An Essay Towards A Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: Volume 5. Originally published by W Miller, London, 1806.
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Takes its name from the shingle, or gravelly ford, over which there is built a noble bridge of stone, dividing the county of the city of Norwich from that of Norfolk. At the Confessor's survey the whole town belonged to Alured the priest, a freeman of Bishop Stigand; but at the Conqueror's, Roger Bigot held one part of it, being the chief manor, of the Bishop of Baieux, which had one carucate in demean, three parts of a watermill worth 20s. at the first survey, and 40s. at the second; the town was a mile and two furlongs long, and six furlongs broad, and paid 11d. gelt, and there then belonged to it two freemen and an half, which held 25 acres, and one acre of meadow worth 2s. lying in the parish of Flordon. (fn. 1)
The said Roger held the second part, (fn. 2) of Alan Earl of Richmond, (fn. 3) and a third part in his own right, of the Conqueror's gift, (fn. 4) so that the whole town, and all that belonged to it, was wholly in him when the survey was made, but it was soon after divided, and the manor called afterwards
Was in a family which took their names from this place; Ric. de Cringleford was lord here, (fn. 5) and Roger his son; his brother Ralf was lord after him, and was succeeded about 1242, by his son William, who in the year 1271, sold 5 messuages, 120 acres of land and 12 of marsh, part of the demeans, to Henry de Heylesdon; and Joan his wife released her right, and this part was joined to Heylesdon's manor; but Roger de Cringleford having entailed the manor after his own, wife's, and son William's death, on Adam de Berford and Pleasance his wife, they held it in 1287. In 1315, Emma, relict of Will. Lek, Rob. de Poleye, &c. released their right to him, as feoffees to Adam his father. William son of Adam de Berford had it, and died seized, leaving it to Sir Adam de Berford, clerk, late rector of Foston in Yorkshire, his son; who in 1350, jointly with Agatha his mother, conveyed it in trust to Will. de la Pole, senior, Knt. Sir John de Chestrefield, rector of Foston, John de Berford, citizen of Norwich, and Hugh Bandon, rector of Bunwell; and in 1357, they released it again to the said Adam, (fn. 6) who, in 1367, settled it on trustees, viz. Sir Robert de Wylasham, Knt. Sir Will. de Henleye, rector of Credlington, Sir Hugh Bandon, rector of Bernham, John de Erlham, Sir William, parson of Intwood, and Sir John Elys, chaplain; and in 1368, Sir John de Wylasham and John de Erlham released to the rest. In 1369, Henlye and Elys settled it on Catherine, widow of Sir Will. de la Pole, senior, Knt. and Sir Edmund de la Pole, Knt. their son, William de Thweng of Foston, and Tho. de Esterfield, their trustees; in 1370, William Wysete, rector of Intwood, Hugh de Bandon, rector of Bernham, John, and Rich. de Berford, and Emma and Cicily, sister and heirs of Sir Adam de Berford late rector of Foston, released all their right in this manor; by which means it was absolutely vested in the De la Poles, who settled it soon after on Edmund Gourney, Will. de Boyton, Tho. Spynk, and John le Latimer of Norwich, when it extended into Hethersete, Eaton, Erlham, Little-Melton, Colneye, and Cringleford watermill belonged to it; in 1381, John le Latimer was sole lord, and had view of frankpledge, weyf, and strey, belonging to his manor of Cringleford and Surlingham; and the same year, Gournay and the other feoffees of the Poles, released all right to him. In 1391, Margaret, widow and executrix of John Latimer, and Nic. Blakeney, citizen of Norwich, co-executor, released their annuity of 10l. out of Berford's manor, to John Otteley, Will. Berton, and John Bishop. In 1406, John Bishop, mercer, of Norwich, conveyed it to Simon Sampson, and Gilbert Debenham, Esqrs. Ric. Whethermersh, John Jernegan, and Richard, son of Ric. Talmache, Esq.; and in 1408, they released it to Simon Sampson, Esq.; in 1409, Sampson sold it to William Westacre, archdeacon of Norwich, (fn. 7) Will. Rees, Esq. John de Thornham, rector of Sparham, Edm. Perke, clerk, William Sedman, merchant, and Walter Eton, citizen, who in 1411, by license from the King, settled it on St. Giles's hospital in mortmain, to find a chaplain (being no brother of the hospital) to live as a brother in it, who was daily to say mass, and pray for the soul of Master John de Derlington, late archdeacon of Norwich, and all his family, and for Roger Prat, clerk, late master, and Will. Paston of Paston, and all the deceased, allowing him a good stipend, chamber, and clothing; and it continued till the Dissolution in that hospital, and then passed with the hospital and its revenues, to the corporation of the city of Norwich, to whom the manor now belongs.
