it in their power to pay themselves out of his fifths, which was likewise suggested to them. Being thus dispossessed, we might (saith he) have lain in the street for aught I know, had not the providence of God so ordered it, that a neighbour in the Close, one Mr. Gostlin, a widower, was content to void his house for us. As for the 400l. per annum which was allowed him by parliament, there was not the least care taken for the payment of it; insomuch that the good old Bishop was necessitated, under these circumstances, to apply to the committee of Norwich to get it paid, or to order some other maintenance for his family; but all that could be obtained was, the Lord Manchester's letter to the committee for that purpose; who, in pursuance of it, had taken care for the payment of the money; but before one quarter of it became due, an order came down from the superiour committee of the sequestrators at London, prohibiting the payment, and leaving him no hopes of maintenance, but from the fifths; nor could he get an order for them, but with much trouble, and after a long delay: and when at last they came to be paid, the accounts of those sequestrators, who had both his. temporals and spirituals in their hands, were so confused, perplexed, and imperfect, that he was forced to take any thing that they were pleased to call a fifth part.
I find indeed an order of Feb. 15, 1647, for taking off the sequestration, (which doubtless was from his temporals only,) but I presume it had the same effect, (that is, just none at all,) with the order for his pension of 400l. per annum; for his Hard Measure, wherein he so justly complains of his horrible oppression, bears date May 29 following; and he mentions not one word there of any thing restored to him; instead of it, he gives this farther instance of their outrages, and most unparalleled injustice; for, saith he, they were not ashamed, after they had taken away, and sold all my goods and personal estate, to come to me for assessments and monthly payments for that estate which they had taken; and took distresses from me upon my just denial, and vehemently required me to find the wonted arms of my predecessors, when they had left me nothing. After this he retired to a little estate (which he rented, if I mistake not,) near Norwich, where, however, under all his sufferings, he distributed a weekly charity, out of that little which was left him, to a certain number of poor widows; and kept a weekly fast in his whole family; for the safety of his Majesty's person, until they had barbarously murdered him before his own palace gate.
This pious and excellent Bishop was famous for his moderation, for which he, with some other Bishops, as Usher, Prideaux, Winniff, Brownrigg, &c. are blamed by our historians, as giving the disaffected in those times some advantages against the church, yet will appear undeserving it, when we consider, that he always made use of it to win the enemies of the church to it; and even while he managed the controversy with them, with great strength and constancy, as against the Brownists and Smectymnuus; he did it with such a spirit, that they could not but believe he did it in love to them and the truth, which if they made a wrong use of, it was theirs, not his fault, who has left us so many monuments of his learning and goodness. His works are many and voluminous, having printed fifty treatises, of which this character is given by the learned, that he was our English Seneca, dexterous at controversy, not unhappy at comments, very good at characters, better in sermons, best of all in meditations and contemplations, all which have long since been put out in three volumes.
These were the sufferings, and such, the character of this meek, humble, and incomparable prelate, who died at his house at Heigham or Hayham, in the western suburbs of Norwich, on the 8th of Sept. 1656, in the 82d year of his age, and was buried in the chancel of the parish church there, privately and without solemnity, according to his own desire in his last will, (fn. 752) over whose body lies a marble thus inscribed,
Induvie Josephi Hall, olim Norwicensis Ecclesie Servi, Repositæ 8vo, die Mensis 7bris Anno 1656, Æt. suæ 82. Vale Lector, & Æternitati respice. (fn. 753)
On the south wall, over his stone, is a mural monument erected to
his memory, whereon is represented a golden picture of Death,
holding in his right hand a writing, (fn. 754) on which,
Debemus Morti, Nos, Nostraque.
He married Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. George Winniffe of Bretenham in Suffolk, who lies buried by him, with this on her stone: (fn. 755)
Ætatis vero suæ 23°. (fn. 756)
He had two daughters, the youngest married to William Peterson, D. D. Dean of Exeter, and the eldest to Gascoign Weld of BrakenAsh in Norfolk, Esq. by whom he had one son, Joseph Weld, Esq. serjeant at law, who died single; and two daughters; Elizabeth, the youngest, married to Joseph Rutter; and Mary, the eldest, to William Starkey of Pulham, whose only daughter, Mary, married to John Jermy of Bayfield in Norfolk, Esq. who is now  living; and by her had William Jermy, Esq. the present owner of the medal mentioned at p. 576, according to the devise in the Bishop's will: "my golden medal, which was given me by the States of the Netherlands, for my assistance at the general synod of Dort, I give and bequeath to the male issue of any one of my sons (if any such be) according the order of their birth, or in default thereof, to Joseph Weld, the son of my daughter, as a memorial of that worthy employment."
Rob. Hall was bis eldest son, (fn. 757) to whom Mr. John Whitefoot, M. A. (fn. 758) rector of Heigham, dedicated his funeral sermon, which was preached at St. Peter's Mancroft in Norwich, Sept. 30, 1656, (fn. 759) he having by much intreaty, (fn. 760) got the Bishop to consent that he might preach a sermon for him, after his funeral; which was published in oct. Lond. 1656, being intituled [ISRAIA AGCHITHANIS]. Death's Alarum, &c. In which he compares the Bishop with Israel, giving him the greatest character, and in it are contained many worthy memorials of his life.
