An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 4, the History of the City and County of Norwich, Part II. Originally published by W Miller, London, 1806.
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(48) St. Martin in Balliva,
In the Baily, or bailiffwick of the castle, which was in this parish, for which reason, this church was totally exempt from all episcopal and archidiaconal jurisdiction, and all that died in the castle were buried here, (the royal chapel being consecrated for all uses but burial only,) and the constable of the castle, and chaplain of the chapel there, exercised all manner of spiritual jurisdiction whatever, and were accountable to the King's person only.
(49) A Priory, or fraternity of friars, that dwelt in a house in the churchyard here till they were obliged to join one of the four principal orders, and then they united to the White-friars or Carmelites.
There is a deed in the gild-hall made in 1253, by which, Nic. the blacksmith of Berstreet, and Cecily his wife, sold a stall in the market for 24s. to the prior and brethren of the fraternity of the blessed Mary and St. Nicholas and all the Saints, then inhabiting in the church of St. Martin in the Baile in Norwich: (fn. 1) and it appears, that the castle liberty extended beyond the limits of this parish to the King's ditch or cockey that ran down to the river.
The church stood on the triangle piece, on the right hand of the entrance of the Golden-Ball-lane; at the north end of which, the gate of the castle entering the outward vallum or trench, stood, and was the principal entrance into the barbican: this, and the church of St. Michael at Thorn, are of ancient foundation, originally belonged to the castle, and were given by the Conqueror, to that Ralf FitzWalter, who is mentioned in Domesday, (see Pt. I. p. 16,) in whose family they continued till Henry the First's time, and then Robert Fitz-Walter, founder of the monastery of St. Faith at Horsham, gave them to that priory, to which they were both appropriated, being united as to spirituals, though they subsisted to the Dissolution as single parishes, and then this was joined in all things to St. Michael's, as it now continues; they were valued together at 20s. it was served by a stipendiary priest nominated by the convent, and there was a gild held in honour of St. Anne.
At the Dissolution it came to the Crown, and in 1549, the rectory, and advowson of the vicarage, was granted to Ralf Sadler and Laurence Wynyngton; and the same year, Henry Albon and Robert Spull sold a bell, but were compelled to bring it again, and it continued in use till 1562, and then it was sold to the Queen, and the site hath been in private hands ever since.
At a court held the 7th of Elizabeth, this letter was read from the
Lord Treasurer, and entered by the mayor in the court book,
"I comende me hartely to you, and forasmoche as the olde Church of St. Martins at the Bale in Norwich, wherof that Church and the Church-yard is solde, and the Bells and Leed reservyd for the Quene, which I have willyd my Frende Mr. Goslyn to take downe with your Oversighte, and to se the Bells and the Leade wayed, and me and other the Quenes Majesties Officers certefyed under your hands, and then leave the Leade and the Bells with Mr. Gostlynge, and yf your Self may not attende yt, I pray you appoynt some other Alderman that he may supply your Place and syne the Byll that you should signe, thus fare you well, this viijth day of December 1564.
Upon which it was certified, that there were two bells weighing 500 weight, prized at 6l. and that the lead of the church, porch, and steeple, weighed 7 fodders, and was valued at 70l. and then the whole was totally demolished.
The Prior of St. Faith was taxed at 62s. for his temporals, and the Prioress of Carrow, the cellerer and almoner of the monastery, had divers rents; for Roger, son of Eustace the baker, and Katerine his wife, gave all their ground in this parish by the castle-gate, to the almoner, which some time was owned by Sweytyne, servant to the recluse at St. John of Berstrete, and the almoner granted it off at 7s. per annum. (Regr. II. Pr.)
1386, Nic. de Monte buried here, was a benefactor to the church. His will was proved before Clement de Knapton, chaplain of the royal chapel in the castle, where the original was then kept; this Clement was brother to William de Knapton Archdeacon of Norwich; there was a seal of office belonging to the spiritual jurisdiction of this chapel, which is fixed to the probate.
(50) School, Scolds, or St. Martin's-green, as it was anciently called, from its nearness to this church, took its name from the school that used to be kept in it, the present name being only a corruption of Scholars-green, from the scholars playing there.
(51) Norwich Castle,
Though it never belonged to the city, but is now, as it always was, part of the county of Norfolk, and as it were, the head or chief place thereof; yet being always part of this parish, I choose to speak of it here. But as the history of its rise, progress, &c. is interwoven with the general history of the city, I shall only observe the principal things relating to it, referring you thither for the account at large.
That King Uffa, soon after the year 575, made this a place of defence, is already observed, (Pt. I. p. 4,) and that it was a royal castle in 642. But that in all likelihood the first castle of brick and stone here was built by Alfred the Great, before 872, appears in Pt. I. p. 5, which was destroyed by Swain the Dane in the year 1004, and rebuilt by King Canute his son, about 1018; which building, I imagine, was taken away to make room for the present stone building, which was erected by Roger Bigot, and repaired and beautified by Thomas de Brotherton, in Edward the Second's time.
For its being besieged in the Conqueror's time and taken; for its soc or extent of jurisdiction, its building by Bigot and being made his chief seat, and the liberty of the city first severed from it, see Ibid. p. 14, &c.
That he was made constable in 1163. That it was taken by the Flemings in 1174, and surrendered again to the King, who in 1184, fined the citizens for encroaching on the liberties of it, see Ibid. p. 32, 33.
