An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 4, the History of the City and County of Norwich, Part II. Originally published by W Miller, London, 1806.
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CHAPTER XLI. OF THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH, AND ITS PRECINCT.
The present cathedral is a fine Gothick freestone building, brought to that magnificence we now see it in, at several times and in different ages, by the great care and industry of its many worthy benefactors; Bishop Herbert, its original founder, laid the first foundation stone in 1096, in the place where afterwards was made the chapel of the Blessed Virgin of Pity, and there he erected an altar in honour of our Saviour; and Hubert de Rhye, one of his barons, a devotee to the Holy Land, laid the second stone; Roger Bigot, and most of the nobility and barons of the diocese, being present, laid their several stones, and contributed largely to that pious work: so that the original church, as left by Herbert, was the whole choir, tower, and two transepts, with the north and south isles of the choir, beyond the transepts, and the extent of it then, was to the division between the nave and anti-choir, and no further; the lower part of which, now remaining, is the original building of Herbert, though some ornaments between the arches, and the entire roofs and upper parts have been since added.
At Herbert's death, Bishop Eborard, his successour, built the whole nave or body of the church, and its two isles, from the antichoir or rood-loft door, to the west end, which was so great a work, that some have not scrupled to say, he built the whole church; and the present building, except the roof of the nave and western end, is of his foundation; and thus the church stood (though not perfectly fitted up and finished) till 1171, when it received much damage by fire; all which,
The next addition to this pile, was the noble chapel of the Virgin Mary, called the chapel of St. Mary the Great, which was built by Walter de Suffield the 10th Bishop here, who was a person of such sanctity and goodness, that though he was not formally canonized by the Pope, he was a reputed saint in his country, and a shrine being erected over his grave, it was visited by pilgrims from many parts, abundance of miracles being said to be done there; which was much confirmed by the miraculous escape of this chapel (as they then interpreted it) from the fire and fury of the citizens in 1272, when the whole church, tower, and adjacent buildings, were totally defaced in the insurrection between the citizens and monks; a large account of which occurs in Part 1. p. 53, 54, &c.
But the citizens being condemned to pay 3000 marks for their rashness; with that, and the liberality of the King, Queen, Bishop, Nobles, and Barons, of the country, the church was repaired and finished, and on Advent Sunday 1278, King Edward the First, and Eleanor his Queen, the Bishop of London, Hereford, Waterford, and many other nobles, were present at the inthronization of William de Midleton, who then rededicated the church in their presence; and John de Chisil Bishop of London then dedicated that altar where the body of St. William was buried, to the honour of our Saviour, and all the Saints; and Thomas de Cantelupe Bishop of Hereford dedicated the opposite altar by the choir door, to the honour of the Blessed Virgin, St. John the Baptist, St. Giles the Abbot, and all Holy Virgins; and Stephen Bishop of Waterford in Ireland dedicated the altar at the sacrist's chamber door, to St. Peter and Paul, and all the Saints,
And at this time the Bishop decreed, that the feast or dedication of the church should be held on the 18th of the calends of October, (viz. Sept. 24,) as usual in ancient time, and that the octaves of that feast, should be a single feast, held every year on the first day of October.
The same bountiful prelate, in the year 1297, began the cloister on the south side of the church, and the old chapter-house, which he built, together with that part of the cloister from the grand entrance into the church, called the Prior's entrance, with all the curious work about that entrance, to the entrance leading to the chapterhouse, (now to Life's Green,) and by that he placed a stone with this on it.
And Richard de Uppehall, the undertaker of the aforesaid works of this Bishop, built three more of the arches, of that side of the cloister, and laid a stone in the wall in like manner, showing that he was founder of them.
The other five arches, and the south side of the cloister to the arch, where the espousals or sacrament of marriage was carved on its top, were built by Bishop Salmon and his friends, and by the office of pittancer, which the convent set aside, and laid out the pittance money on this work.
The west side from the espousals aforesaid, with the fine carved entrance towards the refectory or common eating-hall, together with the Lavatories, and the door entering into the strangers-hall was built by Jeffery Simonds, rector of St. Mary in the Marsh, at the expense of 100l. and the part from the strangers-hall door to the entrance into the church, with that entrance, was made by the executors of Bishop Wakeryng, who also in his lifetime rebuilt the new (but now demolished) chapter-house.
The rest being finished by the several families of Morley, Shelton, Scales, Erpingham, Gourney, Mowbray, Thorp, Savage, &c. the arms of all which families, and those of or, a lion rampant gul. with many more, were to be seen in the windows of the cloister above the bars, before their glazing was demolished.
And thus this famous cloister was finished in the time of William Alnwyk Lord Bishop here, (of whose gift the west end of the church was built, as may be seen in Pt. I. 531,) and in the third year of William Worsted, prior of the church, who were both considerable benefactors: in the year of our Lord 1430, and in the 133d year from the first beginning of the work.
In 1361, on the 15th of Jan. the steeple was blown down, and the quire much damaged, to repair which, Bishop Percy not only gave 400l. out of his own purse, but obtained an aid of 9d. in the pound, of all his clergy, to repair it, and then was the spire first erected, and the present tower built.
The shaft or spire commonly called the pinnacle, is a most handsome and well proportioned fabrick, and the highest in England, except that of Salisbury, which being raised upon a very high tower, is higher from the ground; but yet the pinnacle itself seems at least to equal that, and is higher than those noted ones of Litchfield, Chichester, or Grantham.
It is 105 yards, and two feet, from the top of the pinnacle, to the pavement of the quire under it; it is built strongly of freestone on the outside, and brick within; the upper window is the highest ascent inwardly.
At the Restoration, when it was repaired, and a new gilded weathercock placed on it, there were stages made at the upper windows, and many went up to the top of the pinnacle, from whence is a prospect all round the country; Moushold-hill seems low and flat ground; the Castle-hill and high buildings, are very much diminished; the river looks like a ditch, and the city with its streets, shows like a pleasant garden of many walks.
The cock is three quarters of a yard high, and one yard and 2 inches long, as is also the cross bar and top stone of the spire, which is not flat, but consists of a half globe, and channel about it, and from thence are eight leaves of stone spreading outward, under which begin the 8 rows of crockets, which go down the spire at five feet distance.
In 1463, the church was much damaged again by fire, occasioned by lightning which fired the wood-work within the top of the pinnacle, which was the means of its being much augmented and beautified: for the noble stone roof of the nave of the church, adorned with most of the principal stories of the Old Testament, as of Pharoah, Sampson, &c. carved in stone very neatly, with the upper part of the nave, was then made at the expense of Bishop Lyhert and his friends, whose great generosity, added to his own, enabled him not only to perfect this great work, but pave the cathedral, build the stone rood-loft which now remains, and erect that tomb which was over the founder, before it was demolished in the late rebellion, on the south side of which, were the arms of the See, Lyhert, and of Windham impaling Braunch, who all contributed towards that good work; and on the north side were the arms of the See, an emblem of the Trinity, and Clere and Branch impaled; which I suppose were put on, when the tomb and choir were much repaired, by the Cleres, Boleyns, Windhams, &c. about the latter end of Henry the Seventh's time, or the beginning of Henry the Eighth's; and least the memorial of such benefactors should perish, the windows of the nave were adorned with the arms of England, Edward the Confessor, Bohun, Valence, Brotherton, Earl Warren, John of Gaunt, Cornwall, Beauchamp, East-Angles, the See, Albany, Lacy, Danby, the Empire, Plantagenet, Ufford, Bardolf, Huntingfield, Norwich, Charles Earl of Richmond, Lyhert, Hetherset, Mortimer of Attleburgh, Ingham, Bacon, Kerdeston, Morley, Scales, &c. most of which are now gone.
On Lyhert's death, Bishop Goldwell, his successour, beautified the tower, made the roof of the quire, of the same work as the nave, with stone carvings of most of the principal passages of the New Testament, and fitted up the choir and chapels about it, in the same manner as they now appear; and covered the vaulted or arched stone work, with lead; placing on the walls and in the windows, the arms of those worthy benefactors that contributed to that work, viz. Southwell, Calthorp, Erpingham, Clopton, Walton, Windham, Kerdeston, Warren, Dela Pole, Lucy, Hobart, Clere, Boleyn, Butler, Le' Strange, Bovile, Beauchamp, Felbrigge. Wichingham, Vere, Stanley, Wingfield, Heydon, Townesend, Bedingfield, Bruce, Hastyngs, Stapleton, Clifton, Hevingham, Bokenham, Ingloss, and many others; most of which, are now lost; but there are none so often occur as the arms of Sir Thomas Erpingham and his two wives, Sir Thomas Windham and his two wives, and Sir William Boleyn and his wife; which shows, that they were the most considerable benefactors.
1. England and France quartered. 2. Edward the Confessor. 3. an Emblem of the Trinity. 4. the Emblem of the Sacrament. 5. the East-Angles. 6. the See of Canterbury, impaling Archbishop Moreton, viz. quarterly gul. and erm. on the 1st and 4th quarters a goat's head erased arg.
4. Townesend, az. a chevron erm. between three escalops or, quartered with gul. a chevron between three de-lises or, impaling quarterly, 1. az. a chevron between three boars heads cooped or. 2. arg. three chevrons gul.