Before it is prefixed a copper plate of the Bishop, (of whom are several extant in different sizes,) with the medal given him at Dort Synod, hanging before him, a book in his hand, and the arms of the see impaling his own. The text is, Gen. 47, 29: and the time drew nigh, that Israel must die. At the end are several epiceds on his death.
49. EDWARD REYNOLDS, D. D. was elected Bishop here, and was consecrated in St. Peter's at Westminster, Jan. 6, 1660; (fn. 761) he was son of Augustine Reynolds, (fn. 762) one of the customers of Southampton, born within the parish of Holywood that Burgh Nov. 1599; and being bred up in grammar learning there, in the free-school founded by King Edward VI. reg. 7, was admitted in Merton college Oxford, and became one of the portionists, vulgarly called Postmasters, in 1615. He was elected probationer in 1620, which he got by his skill in the Greek tongue, and having taken his degree of master of arts, entered into holy orders, was a noted preacher, (though he had a hoarse voice,) and in a little time was chosen preacher as Lincoln's-Inn, and rector of Braunston or Brayton in Northamptonshire. When the grand rebellion brake out in 1642, he sided with the presbyterian party, was one of the assembly of divines, a covenanter, preached often in the city of London, and sometimes before the long-parliament.
In 1646, he was one of the visitors of the University of Oxford, and made dean of Christ Church there, in the place of Dr. Samuel Fell, who was ejected, and vice-chancellor of the same University, at which time he was made doctor of divinity by actual creation.
In 1650, he was forced out of his deanery, because he refused to take the independent engagement, and retired to his living in Northamptonshire, for a time; but being made vicar of St. Lawrence Jewry in London, he resided there chiefly, and was a leading man among the London ministers. (fn. 763)
When Monk's proceedings in Scotland gave some proof of a design of restoring King Charles II. he struck in with him, and seemed forward to promote it by bis interest among the Londoners, with whom his influence and authority was great. (fn. 764)
When the secluded members of parliament were restored to their places, he recovered his deanery of Christ Church, March 11,1659; and thus far acted in compliance with the Presbyterians: but when his Majesty King Charles II. came to Canterbury, in order to his restoration, he presented himself to him, to congratulate his arrival, and was admitted to he his chaplain; after which, he preached several times before that King, and both houses. Yet in the latter end of June following, he was desired to leave his deanery to Dr. Morley, and by the King's letter, was made master of Merton, but it was for no longer than a better provision could be prooured him, and soon after, the King preferred him to this see. (fn. 765)
As soon almost as he was settled in the see, and had a taste of the profits of it, he set himself to the building of a chapel to his palace, (fn. 766) which had been so ruinated by the insults of the rabble, that it could be no otherwise restored.
He was a person of singular affability, meekness, and humility; of great learning, a frequent preacher, constant resident, of very good wit, fancy, and judgment; a great divine, and much esteemed by all parties for his preaching, and florid style: and it was verily thought by his contemporaries, that he would never have been given to change, had it not been to please a covetous and politic consort, who put him upon those things he did. (fn. 767)
A Treatise of the Passions and Faculties of the Soul of Man. Most of which having been published several times in quarto, were printed in one folio at London, A°. 1658, with the author's picture before them, and went by the name of Dr. Reynolds's Works. They were much bought up, read, and commended by men of several persuasions, and one (who was esteemed by all that knew him, a jovial Presbyterian) that had read them several times, could not forbear writing two poems in commendation of them. (fn. 768)
Thirty Sermons on several occasions, preached between 1664, and the time of his death, which were reprinted in the 2d impression of his works at London, fo. 1679; among them is his Latin sermon, preached at Oxford 1649, intitled Animalis Homo, on 1st Cor. ii. 14.
He also wrote the Assembly of Divines Annotations on the book of Ecclesiastes; which were so much liked of, that it was wished by many learned men of the Presbyterian persuasion, that the rest had been written with as much judgment and learning.
He was also author of the Epistolary Preface to Will. Barlee's Correptory Correction, &c. of some Notes of Tho. Pierce concerning God's decrees, especially of reprobation: which book of Barlee, with the said epistolary preface, a second of Tho. Whitfield; and a third of Daniel Cawdrey, sometime of Cambridge, were printed in quarto at London, A°. 1656.