That in 1189, King Richard I. made Roger son of Hugh Bigot Earl of Norfolk, and constable of the castle, who in 1212, joined the rebellious barons against King John, who seized the castle on that account, and soon after made Hubert de Burgh governour of it, who appointed his brother Thomas keeper thereof, who was forced to surrender it to Lewis and his Frenchmen, who joined the barons, see Ibid. p. 36, 40, 41.
But in 1217, on Lewis's departure to France, Hubert de Burgh took possession of it again, and on Roger Bigod's reconciliation, he was again constituted constable thereof, and died so in 1220; and it continued in his family till 1224, when the King took it into his hands.
In 1240, the custody of the castle was committed to the sheriff, and in 1260, the city magistrates were forced to sue for a royal pardon, for presuming to enter into the liberty of the castle; and in 1266, it was sacked by the disinherited barons.
In 1293, it was a county gaol, (see Ibid. p. 66,) and the prior allowed yearly ten quarters of wheat baked into bread, 6s. 8d. to the constable, 18d. to the constable's clerk, 12d. to the watchman, 18d. to William de Knapton, the sheriff's esquire, and 40s. on Candlemas day to the sheriff himself.
In 1300, Rog. Bigod resigned it into the King's hands; and in 1312, Tho. de Brotherton became constable here, and fitted up the castle in the manner we now see it, except its battlements, which though so great an ornament to this ancient pile, were not many years since taken down. See Ibid. p. 67.
In 1339, it was annexed to the sheriff's office, for a publick gaol for the county of Norfolk, as it still remains; (Ibid. p. 86;) which produced an inquisition in 1344, to know whether the fee of the castle belonged to the Earl of Norfolk, or the King, and it was found to be the King's, (Ibid. p. 88,) who the same year granted it to the city, except the then shire-house, and site of the castle to the outside of the inner ditch surrounding the said castle, according to the bounds of the county lately set out there, (see Ibid. p. 91,) where the account of it may be seen at large.
In 1381, the custody of the King's gaol here was granted to John de Gray for life, and the 20l. per annum allowed to the sheriff, and anciently to the constable of the castle for keeping the gaol, was to be allowed and paid to the said John at the Exchequer for such custody during life.
In 1396, the city granted divers parcels of the Castle-meadow (fn. 2) by the castle ditches, to be built upon, and by a renewal of the rental of the castle-fee, in 1485, it appears that part of the castle ditches, built and not built upon, were in, and extended into, the parishes of St. Martin at Bale, St. Peter Mancroft, St. Andrew, St. Michael at Plea, St. Cuthbert, St. Peter per Montergate, and St. John of Timberhill, and the houses built upon them paid 29l. per annum city rent.
The Abbot of St. Edmund used to pay the castle-guard of 40 fees till King Stephen's time, (fn. 3) and then he remitted it, on condition that Hugh Bigot should pay castle-guard for all his fees that he held of Bury abbey, to this castle; and it appears, that the abbot used to pay to the sheriff yearly for castle-guard and wait-fee 16l. 3s. 4d. for his eight hundreds and half, 6l. 13s. 4d. rent, which he collected of the tenants that held the fees of him, every 20 weeks.
This castle was defended by a wall round the hill it stands on, and three ditches also round it; the extent of the outermost ditch reached on the west part, to the edge of the present market-place; on the north, to London-lane, as it is now called, which it included; and on the east, almost to Conisford-street; the postern or back entrance was on the north-east part, for a communication to the site of the Earl's palace, the precinct of which joined to it, and contained the whole, between the outward ditch and Tombland; the southern part reached to the Golden-ball-lane, at the entrance of which the grand gate stood, from which there were bridges over each of the ditches, the first hath been immemorially destroyed, but the ruins of the second remained till the ditches were lately levelled by the city, for to keep their market for all manner of cattle, swine, &c. the third is still left, which hath one arch only under it, but of such dimensions, if it was open to the bottom (great part of it being stopped with earth) that I believe very few in England exceed it; the gate on the bridge is now in ruins. The castle is square, having a court within it, and
In 1221, the Dean of Norwich was forced to supplicate for pardon, for pretending to any jurisdiction within the castle or its limits, or over any of the tenants dwelling in the castle fee; and upon inquisition taken, concerning the exercise of spiritual jurisdiction in the fee of the castle, the following return was made, which was sent to all that exercised any spiritual jurisdiction in the diocese, to be entered in their offices, that they might not plead ignorance for the future; and accordingly it remains in the 7th register of the priory of Norwich, now in the Dean and Chapter's office, fo. 68, it being in old French, and is thus translated:
In the castle of Norwich, is a chapel which is called the King's Free Chapel, because the chaplain there daily sings, as he is obliged, for the souls of all the Kings before and since the Conquest, and the said chapel hath the following liberties, and had before the Conquest, that if all England be interdicted, but the King's chapel, the chaplain of this chapel can sing his mass by note in the said chapel; and neither archbishops, bishops, nor none of their officers, have or ought to have any visitation or correction in the fee of the castle, by reason of the franchise of the said chapel; but the chaplain of the said chapel hath the sole spiritual jurisdiction or correction of all the tenants of the castle fee, in such a manner that no official whether the dean of Norwich city or any other in the town, hath to do with it. The chapel aforesaid hath no right of burial, and for that reason the tenants of the castle-fee have anciently used their several parish churches for that purpose, and paid their tithes and offerings, and received the rites of holy church in their life, and at their death. But all those that die in the castle, as well prisoners as others, must be buried in the churchyard of St. Martin in the Bailifwick."