On the north side,
1. Norwich See impales Goldwell's coat and devices, joined per fess, viz. first, gul. three gilt or golden wells, or. 2. Arg. six columbines az. 3. his paternal coat. (See Pt. I. p. 540.)
In 1509, the transept isles of the church being much injured by fire, Bishop Nix repaired them, adding a stone roof to them, in the same manner as the rest of the church, so that he completed the roofs, as we now see them, and in memory thereof, fixed up his own arms there, with those of his friends, who were benefactors to the work.
And thus the church remained till the Dissolution, when, by injunction from the Bishop, to the dean and prebends, the crucifixes, images and pictures, were all taken away, and the tabernacles or niches, where the images stood, where filled up and whited over.
But at the Restoration, the church was fitted up again in the old
manner; and in the same place where the old organ stood,
The present organ was set up by Dean Crofts and the chapter, and was afterwards painted and beautified by Dean Astley; the old organ erected in 1607, and repaired in 1626, with a legacy given for that purpose by Abel Colls, being altogether demolished by the rebels. As were the five or six copes belonging to the church, which though they looked somewhat old, were richly embroidered: the present cope was given at the Restoration by Philip Harbord, Esq. then high sheriff of Norfolk; at which time the city, to make some amends for the late spoil and abuse of the church, gave 100l. for plate for the altar.
And from that time till the late reparations, &c. mentioned in Pt. I. p. 630, scarce any thing was done; so that it was in a most indecent condition, though now few exceed it in that point, it being both as neat and decent (if not more so) than the generality of the present cathedrals are.
And now having given an account of the building, I shall only observe, that from the west door to the entrance of the ruinated chapel of St. Mary the Great, which stood at the east end, is 400 feet, and the extent of the transept or cross isles, from north to south, is 180 feet; and thus much as to the church in general.
I shall therefore now descend to a particular account of it; and in so doing, shall follow the Ichnography or Plan, here inserted; by which the dimensions of the building may not only be generally viewed, but particularly described in the following manner.
Chapel of the Blessed Virgin, commonly called St. Mary the Great, and very often St. Walter's chapel, from Walter de Suffield, alias Calthorp, its original founder, whose tomb is marked with figure (1). The life of this good and religious prelate may be found in Pt. I. p. 486. And it appears by the annual accounts of the sacrists of this church, that the offerings at the altar of St. Mary, or the high-altar of this chapel, marked by the pricks in the plan, above figure (2), together with those at his shrine or tomb, with the money taken annually out of the box, placed at the head of the shrine, were very considerable; daily service was said at the high-altar here, for the founder's soul in particular, his friends, relations, benefactors, and the dead in general, according to his foundation for that purpose, mentioned in Pt. I. p. 487.
This chapel was about 70 feet long, and 30 broad, had a fair entrance out of the church of a considerable height, as may be seen by
the outside, where it joined to it; being fallen into decay, it was demolished in the time of Dean Gardiner, whose reputation was deservedly stained upon this and other accounts of the like nature; for
on a commission of enquiry concerning the affairs of the church in
his time, it was sworn by Mr. John Debney, under-steward, and
chapter clerk, and Mr. Robert Stanton, one of the minor canons,
That the houses belonging to the ministers of the church were leased to laymen at small rents; that those who were married and kept hospitality, were forced to be contributors to those that kept none, by allowing towards keeping the common-table in the common-hall, that the brew-house was turned into a tippling-house; that of the lead taken off our Lady's chapel, two fodders were sold to Mr. Sackfield, master of the requests, for 12l. and that the Dean had the money towards his charges at London; the rest being disposed of to the use of the church; and that the said Dean pulled down a great leaded hall, (viz. the strangers-hall on the west side of the cloister,) and pulled the lead off his own house where he lived, viz. (the present deanery) and not only swallowed it all, but had 40l. more allowed him towards repairing his house aforesaid. And Tho. Hughson, formerly sacrist, swore, that in the first year of King Edward VI. there was plate in the cathedral of above 592 ounces weight; but that the next year it was reduced to 271 ounces; and that in this dean's time there was no more than one communion cup double gilt, weighing 19 ounces. That the ancient parochial church of St. Mary in the Marsh was pulled down by Dr. Gascoigne, who bought it of the dean and chapter for 80l. which was divided between the Dean, Dr. Spencer, Dr. Barret, Mr. Mannell, and Mr. Toller, minister of the parish; and immediately after the new erection of the cathedral, the dean and chapter sold the bells of St. Mary's church aforesaid.
Some have said the consistory court was formerly kept in this chapel, but by errour, for it was ever since the foundation of the present chapel (where it is now held) kept there, and the errour proceeded from the evidences saying, it was held in St. Mary's chapel, which is true, the present consistory being the chapel of St. Mary the Less.
The figure (6) shows the place, where the tomb which now stands
in Jesus chapel, marked with figure (7), was removed from; it was
erected to the memory of Sir Thomas Windham, who was knighted
by Sir Edward Howard Lord Admiral of England in the fourth year
of King Henry VIII. at Croiton Bay in France, in which expedition
he was very serviceable, doing much towards the winning of Turney,
Turwin, and other places; he was Privy Councellor to that King, one
of the knights retained for his body guard, and vice-admiral, being
son of Sir John Windham of Crownthorp in Norfolk; he was buried
between his two wives, Eleanor, daughter and coheir of Rich. Scroop
of Upsall, Esq. and Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry Wentworth of
Letheringham in Suffolk, and died about 1521; for on 22d of Oct. in
that year, he made his will at his manor of Felbrigge in Norfolk, by
which he appointed this place for his sepulture, and this tomb, with
the following arms and inscription to be erected,
Orate pro animabus Thome Dinham militis Cleanore, et Domine Elizabethe Urorum eius, Qui quidem Thomas fuit unus consiliariorum Domini Gegis Menrici Ortaui, ar unus Militum pro Corpore eiusoem Domini Gegis, necnon Vice Admirallus.
His own effigies, with those of his two wives, were upon it, and the arms of
The Chapel of St. Luke the Evangelist, situate on the south-east corner of the cathedral, is marked with the letter (i) in the plan; it is of the original building of Bishop Herbert, and was the prior's chapel, till that on the east side of the cloister was built for that use, as being more convenient on account of its nearness to the prior's lodge; at first it extended nor further than figure(49), at which the present pulpit is fixed, as is the font at (48); but now being used instead of the ruinated parish church of St. Mary in the Marsh, for a place of divine worship for all the inhabitants within the Close or Precinct, there is weekly service performed therein, and all the part of the isle from the east end to the 18th south pillar, is now included in it.
There was an ancient gild called St. Luke's gild, kept at the altar here; for the offerings of which, the sacrist annually accounted; it was held every Sunday after Trinity, and was the gild belonging to the pewterers, brasiers, &c. See Pt. I. p. 207.
The font is very ancient, being that which stood in the church of St. Mary in the Marsh; there are upon it the carvings of the seven Sacraments, and the four Evangelists, besides other saints, popes, and confessors.
On a small mural monument on the north side of the altar,
To the Memory of John Harwood, Curate to this Chappel 32 Yeares, who died 21th Day Jan. 1691, aged 65 Yeares, and also of Alice Harwood his Relict, one of the Daughters of Dr. Hassall, some Time Dean of this Cathedral, who died 16 June, 1713, aged 84 Years, both being buried in the Middle Part of the Altar.
Nic iacet Richardus Brome Armiger, ruius anime propicietur Deus, is now lost, as are three shields from the altar part of the tomb, though the two initial letters of his name still remain in a cipher.
To the west end of this, adjoins the monument of Prior Bozoun, described in Pt. I. p. 603, and marked in the plan with figure (12). Weever, fo. 796, calls him Boswell, and gives a large account of that family, which hath no relation at all to this.
On a stone over against Brome's monument,
Hic jacent Parentum deliciæ, Eheu! Breves. Maria et David Fleming; Hic obijt VI°. Id. Quint. Infans sesquimestris, Illa balbutiens, dum Parentum fallebat luctus, dolentis Patris ulnis, Eheu; jam tandem satis dolentis, subita morte erepta est, IV. Id. Quint. Uno Eodemque Die et Tumulo Sepulti, Prid. Id. Quint. 1720: Robertus Fleming, Infans. obijt XVI°. Cal. Quint. Nat. IV°. Non. Jun. 1722.
Opposite to this is,
The Chapel called Jesus Chapel, marked in the plan with letter (g). This is also of Herbert's foundation, and before any chapel was built to the palace, was the Bishop's own private chapel; it was dedicated to this Holy name, and had the mass of Jesus said daily in it to the Dissolution.
In the midst of it stands Sir Thomas Windham's tomb, of which before; and on the north side of the now demolished altar, is a brass plate fixed, which was brought out of the ruinated chapel of St. Mary, as appears by the will of Ralf Pulvertoft, custos or master of the charnel chapel, at the west part of the cathedral, who ordered his body to be buried in St. Mary's chapel aforesaid. He was rector of Hevingham, and died about the latter end of Henry VII. His arms are, Six wheat ears in a bordure of cinquefoils.