This learned Bishop departed this world on the 28th of July, 1676, in the 76th year of his age, and was buried in a vault at the upper end of his chapel, which he had built in 1662, and over his grave is fixed a mural monument against the south wall, with this epitaph engraven thereon,
H. J. S. I Edwardus Reynolds SS. T.P. Primns à Reditú Regis Caroli II. felicissimo, Norvicensis Episcopus, Quod Honoris Fastigium, uti minime ambivit, Ita Pietate, Prudentiâ, Comitate, Modestiâ, Loco, non animo elatus, maxime condecoravit. Pastorum merentium Pater amantissimus, Pacis, Pietatisque, Cultor devotissimus, Potestatis Arbiter æquus, et mitissimus; Quantus fuerit Thologus, Tam multifariâ Lectione instructus, quam S. Scripturis potens, Quam felix earundem Interpres, & Fidelis Preco, Silente hoc marmore, Scripta eloquuntur, Caput eruditum, Os facundum, Cor cœleste, Spirantia, Expirante Authore Suavissimo; Cui nihil inerat Duri aut acerbi, Præter Calculi, Stranguriæque Cruciatus, Quos Christianá, adeo atque invictâ, tulit Fide & Patientiâ, Ut Albi Lapilli, licet Mortis Instrumenta, Tessera forent Vitæ & Victoriæ. Immortalibus ascriptus est, Jul. XXIIX. A. D. MDCLXXVI. Ætatis suæ LXXVI. Mortalitatis Exuviæ prope hinc depositæ, Aug. IX. Sacellum hoc ab Ipso fundatum, dicatumque, Denuò consecrarunt.
His funeral sermon was preached in the cathedral by Mr. Benedict Riveley, (fn. 769) one of his chaplains, and minister of St Andrew's in Norwich; it was published in quarto at London, in 1677; (fn. 770) from Job. xxx. 23.
He was a great benefactor to the poor widows and children of deceased clergymen, and was very earnest in raising contributions towards rebuilding St. Paul's cathedral. (fn. 771)
That he was very charitable to the poor of his diocese in the great plague in 1666, appears by the records in the Gild-hall; and after he had done so much for them, he lent the city 200l. to disburse on their account, to the visited and indigent poor: and at an assembly held Aug. 14, 1667, out of his great respect and kindness to the city, he freely remitted one hundred pounds of that sum; (fn. 772) and by his will, gave the other hundred pounds to the city: 20l. of which, was to buy books for the city library, and the other 80l. towards the relief of poor persons in the city, in their urgent necessities: whereupon it was agreed August 26, 1676, by Edward Reynolds, D. D. archdeacon of Norfolk, his son, and one of his executors, that the mayor and aldermen, should buy house or land with it, the clear annual profit of which, was to be put into the city hamper, to be employed accordingly.
His conscientious regard for the parochial clergy is no less proof of his real charity to future ages, than the former was to the age he lived in; for he settled no less than 268l. per annum on several ministers that served the cures of livings, belonging to his see, in which respect he far surmounts all his predecessors, as well as successours, having done more for the parochial clergy, than all of them put together; for upon renewing their leases, he expressly reserved the following sums to be paid out of the several impropriate rectories, to the several serving ministers there, viz.
|From Langham rectory in Norfolk, to the vicar there||20||0||0|
|— Darsingham rect. Norf. to the vicar there||20||0||0|
|— Hoxne rect. in Suff. to the vicar there||10||0||0|
|— Wingfield rectory or coll. in Suffolk to the serving minister there||25||0||0|
|— Thornham rect. in Norf. to the vicar there||20||0||0|
|— Heigham-Potter rect. in Norf. to the vicar there||15||0||0|
|— Scottow rect. in Norf. to the vicar there||10||0||0|
|— Wormegye rect. in Norf. to the perpetual curate there||20||0||0|
|— Happisburgh or Hasebro rect. in Norf. to the vicar there||14||0||0|
|From Ingham rect. in Norf. to the perpetual curate there||28||0||0|
|— Netesherd rect. in Norf. to the vicar there||13||6||8|
|— Hoveton or Hofton St. Peter in Norf. to the vicar there||26||13||4|
|— Barton-Tuft rect. in Norf. to the vicar there||16||0||0|
|— North-Walsham rect. in Norf. to the vicar there||30||0||0|
|268||0||0 (fn. 773)|
50. ANTHONY SPARROW, D. D. was both at Depden in Suffolk, being son of Samuel Sparrow, a wealthy inhabitant of that place: he had his university education at Queen's college in Cambridge; was scholar, and then fellow of that house, and being always noted for his loyalty, was the very first of all the loyalists of this college ejected by the Earl of Manchester, who headed the Parliament soldiers at Cambridge, April 8, 1644. The crimes (as they called them) objected against him were, his not taking the covenant, and always joining with the Royalists.
Soon after he was prevailed upon to take the benefice of Hawkdon in Suffolk, but by the time he had held it fire weeks, was ejected by the Committee of religion then sitting at Westminster, because he constantly read the Common Prayer. By this means, becoming obnoxious to the then prevailing power, he was obliged to abscond for a time, and live very privately ever after till the Restoration.
In this retirement he was married, and had five or six children, (fn. 774) and according to the order of Parliament, should have had a fifth part of his living, from one Mr. Firman, who was put in by the Committee, but could never obtain any thing; (fn. 775) such was the conscience of that intruder; he was therefore obliged to live in much meaner circumstances than his calling and worth deserved, though his paternal estate maintained his family better than many worthy men lived, who were wholly turned out in a starving condition, the consequence of those unhappy times.
Having remained in this state about eleven years, at the Restoration in 1660, he recovered his living of Hawkdon, was soon elected one of the preachers of St. Edmund's Bury, made archdeacon of Sudbury, Aug. 7, the same year, prebend in the second stall in Ely cathedral, May 7, 1661.