And accordingly the wills of all dying in the fee, were proved before the constable of the castle, and afterwards before the sheriff of the county, who supplied that place, and the chaplain of the chapel, the former having the jurisdiction and probate, as to all temporal estates, in like manner as the city hath in their liberty, and the latter of all personalty, as appears by those wills, which relate to the personals only, being proved solely before the chaplain, whose seal of office only is affixed to them all. In 1304, John de Bliburgh, blacksmith, had his will proved before the constable, chaplain, sheriff, &c.
The chaplain, since the Dissolution, is appointed by the justices of peace for the county, from whom he receives 16l. per annum for his attendance on them, and service in the chapel, and is removeable at their pleasures; the Bishop used to pay him 4l. per annum as ordinary of the goal; for in ancient times in the King's courts, where felonies were determined, the Bishop or his deputy, was to attend to inform the court whether the felon could read as a clerk, or not: for since the statute of the 18th Elizabeth, every man to whom benefit of clergy is granted, hath been put to read at the bar, after he had been found guilty and convicted of the felony, and so burnt in the hand and set free for the first time, if the ordinary standing by, did say, legit ut clericus, i. e. he reads like a clerk, or otherwise he was to be hanged. But the ordinaries, according to the doctrine of the church they represented, willing rather to err in mercy than judgment, usually saved such offenders, hoping they might repent of their former errours, which occasioned reading at the bar to be wholly laid aside; for by the statute of 5th Anne, cap. 6, if any person convict of such felony for which he ought to have the benefit of clergy, doth pray the benefit of this act, he shall not be required to read, but shall be punished as a clerk convict; from which time the necessity of the ordinary's attendance at the assizes being taken away, the Bishop withdrew the stipend which was allowed for that purpose.
(52) The Old Shire-house.
Called anciently Curia Comitatûs, stood in the parish of St. John of Timberhill, on the left hand of the entrance by the grand gate; on part of the ruins of which, there are stables lately built; here all the county business used to be done, and the assizes held; but in 1579, it was ruined, and the present shire-house built, which joins to the north side of the castle, and hath two convenient courts for the judges to sit in, and a grandjury chamber, in which the evidences of the county are reposited. There is also
This church is mentioned in old evidences by several names, as St. John ad Montem or at the Hill; afterwards Timber-hill, because the timber-market was kept at the joining of the cross streets before the churchyard; St. John at the Castle-gate, because of its nearness to it; and St. John by the Swine-market, which was formerly kept on AllSaints-green.
This church was founded by Wodowin the priest, (fn. 4) who gave it, soon after its foundation, to the monastery of Norwich which was then founded, and it was always appropriated to that house, and applied to the use of the infirmary there, the keeper of which, by virtue of his office, always received the whole profits of the parish, out of which he repaired the chancel, found a stipendiary priest daily to serve the church; and the overplus was applied to bear part of the charges of his office, in supporting the sick monks, &c. (fn. 5) The monks being disturbed in their possession in Henry the First's time, that King directed his writ to the Bishop, which is dated at Roan in Normandy, commanding him to permit the monks to hold it peaceably and freely, in as ample a manner as Wodowin gave it them; and unless he did so, he would send his writ to the Archbishop, and command him to look to it. Upon which, no Bishop ever after molested them about it. It was valued at 15s. paid 3d. synodals, but was not taxed to any first fruits, tenths, or other payments.
The church consists of a nave, which is thatched, a chancel tiled, a south porch and two isles with chapels at their east ends, which are all leaded; the tower is square and hath five bells, on the biggest is this,
On the north side of the chancel is our Lady's chapel, part of which is now the vestry, at the entrance of which stood our Lady's box for offerings; this was founded in 1494, by John le Grice, Gent. who was buried in the midst of it in the year 1500; his stone lies there still, but his brass inscription is gone; he gave a new antiphonary and processionary to it. His arms, impaling
In the nave, John Benison 1742, 49. Grace Bently 1727. John Bently 1733. Grace Anderson 1728. George Bennet 1695. Phillis his Wife 1686. George Bennet 1697. John Son of John and Elizabeth Bennet 1708. Alderman Simon Whistler 1682. Simon his Son 1673. Tho. Cowden 1699. Eliz. Nat. & 3 Annes, Children of Tho. & Eliz. his wife.
In the south chapel was buried Robert Hales in 1436, and gave 40s. towards repairing it; this was also a chapel of St. Mary. In it and the south isle are stones for Anne Wife of John Perkinson 1686, and John their Son. Anne Wife of Tounesend Sheringham 1729, æt. 40, and nine of their Children. John Perkinson 1705, æt. 63. John Perkinson 1705, æt. 60.
There are no stones in the altar rails, and those in the chancel are for, Christr. Browne 1710, 57. Christ. Browne 1718, 61. Barbara Wife of Ric. Evans 1656. Eliz. Evans 1674. Eliz. Evans the third of that name 1681. Eliz. Evans 1669. Margt. Evans 2d of that Name 1682. Will. Son of Ric. & Barbara Evans 1670.
1475, Walter Geffrey, alderman, buried in the church; and in 1493, Tho. Alicok, who gave 10 marks to buy a cope; and in 1479, John Erpyngham, gyrdeler, gave a legacy to the light burning before our Lord's sepulchre in Easter time.
1303, Sir Roger, parish priest. 1455, Sir John Pallyng, chaplain. 1492, Sir Will. Arnold, canon of Chaply-Field. 1494, Sir Rob. Swetman, buried in All-Saints church. 1555, Sir Rob. Fitton. 1563, Tho. Pidcock, perpetual curate. 1577, John Perkin. 1582, Will. Singer. 1590, Rob. Withers, his stipend was taxed at 6s. 8d. to the Queen. 1598, Tho. Woodward. 1608, Tho. Robinson, 1617, Will. Merricke, Rector, he always subscribed the register by that name, (1632, Gulielmus Merricke, rector hujus ecclesiæ per quindecem annos, et tunc anima ejus ad superos feliciter migravit.) 1632, Tho. Horne, perpetual curate, licensed as such. 1662, John Vicars. 1682, John Shaw. 1688, John Richardon. 1723, Tho. Manlove.