Heylesdon's, or the capital manor,
With the advowson, was given by Roger Bigot, along with Shimpling, (fn. 8) to Rob. de Vallibus or Vaux, in which family it continued a good while. Sir John de Vaux, Knt. Will. de Vaux, then Robert de Vaux, and about 1240, Sir Alexander de Vaux, Knts. were lords; Sir Alexander sold an acre of land and the advowson, to Bishop Suffield, (fn. 9) who in 1249, settled it on St. Giles's hospital, which he then founded. In 1287, Sir John de Vaux, Knt. his son, was lord; and sold the manor, with the fishery called Cringford Ee, and his pool, and right of fishing in the stream from Erlham to Cringleford-bridge, to Henry de Heylesden, whose son Henry was lord in 1303; and then sealed with a lion rampant, as this family always did; and held it of William de Bukenham, he of the heirs of Multon, they of the Earl-Marshal, and he of the King, at 3 quarters of a fee; and in 1315, John de Heylesdon, after him Henry de Heylesdon, who in 1345, held it of Will. Leigh, Knt. as of his manor of Multon's in Surlingham. In 1381, Emma, widow of the said Henry, had it for life, and then Roger, their son and heir, who held it in 1401, and in 1413, conveyed it to Sir John de Norwich, lord of Yoxford, Edm. Barry, John Clifton, lord of Topcroft, Rob. Alleyn, senior, Rob. Suffield, citizen of Norwich, John Bowkes and John Soterle of Intwood, and Thomas Ringstede, trustees, to the use of Tho Wetherby of Norwich, Esq. and his heirs; who at his death left it for life to Margaret his widow, who in 1454, leased it for 8 marks a year. to be paid her in Carrow abbey, where she boarded with the nuns, among which Alice Wetherby, her daughter, was one; at her death it was to go in trust to John Heydon, Tho. Welles, and Tho. Croftes, who conveyed their right in reversion, to John Jenney, (fn. 10) and John Browne, and in 1460, Will and John Jenney, and John Browne, sold it to the master and brethren of St. Giles's hospital aforesaid; (fn. 11) and so it became joined to Berford's manor, with which it now remains.
Dunston's, or Hetherset's Manor,
Was held by Alured of Roger Bigot, who left it to Eudo his son, and he to Walter his son, whose son Roger assumed the sirname of Norwich, and left it to Gilbert de Norwich his son, to whom it was confirmed by Robert de Vaux, lord of Heylesdon's manor. In 1284, Henry de Norwich, clerk, had it, and it was after in Hugh de Dunston: and about 1315, was conveyed to Sir Simon de Hetherset, Knt. one of the King's justices, and Cecily his wife, who in 1313 had purchased of Thomas Spriggy of Monesle, and Julian his wife, 6 marks rent in Cringleford. This judge was descended from Alexander de Hetherset and Maud his wife, who were both alive in 1249, and was son of John de Hetherset, and brother to Remigius, parson of Hingham; (fn. 12) he had three sisters; Margaret, married to Sir Rob. Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, Emma, to Sir John Leke, who was his trustee for this manor, and Katherine, to Sir Walter father of Sir John Norwich, who built Mettingham castle in Suffolk. This Sir Simon had six sons and two daughters; 1, Sir John, his eldest son; 2, Sir Edmund Hethersete, Knt. buried in the Charter-house in 1380, and left no issue; his wife Isabell was buried in Buxhale churchyard in Suffolk, A°. 