In 1662, he became master of Queen's college in Cambridge, though with considerable opposition from Dr. Patrick, whom the majority of the fellows had elected; but his mandamus prevailing, he was at length settled in the mastership, and then left Bury, and soon after resigned Hawkdon to his curate, when he had laid out in repairs above 200l.
In 1664, he was vice-chancellor of the University; and in 1667, his Majesty thought fit to confer on him, a more remarkable reward of his loyalty, and so promoted him to the see of Exeter; vacant by the translation of Dr. Seth Ward to the see of Salisbury; he was consecrated Nov. 3, 1667, and sat there nine years with great honour and credit: and on the 28th of August, 1676, was translated to the see of Norwich, which he governed with praise and commendation from all men till May 19, 1685, (fn. 776) when he died at his palace in Norwich, and was interred on the north side of the Bishop's chapel, belonging to the palace, at the east end, to whose memory there is a mural monument erected, (fn. 777) having the arms of the see, impaling,
Revdi. Patris ac Dni. Dni. ANTONII SPARROW, S.T. P. Epi. Norwicensis Depositum Cujus animus à primis ad ardua erectus; Jam Cœlos petivit; Qui Juvenis olim suspecta Fanaticorum [oai??ia] Sustinuit illam, & Elusit Piceatas verò illorum manus: inter primos Socius Coll. Reginalis expertus est, Pulsus Cantabrigia Deo vacavit totus & Sacris Ecclesiœ Anglicanœ Propugnator Strenuus, Et afflictis Temporibus ipsorum Rebellium Mastrix Rege Reduce, Perfidiâ & Rebellione triumphatis, Liturgiœ Anglicanœ novus eligitur Pugil, Et insigni triumviratû evasit Schismaticorum malleus.
Præfuit postea Collegio Reginali Academiæ Procancellarius, Denuò Ecclesiæ Exoniensis Episcopus, Adornato prius Archidiaconi Sudburiensis, et Prebendarij, Eliensis Officio, Quorum Regimini, Summâ Prudentiâ, fidelissimo Labore, Invigilavit & enituit, Cumq; jam Præsulis munere obeundo quatuor Lustra Super dimidium compleverat Tàm senio confectus, qùam morbo attritus, Die 19 Mensis Maij Anno Salutis 1685, Ætatis suæ Currentis 74, Placidè et Feliciter in Domino Obdormivit.
Being very zealous for our ecclesiastical constitution, he published his Rationale upon the book of Common Prayer, of the church of England, London 1657, in twelves; and also a collection of Articles, Injunctions, Canons, Orders, Ordinances, &c. at London in 1661, quarto. Besides a sermon concerning the Confession of Sins and the Power of Absolution, which was preached before his ejection out of college, in the University church, and was printed by order of the Vice-Chancellor and heads of the University.
51. WILLIAM LLOYD, D D. succeeded to this see; he was a Welshman born, had his academical education in St. John's college in Cambridge, where he was elected fellow, and having continued some time in that society, was made prebend of Salisbury in 1667, and so remained without any other promotion, about nine years, till April 6, 1675, and on the death of Francis Davies, his countryman, was elected Bishop of Landaff, by order of Charles II. and on the 18th of the same month, was consecrated to that see, where he sat four years; and then, on the death of Dr. Joseph Henshaw Bishop of Peterburgh, was translated thither, being confirmed Bishop thereof May 16, 1679, where he sat six years, and was then translated to Norwich, June 11, 1685, and was confirmed the 4th of July following.
In 1687, he recovered 200l. towards a free-school at St. Asaph from the executors of Bishop Barrow. (fn. 778)
He resided here till William, then Prince of Orange, who came from Holland to check the violent proceedings of King James II. was settled upon the throne of England by the name of King William III. and then for security of the Protestant religion, and the English constitution, the oath of allegiance to him, as lawful King of these realms, being imposed on all persons, to be taken within a limited time he did not come in within that time, and afterwards absolutely refused to take them at all, and was for that reason deprived of his bishoprick, Febr. 1, 1690; (fn. 779) upon which he retired to Hammersmith near London, and lived privately there about 20 years, continuing to perform episcopal offices, even to the last. (fn. 780) It appears by an intercepted letter printed by King William's command, that he continued much in favour with James II. after his deprivation. He died at Hammersmith Jan. 1, 1709, and was buried in the belfry of the chapel there, according to his own appointment.