It is a perpetual curacy in the nomination of the Dean and Chapter, who are impropriators. The Rev. Mr. John Brooks is now  curate. It hath the Queen's bounty, but no endowment at all. Dean Prideaux places the arbitrary contributions in his time, at 20l. but now they do not much exceed 10l. per annum. There is neither glebe nor house, though in 1504, the prior released 20d. part of a rent of 2s. issuing out of the houses which abut south on the churchyard, given by the will of Robert de Eston, coverlet weaver, for the dwelling of the parish priest. (Regr. I. Pr. fo. 275.)
Mr. Kirkpatrick says, that Sir Rob. Swetman, as parish priest, dwelt there; that the 2s. belonged to the infirmary, and that the whole but 2d. a year was released, on condition it should be kept as a mansion-house for the parish priest, according to the will of Eston the donor; that sometime after the Dissolution, the parishioners had it; that three tenements were let by the church-wardens, and that afterwards Mr. Freeman held it of Christ church.
Anciently there was a recluse dwelt in a little cell joining to the north side of the steeple, but it was down before the Dissolution; in 1641, Tho. Hinderby and Anne his wife, with general consent, rebuilt it, and dwelt there to their deaths, and then the parish pulled it down, finding it made the churchyard publick, which now hath no common passage through it.
In 1585, this parish paid 14s. 2d. knight's meat, and 32s. 6d. taske or tax; and in 1586, John Leech of Norwich, wax-chandeler, and John Cotwyn, tailor, for the mere good will and affection which they did bear unto the parish of St. John, moved partly in conscience to prefer the same, (to use their own words,) did settle on feoffees for the use of the parish, one tenement parcel of a tenement called Segoresinn, with a yard, and out-houses thereto belonging, with liberty of a well, &c. the clear revenues of which are to be employed for ever " towards the payment and discharge of the Queene's Majesties taxe, or other like exaction generall, within the said parish, and to none other use or intent." In 1714, the feoffees leased it at 3l. 10s. per annum for 21 years, to Mr. Townsand Sheringham, grocer, and it pays one halfpenny landgable to the city.
In 1666, Rob. Rosse, Gent. gave certain houses to the city, on condition that two boys or girls be maintained in the city hospitals; and the court ordered that two girls should be always maintained in the Girls-hospital, to be taken one from the parish of St. John Timberhill, and the other from All-Saints, provided the parishes or their parents put the said girls into convenient apparel and linen at their admissions; and that the aldermen of that ward give convenient notice to the officers of the parishes, to present two such girls to be admitted accordingly.
There is an ancient parish book beginning in 1555, with this, "Jesus have Mercy upon us, Amen payd the Orgayn Playr 18d. for fitting up the Sepulchre 3d. for stayning the Hye Awter xs. received of St. Michael's parish at Christmas xs. of St. Martin's at Bale xs. of All-Saints at Lady xvijs. xjd."
The religious concerned here were, the Prior of St. Faith, the Prioress of Carrow, he Master of St. Giles's hospital, the Abbot of Holm, who had 5s. per annum out of houses in the Swyne-market, given by Clement le Moine of Burnham; and in 1303, John de Weston had a grant of the Jews lands forfeited here, and Roger Beamund, merchant, and Beatrix his wife, released a messuage to the prior and convent.
The hog-market was anciently kept on All-Saints-green, which is called the Old Swine-market, in all ancient evidences; thence it was carried to Hog-hill in this parish, which received its name on that account, but it is since removed to the castle-ditches. The old shirehouse in the castle-ditches was within the bounds of this parish, and in Edward the First's time, the outermost ditch of the county (the city not then having the castle ditches) reached near this churchyard.
(55) The Church Of All-Saints
It was valued at first at 40s. and afterwards in the King's Books at 3l. 14s. 4d. ob.; but being sworn under value, it was discharged, and is capable of augmentation. It hath a parsonage-house, which joins to the east part of the churchyard, the south end reaching the street; it is now let at about 5l. per annum; and about 5 acres and 1 rood glebe, called Alldery Hollond Close, near St. Giles's-gates, let at 11l. per annum. The herbage of gardens and lands lying within the walls amounts to about 2l. per annum, and the voluntary contributions comes to about 4l. per annum more. Dr. Prideaux tells us, the endowment in his time was 15l. per annum, and the contributions 8l.; it paid 6d. synodals, is subject to the visitation of the Archdeacon of Norwich, but was not taxed, and now pays neither first fruits nor tenths.
In 1576, the rector sued for 8d. in the noble, tithe, for the rents of houses; but it was proved, that it was not the custom of any parish in Norwich to pay according to the bare rent of any houses, without ground; but according to the substance, occupation, and abilities of the tenants, which is taxed by the parishioners themselves. (fn. 6) There is service here once in a fortnight.
This church hath the following different names in evidences, AllSaints by Timberhill, because of its nearness to the timber-market. All-Saints in the old Swyne-market, because the green before it, now called Aldery-holland-green, or All-Saints-green, was the first swinemarket in the city; All-Saints by Berstreet, and All-Saints in Nedham, and often All-hallows, or Aldery-hallows.