And this inscription,
En morior, prodest michi quid prius hoc quod habebam, Preterit omne quod est, eo nudus sic beniebam, Sola michi requies manet, hic non sunt mea plura, Antea nulla quies, modo pro uichilo michi Cura; Sed fleo, dum fueram, modicum, bel nil bene gessi Crimina multa feram, fuerrant mea, quando cecessi Pulnertoft Gadulphus eram, Custos Caronelle, Christe Deus pro me passus, mea Crimina Pelle, Sic eroro, petas, qui mea Scripta legas. Pater noster.
On a small stone on the south side,
Elizabeth, the first-born of Fran: Frank, Bachelor of Laws, & Eliz. late BACON, his Wife, born Apr. 13, died Febr. 20, 1736. Also Frances their Daughter was born June the 4th, and died July the 5th. 1739.
In the north window of this chapel were the effigies and arms of Radcliff Lord Burleigh and Cecil, and or, a saltier ingrailed sab.; and in the east window is the effigies of a religious, kneeling on a cushion, and under him, was arg. a lion rampant gul.
Between this chapel and the entrance into St. Mary's chapel, behind the 20th and 21st north pillars, in which place the singing school was lately kept, are stones for John and Barbara Rhodes; see Pt. I. p. 670. There is also a very large stone disrobed of its circumscription and other ornaments, which, I take it, was laid over John Skarlet, rector of Little-Massingham, who was buried here in 1468.
Cujus reditû non Solum vivorum, sed etiam Mortuorum Dormitoria, Nec non Fana ipsa sacrata à Fanaticorum violationibus preservantur In memoriam BRIGETTÆ Uxoris suæ dilectissimæ 26 7bris Anno salutis 1652, Denatæ.
Returning back in the same isle, we come to the ancient confessionary, marked in the plan with letter (f) it is an arched stone vault, through which we pass, in going from the quire to Jesus chapel, but was formerly very dark; here the people stood when they confessed to the priest, who stood within the altar rails, between the 18th and 19th north pillars, at the letter (e) in the plan, the voice coming through a hole made in the wall for that purpose, which still remains; this place is now called Queen Elizabeth's seat, because that Queen, when she attended service here, sat in a seat prepared for her between those pillars.
Here under resteth the Body of the right vertuous Lady Frances, late Wife of Sir William Denny, one of his Majesty's Counsail learned in the Law, eldest Daughter of James Taverner Esq; who departed this Life the 12th Day of Febr. A. D. 1631, being of the Age of 36 Years.
On the north side of this isle there were two chapels, but both are demolished; to what saints they were dedicated I cannot certainly learn; but take that most east to be the chapel of St. Stephen; for I find the sacrist annually accounted for the offerings, at the cross in the chapel at the altar of St. Stephen: and the other, I take it, was St. Sithe's chapel, which was paved in 1398; and the offerings at the altar here were also considerable; it seems as if the chantry priest of Sir Robert Ty, Knt. who was sustained by lands in Thurleton, officiated in one of these chapels.
Chapel called our Lady the Less, or Beauchamp's Chapel, is first to be observed; it is marked (k) in the plan, was dedicated to our Lady and all the Saints, by William de Bello-Campo or Beauchamp, its founder, as the following inscription in capitals, cut in stone near the ground on the outside of the south wall, informs us;
He lived in the time of Edward II. and III. being a knight of good reputation and family, (fn. 1) and is buried in a fine arched vault under the chapel; and his inarched monument is in the south wall, at number (14) in the plan: the altar stood in the middle of the east wall, and there is a fine carved tabernacle or niche in that wall, on its north side, where the image of the Virgin heretofore stood; and opposite is a ledge or cornish, on which stood a groupe of figures of all the Saints.
I have an old account of the monuments, taken before the Rebellion, which says, that John Barret, D. D. prebend of this church, who died July 12, 1563, was buried here; as was a daughter of Dean Gardiner's, and Dr. Talbot, late prebend; for whom see Pt. I. p. 663.
The roof is of stone, finely carved in the same manner with the rest of the church, having legends of divers saints, &c. represented thereon, as the Ascension of the Blessed Virgin, the Salutation, the Conversion of St. Paul, and our Saviour's triumphant entering into Jerusalem, with other symbols of the Apostles, Martyrs, and Confessors; with the arms of Beauchamp, and a mullet sab. for difference; which I suppose, was done by another of the same name and family, who lived in the beginning of Henry the Sixth's reign, and probably may be buried in the vault here, where, without doubt, several of the Beauchamps are interred.
Against the west wall of this chapel, at the entrance on the right hand, is a neat mural monument, erected to the memory of Thomas Batcheller, LL. B. one of the proctors in this court, with the following inscription, composed by Dr. Tanner, then chancellor of the diocese, and the arms of
Quod mortale fuit
E Coll. S. Petri Cantab. in Jure Civ: Baccalaurei, Subtus depositum est, in loco hoc Consistorij Episcopalis, Ubi multa cum suâ Laude litigantium Commodi et Fori Ecclesiastici Dignitate, in causis agendis defendendisve (Et Negotijs gerendis) per quadraginta tres annos Procuratorum Generalium unus, versatus est.
Meritò itaq; Episcopis Norvicensibus eorumq; Cancellarijs et Clero (quorum jura optimè callebat Et egregie tuebatur) vixit charus, omniumq; ordinum Hominibus, quibus ob Legum Rerumq; peritiam Ingenij acumen, judicij Gravitatem, multiplicem eruditionem Spectatam probitatem et singularem Prudentiam Innotuit, tristissimum sui desiderium reliquit.
There is a gravestone for him on the ground, on which is added,
In hoc Tumulo Sepultus est Thomas Batcheller filius natù Maximus Leonardi Batcheller Arm. Thomæ Batcheller L.L. B. nepos, Qui obijt decimo Septimo Septembr. 1736.
That part of the south isle from St. Luke's chapel door at the 18th pillar, to the transept at the 15th pillar, is the burial place for persons dying in the Close or Precinct, in which the following persons are interred,
STEPHANUS KNIGHT sub hoc marmore requiescit, Johannis Knight Generosi, Hisdaniæ Vici Essexiæ posthumus, Legum Baccalaureus, Caroli I°. Britanniarum Monarchæ à cubiculo privato Extraordinarius, tribus Dominis Episcopis Norvicensibus Registrarius principalis, proximus post Christi Resurrectionem Dominico anno Christi MDCLXIV denatus, Ejus Resurrectione expectans suam.
By her he had Issue, two Sons, and two Daughters, His Wife, one Son, and one Daughter, surviving him, who was one of the best of Husbands and Fathers, and always ready to do friendly Offices to all Mankind.
Here next to the Bodies of John Miller Esq. and Bridget his Wife, lieth the Body of Anne their eldest Daughter, who was buried here by her own special appointment; she was married to John Beridge of Great Massingham in Norfolk, Doctor in Divinity, whom she survived, and left by him only one Daughter, she died the 21 of Febr. 1725, aged 59 years.
Hic sitæ sunt reliquiæ Deboræ et Elizabethæ, Gulielmi Herring LL. D. et Deboræ Uxoris ejus, Filiolarum; hæc Id Apr. 1724. 2do. Anno ineunte, Illa 18vo. Cal. Febr. 1727, annum agens 8vm de Vitâ migravit.
M. S. Joannis, Gulielmi Herring LL. D. et Deboræ Uxoris ejus, Filij natû tertij: Juvenis Singulari modestia, Temperantia, Bonitate, prediti: Literisque à pueritiâ mirificè dediti: Qui dum studia colebat in Academiâ Cantabrigiensi Severiora, spemque Egregiam parentibus afferebat, morbo, quem vocant Tabem absumptus, quarto Mensis Julij Anno Christi MDCCXLo. Ætatis suæ xixo. supremum diem Clausit.
Sacred to the Memory of Isaac Chambers, late of this Precinct Gent. who died March 21, 1725, Æt. 66. He married Christian Brabourne, Dr. of Samuel Brabourne late of Rumburgh in Suffolk Gent. died Jan. 20, 1727, Æt. 76.
Of Thomas Tybenham, under Stone, The Body here doth rest Who when God called in hope of Neuen, Co change his Lyfe was prest, Ne Lybyng trusted certainly, An God his Nope was sure, Dying By Christ's own Death to fynde, The Life which shall endure, Wherefore good Reader credit that, Which said so truly is, And godly hope, his soul to libe With God in Nebenly Bliss. Obiit 22 Jan. 1582.
Pray for the Soul of Elizabeth Waters, and John Waters Alderman, and for the Soul of John Manning (fn. 2) Alderman and Manor of Norwych, and husbands unto the said Elizabeth, on Whose Souls God habe Mercy. Amen.
Gulielmus Burton, eximia spe virtutis et ingenij adolescens, è Collegio Caij Gonvilliensi apud Cantabrigienses, A. B. annos natus duos et vigniti, denatus VI Calendar' Julij MDCLXXXIII. triste sui desiderium reliquit.
Ad pedem Parietis huic lapidi vicini jacet, Rebecca Lovering,
mater Thomœ Lovering, Quæ cum annos Octoginta & unum
implessit, morti cessit,
Sic gravidis onerata seges, subit horrea Culmis
Sic Matura suo tempore poma cadunt.
Huic à Latere accumbit Blancia Lovering Uxor ejusdem Thomœ prima, quæ cum Sexaginta plus minus annos numerâsset tunc ablata: Sub hoc Lapide jacet Margeria ejusdem Thomœ Uxor secunda, de quâ, ut de Priore, dum vixerunt meritò affirmetur.