In 1710, Mrs. Hannah Lloyd, nominee of Dr. Will. Lloyd, late Bishop of Norwich deceased, was alive, and received money from the 2d society of assurance for widows and orphans of the clergy, so that she was widow to the Bishop, for he left only a son, who is said to have died single. (fn. 781)
1. Lloyd. or, a lion rampant regardant sab. 2. A griffin sejant. 3. Three roses. 4. Three coronets. (fn. 782)
52. JOHN MOORE, descended from John Moore, (fn. 783) rector of Knaptoft, (fn. 784) who, by Eleanor his wife, (fn. 785) had Thomas Moore, (fn. 786) of MarketHarborow in Leicestershire, ironmonger, his second son, (fn. 787) who, by a daughter of Edward Wright of Sutton in Broughton parish, in the said shire, had our John Moore, who was born at Sutton aforesaid, admitted of Catherine hall in Cambridge, became chaplain to Heneage Finch Earl of Notingham, Lord Chancellor of England in the time of King Charles II. and on June 8, 1679, being then doctor of divinity, (fn. 788) was collated to the first stall in the church of Ely; and on Dec. 13, 1687, on the death of William Sill, (fn. 789) was presented by the dean and chapter of St. Paul's to the rectory of St. Austin in London, which he voided in 1689, being instituted Oct. 26, in that year, to the rectory of St. Andrew's Holbourn, at the presentation of King William and Queen Mary, to whom he was chaplain in ordinary, at the recommendation of the aforesaid great man; this turn belonging to the Crown, by the promotion of Dr. Stillingflect to the see of Worcester.
He was also some time minister of St. Anne's, built in, and taken from, the parish of St. Giles in the Fields near London (fn. 790)
He was nominated Bishop of Norwich by the King in council, Apr. 23, 1691, (fn. 791) and was elected May 21, by the dean and chapter, when he voided his prebend and rectory; being confirmed July 2, he was consecrated July 5, 1691, in the church of St. Mary le Bow in Cheapside, London, (with eight other bishops (fn. 792)) in the place of Dr. Lloyd, who was deprived as aforesaid for not taking the oaths.
He sat sixteen years Bishop here, (fn. 793) and on July 31, 1707, was translated to the see of Ely and died at Ely-house on the day of his translation, July 31, 1714, and was interred in that cathedral Aug. 5.
He had two wives; Rose, fifth daughter of Nevill Butler of Orwell and Barnwell Abbey in Cambridgeshire, Esq. who died Aug. 18,1689, and lies buried in the chancel of St. Giles's in the Fields by London, by whom he had issue,
1. John Moore, principal registrary of Norwich, who married Thomazine, only surviving daughter of Rob Pepper, late chancellor of the diocese, who died in 1725, and gave 500l. to the Society for the Relief of the Norfolk clergymen's widows, as appears by his monument fixed to the west side of the 16th south pillar in the cathedral, (fn. 794) on which is this inscribed,
Subtus conduntur Reliquiæ Johannis Moore Armigeri LL. Bac: Archivorum Curiæ Consistorialis Norvicensis Custodis Principalis, Filij natû maximi, viri eruditissimi Revdi, admodum in Christo Patris, Joannis Moore S. T. P. per 16 annos Norvicensis, deinde per Septennium Elien: Episcopi Dignissimi: vir erat ingenio acri, et bonis literis excultus, Memoriâ fœlice alijsq; animi Dotibus eximiè ornatus: dum vixit, Integritate, Comitate, et Benevolentiâ, amicis, vicinis, et pauperibus innotuit, et moriturus quingentas Libras Cleri Norfolciensis, viduis sublevandis testamento legavit. Obijt vi. Id: Januarij Anno Dni: MDCCXXV. Æt. XLVI°.
Thomazinœ Moore, ejusdem Joannis conjugis charissimæ, Filiæ unicæ superstitis Roberti Pepper hujus Dioceseos Cancellarij, Fœmina morum Suavitate, modestia, prudentia Oeconomica, et Charitate in Egenos, spectabilis. Obijt iv Id. Aprilis A° Dni: MDCCXV Æt: XXXIX°.
S. to the Memory of Mrs. Rose Tanner, eldest Daughter to the Right Rev. Dr. John Moore, late Lord Bishop of Norwich (afterwards of Ely) and first wife of Thomas Tanner Clerk, Chancellor of this Diocese, she died March 15, A. D. 1706, aged 25 years. Here also lieth the Body of Dorothy, Daughter of the said Thomas and Rose Tanner, who died Feb. 17, A. D. 1703, aged 14 months.
By Dorothy, daughter of Mr. Barnes of Sadburgh in the county palatine of Durham, (who was first relict of Sir Michael Blacket of Newcastle, and secondly of Sir Ric. Browne. Bart. son and heir of Sir Ric. Brown of London,) his second wife, he had
There is a very good picture of this Bishop extant, said to be a great likeness, sitting in his chair in his robes, done by W. Faithorne, from a painting of Sir Godfrey Kneller's, in which the arms of the see impale
He was the most noted collector of books in all England; and after his death, his most valuable library was purchased for 6000 guineas, by his Majesty King George I. who out of a truly royal disposition, gave it to the University of Cambridge, and being now joined to their former publick library, makes it equal that famous one in her sister University.