Here under lyeth the Body of that grave, loval, and orthodox Divine, Mr. Christopher Hatley, who was Minister of this Parish 52 Years, he lived 77 Years, and died July 8, 1679, in the 77 Yeare of his Age, and by him lyeth Sarah his faithfull Wife, and Eliz. his Daughter.
1737, Charles Ames, clerk, to the consolidated rectories of All Saints, St. Julian, St. Edward, and St. Clement in Conisford. Rob. Moreton, Esq. patron in fee, united to Ringland vicarage. He was succeeded by John Blackburne, by whose cession in
1453, Margaret, wife of Ralf Pygot, buried in the church. 1466, Sir Thomas Rodeland, priest, late rector, buried in the chancel by Will. Rudlond, his father, and paid 6s. 8d. "for brekyng the Ground, to ould Oudolff, for the Pardon of St. Tho. of Acrys 20d." 1471, Robert Sampson buried in the chancel. 1476, Will. Hew, butcher, in the church. 1532, Margaret, widow of Henry Larke, in the churchyard, and gave a legacy towards gilding of the rodeloft.
Atkinson. Arg. an eagle displayed sab. on a chief az. a cinquefoil between two marlets or, impaling, quarterly 1, or, a bend gul. surmounted with a fess vert. 2, gul. a griffin saliant ar. 3, gul. a chevron vert, between three spread eagles ar. 4 as 1.
In the nave are buried, Susanna Wife of Sam. Austin 1715, 37. John Baxter 1707. Sarah his Wife 1708. Peter Watts Senior 1706. Sarah his Daughter 1712, 23. John Watts 1742, 36. Margaret Wife of John Dunch Wine Cooper 1707, 24.
Francis Dr. of Henry & Prudence High 1712, 10. Will. & Anne two other Children 1701. Mr. Henry High one of his Majesties Coroners for this City 14 Years, who married Prudence Daughter of Will. Hase, 1732, 67. & eleven of their children. Richard Son of Will. Hase 1696. Will. a Son 1683. Jane a Daughter 1679. Ric. Hase 1684. Anne his Wife 1647. Prudence Dr. of John Burton, Grandchild to Ric. Hase 1673. Will. Son of Ric. Hase 1712, 67. Frances his Wife 1724, 78. 4 of their Children, and 7 of their grand-children.
There is a fine old font, having the 12 Apostles, St. Michael and the dragon, and many saints and confessors carved on it, and not far distant in the middle alley, is a large marble with the following inscription and arms in a lozenge, though the arms are wrong cut.
Sir Will. Swetman, senior, gave a legacy to be added to that given by Sir Tho. Perse, clerk, to buy an altar cloth for the high-altar; and a mass book to St. John's altar, for the souls of Sir Nic. Derham, priest, Tho. Derham and Alice his wife, his father and mother.
There are two houses on the west side of All-Saints green, called the Parish-houses, given to the repair of the church; they are opposite to the church porch; I find they were owned by Will. Russell, immediately before they were in the hands of parishioners; which makes me imagine he gave them; though it is said they were given by Will. Tuck, but I do not find him as an owner, only first feoffee.
In Queen Elizabeth's time, the mayor and court licensed the butchers, notwithstanding the statute, to kill cattle within the city walls, according to license granted by the privy council, but confined them to Berstreet and All-Saints-green only; on which, at that time, there was a common-well, and a pit called
(56) Jack's-pit, which was at the south end of the Green, and is now filled up, and partly built upon; a piece of ground near it and the said pit, was leased by the city in 1701, for 1000 years at 3l. per annum to Ric. Buck.
The religious concerned here were, the Prioress of Carrow, the Master of the hospital of St. Giles, Dean of the Chapel in the Fields, Abbot of Holm, and Prior of Bromholm, who in 1317, purchased the house, which joins on the east part, to that which hath the sign of the city of Norwich, of Ralf de Baketon, and made it a lodging, house of entertainment, or inn, called
(58) St. Michael's at Thorn,
Called in ancient evidences, St. Michael in Berstreet, and ad Spinas, or at the Thorns, and even to this day, a very large thorn remains growing in the churchyard: I find it also in the most ancient deeds called, St. Michael super Montem, or St. Miles on the Hill, from its situation.
It was anciently a rectory appendant to the castle, till the Conqueror gave it Fitz-Walter, along with St. Martin at the Bale, and his descendant gave it, with that church, to the priory of St. Faith at Horsham, when he founded it; both which he got appropriated, on condition that the Prior should serve it by a stipendiary chaplain, as was done till the Dissolution.
The steeple was built in 1430, at which time there was an image of our Lady on the north side of the church; and there were a so two gilds, the one of St. Austin, and the other of St. William, held here. In 1680, the court contributed 21l. 10s. towards the repairs of the church.
Ric. son of John and Francis Plunket 166--. Hamond Eastgate and Ursula his wife, he died 1684, she 1685. Kat. wife of James Bradshaw 1591. John Smith an infant 1651. Margaret wife of Henry Baily grocer 1637.
The house over against the church with a large garden, of 3 or 4 acres thereto belonging was anciently John Corbet's; then Edward Southwell's, after that Alderman Tho. Grene's; after that Sir Nicholas Bacon's city house; and during the time Bishop Reynold's was repairing the palace, he dwelt there; it was a grand house, but is now converted into small tenements.