1412; 3, William, rector of Attleburgh; (fn. 13) 4, Roger, rector of Billingford; 5, George, parson of Sculthorp; 6, Nic. rector of Berford; (fn. 14) Joan married to Sir Rob. Wachesham, Knt. and Margaret to Sir Hugh Peverel of Melton, Knt. and most of these brothers were concerned in this manor, which seems to have been shared among them; but as all died without issue, William de Hethersete, eldest son of Sir John Hetherset, and only heir, (for all his brothers died young,) inherited the whole; he was made guardian of the wool-customs in this county in 1357, and by Eve his wife had only two daughters, Eliz. second wife to John Winter of Town-Berningham, and Sibil, to John Palgrave of Northwood-Berningham, Esq. who was lord here in his wife's right, and at last, heir of the whole inheritance. After this it was divided, and the chief part purchased by Tho. Wetherby, Esq. who was buried in the Austin friars at Norwich, (fn. 15) and so became joined to his manor called Heylesdon's
Was granted to one Grimbald, from Berford's manor, by Ralf de Cringleford, lord there, and was conveyed by Grimbald to Walter Barun, or Baron; (fn. 16) Hugh Barun had it after him, and in 1304, Will. Barun of Cringleford conveyed it to Petronel his sister, and her heirs; in 1317, Tho. Spriggi; (fn. 17) and Julian his wife granted it to Sir Simon de Hethersete, Knt (fn. 18) Cecily his wife, and William their son, and their heirs, and so it was joined to Hetherset's manor. In 1280, Sir Simon Peche, Knt. granted divers rents here, to Nic. de Castello or Castle, and Cecily his wife, which in 1298 belonged to Will. de Bukenham and Julian his wife, and were after joined to this manor.
The church is dedicated to St. Peter, and was a rectory till Sir Alex.
de Vaux sold it, with an acre of land, to Walter de Suffield, Bishop of
Norwich, (fn. 19) who appropriated it wholly to St. Giles's hospital in Norwich, which he founded in 1249, when it was worth 10 marks per annum, and ever since it hath been a perpeturl curacy, as it now remains, (fn. 20)
being in the gift of the city of Norwich, in right of that hospital.
The steeple is square, and hath three bells, on the second of which is
Sum Rosa Pulsata Mundi Katerina vocata.
On the biggest, which is the soul-bell, is this,
Jesv Christe, Fili Dei miserere nobis.
It hath a nave 22 yards long and 7 broad, and a small chancel, all tiled, and a north porch leaded.
In the altar rails there was a stone (now gone) for Lucy wife of Mr. Robert Cook, Dec. 1668. A vertuous woman, and a loving wife. There are also interred John Pykarel Gent. June 19, 1707, 75. (fn. 21) Robert his younger brother Aug. 26, 1677, 41, with the arms and crest, viz. a swan proper. There is a plain monument against the north chancel wall, for William son of Charles Love of Kirstead-hall, Gent. Jan. 11, 1714, 65. Will. his son Oct. 22, 1722, 18, with the arms of Love, vert, a tiger passant or. Crest, a tiger's head erased. Honor wife of Will. Love, Feb. 20, 1731, 66.
In the church, on a stone.
Pykarel impales Cook, or, a chevron ingrailed gul. between three cinquefoils az. on a chief of the second, a lion passant guardant of the third. John Pykarell Gent. Apr. the 6th, 1627, 75. Anne his wife, daughter of Chris. Layer Gent. Apr. 21, 1628, 61, John his eldest son, Oct. 11, 1646, 50. Catherine his wife, daughter of Will. Cooke of Broome Esq. Aug. 19, 1663, 57. Will. son of John Pykarell Gent. June 15, 1683, 43. Sarah his wife, daughter of Charles Love of Kirstead Gent. 20 July 1702, 58. John son of Will Pykarell Gent. 28 Jan. 1725, 52.
There is a good estate here, which hath been a long time in this family.
Another stone hath the arms of
Taylour, erm. on a chief dancetté three escalops, for John Taylour A. M. sometime fellow of Corpus Christi college in Cambridge, afterwards pastor of this church and Heylesden, Dec. 13, 1662. Resurgam. John son of Peter Turner Gent. and Eliz. his wife, died Nov. 7, 1710, 43.