He lies interred on the north side of the presbitery, and hath a
mural monument against one of the pillars, thus inscribed to his
Hic situs est Revdus admodum in Christo Pater Johannes Moore, Norwicensis primo, deinde hujus Dioeceseos Episcopus; vitæ, morûm, Egregium ad imitationem Exemplar; in quotidianâ enim vitæ consuetuedine eluxit Comitate conditâ gravitas, et cum venustissimâ suavitate conjuncta Authoritas: In concionando perpetuus erat, commovendis ad pietatem Animis valde idoneo affectu; in rebus difficilioribus explicandis Accuratissimus; Ecclesiæ ornandæ pariter ac tuendæ semper intentus; erga amicos Officiorum sedulitate indefessus; Erga Patriam eâ Fide atque studio, ut Consilia ad publicam Utilitatem, et ad veram Libertatem spectantia, in Omnibus Rebus Temporumque Commutationibus constanter promoverit; Pauperibus inopiam pecuniâ, Adversam valetudinem rei Medicæ Scientiâ, (quæ in ipso summa fuit) sublevabat; inter Scientiæ Civilis consultos, rerum Prudentiæ, bonique et æqui cognitione, celebris; inter Literatos, eâ demum erat Existimatione, ut à multis ferè Annis, nihil Editum fuerit de meliore notâ, oui non ex instructissima Ejus Bibliothecâ (quæ nunc è munificentiâ, Regiâ Academiæ Cantabrigiensi Ornamento est) materiæ aliquid accesserit. Obijt Julij 31, 1714, Ætatis suæ 68.
Mortis enim laqueis multorum Corpora solvit. Quorum animis Cæli spemque fidemque dedit. Dumque pijs studijs aditum patefecit ad astra. Arte suâ longum fecit ad astra viam. At, Tibi, dum Cordi est alienæ Cura Salutis, Occidis heu! vitæ prodigus ipse tuæ; Curâsti bene, ne tecum tua Fama periret, Cum tot adhuc vivunt Munere, Moore, tui.
53. CHARLES TRIMNEL, D. D. (fn. 795) was descended from the family of that name, seated at Ockley-Hall in Worcestershire, which had for its founder Sir Nicholas Triminell, Knt. whose arms he bare, viz.
Trimnell, or, a cross ingrailed gul. over all, a bend az. (fn. 796)
In 1691, Dec. 4, on the promotion of Richard Kidder to the bishoprick of Bath and Wells, he was installed into his room, in the 6th prebendship in the church of Norwich; and on the death of Edward Reynolds, D. D. was collated to the archdeaconry of Norfolk, July 20, 1698.
He was also rector of St. James in Westminster, fellow of Winchester college, chaplain to the Earl of Sunderland, elected Bishop here Jan. 13, and consecrated Feb. 8, 1707, on the translation of Bishop Moore to Ely; (fn. 797) he came first to Norwich May 21, being met by 30 coaches, forty clergymen, and a great number of gentlemen and citizens on horseback, and preached the Sunday following at the cathedral, being Whitsunday.
By his letter, published with her Majesty's brief, for the support and settlement of many thousands of distressed German Protestants, who, through the repeated irruptions of the French, attended with unmerciful exactions and other inhumanities, were forced to quit their native country, the fruitful Palatinate near the Rhine, he was the means of raising large supplies in his diocese; in which letter, he says; that "the Protestants that came over from France and Flanders in Queen Elizabeth's reign, upon a like occasion, were thought by the Bishops of that time to bring the blessing of God along with them; among which, as the city of Norwich stands first, so it still continues to reap the advantage of the improvements they made; and Bishop Parkhurst of this diocesse in particular, was perswaded, that the unexpected plenty of that year, was owing to an especial providence, of God's favouring this nation on their account." (fn. 798)
54. THOMAS GREEN, D. D. son of Thomas Green of the parish of St. Peter of Mancroft in the city of Norwich, and Sarah his wife, who was educated at Norwich school, sent to Corpus Christi college in Cambridge, and there became scholar, fellow, and master; and was twice vice-chancellor of the University; chaplain to Archbishop Tennison, beneficed with a good living near Canterbury; afterwards became vicar of St. Martin's in the Fields at Westminster, Archdeacon and prebendary of Canterbury; and on Oct. 8, 1721, was consecrated Bishop of Norwich, and installed soon after.
He sat here till Sept. 4, 1723, and was then translated to Ely, where he continued Bishop till May, 1738, and dying then at Ely House in Holbourn, was interred on the north side of the presbitery in Ely cathedral.
Anne, married to Charles Clarke, Esq. late judge of the isle of Ely, by the Bishop's gift, and now one of the barons in his Majesty's Court of Exchequer, is now dead, and left issue, a son, named Thomas.
55. JOHN LENG, D. D. succeeded here; he was born in the county of York, and being instructed in grammar learning in the school of St. Paul at London, was thence sent to the University of Cambridge, and there admitted in Catherine-hall, of which he became fellow, and a noted tutor.
Afterwards becoming rector of Bedington in Surrey, to which he was presented by Sir Nic. Carew, Bart. his pupil, he was appointed chaplain in ordinary to his Majesty George I. by whom he was preferred to this see in Oct. 1723; on the 7th of which month, he obtained a grant of arms from the office, by which the following crest, coat, and motto were assigned him, viz.
A proper coat for this worthy man, whose life and conversation was harmless as the dove, his excellent learning and peaceable disposition deserved the olive, and his diligent preaching show that he was not ashamed of the cross of Christ.