In this transept also was buried William de Bakunsthorp. (See
Pt. I. p. 605.) At figure (43) in the plan, was a brass plate on a
stone for Simon Folkard, first prior of Hoxne, and after of Lynn,
which is now lost, but had this inscription on it,
Orate pro anima Symonis Folkard nuper Prioris Lenne, qui obiit MCCCCCI
There was also an inscription for one Thomas, a priest, who paved
this transept, but it is now quite gone,
Thome Presbyteri Corpus Lapis iste, retentum, Funus habet, magno qui sumptu dedit hor pabimentum. Anno milleno quater et C Septuageno Octabo, Stephani liquit terrestria festo, Ut Cœli detur requies sibi quisque precetur. En iacet hic stratus Under this Ston, Ligs John Knapton, Who died inst, The xxvii of August. M D, L. C, and on, Of thys Church Peti Canon.
Mr. Walter Hawe, son of Walter Hawe, Hawys, or Haughs, one
of the proctors, who was elected schoolmaster in 1562, was interred
here, but his brass is lost, which had this on it,
Clarus et hac celebri qui quondam birit in Orbe, Nunc agit etherea Clarior ipso Domo, Cuius ab Eremplo iam doctus randide Lector. Disce moci Mundo, bibere Disce Deo, Obiit bio Junii 1569.
Anna sub hoc tumulo iacet, cognomine dicta Cornmaleis, gelide morte perempta iacet, Nanc genuit Rookwood, peperit Wychingham, et utrique Natæ ac hæredis nomine chara fuit. Jnsignis pietate sua Assiduasque preces obtulit ipsa Deo. Jllius Eremplo doctus nunc, candide Lector, Cu bene far bibas, et morieris bene Obiit anno salutis 1565, 18 Aprilis.
Radulfus Sadlington Notarius Publicus, qui suo tempore morte immaturâ abreptus fuit 6to die Martij 1601. Ejus Vita perpetua fuit mortis Commutatio, morbi Magnitudine excruciatus, illius accerbitatem, æquo animo, ac Christianâ Patientiâ pertulit, usque ad extremum spiritum, prepotentem deum verbis Supplicibus orabat, ut inter illius peccata, et justum Dei judicium, merita interponat, in quo omnem spem salutis Æternæ posuit, moriens 30° Anno Ætatis suæ nondum compleverat, fuit mitis teneræque naturæ in vitâ manens, maxima virtutis, religionis, et pietatis, documenta dedit. Domum in cujus famulatû ferè continuus vixit, summâ observantiâ coluit, et omnibus, illi fidelis fuit; erat literis politioribus non leviter tinctus, et ad humanitatis studia perpendebat, cum illo actum est preclaré. Cujus anima eternitate fruitur.
Under St. Peter's picture was painted the sea, with a ship, and
fishermen catching abundance of fishes, and this distich,
Ecclesiam pro Nabe rego, michi Climato Mundi Sunt mare, Scripture, Retia, Piscis, Nomo.
There is a clock fixed in the south part of this isle, and two small figures of men, with hammers in their hands, turn themselves and strike the quarters of the hour; and on the frontispiece was painted the sun and moon, to whom the clock comparatively seems to speak in this hexastich, which is painted on the same place:
Noras significo cunctas quas Phæbe Diebus, Quas solet atque tua pallida nocte soror: Nec Magis errarem, Rector mihi si foret idem, Nos qui, I quæque regit motibus astra suis. Tempora nam recte designo, si mihi doctus, Custos assiduam conferat artis opem.
Phœbus, I tell all th' houres, and all as right As thou, or thy pale sister, day and night, Nor I, no more than you, in ought should erre, If he rul'd mee, who guides you, and each starre; For times I rightly tell, if of his art My learned keeper, will his help impart,
To the pious memory of Mrs. Eliz. Stukely, the beloved Wife of Mr. John Stukely Minor-Canon of this Cathedral Church; she was the only Daughter of Mr. Charles, Binks, late of Barbadoes Merchant, who exchanged her Mortality for Immortality, on the 11th of Oct. in the 27th Year of her Age, Anno Dom. 1698.
D. S. Thomas Pleasants, hujus Ecclesiæ Organista, et puerorum Choristarum in arte canendi Instructor, obijt 5° Id. Mensis Augusti, anno ætatis suæ XLI. Salutis humanæ MDCLXXXIX. 20d° die 9bris. In eodem anno, Thomas Pleasants, dicti Thomæ & Annæ ejus Uxoris Filius, ad patrem et plures abijt, anno Ætatis suæ 10.
On a stone in the east wall near the door, leading towards St.
Here lies the Corps, the Ghost is gone, To Joy, the which in Life it sought; At length it found by Christ alone: See what Advantage Death hath brought.
In the north isle of the nave, at letter (M), was the entrance into the preaching place, afterwards called the Green Yard, which is now stopped up, the yard being enclosed, and added to the Palace Yard: before the grand Rebellion, the combination sermons were preached in the summer time at the cross in this Green Yard, where there was a good accommodation for the auditors. The mayor, and aldermen, with their wives and officers, had a well contrived place built against the wall of the Bishop's palace, covered with lead, so that they were not offended by rain. Upon the north side of the church, places were built gallery-wise, one above another; where the dean, prebends, and their wives, gentlemen, and the better sort, very well heard the sermon: the rest either stood, or sat in the green upon long forms provided for them, paying a penny, or half-penny apiece, as they did at St. Paul's cross in London. The Bishop and chancellor heard the sermons at the windows of the Bishop's palace; the pulpit had a large covering of lead over it, and a cross upon it; and there were eight or ten stairs of stone about it, upon which the Hospital boys and others stood. The preacher had his face to the south, and there was a painted board, of a foot and an half broad, and about a yard and an half long, hanging over his head before, upon which were painted the arms of the benefactors towards the combination sermon, which he particularly commemorated in his prayer; viz. Sir John Suckling, Sir John Pettus, Edward Nuttel, Henry Fasset, and John Myngay, But when the church was sequestered, and the service put down, this pulpit was taken away, and placed in the New-hall yard, which had been the artillery-yard, and the publick sermon was preached there. But the heirs of the benefactors denying to pay the wonted beneficence for any sermon, unless it was preached in the Green Yard; after a full hearing, it was adjudged, that they should be always preached in the cathedral, for the future, as they still continue to be, every Sunday morning; the preachers being appointed by the Bishop every half year, viz. the Norfolk clergy in the winter time, (as being nearest,) and the Suffolk in summer time: and each minister so appointed, receives a guinea of the mayor for his sermon, and is entertained at the corporation's expense. The mayor and court are obliged to attend the combination sermons; and for neglect of it, there have been a mandamus sent down for that purpose. In 1635, March 14, his Majesty directed his letter to the city, commanding the mayor, sheriffs, justices, aldermen and all other chief officers of the city, to resort every Sunday morning to the cathedral church, in the same manner as is done at London, and hear divine service, and also the sermon which shall be preached there, or in the Green Yard.
On a stone between the 10th and 11th south pillars,
Exuvias hic deposuit Jacobus Cooper, hujus Ecclesiæ Cathedralis Organista, et puerorum Choristarum in arte Musicâ Instructor, Quibus Officijs Summâ diligentiâ perfunctis, tandem presentis Temporis ævum pro æterna fœlicitate Commutavit xxvi° die Jan. annoq. Dni. 1720.
Sacrum Memoriæ Thomasinæ Corbet. filiæ Clementis Corbet LL. D. et quondam Cancellarij Norwicensis, fuit religiose pia, prudens, benefica, fidelis Filia Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ, perseveravit in Virginali Statû usque ad Mortem. Obijt Julij 5° 1665, Cujus Exuviæ, hic depositæ sunt, in certam Expectationem Resurrectionis ad vitam eternam.
This stone is also removed, and laid between the second and third
Thomas Dunch A. B. Hujus Ecclesiæ Minor Canonicus, de Bergh-Apton Rector, obijt xxvj° die Mensis Decem. A°. Dni. MDCCXIX°, Ætatis suæ xxxij°.
Gulielmi Bentham A. M. Rectoris de Taseburgh, Sti. Egidij, et Sti. Gregorij infra hanc urbem Curati, quod mortale erat, et claudi poterat, hic clauditur, multùm se vivens dilectum reddidit, multùm obiens exoptatum; plorant itaque, Conjux Maritum, Parochiani Parochum, Amici Amicum, Canonici Canonicum, et hujusce Ecclesiæ Precentorem; ita tamen, ut non tanquam sine spe mærere videantur; sciunt enim easdem Dotes Quæ eum huic Choro desideratissimum, Cælesti etiam desideratum reddidisse, obijt Febr. xxvii°. A°. Salutis MDCCXXX°, Ætatis xxxvii°.
Pexhall Forster A. M. hujusce Ecclesiæ Precentor, in Theologiâ et Musicâ supra Ætatem Doctus, dum Ecclesiam Catholicam propugnabat, et hunc Chorum Cathedralem ornabat Subitâ morte ereptus, in Cælestem Chorum Cooptabatur, Oct. IV°
In this isle also, is interred Mr. Richard Deere, late minor canon of this church, to whose memory I saw a handsome black marble in a stone-cutter's shop, with an inscription said to be composed by his tutor in Cambridge; but (as I am informed) it was not permitted to be laid down, on account of the inscription, which here follows.