Pykarell impales Cook. Henry Pykarell Gent. 20 Feb. 1647. Anne his wife 21 Jan. 1662, and four of their daughters, Mary Nov. 30, 1626. Anne 10 Jan. 1628. Kath. 24 Nov. 1633. Anne Aug. 8, 1659.
Exuviæ Roberti Pykarell Generosi, Collegij Corp. Christi, apud Cantabrigienses per triennium alumni, cui sub ipso Ætatis flosculo, quippe vix annum vicesimum primum, emenso, fatale Vitæ Stamen incidit Atropos Kal. Nov. 17, A.D.MDCLXXXXVI, Infans Layer Pykarell ob. 20 May 1722.
Pykerell impales Vynn, or, on a fess az. three lioncels arg.
In the south windows are the four Evangelists, and in a north window St. Catherine holding the wheel, and the Virgin Mary with our
Saviour in her arms, and a star over his head, a broken effigies of a
priest at her feet, and this in a label,
Mater Dei, Memento mei.
There is a mural monument in the churchyard against the north part of the east chancel wall, with the arms of Vynn, for Ric. Vynn Gent. Feb. 19, 1728, 65. Layer Vynn Gent. Feb. 27, 1736, 46. Deborah daughter of Layr Vynn and Honour his wife, June 11, 1726, an infant Honour their daughter May 15, 1737, 14.
There is a small parsonage-house at the north-west part of the churchyard, called anciently the Priest's Chamber.
When this living was appropriated, it had a house and 2 carucates of land, valued at 5l.; it paid 4s. synodals, 14d. Peter-pence, 3d. ob. carvage; and the lands of the sacrist of Norwich were taxed at 5s. In 1603, Edward Brewster had the profits and served the cure, there being then 66 communicants; and Anthony Style, Gent had the hospital revenues by lease. The several benefactions of which may be seen under the history of that hospital, vol. iv. p. 384, &c. It is now leased for life, to the Rev. Mr. John Arnam, rector of Possewick, with the house, tithes, &c. at 3s. 4d. per annum payable to the hospital; and being under value, and not at all in the King's Books, it is capable of augmentation. In 1428, the Prior of St. Faith was taxed at 4s. for his temporals in this town; and the Prior of St. Olave at Herlingflete, had 45 acres of land, 3 messuages, 4 acres of meadow, 4 acres of marsh, and 2s. rent here, and in Thorp by Hadesco; purchased of Adam Bacon in 1312. The Prior of Norwich was taxed for his temporals at 6s. 8d. which were given by Ralf son of Will. de Cringleford, Roger and Alice, son and daughter of Richard de Cringleford, William son of Roger de Cringleford, Walter Baron, Gilbert le Uphalder, Roger Bigot, and others. In 1291, Petronel, widow of Peter at Cringleford Cross, settled one acre and an half on Petronel her niece, to pay for ever 4d. per annum to have 4 masses said yearly for her soul, in this church, every Christmas day. This village was totally consumed by fire in Queen Elizabeth's time, for which reason, an act passed in the 23d year of her reign, for the re-edifying it. (fn. 22) It paid 30s. to the old tenths.
In the bounds of this parish there stood a free chapel, dedicated to St. Ethelberd, commonly called St. Albert's chapel; and in Queen Elizabeth's time, St. Ethelberd's chapel was reckoned among the lands concealed from the Crown; it is now demolished, and was always appendant to the parish church, with which it passed to the hospital; it had many rents paid to it, and the alder car, called St. Ilberd's Grove, in Cringleford, belonged to it. It appears by the hospital accounts, that it was a thatched building, and that in 1531 they almost rebuilt it; the profits of it in a good measure consisted in the offerings made by pilgrims that came in pilgrimage, for many came hither on that account; but what this image here was so famous for, as to be visited that way, I have not found. In Regr. Rix, fo. 309, in the Bishop's office, I find the will of Agnes Parker of Kesewick, who was buried in Cringleford churchyard in 1505, in which are these words, "Item, I owe a Pilgrimage to Canterbury, also I owe to St. Tebald of Hobeis, Item to St. Albert's at Cringleford iij Tymes.
Between this and Erlham, on the same side of the river with this town, stands the farm-house called Newfound, from a remarkable sort of earth newly found there, which was lately transported to Holland for the potters use, but now totally disused.