(59) St. Bartholomew's Church in Berstreet,
Called sometimes St. Bartholomew per Mountergate, was a rectory valued at 2l. 13s. 4d. in the King's Books; it paid no first fruits but 5s. 4d. tenths, till its destruction; 6d. synodals, and 8d. procurations; the advowson of it was given by John, son of Rob. le Masun, to the Prior of Wymondham. (fn. 7)
For in 1549, the rectory, advowson, and church, which came to the Crown at the dissolution of Windham abbey, were granted by King Edward VI. to Ralf Sadler and Laurence Wynington, and the heirs of Ralf, to be held in free soccage of East-Greenwich manor, by fealty only: and soon after, the church was desecrated, the two bells and ornaments which belonged to it were carried to St. John Sepulchre's church, to which parish it was consolidated, as it now remains.
The church is now standing, though the chancel hath been ruinated a long time; the south porch, and tower, which was square, are also standing, but the top part of it is taken down to the roof of the church; the churchyard was large, it is now much built upon, and is owned by Justice Spurrel, who purchased it of Mr. French, who still owns about 3 acres of glebe in Lakenham field, which belonged to it. It stands on the east side of Berstreet, just on the south side of Skeygate-lane, which was anciently called St. Bartilnew's-lane.
The messuage joining to the south side of the churchyard, and the close at the east end of it, was given to the parish by Richard Drew, chaplain, and assigned to the parishioners of St. John Sepulchre, when this parish was united; and they, in 1626, leased it out to Thomas Green, alderman; and now Justice Spurrel hath it; there were only two messuages more in this parish on this side of the way, both which were John de Eston's; that most north he sold, and it continued always a private property; but the most southern one Rob. de Eston gave to the curate of the parish, for his dwelling, and it now belongs to the parishioners of St. John.
In this parish, on the west side of the way almost opposite to the church, is a tenement belonging to the parishioners of St. John, formerly Nic. Hullok's, which was probably given by him to the parish of St. Bartholomew.
(60) The Church of St. John Baptist And The Holy Sepulchre In Berstreet,
Commonly called St. John at the Gates, from its nearness to Berstreetgates, was built in the Confessor's time, but after the survey taken by that Prince, in which it occurs not; and seems to have been founded by William de Bellofago or Beaufo Bishop of Thetford, who died in 1091, and left it to his son, Ric. de Beaufo, who held it in alms as rector, of the King's donation, (Pt. I. p. 465, note 8,) after his death, Eborard Bishop of Norwich purchased the advowson, with that of St. Nicholas at Brakendale, of King Stephen, (fn. 8) and gave and appropri ated it to the monks, to the use of their infirmary. It appears by the Conquoror's survey, that two of the Earl of Norfolk's tenants disseized this church of two acres of glebe, but the Earl regranted it to the rector. (See Pt. I. p. 15, &c.) The keeper of the infirmary received all the profits, repaired the chancel, and paid the curate or parish chaplain annually for his service; at the appropriation the convent received all the tithes of many lands without the gates, in right of this church; all which are abuttalled in the 6th Register of the Prior and Convent, fo. 84. Besides the glebe which laid in those fields, the parsonage-house and orchard which joins to the south-east part of the churchyard, belonged to the parish chaplain till some time after the Dissolution, but are now leased out by the dean and chapter, who enjoys the glebe, tithes, &c. that belonged to it.
The curate receives out of Bokenham's-house in Berstreet 10s. per annum, (fn. 9) and the rent of some tenements in the parish of St. James, now amounting to about 6l. per annum, which were given by Thomas Doughty, Gent. "for the better mayntenance of a weekly and every week preaching minister in the parish of St. John Sepulchre in Berstreet, and of the parish clerk attending such minister. And for the default of such preaching minister, for the benefit of the poore of the said parish." The curate here is to preach Mr. Craske's sermon annually, (see Pt. I. p. 380,) and Alderman Church's sermon, for which see Ibid. p. 421. It hath the Queen's bounty, with which no purchase is as yet made. Dean Prideaux makes the endowment in his time 4l. and the contributions 16l. and the whole now is estimated at 30l. per annum. Here is a sermon every Plow-Monday, which the curate hath 10s. for, of the gift of Mrs. Kemp, for which an estate in Heydon is tied.
1158, Sir Richard, parish priest. 1492, Sir Ric. Tomson, chaplain. 1530, Sir Richard Skippe, chaplain, buried in the chancel this year. 1558, Sir Will. Seman, buried here, and was then succeeded by George Edwards, perpetual curate. 1560, Mr. George Leedes, curate. 1570, Tho. Gardiner, curate. 1616, Ralf Furnes. 1635, Tho. Displain, curate; he was ejected in the late rebellion, and had at that time a wife and 4 children. (Walker, Append. fo. 415.) 1662, Mr. Watts, curate. 1673, William Kelyng. 1738, Mr. Richard Deere, (see p. 25.)
1492, Rob. Cok, rafman, buried at the entrance out of the nave into the chancel, and gave a fodder of lead towards leading the church, which was then designed. "Item I wull that Robert my Son have my Ground over the Way against my Place wherein I dwell, which I bought of Tho. Alicock, so that he, his Eyrs and Assignes, thereof paye and discharge the Inhabitauntes and Dwellers in the seid parish of the Kinges Taxe, as often as it hereafter shall fortune to be payde." (fn. 10) This lies on the west side of Berstreet, and was the last house but one in this parish, before St. Bartholomew's was joined to it, and now belongs to the parishioners: "Item, I wull that a Laumpe be founde brennyng on my Grave every Sonday and Fest-full in the Yere at all Divine service, and also that it be light dayly at vij of the Belle before Mydday, and brenne from vij of the Belle dayly till High Mase be endid in the said Church of St. Sepulchre." In 1471, John Cok was buried at his father's right hand.