Hic jacet quod reliquum est, Revdi. Richardi Deere A. B. Qui Canonicus licet Minor, Inter Majores (fn. 3) tamen, (Id erat meriti) dignus, qui consedisset; Ecclesiæ Sti. Johan: Sepulc. in hâc Civitate Pastor non infidus.
The chapel marked (1), totally demolished, was called Heydon's chapel. It was built in the reign of King Edward IV. anno 1479, by John Heydon of Baconsthorp, Esq. a great favourite of Henry VI. for his own interment; and accordingly, he was buried here in 1480; as was also Sir Henry Heydon, Knt. his heir, who built the church at Salthouse, and made the causeway between Thirsford and Walsingham, at his own charge; he died in Henry the Seventh's time.
The arms of Heydon, viz. per pale arg. and gul. a cross ingrailed counterchanged, were in several places in the windows of this church on the south side, and once in the deanery. I do not find that this chapel had ever any other entrance to it, but from the chapter-house, marked (m) in the plan, concerning which, see Pt. I. p. 530.
H. S. E. Phillippus Bedingfield Armiger, Vir verè Generosus, quin et Theologus, suprà Pares suos eximius, Fidel Catholicæ et Hierarchiæ Primitivæ Assertor strenuus, etiam et propugnator, sinceræ Pietatis, Integritatis et Humanitatis Cultor assiduus. Abi Viator, et Sequere. Obijt 24to Octobris, Anno Dni. 1730, Ætatis suæ 59no.
This learned gentleman published The Psalms of David, made fit for the closet, and an exposition on St. Athanasius's Creed, Lond. 1720, oct°. and is well known to have deserved the character here given him by Dr. Littell, one of the prebends, who composed the inscription.
At figure (33) laid the stone now lying between the 9th and 10th
south pillars, which is thus inscribed,
Hic sepulta Elizabetha Edmundi Mundeford Militis Filia, Primo Milonis Hobart Armigeri, deinde Hugonis Cartwright Militis Uxor. obijt Anno Ætatis 83. Anno Dom. 1690. Hic etiam contumulabatur, filia natû maxima prædicti Milonis, et Eliz: Hobart, Mulier (si quæ unquam) vita inculpabilis, 63 plus minus annos nata, mortem obijt 12 Calend: Maij An. Dom. 1696.
On the west side of the 5th north pillar is a mural monument, with the following inscription, almost illegible; there is a cut of it in the Repertorium, at p. 67, inscribed to Mr. James Cooper, then organist.
OSBERCO PARSLEY Musicæ Scientissimo Ei quondam consociati Musici posuerunt Anno 1585: Here lies the Man, whose Name in spite of Death, Renowned libes by Blast of Golden Fame, Whose Normonie surbibes his bital Breath, Whose skill no Pride did spot, whose Life no Blame; Whose lom Estate was blest with quiet Mind, As out sweet Coros, with Discords mired be, Whose Life in seventy and fourYears entwin'd, As talleth mellowed Apples from the tree; Whose Deeds mere Rules, Whose Words mere Verity, Who here a singing Man did spend his Days, Full Fifth Years, in our Church Melody, His Memory shines bright whom thus me praise.
At figure (31) between the 9th and 10th north pillars, was a chapel belonging to the Hobart family, enclosed till the late repairs, and then laid open; (the likeness of which is still preserved in a cut in the Repertorium, at p. 4.)
In it stands an altar tomb disrobed of its brasses, under which was interred Sir James Hobart, who was born at Monks-Illegh in Suffolk; was a great friend and acquaintance of Bishop Goldwell, whom he much assisted in building and adorning the quire; being a right good man, of great learning and wisdom; in 1447, in Lent term, he was reader of Lincoln's-Inn, of which society he was chosen one of the governours in 1483, having made such proficiency in the study of the laws, that on Nov. 2, 2 Henry VII. 1486, he was constituted attorney general by the King; and afterwards, sworn of his privy council, and was dubbed knight, when he created his son Henry Prince of Wales.
He settled at Hales-hall in Lodne, the parish church of which he built; as also the bridge of St. Olave, commonly called St. Tooley'sbridge; and made the causeway by it: he married Margaret, daughter of Peter Naunton, Esq. who died before him in 1494, according to Mr. Weever, who says she was buried in Loddon church.
Figure (30) is the grave of Bishop Thomas Browne, before St. William's altar, represented by the pricks in the plan; see Pt. I. p. 533. And figure (29) is the grave of Bishop Walter Hart, for which, see Pt. I. p. 536.
The altar marked with pricks opposite to the altar aforesaid, I take to be the precentor's altar, dedicated to St. Mary, for the offerings at which, the precentor annually accounted to the sacrist, and he to the convent.
Against the west side of the 11th south pillar, is a monument painted on the wall, having an angel blowing a trumpet, and at bottom an old man lying dead on a tomb, with a pillow under his head; by him stand two old men, with each a chaplet of flowers in their hands, one representing art, holds a musick book, the other, the representing age, an hour-glass at bottom,
Here William Inglott, Organist doth rest, Whose Art in Musick, this Cathedral blest; For Descant most, for Voluntary all, He past, on Organ, Song, and Virginall; He left this Life at Age of sixty seven, And now 'mongst Angells all, sings St. in Heaven, His Fame flies far, his Name shall never die, See Art and Age, here crown his Memorie.
The Anti-Choir was the chapel of St. Mary of Pity; at whose altar in it, many offerings were made, and yearly accounted for by the sacrist, as were all such offerings as were made at the box at the entrance into the presbitery, which also stood in this chapel, at the right hand of the door of the presbitery or choir. This chapel is marked (q) in the plan, and is directly under that noble rood-loft, erected by Bishop Hart, as is before observed, Pt. I. p. 536; at present it is the organ loft, but was, till the Pieformation, the reredos, or holy-rood-loft, as it was then called; on which, the principal rood or cross, with the effigies of our Saviour, in full proportion on it, was placed; with the imago principalis, the principal image, or image of the Holy Trinity, to which this church was dedicated, together with the images of the Virgin Mary and St. John, and such other saints as were principally esteemed here; touching these linages, there was great variety in those days, as to their position, habits, and ornaments; the rood, or image of Christ upon the cross, was generally made of wood, and in most churches, was placed in a loft made for that purpose, right over the passage out of the church into the chancel. The nave representing, as they said, the church militant, and the chancel, the church triumphant, those therefore that would pass out of the former into the latter, must go under the rood-loft, that is, must go under the cross and suffer affliction. But no rood was complete without the images of Mary and John, one standing on one side, and the other on the other side of the cross, in allusion to that of St. John in the Gospel, (chap. xix. ver. 26.) Jesus (on the cross) saw his mother and the disciple standing by, whom he loved.
The festival of the cross, was, and till this time is, known by the name of holy-rood-day, the word [rode] in the Saxon language, signifying a cross; and as it was then a usual oath to swear by the mass, so also to swear by the rood was a very sacred thing.
The images on this rood, I make no doubt, were finely adorned; that of the Holy-Trinity being richly gilt; and in 1499, Lady Margaret, late wife of Sir Ralf Shelton, Knt. sent by Master Simon Dryver, to be put about this image, a gold chain of 25 SS. weighing eight ounces, wanting half a quarter, with four small jewels, and one great jewel, with a red enamelled rose in gold hanging thereon; and in 1443, R⊙b. Norwych, Esq. who was interred in the cathedral, (but in what part I cannot find,) gave to the great image of the Trinity, his silver collar, given him by the Emperour, as part of his livery; both which were seized with the rest of the church plate, at the Dissolution.
This image of the Trinity was, in the then too usual but profane manner, the Almighty Father, whom the heavens, and the heaven of heavens, are not able to contain, being blasphemously represented by a weak old man; the Blessed Redeemer on the cross, between his knees, and the Eternal Spirit, by a dove, on his breast.
Here also were kept the holy relicks, (as they were called,) among which the most remarkable, was a portion of the blood of the Blessed Virgin Mary, mentioned by Mr. Fox, to which many came in pilgrimage, and made their offerings, for which the sacrist annually accounted.
At the Reformation, a multitude of cheats and counterfeits were discovered in this matter of relicks, and it is probable, this might be something like the blood of Christ, showed in those days at Hales in Gloucestershire, which proved to be the blood of a duck, weekly renewed, to their no small gain.
The experience of the notorious and frequent delusion in relicks, occasioned a cautious provision in the council of Trent, that no relicks should be admitted or esteemed, but such as were first approved by the Bishop, which was only inforcing the decrees of the Lateran council, that no relicks should be worshipped but such as were stamped with the Pope's authority; which not having prevented the delusions so long afterwards practised, it would have been much better to have put an end to all such practices, by setting them all aside at once.
At figure (26) lies buried Bishop Percy, (see Pt. I. p. 514,) who had his chaplain celebrating for his soul, at St. Thomas's altar on the right hand of the quire door; that of Virgin of Pity being on the left hand; in 1428, an image of freestone, which cost 5l. 6s. of St. Thomas the Martyr, was fixed here, which shows that it was dedicated to Archbishop Becket.