His humble motto was agreeable to his spirit, for as no man could be further from pride, so no one could show more content in his station or true humility, than he did; but to the grief of his whole diocese, he sat here but a little time, for catching the small-pox at London, he died of that distemper there, Oct. 26, 1727, (fn. 799) and was interred in the parish church of St. Margaret Westminster, to whose memory there is a mural monument fixed against the south wall, near the east end, with the arms of the see impaling his own coat, and the following inscription,
H. S. E. JOHANNES LENG Episcopus Norvicensis, Vita defunctus Mensis Octobris die xxvi. A. D. MDCCXXVII, Ætatis suæ LXII. Qui cum à primâ Ætate Literis universis, Tam Divinis, quam Humanoribus, Penitus fuerit imbutus, Et Doctrinam exquisitam, Cum rara morum suavitate et Facundiâ Conjunctam habuerit, Apud Doctissimos Famam, Apud indoctos Gratiam, Apud Omnes summam sibi Exisimationem, Facilè Conciliavit. Religionis Reformatæ vindex acerrimus, Cum sub Finem vitæ suæ oblata fuit Infula Episcopalis (Quam mereri maluit, quàm ambire) Nihil prius habuit, Suam ut Spartam quam nactus erat strenue ornaret, Probè memor Episcopatum esse Operis, non Honoris Quam vis ipse minimé Gloriæ erat cupidus, Semper fuit paratus, dignis et bene merentibus; Qualis Pater-familias fuit, Testantur etiamnum Duæ Filiæ pientissimæ; Testatur Uxor Luctuosissima; Quæ æternæ Mariti charissimi Memoriæ, Hoc marmor sacrum esse voluit.
Tully's Offices in three books, translated into English by Sir Roger le Strange, the sixth edition, revised throughout, and carefully corrected according to the Latin original, by John Leng, D. D. late Lord Bishop of Norwich.
56. WILLIAM BAKER succeeded; he was son of William Baker, vicar of Ilton in Somersetshire, by Mary Baker, his wife, (who was his relation before marriage,) and was born at llton aforesaid, brought up at Crewkern school, from thence admitted of Wadham college in Oxford, elected fellow there, took his master of arts degree, May 28, 1692; doctor of divinity July 10, 1707, and afterwards Warden of his own college, being elected in the room of Dr. Tho. Dunster, deceased in 1719.
He was first rector of St. Ebbe's in Oxford city, after that of Padworth in Berkshire, both in the gift of the Crown; afterwards was presented by John Duke of Marlborough to the rectory of Blaydon, with the chapel of Woodstock annexed: and on Feb. 17, 1714, collated to the archdeaconry of Oxford, on the promotion, of Timothy Goodwyn, D. D. to the bishoprick of Kilmore and Ardagh in Ireland; (fn. 800) and soon after succeeded Dr. Hayley (brother to the present Dean of Chichester) in the rectory of St. Giles in the Fields by London, which he held in commendam to his death: (fn. 801) and in 1723, on the translation of Dr. Reynolds, the present Bishop of Lincoln, to that see, was promoted to the see of Bangor, and thence translated to Norwich in 1727, and was installed by his proxy, the Rev. Dr. Herring, on the 5th of March, in the same year.
He died at Bath, Dec. 4, 1732, in the morning, and is interred in the abbey church there, having a marble with his name, &c. over his grave, and near it is a mural monument, placed against the third south pillar from the west door thus inscribed,
Memoriæ Sacrum, Reverendi admodùm Præsulis GULIELMI BAKER, S. T. P. Bangorensis primùm, dein' Norvicensis, Episcopi; Qui Iltonœ in Agro Somersetensi Natus, In Collegio Wadhami apud Oxonienses Bonis Literis innutritus, Suum illud Collegium Alumnus, Socius, Gardianus: Moribus, Prudentiâ, Auctoritate, Cohonestàvit, auxit, Stabilivit. Ecclesiæ Sti. Ægidij in Campis Londini, Diù summâ cum Laude, præfuit Rector, Atque in Urbe Britanniœ nostræ Primariâ Concionator facundus, Doctus, Gravis, Inter celeberimos emicuit. Mox ad altiora merito suo evectus, Nec tam amplissimis, quæ gessit, muneribus, Ipse Dignatem mutuâsse, Quàm eadem proprio splendore, Illustrâsse videbatur. Mortalitati valedixit, Quarto die Decembris. Anno Humanæ Salutis 1732. Ætatis suæ 64.
The Rev. Mr. Nic. Baker, prebend of Ilton, in the church of Wells, rector of Chisselburgh in Somersetshire, and vicar of Broad-Windsor in Dorsetshire, treasurer of the church of Bangor, whose two sons by joint patent, are principal registraries of this diocese, viz.
Sigillvm. Gvlielmi. Baker. Episcopi. Norvicensis. 1727. (fn. 802) This prelate hath four sermons extant.
1. The Misery of Christians without a future State, and the Happiness with it; preached at St. James's chapel on Jan. 29, 1709, from Cor: xv. 19. By Will. Baker, D. D. fellow of Wadham college in Oxford, Published by her Majesty's special command. Qo. Lond. 1710.