1672, Mr. Nathaniel Cocke of London, merchant, by will dated Nov. 28, gave to the parish of St. John Sepulchre at Norwich (where he was baptized) 130l. to be laid out in lands "and the profits and income thereof, to be given and distributed yearly unto the poore of the same parish." (Lib. Benefact. in le Gild-Hall.) With this, 33 acres of land in Horsted were purchased, which being improved, are let at 13l. per annum by the parish.
John Gower, plomer, who by will dated Aug. 20, 1507, gave to the reparations of St. Sepulchre's church for ever, his two tenauntries or houses in Finkel-street, on condition that 10 or 12 of the principal of the parish be infeoffed therein to the said use, and when they be dead all but two or three, they to renew to 12 more to be chosen by the parishioners. They now belong to the parish, and stand almost opposite to the south-west corner of the churchyard. This John is buried in the south chapel, as was Kat. Gower in 1468.
Mr. Luke Fisher gave houses and lands in Elme in Cambridgeshire, now let at 24l. per annum clear of all taxes, to the poor of this parish; with which 10 chaldrons of coals are yearly bought and given to the poor, and the rest laid out in blue coats and gowns; it was settled by Mr. Fisher, executor of Luke, in 1642; Mrs. Margaret Fisher gave a legacy to repair the church in 1474.
Mrs. Kemp gave 20s. per annum to the poor, and 10s. to the minister, as is before observed; and an estate now owned by Erasmus Earl, Esq. lying in Heydon, is tied for these yearly payments, as I am informed.
1686, Mr. Michael Smith, by will dated Jan. 20, gave 2s. weekly, to be divided in bread every Sunday, in the parish church, to such of the poor of the parish, as are most frequent at divine service; and the estate is now owned by Mr. Tho. Bound.
The religious concerned here were, the Prioress of Haliwelle; for in 1261, Julian Prioress there, leased a piece of ground in this parish to Thomas, son of Stanard de Trowse, and his heirs, paying to the priory 2s. a year. The Prior of Cokesford, Prior of St. Faith, Prior of Norwich, and Prioress of Carrow.
Which in ancient times were the most frequented gates of the whole city, the grand passage to the castle entering there; in this street there is a common well and pit, which was always repaired and emptied by the city. On the east side of the street, opposite to the churchyard, in Blaks-hall, so called from William Blackamore, its owner in Edward the Third's time.
In Henry the Third's time there was a recluse dwelt in the chuchyard, and in 1455, Thomas, a hermite, dwelt in a hermitage by Berstreet-gates. The parish is now in the jurisdiction of the dean and chapter.
In eternis annis, resonat Campana Johannis, it being the largest bell before St. Bartholomew's bells were brought hither, and so was dedicated to St. John, as the church was. The two biggest were rung by Thomas Potter in 1537, for then James Cootes, who was buried here the foregoing year, gave 6l. 13s. 4d. towards it, and in 1502, Will. Thacker, butcher, gave 40s. On the 5th is this,
The register in the chest begins in 1538; from which I observed that Alderman Thomas Grew was buried in 1548; Alderman John Howse in 1558; Ursula Heydon, Gent. in 1570; in 1578, Anne Jackson was the first that died of the plague, 59 being buried this year, 63 in 1579, and 50 in 1589. See Pt. I. p. 354, 356.
Mary Wife of Charles Brandon, 1741, æt. 43. Adieu! vain World I've known enough of thee, And I am heedless what thou say'st of me, Thy Smiles I court not, nor thy Frowns do fear, My Toils are past, and I rest quiet here.
Rose Wife of Richard Simson, 1737. Death is a Market where we all must meet, It's found in every City, Town, and Street, If we our Lives, like Merchandise could buy, The Rich would ever live, the poor alone must dye.
In 1505, Thomas Snellyng, butcher, was buried in the middle of the south chapel, which is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and gave five marks towards a suit of vestments, if the parish would be the rest; Alice his wife executrix.
The north chapel is dedicated to our Lady; in 1502, James Cootes was buried in the said chapel, to which he gave two copes of white damask, to serve in the church at the feasts of our Lady; and ordered a gravestone six feet and an half in length to be laid over him, "Item, I well that the chapel on the north side of the Churche be made newe of my goods, like unto the chapell on the south side." The same year also, William Thacker, butcher, was buried in it before the altar, and gave a cope.
In Commemoration of Bernard Church Esq; Son of Richard Church late of Whinburgh, in the County of Norfolk Clerk, borne at Whinburgh aforesaid the 17 of May 1604, Sheriff of this Citye 1644, Mayor of the same in 1651, one of the Burgesses for the same 1654; he died July 28, 1686, a Benefactor to this antient Corporation; It is the Work of Charity to build up Christians, but it should not be the Work of Christians to beat down Charity. 1 Cor. Cap. 14, Ver. 1
Here at the Foot of this Wall, in hope of a joyfull Resurrection to Life eternal, resteth the Body of Katherine Quarles, she was the Daughter of Edmund Quarles Gent. of this City of Norwich, Wife of Barnard Church Esq; some time Major of this City, a Woman indued with Godly Grace, Charity, and Love to all; she changed this Life for a better, May 19, 1670, aged 63 Years.
Here lays Capt. Nicholas Salter whose Choice Endowments both in Grace and Art, Deserve the ablest Hand to express but Part; As to Religion constant and sincere, Faithful and fervent, fighting while h' was here, The Fight of Faith; o'recome, and is sett downe, His Course he finish'd, and enjoys a Crowne; And for his Art and Ingenuity, By his exquisite Skill in Turning, Hee Made so conspicuous, that who it beheld, Was at his Art with Admiration fill'd, But cease, no more, only a Sword, a Tear, To lett the Reader know, choise Dust lies here.