In 1528, Sir Edmund Wethyr, master of the charnel, was buried at his left hand, and had a stone over him, with his picture, &c. in brass, as he desired, which is the only gravestone now remaining in this chapel; but it is spoiled of all its ornaments.
On the other side of the said Bishop, was Will. Sekyngton interred in 1460, who founded a pittance on the day of his obit; and another on the day of the principal feast, or dedication day; close by his grave, at figure (27), was interred Dean Crofts; (see Pt. I. p. 623;) but his stone is now removed and laid between two of the north pillars in the nave; the other stones here were removed, and now lie in the south isle adjoining.
And this inscription,
This doth shew, that here under resteth the Bodye of the worshipful Dame Elizabeth Calthroppe Widow, first the Wief of Sir Fravncis Calthrop, Knight, and last the Wief of John Cullpeper Esquier, who departid this Lief the 24th Daie of December in the Yere of our Lord God 1582.
On the west wall of the said chapel, on the north part, is a mural
monument for William Burleigh of Lytcham, Esq. with this inscription,
Hic jacet Gulielmus Burleigh Armiger, Lychamiæ in Agro Norfolciensi natus, in Academiâ Cantabrigiensi per Septennium enutritus, Gradû autem Magistri in Artibus Ornatus, in Hospitio Grayensi Legum Municipalium Studijs Operam dedit, donec Actor in Foro Westmonasteriensi Evaderet. Tandem Decano et Capitulo Norvicensi, Factus est à Consilijs, atque etiam Curiarum & Maneriorum Seneschallus: Quæ Munia singularia absolvit integritate, Vir spectatâ in Deum, Regem, Ecclesiam, Pietate, Fide, et amplâ (dum vixit) in hanc Basilicam Munificentiâ, ubi jam requiescit spe felicis Resurrectionis, Denatus Aprilis 14°. Anno salutis 1683, Ætatis suæ 55°,
John Crispyng, Esq. was buried here in 1423; he gave a legacy to make a new rood-loft in Hapisburgh church, and others, to the Trinity gild there; and to the chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr in Bromholm convent; 20s. to the cathedral, and 40s. to find a light burning before the image of the Blessed Virgin of Pite here, which was an effigies of the Virgin sometimes in tears, sometimes in a most melancholy posture, surveying the wounds and dead bodies of our Blessed Saviour.
And now having passsed through the whole church, except the presbitery or choir, we must enter there, and for regularity shall begin at the east end, at letter (b), which is the ancient Bishop's throne, ascended by three steps, and raised so high, that originally, when there was no division between that and the altar, and before the present rood-loft was built, the old loft being placed very high, at the pillars marked (12), the Bishop could see directly in line through the whole church, unto Tombland; but now there is a late partition between that and the high altar, which makes the old vestry at letter (c) now disused.
Letter (d) is the high-altar of the Blessed Trinity; the custos or
master of which annually accounted for the offerings made there,
which were very many, the annual processions only of the country
and city clergy, made on the Feast of the Holy Trinity, on St. Paul's
day, and at Whitsuntide, raised a good sum: the copes, vestments,
and other ornaments belonging to this altar, were very grand, and
the plate and furniture very sumptuous, till the Reformation, when it
was much lessened; but in Queen Mary's time was again much increased; till Dean Gardiner and the prebends, reduced it to a cup of
19 ounces only; but by the time of the Rebellion, it became handsome enough to be seized by the rebels, headed by such of the principal citizens as were then in power; for which abuse and spoil, after
the Restoration, the city gave 100l. with which the fine large offering
dish, and pair of silver candlesticks, all double gilt, were purchased.
On the dish is this,
Ad sacros usus Ecclesiæ Cathedralis Sanctæ et individuæ Trinitatis Norwici Donavit Civitas Norvicensis, Pietatis, in Deum, et in Ecclesiam hanc Charitatis Tesseram: Tempore Maioratûs Mathei Markham.
There belong also to the furniture of this altar, two Common-Prayer books, and a fine Field's Bible in two volumes, bound in red velvet, bossed with silver double gilt; on them are the arms of the church, and the crest and arms of
Figure (11) is the grave of Bishop Redman, as I have lately found
by undoubted proof, so that he was not buried as mentioned from
common report, in Pt. I. p. 561, there was nothing on the stone over
him but these words,
Beati qui moriuntur in Domino.
Figure (10) is the gravestone of Sir Will. Boleyn or Bullen, now
spoiled of its brasses, but Mr. Weever hath preserved the inscription,
which was this,
Nic jacet Corpus Willelmi Boleyn Militis, qui obiit r Octobris Anna, Dni: MoCCCCCono, Cuius anime propicietur Deus Amen.
In 1483, John Mowbray Duke of Norfolk, Lord High Admiral, constituted this Sir Will. his deputy for all the coasts of Norfolk and Suffolk, for life; with all the fees belonging to his place, and a pipe of good wine yearly, with power to exercise it by his deputies. The commission is dated at Norwich Aug. 21, 1 Richard III.
But yet as Mr. Weever (fo. 799) observes, Let it be the greatest honour to this noble Knight, that he was great-grandfather to that renowned and victorious Princess, Elizabeth, late Queen of England, according to Mr. Cambden's account, in his introduction to his History of her long and prosperous reign.
The linage and descent of Elizabeth Queen of England (saith he) was by her father's side truly royal, for daughter she was, to King Henry VIII. grand-daughter to Henry VII. and great grand-daughter to King Edward IV. By her mother's side her descent was not so high; howbeit, noble it was, and spread abroad by many great alliances in England and Ireland: her great grand-father's father was Geffrey Boleyn, a man of noble birth in Norfolk, (who purchased the manor of Blickling of Sir John Fastolf, Knt. and settled there, as a letter under his own hand shows me.) In 1457, he was lord mayor of the city of of London, and at the same time, honoured with the dignity of knighthood. An upright honest man, of such estimation, that Thomas Lord Hoo and Hastyngs, knight of the Order of St. George, gave him his daughter, and one of his heiresses, to wife; and of such wealth, that he matched his daughters into the noble houses of the Cheyneys, Heydons, and Fortescues; left his son a goodly inheritance, and bequeathed 1000l. to the poor of London, and 200l. to the poor of Norfolk.
This man's son, William Boleyn, was chose amongst 18 choice knights of the Bath, at the coronation of King Richard III. to whom Thomas Earl of Ormond (who was in such favour with the King's of England, that he alone of all the Irish noblemen had his place and voice in the English parliaments, (and above the barons of England also) gave (Margaret) his second daughter, and one of his heiresses, in marriage. By her, (besides daughters married to Shelton, Calthorp, Clere, and Sackvile, men of great wealth and noble descent, and other children,) he begat
Thomas Boleyn, who being a young man, Thomas Howard Earl of Surrey, who was afterwards Duke of Norfolk, a man much renowned for his worthy service and achievements in the wars, chose to be his son-in-law, giving unto him his daughter Elizabeth in marriage, and Henry VIII. after he had performed one or two very honourable embassies, made him first treasurer of his household, knight of the Garter, Viscount Rochford, Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond, and LordKeeper of the Privy Seal. This Thomas, among other children, begat Anne Boleyn, who in her tender years being sent into France, attended on Mary of England, wife to Lewis XII. and then on Claudia of Britaine, wife to Francis I. and after she was dead, on Margagaret of Alencon, who with the first, favoured the Protestant religion springing up in France. Being returned into England, and admitted amongst the Queen's maids of honour, and then but 22 years old; King Henry, in the 38th year of his age, did for her modesty tempered with French pleasantness, fall deeply in love with her, and took her to wife, by whom he had the aforesaid Elizabeth Queen of England.
Adjoining to the north side of Boleyn's stone, lies another large disrobed stone, now spoiled of all its brasses, under which lies buried Robert Clere, Esq. of Ormesby, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter and heiress of Thomas Owydale, Udale, or Dovedale, Esq. lord of the manor of Tacolneston in Norfolk; she died at Tacolneston in 1492, and gave the prior and convent a rent charge of 3l. 6s. 8d. yearly issuing out of the manors of Threston in Norfolk, and Cleydon in Suffolk, to pray for their souls.
Near this place was also buried Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Philip Braunche, Knt. first widow of John Clere of Ormesby, Esq. (who was, as I imagine, also buried here,) and then widow of Sir John Rothenhale, Knt.; she died at Castor by Yarmouth in 1440, and gave a vestment to the church; to Ric. Walsham, monk of Norwich, and then Prior of Yarmouth, eight marks per annum for his life, to pray for her own and husband's souls, and if he died, to be contiuued by some monk of the church, for 50 years after her decease, and two marks per annum for the aforesaid term to the Norwich monks, to keep her anniversary.
Figure (18) is the grave of Bishop John of Oxford, at the head of which stood a cross, and a box to receive the offerings of such people as prayed at his grave, he being of great reputation both in his time, and after his death. The sacrist annually accounted, till after 1334, for the offerings at the cross at the head of Bishop John's grave. See Ibid. p. 476,
The stalls are fixed as in the plan, and are in number 62, according to the number of the old foundation, viz a prior, sub-prior, and 60 monks; and are, according to the mode of those times, adorned with odd fancies, most of which allude to the violent animosities that then subsisted between the regular and secular clergy.