2. An assize Sermon at Hertford on Monday July 29, 1717, before the right Honourable the Lord Chief Justice King, and the Honourable Mr. Justice Powys, from Deut. vi. part of 11th and 12th verses. By Will. Baker, D. D. rector of St. Giles's in the Fields, and Chaplain in Ordinary to his Majesty. Published at the request of the high-sheriff, and the gentlemen of the grand-jury. Qo. Lond. 1717.
3. A Sermon before the Honourable House of Commons, at St. Margaret's, Westm. on Monday Jan. 30, 1720, being the anniversary of the Martyrdom of King Charles I. By Will. Baker, D. D. Warden of Wadham College, Rector of St. Giles's in the Fields, and Chaplain in Ordinary to his Majesty. From John v. 14. Qo. Lond. 1720.
4. A Sermon before the right Honourable House of Lords, at the abbey church of Westminster, on Thursday, Jan. 30, 1724, from Tim. ii. v. 1 and 2. By the Right Rev. Father in God, William Lord Bishop of Bangor. Qo. Lond. 1724.
57. ROBERT BUTTS, D.D. son of William Butts, rector of Hartest in the county of Suffolk, and Martha his wife descended from a younger branch of the ancient family of that name, some time since seated at Thornage in Norfolk, which had the famous Dr. Butts, physician to King Henry VIII. a great friend to Archbishop Cranmer, and the reformation, as appears by the history of those times, for its grand augmentor, the eldest branch of which extinguished in an heiress, married to a Bacon, whose eldest son, for that reason, was named Butts Bacon.
Being educated at Bury school in Suffolk, he was thence admitted of Trinity college in Cambridge, in 1703, became one of the preachers at Bury. In 1717, was presented by the present Earl of Bristol, to his own parish church of Ickworth in Suffolk; his present Majesty, in 1728, nominated him one of his chaplains in ordinary: Apr. 10, 1731, being then doctor of divinity, he was installed Dean of Norwich, and on the 20th of Jan. was elected Bishop there, according to his Majesty's congé d' élire, sent to the Dean and Chapter for that purpose, was confirmed Feb. 20, and consecrated at Bow-church, the 25th following, anno 1732; and on Monday the 2d of April 1733, at morning service, was installed and inthroned by his proxy, Samuel Salter, D. D. one of the prebendaries of the church of Norwich. About the 24th of May 1738, was translated to Ely, and was confirmed June 27, of which see he is the present  Bishop. (fn. 803)
A Sermon before the House of Lords at Westminster abbey, on Saturday June 11, 1737, being the anniversary of his Majesty's happy accession to the throne, on Psalm cxxii. v. 6. Lond. qo. He being then Bishop of Norwich.
His Lordship's first wife is interred under the communion table in the chapel belonging to the Bishop's palace at Norwich, with the arms of the see, Butts, and a lion rampant double quevce, impaled; and this motto, virtute duce. With the following inscription,
Qualis erat, Lector, non nostrum est proferre, EUGE venturi Indicis Autor erit Fidissimus. O charum caput! Quando illucescet praeclarus ille dies? Me, ita spero, in aeternum tibi rediturus, Quúm Virtutes, queis Curae fuit tibi Clàm praestare, Palàm faciet remunerans DOMINUS.
58. THOMAS GOOCH, D. D. our present worthy diocesan, was born at Worlingham in Suffolk, being son of Thomas Gooch, Gent. of Yarmouth in Norfolk, descended from the ancient family of the Gooches of Metingham in Suffolk, and Francis Lone his wife, daughter of Tho. Lone of Worlingham aforesaid, Gent.
In the years 1717, 1718, and 1719, he was chosen vice-chancellor of the University, in which time, by contributions and his good management, he raised near 10,000l. which hath been since expended, about erecting the present senate-house there.
He was some time rector of the united parishes of St. Clement EastCheap, and St. Martin Orgars, in the city of London, chaplain to her late Majesty Queen Anne; archdeacon of Essex, canon residentiary of Chichester; in 1729, prebendary of Canterbury; and in April 1737, was consecrated Bishop of Bristol, on the translation of Dr. Seeker to the Bishoprick of Oxford; where he sat till 1738, and was then translated to this see, being inthroned by proxy, Nov. 9. (fn. 804)
At his first coming to the see, he repaired arid beautified the palace at a very large expense, which had great need of it, little having been done (unless by Dr. Trimnell) since the Restoration; and added much to its convenience, by opening a way on the north side of the church out of the upper close; which enabled him, with the consent of the dean and chapter, not only to set aside the passage to the palace through the church, but to shut it quite up, unless in time of divine service; preventing thereby that scandalous, but common practise, of carrying burthens of all kinds, through it, even during the performance of service there.
In 1742, he procured two charters from his Majesty, constituting the late societies, the one in the county of Norfolk, and city and county of Norwich, and the other in the county of Suffolk, to be incorporated by the names of
"The GOVERNORS of the charity, for the relief of the poor WIDOWS and ORPHANS of such Clergymen, as at the time of their deaths were, or shall be possessed of some ecclesiastical benefices or curacies, within the county of Norfolk, or city and county of Norwich,