John Browne of Waltone Gentleman, Phillip Browne's Son and heir, Brother unto Winifrid, Vis onlie Sister deare, Forseeinge that Mans Life is traile, And subject unto Death, Vath rhosen him, this sylle Shrine, Co shreud his Corps in Earth, Yet hopes he for to rise again, Through Faith in Christ, God's Son, Whoe for his Soule elect to Life, A glorious Croun hath wone, This is his Hoape, this is his Truste, Faith is his only Shielde, By whiche he oher Syn and Death, And Sathan wins the Feeild.
Winifrid Browne the Daughter of Phillip and Anne his Wife, Under this Stone inclosed is, Deboid of breathed Life, A Virgin pure, she libde I di'de God Garnish'd her with Grace, And like a Christian in his Feare, She ran her Pilgrims Race, A lowlie Part she eber had, Belob'de of Rich and Pore, An Sprite I Truth she daile sought, The Lord God to adore. But though this hertuous Virgin young, Unto the World be dead. The Lambe of God, we hope in Heaven, With Glorp Crowns her Head.
'Tis mine to Day to moulder in the Tomb, To morrow may thy awfull Summons come, Thus frail & sleep secure! awake or know, Thy Dreams will terminate in endless Woe, Wake & contend for Heavens immortal Prize, And give to God each Moment as it flys, Serene then mayst thou recollect the past, And with a sacred Transport meet the Last.
Ric. & Hellen Collinges 1639. John Tooke 1677. Tho. Watts Clerk, 1671. Grace his Wife 1665. Rob. Hacon Surgeon 1716, 33. Margaret Wife of Ric. Hacon 1718, 70. Richard Hacon 1722, 78. Eliz. Wife of Stephen Jackson, Daughter of Richard and Margaret Hacon 1743, 70. Thomas Corrington 1653.
(62) The Rectory of St. Winewaloy or St. Catherine, in Newgate,
Was first dedicated to St. Winewaloci or Winewaloy, commonly called Winall, who was bishop and confessor, and had the 3d of March kept holy to him; at the time of Norwich Domesday, it appears to have been rededicated to St. Catherine; it was valued at 6s. 8d. but was not taxed, though it paid first fruits, and 6d. synodals.
It was given by King Stephen to his nuns at Carrow, who presented the rectors till 1349, when the whole parish was almost depopulated by the great pestilence, and never recovered since, but dwindled away, so that now there is only one house standing in its limits; upon this, the tithes and glebes which were considerable, and the whole profits, were appropriated to Carrow, and the church made a chapel only, though they still presented a rector, and paid him a stipend.
1503, Will. Swetman the younger; he held it by union with AllSaints, and gave the nuns 20s. if they would give the chapel to his successour there, and ordered a pardon to be purchased from the court of Rome, to remain in the church of St. Catherine in Norwich, if it be annexed to the church of All-Saints; by which it is plain, the dissolution of this chapel was then talked of, and this rector did it with a view that it might not be pulled down, but supported by this pardon, which would produce sufficient to find a priest to perform service in it, but his design was frustrated by the Dissolution.
The advowson of which passed with Carrow abbey by grant of Henry VIII. to Sir John Shelton, Knt. and the chapel being void and looked upon as a free chapel, and so subject to be dissolved by the act of Edward VI. that Prince granted it by the name of St. Catherine's chapel and chapel yard, containing half an acre, with all the tithes, &c. thereto belonging, to Sir Tho. Woodhouse of Waxham, Knt. and his heirs; but in 1561, great contests arose between Ralph Shelton of Shelton, Esq. and John Bonde of Carrow, who had purchased it of Wodehouse, and obtained also a lease of it in 1543, of Anne Shelton, widow of Sir John Shelton, and John her son and heir; and after many contentions, all parties agreed, and conveyed the whole to Anthony Stile, notary publick, whose wife Margaret, in 1567, joined with Anthony Stile, notary publick, her son and heir, and conveyed the whole to the city, for the use of St. Giles's hospital, as part of the 200l. per annum that Edward VI. had granted them license to purchase in mortmain; it was conveyed to them by the name of St. Catherine's chapel yard, containing one acre, because the half acre lying west on the chapel yard, called St. Catherine's Close, on which the parsonage once stood, was now added to it; the chapel stood in the midst of the triangle half acre opposite to the Broad Tower in the walls, at the very joining of the way under the walls leading from Brazen-door to Berstreet, and that way coming from Great Newgate in St. Stephen's, leading also to Berstreet, which was anciently Little Newgate, or St. Catherine's-street. The other part of this parish belonged before to the city, who paid the tithe of it to this chapel; on the purchase of which, it became tithe free; the rest of the closes which extend to the way leading to Brazen-door on the west, contain six acres, and had a barn and a dove-house standing on a hill on the west part, both which are now demolished: the city close, containing four acres, on the north side of Catherine-street or Little Newgate, paid tithe here, and several other closes there, and without the walls, were titheable here; all which are specified in a schedule in the gildhall. These closes are now leased out by the city, and are part of the hospital revenues.
Which was originally a tower, with a postern of brass, from which it took its name; it was afterwards of iron, for it is often called the Irondoor; after that, it was made a passage for horsemen, and then was called the New-gate, from which the neighbouring streets took their names; and after that, was called the Swyne-market-gate, and it is a publick gate for all carriages at this time.