Letter (t) is the chapel of St. James the Greater, and St. James the Less, commonly called Goldwell's chapel; and figure (22) denotes where that prelate was interred; see Pt. I. p. 540. The altar in it marked with the pricks in the plan, had a pair of silver chalices gilt, of 24 oz.; a silver paxe gilt, of 2 oz.; a cheseble of blue tissue, with the albe and stole; a cheseble of red velvet, with the albe and stole; a cheseble of white busteyn with the albe and stole; a case of red velvet on one side, for the corporase to be put in; an altar cloth of baudekyn silk, another of red damask, and another of dun damask, belonging to it, all of the Bishop's appointment.
Against the east side of the 15th south pillar, is a mural monument, for Stephen Knight, whose gravestone lies in the adjoining south isle, as may be seen by the inscription on it, at p. 15; on it Knight, vert, a bend lozenge or, impales Faldo, gul. three bucks heads caboshed or, attired arg.
Memoriæ Sacrum, Charissmi Patris Stephani Knight Essexiensis Generosi, Qui Uxorem duxit Margaretam filiam natû maximam Tho. Faldo Gen. Faldorum prisco oriundi Stemmate, in Agro Bedfordiensi, Primi ab Archivis Norfolciensi et Suffolciensi, Quo officio summâ perfunctus integritate (usque quo invido premeretur Fato) qui nuperis in Angliâ motibus, varijs se objecit periculis, multa Rei-publicæ Causâ prosperè molitus, animi Constans, damnorumque patiens, cujus virtute delectatus, Rex Carolus Primus, illi recusanti ordinem Equestrem obtulit, Ducis tamen titulum, ad quem in ipsis Castris evectus est, invitus suscepit. Denatus 17mo die Apr. An. Dom. 1664, Ætatis suæ 73.
Aulæ Stæ. Catherinæ CANT. Magistri, Et hujus Ecclesiæ Prebendarij, Qui Cùm Academicæ Juventuti Bonis Literis erudiendæ, Satis felicem per XXIII annos operam navasset, Et intereà Procuratoris et Procancellarij Munera sustinuisset, Diem suum obijt Dec. XXIII, Anno Dom. MDCCXLI. Ætat. XLVII.
For Edward Hall's monument, see Pt. I. p. 581, near which is a flat
gravestone thus inscribed;
Here lieth the Body of Mary, the Relict of John Hobart Esq. late of Waybread in the County of Suffolk, and Daughter to Sir Anthony Felton of Playford in the same County, Knight of the Noble Order of the Bath, who departed this Life the first Day of Oct. A°. Dom. 1685, aged 78.
Letter (r) is St. Anne's or Berney's chapel, and figure (46) is the grave of John de Berney, who was buried here in 1374, by Joan, his former wife; he willed, that if the Prior would not permit him, he would then be buried by Sarah his wife, in St. Anne's chapel, which he had founded and built adjoining to the church of Burgh by Apton. He gave 5l. to repair the cathedral; 30s. to the Prior; to Joseph, a monk here, 20s. to every monk 2s.; 26l. to keep his 7th and 30th day after his burial, and founded an anniversary on the day of his death, when the monks were to have 20s. for a pittance, besides wine: he appears to be son of Ric. de Berney, and Alice his wife; Agnes de Berney, his aunt, Katherine his wife, then alive, Thomas and Robert, his sons, and Alice his daughter, married to Rich. de Holdiche, are mentioned: and he particularly ordered five wax tapers of 5l. weight a-piece, and seven torches to be set by his coffin in the church at his burial.
Figure (23) is the burial place of that famous knight Sir Thomas Erpingham, and his two wives; Joan Walton, his first wife, died in 1404, as appears by the probate of her will; and Joan, daughter of Sir William Clopton of Wickham-Brook in Suffolk, Knt. died also before him: it is plain that his first wife was a great favourer of the doctrine of Wickliff; as Sir Thomas also was, for in her will she mentions no saints, but commends her soul to God only.
In 1417, King Henry V. for his faithful services, granted an annuity for life of 50 marks a year issuing out of the alien priory of St. Faith's at Newington Longeville in Bucks. And in 1427, he was lord and patron of the manor and advowson of Toft Monks in Norfolk, which he had given him by King Henry IV.
He made his will in 1427, and died in 1428, when it was proved in the prerogative court, by which he gave to the high-altar 10 marks, to every monk 6s. 8d.; to Erpingham and Litcham churches 40s. each; to the altar of St. Martin at the Palace-gate, in which parish his city house was, 26s. 8d.; to Norman's spittle 10 marks; to the prisoners in the castle and gild-hall 40s. each place; to Julian Lampit, recluse at Carhoe, 10s. &c. Sir Will. Phelip, Sir Andrew Butler, Knts. William Baumburgh, Rich. Gegge, Esqrs. and others, were executors; Bishop Alnwyk supervisor, and Sir Simon Felbrigge, Sir John Clifton, and Sir Tho. Kerdeston, Knts. witnesses.
Before his death, he gave 300 marks to the prior and convent of Norwich, to found a chantry for a monk to sing daily mass for him and his family for ever, at the altar of the holy cross in the cathedral, and to keep his anniversary; with which they purchased houses on Tombland, and settled them to that use; and bound themselves to enter his name in their martyrology, and recite it particularly on his anniversary, before the whole chapter.
His effigies, with those of his two wives, were in the window of the north isle, and in several places in the nave; in some, their own and husband's arms were in the mantle or outward garment; in others their husband's on the mantle, and their own on the kirtle.
He was knight of the Garter in Henry the Fourth's time, and a lord warden of the Cinqueports in Henry the Fifth's time: he built the Black-Friars church, now called the New-hall. Many of his family are buried at Erpingham, whence they took their sirname.
In 1444, John Paston, eldest son and heir of Will. Paston, chief justice, and Agnes Paston, widow of the said justice, settled a rent charge of eight marks yearly, for 90 years, issuing out of the manor of Sweynsthorp, to find a priest to sing for the soul of the said William, in the chapel of our Lady the Great, in the cathedral of Norwich; in which chapel, the said chief justice lies interred; and 7d. a week for seven years, to the monk that singeth the mass of the Holy Ghost in the said chapel daily, to pray for him and his family's souls. And it appears, that at his death, the said chief justice had in cash at his house in London, 1460l. 2s. 4d. In this monastery 958l. 16s. 5d. besides rings of gold weighing 13 oz. and an half. Gilt plate 24 pounds 11oz. and ungilt plate 92 lib. 2 oz. by weight.
Besides the altars, chapels, &c. already mentioned, the sacrist accounted yearly for the composition fees for people buried in the church, and for the offerings at the three Kings, at St. Eligius, at the great gild called St. George's gild, kept here; the dyers gild, and worsted weavers gild. Of the indulgence published by Dr. Bryggate by the Pope's bull, called the Angelles or Perke Indulgence, on the vigil of the Ascension. At the altar by the black cross, of which a monk was chosen custos or keeper. At the stumpe cross; at the red cross; at St. Nicholas's altar, where Nic. de Hindolveston was buried in 1298; at St. Appolonia, at St. Gazian, and St. John of Bridlington at St. Catherine, at St. Petronel or Parnell, at St. Ipolitus's altar, at St. Leodegar or Leiger, at St. Anthony, at St. Theobold, at the charnel cross, and at All-Saints. By which we may see, with what number of altars, images, crosses, and pictures, the church was in those days filled.
The Prior was obliged to pay 10s. a year, to find a wax taper burning at our Lord's sepulchre, one of which was in those days in every church, generally in the north wall of the chancel: great pomp and pageantry was used at the sepulchre at Easter, on which day, the crucifix and the pix were taken out of this place, where they were in a solemn manner deposited on Good-Friday, by the priest, on the saying Surrexit, non est hic; He is risen, he is not here.
This Boy-Bishop, or episcopus choristarum, was a chorister bishop, always chosen by his fellow children on St. Nicholas's day; and on that day above all others, because that saint's Legend says, that while he laid in his cradle, he fasted Wednesday and Friday, and knew the Scriptures from a child, and therefore children worship him before all other saints; from this day till Innocents day at night, the episcopus puerorum, or boy bishop, was to bear the name and hold the state of a bishop, answerably habited with a crosier or pastoral staff in his hand, and a mitre on his head; and such a one too some had, even richer than the real Bishop's: the rest of his fellows taking on them the style of prebends; yea, so far was this carried on, that whatever the very Bishop himself, with his deans and prebends (had they been to officiate) was to have performed, the very same was done by this boy bishop and his canons, upon the eve and holiday, the mass itself only excepted, as the book of Salisbury church shows us; for that of York takes no notice of it. This chorister bishop went in solemn procession with his fellows, to the high altar of the Holy Trinity, in their copes, and burning tapers in their hands; there performing the service of the holy innocents, designedly represented by these children, which seems to have been the main cause of this institution; which was so guarded, that nobody, under pain of excommunication, should interrupt or press upon them during the procession, or any part of the service: nay (as Molanus says) the part was acted yet more earnestly, for this bishop and his clerks had certain fixed rents paid them yearly, by most of the officers of this church. If the chorister bishop died within the month, his exequies were solemnized with an answerable glorious pomp and sadness; he was, as all other bishops, buried in his pontificalibus: there is a monument of such a bishop in Salisbury church, standing on a beast with a lion's head, and dragon's tongue and tail, in allusion to that of the psalmist, Conculcabis leonem et draconem. Thou shalt tread on the lion and the dragon; and a child of this kind might be thought fit enough to tread upon the old serpent.
John Gregory, A. M. of Christ-church in Oxford, hath a treatise extant, on the ancient custom in the church of Sarum, of making an anniversary bishop among the choristers; printed at London in 1649. But it appears to me, to have been a common custom in most cathedrals.
Which is on the south side of the church, and is the largest quadrangle of this kind in all England: the dimensions of it may be seen in the plan, and the account of its foundation in Pt. I. p. 530.
The stone roof is adorned with sculptures of divers scripture pieces, and many legendary ones, in particular the visions of the Revelations, the last judgment, the legends of St. Christopher, St. Laurence, &c. remain very perfect.
At the grand south entrance, marked (D) in the plan, are the espousals or sacrament of marriage, carved in stone; the custom being formerly, for the couple who were to be married, to be placed at the church door, where the priest used to join their hands, and perform the greatest part of the matrimonial office; it was here the husband endowed his wife with the portion or dowry contracted for; which was therefore called dos ad ostium ecclesiœ, or the dowry at the church door: and from hence the poet Chaucer, who lived in Edward the Third's time, in his Wife of Bath, hath this,
On the right hand of this door, are the two lavatories, marked (EE) in the plan; here the monks used to wash their hands before they went into the common eating-hall, the towels hanging on the left hand of the door.
Over one of these, is carved in stone, a fox in a pulpit, in the habit of a secular priest, holding up a goose to his auditory; this, with many other carvings on the stalls in the quire, and on the stone work in other places, was designed as a reflection on the secular clergy, or parish priests, who were much hated by the monastick or regular clergy, as they called themselves, though not on account of their being more regular than the others; for had it been so, common experience would have given them the lie; but because they did, or at least pretended to live, by the regulœ or rules of the founders of their several orders, and these being Benedictines, consequently were to follow the rules of St. Benedict.
What really first caused this standing antipathy was, the regulars continually incroaching upon the seculars, in getting the parochial churches appropriated to themselves, thereby making the seculars subservient solely to them, for what they thought fit to allow them for the service of the cures, otherwise obtaining dispensations to serve them themselves: which covetousness so apparent to all the world, caused the people in general to join the seculars, and at last utterly demolish all the regulars: this is the reason of the many odd figures usually seen carved on the stone work of religious buildings: in monasteries or churches appropriated to them, what do we see oftener than the heads of secular priests, lions, wolves, foxes, and other emblems of craft and rapine, fixed with leaden spouts from their mouths: and on the parochial churches, what so common as part of a monk, in his cowl, pouring water out of his mouth every shower, to upbraid that sect with their excess of gluttony and drinking; and to represent their vanity, idleness, folly, and other vices; nothing more common than asses, monkeys, owls, magpies, tortoises, swine, &c. dressed in cowls, or other monkish habits.
The north part of the cloister was unpaved in the late rebellion, but was repaired by Will. Burleigh, Esq.; on the wall of the church there were eleven shields, handsomely beautified with the arms of such nobility, in their proper colours, crests, mantlings, supporters, and quarterings, as attended Queen Elizabeth in her progress hither in 1578, when she lodged at the Bishop's palace, and dined here in publick, they made a handsome appearance till the late rebellion, when the lead being faulty, and the stone work decayed, the rain falling upon the wall, washed them away; they were these, the Queen's achievement, Howard Duke of Norfolk, Clinton, Russell, Cheyney, Hastyngs, Dudley, Cecil, Carey, Hatton, &c.
In this walk, at figure (47) in the plan, is a void space in the wall where formerly was the effigies of a person in a praying posture, said to be Bigot's monument; the description of which, answers to that I find of the monument of Roger Bigot, sewer to King Henry I. the co-founder, as it were, with Bishop Herbert; who, by his means, obtained the very land the church stands upon, of that King: that this Roger was interred here, contrary to the account of those historians who say he was buried at Thetford, I think I have sufficiently proved in the first volume of my Norfolk History, at p. 441; (fn. 4) as well as shown the great reason those historians had to think so; but that he should be buried in this place, I can hardly believe, being apt to imagine that he was laid by the high altar, or near the founder; though probably this might be the tomb of some of that name, buried long since the former. For besides the tradition, that Roger Bigot was buried in the church, in Mr. Le-Neve's Collections, I meet with the following account of his monument; that he, as a knight, was represented kneeling in his armour, on a cushion, with a surcoat of arms of a lion rampant, bareheaded, with a collar about his neck, before an image of our Blessed Saviour, which had only a loose garment thrown over him, and the crown of thorns upon his head; over which were three shields, viz. the arms of the see in the middle, on the right hand a lion rampant as on the surcoat, and on the left or, a cross gul. both which last coats were born by the Bigods.
Robert Brigstock, one of the Free-Masons of the Cathedral, 1673. Will. Spring, Gent. Proctor, 1694. Mrs. Hannah Wake, March 8, 1742, æt. 84. Walter Long 1725. Hannah his Relict July 29, 1743. Walter his Son, March 13, 1739, æt. 40. Charles Knapp, Gent. 1721, æt. 60. Jer. Richardson 1657. John Moy, April 1, 1709, æt. 56. Eliz. Wolfe 17 Aug. 1679.
The following epitaph was composed for Jacob Freeman, who was buried in the cloister yard, where he used often to lie on a hill, and sleep with his head on a stone: this old man was very hardly used by the committee in those times, for lying in the cathedral, and in church porches, where he usually repeated the Common Prayer to the people, in spite of all their ill treatment, he being often sent to Bridewell, whipped and imprisoned for it. It is printed in Matthew Stevenson's Poems, p. 85.
Here in this homely Cabinet, Resteth a poor old Anchoret, Upon the Ground he laid all Weathers Not as most Men, Gooselike, on Feathers, For so indeed it came to pass, The Lord of Lords his Landlord was, He liv'd instead of Wainscot Rooms, Like the possess'd, among the Tombs, As by some spirit thither led, To be acquainted with the Dead.
Each Morning from his Bed so hallow'd, He rose, took up his Cross, and follow'd; To every Porch he did repair, To vent himself in Common-Prayer, Wherein he was alone devout, When Preaching justled Praying out; In such Procession, through the City, Maugre the Devil and Committee, He daily went, for which he fell, Not into Jacob's, but Bridewell, Where you might see his Loyal Back, Red letter'd like an Almanack, Or I may rather else aver, Dominickt, like a Calender, And him triumphing at that harm, Having nought else to keep it warm, With Paul he always pray'd, no wonder, The Lash did keep his Flesh still under; Yet Whip-Cord seem'd to loose it's Sting, When for the Church, or for the King; High Loyalty in such a Dearth, Could bafle Torments with Mean Earth, And tho' such Sufferings he did pass, In spite of Bonds, still Free-Man was.
'Tis well his Pate was Weather Proof, The Palace like, it had no Roof: The Hair was off, and 'twas the Fashion, The Crown being under Sequestration, Tho' bald as Time, and Mendicant, No Fryer yet, but Protestant.
In the west side of the cloister, near the grand entrance into the
church, at letter (G) in the plan, are stones for,
Rebekah Wife of Francis Stafford, Aug. 10, 1717, æt. 29. Frances their Daughter, 1716. Susanna Daughter of the said Francis by Susanna his Wife, 1718.
In the south wall there are niches, which formerly served as repositories for the towels and linen, for daily use in the common-hall, which stood a few paces on the left hand of the door marked (D), to which the butteries, cellars, kitchens, and other offices adjoined; the dormitory or dorter also, and infirmary, frater, or firmary, where on this south side, and are now standing; the long gallery or walk, well enclosed, where the sick monks used to walk, still remaining whole; as doth the prior's lodge, now the dean's house, commonly called the deanery, at letter (y) in the plan, beyond which, stand the granaries, and other buildings, now converted into dwelling-houses; the stone buildings on the right hand of the aforesaid entrance, extending from the west side of the cloister, were the strangers lodgings, the most southern chamber of which, is now the library and chapterhouse, and to the north end of these lodgings, the strangers-hall adjoined, and extended against part of the west side of the cloister, behind the lavatories, as far as the void space in the plan, which was the entrance into it, the rest of that side, and the other parts of the cloister, being taken up with the cells.
In the east side, extending from the grand entrance at letter (z), or
the prior's entrance, to letter (C), which is now called the Darkentry, and was anciently a passage to the dormitory, infirmary, kitchen,
and other offices, are buried,
John Taylor 1725, æt. 61. Etheldred his wife 1721, æt. 53. Will. Hey, 1730, æt. 44. Edw. Kirk 1726, æt. 43, &c.
And not far from the prior's chapel, marked (x) in the plan, lies a large stone robbed of its brasses, under which, Walter de Berney, who is mentioned among the benefactors to the cloister at p. 3, is said to be interred.
This chapel was founded by one of the priors, and was dedicated to St. Edmund King of the East-Angles, but by which of them, I cannot find: it was appropriated for the use of the prior, who before that time used St. Luke's chapel, for want of one nearer to their lodge; in all probability several of the priors were interred here, but being quite demolished at the Reformation, it is now a yard to the adjoining house.