A History of the County of Berkshire: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1924.
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CHIEVELEY with LECKHAMPSTEAD and WINTERBOURNE
The ancient parish of Chieveley lies on the southern slope of the Berkshire Downs and is drained by the Winterbourne Brook. The parish consists of the townships of Chieveley, Snelsmore, Curridge (formerly Courage) and the chapelry of Oare, which together make up the present parish, and the townships or chapelries of Winterbourne and Leckhampstead, which are now distinct civil parishes. There seems to have been formerly a township of Bradley, which consisted of the western part of the chapelry of Oare and perhaps also of the township of Snelsmore.
The village of Chieveley lies along a road which runs parallel to the Newbury and Oxford highway. Snelsmore and Curridge consist of scattered clusters of houses. The school at Curridge, built between 1852 and 1859 by Mrs. Stackpool and Miss Wasey, is licensed for divine service. Oare is a small hamlet at the extreme east of the parish, while Bradley Court is now the only house in what seems to have been the township of Bradley. The village of Oare is small and the houses are mostly of brick and of no great age. There are Baptist, Primitive Methodist and Wesleyan chapels, and a small burial-ground here, long since disused, belonging to the Society of Friends. Winterbourne is a compact village by the brook with a few isolated houses, Winterbourne House, Copyhold, Pit King Farm and Penclose Farm. Leckhampstead consists of a village on high ground in what is known as Leckhampstead Street, with large surrounding fields of arable and pasture and two hamlets known as Hill Green and the Thicket. Most of the cottages in Leckhampstead are of brick, one or two being timber framed with thatched roofs. The land rises from a height of 280 ft. where the Winterbourne leaves the parish to 549 ft. above the ordnance datum at Leckhampstead Thicket. There is a Wesleyan chapel here, built in 1860, and a Primitive Methodist chapel at the Thicket, erected about 1830 and rebuilt in 1874.
The parish contains 9,217 acres, of which 5,422 are arable, 2,008 permanent grass and 821 woods and plantations. (fn. 1) The principal crops are wheat, barley and oats. The soil is mostly loam overlying chalk; there is, however, stiff clay in many of the higher parts on the east, sand at Oare, gravel at Snelsmore and in the bottoms of the valleys, and a little alluvium in the Winterbourne valley.
The railway line from Didcot to Newbury, opened 12 April 1882, (fn. 2) crosses the boundary on the east, but there is no station in the parish. The high road from Newbury to Oxford runs the length of the parish, passing close to but not through the village of Chieveley; the road from Newbury to Wantage crosses Snelsmore and passes through Leckhampstead to the east of the village. The population is mainly agricultural, but there are brick works at Oare.
The common lands in Chieveley and Oare were inclosed under an award dated 15 October 1813, in accordance with an Act of 1810. (fn. 3) Those of Curridge were inclosed later and the award enrolled 19 September 1820. Copies of these awards are in the custody of the parish council.
Arlington Manor is owned and occupied by Mr. J. A. Fairhurst, Downend House by Mr. E. E. Martin Atkins, Bussock House by Sir Montagu F. Montagu-Pollock, bart., Chieveley Cottage by Mr. A. H. Pigot, the Manor House by Mr. O. W. Rayner, Bradley Court by Mr. E. J. S. Wasey, Winterbourne Holt by Mr. R. Aldridge and Winterbourne House by Mrs. Robert Greene Hill. Prior's Court, which stands in a park, is the property of Mr. E. J. S. Wasey.
There is a very fine earthwork, known as Bussock Camp, at the extreme south of the township of Chieveley, (fn. 4) and various Roman coins have been found from time to time in the parish, some of which are in the Newbury Museum.
A number of large sarsen stones formerly stood in rows at Hill Green, Leckhampstead, and have been thought to be the remains of an alignment or avenue. They were removed from their position some years ago, though many may still be seen lying close by. (fn. 5)
In 951 King Edred granted to his servant Wulfric 25 'mansae' in the township of CHIEVELEY, (fn. 6) which were seized but were restored in 960, (fn. 7) and he subsequently gave them to the abbey of Abingdon. The boundaries of Catmore, set forth in the charter of 951, seem to indicate that the township of Chieveley at that time included Peasemore (q.v.).
The abbey continued to hold the manor after the Norman Conquest and at the time of the Domesday Survey part of it was let to William and Godfrey, (fn. 8) to whom Henry I gave permission to cultivate the waste here. (fn. 9) The profits from this manor were allotted to the chamberlain of the abbey, except 32s. which was reserved for the cook. (fn. 10) Its possessions here were confirmed to the abbey in 1146 by Pope Eugenius III. (fn. 11) In 1166–7 the abbot rendered account for 10s. for his land here, (fn. 12) and further particulars as to the profits due from this manor in 1190 are recorded in the Abbey Chronicle. (fn. 13) It is stated to have had warren here in 1275–6. (fn. 14) In 1392 Thomas Crook, parson of Milton, and William Dru gave certain lands here to the abbot, to enable him to restore the abbey church, (fn. 15) and the abbey is returned as holding the manor by barony in 1401–2. (fn. 16) The returns from the manor are given in considerable detail in 1417–18 (fn. 17) and 1428–9, (fn. 18) and in 1517 it is recorded that John Harbard, one of the tenants of the abbey, had destroyed his house and inclosed land for sheep. (fn. 19)
The abbey continued to hold the manor till its surrender in 1538, when the manor came to the king, who caused the woods here to be surveyed, (fn. 20) and the profits of the manor in 1541 were returned as worth £18 13s. 3d. (fn. 21) The same year some of the lands and woods here were granted to John Carleton of Walton-upon-Thames, Surrey, and Joyce his wife, (fn. 22) and in 1559 the manor was granted to William Button and Thomas Estcourt and the heirs of the former, to be held of the manor of East Greenwich in socage, (fn. 23) and they sold their interest in it the same year to Sir Thomas Parry. (fn. 24)
Sir Thomas Parry in 1589 conveyed the manor to John Fortescue and others in trust, (fn. 25) and had a grant of the manor in fee on the expiration of the lease in 1600, (fn. 26) but the next year, with Dorothy his wife and his trustees, he sold the manor to Giles Pocock, Giles Head and Edmund Cooke on behalf of Pocock. (fn. 27)
Giles Pocock (fn. 28) was a younger son of Richard Pocock of Bradley Court in this parish (q.v.), who settled certain lands in Wiltshire upon him in 1582 on his marriage with Christian daughter of John Smythe. (fn. 29) In 1611 he settled the manor and advowson on his eldest son Richard on his marriage with Anne daughter of Giles Head. (fn. 30) He died at Chieveley in 1624, when his heir was his son Richard, then aged thirty-one. (fn. 31) By his will dated 28 October 1624 he left the farm of Chieveley and the advowson to his son Richard, the farm of Ilsley to his second son Giles and the parsonage of Chieveley and certain lands near Hambridge to his third son John. (fn. 32)
His son Richard had livery of the site of the manor and the advowson 31 May 1627, (fn. 33) and by his will dated 20 January 1652–3 he constituted his eldest son Richard executor and residuary legatee. (fn. 34) This Richard Pocock married Letitia daughter of John Loder of Harwell, Berks. (fn. 35) His wife was buried here in 1655, (fn. 36) but no record has been found of his own death.
The manor passed to his eldest son Richard, who with Sarah his wife is described as of the Farm. Richard died in 1694, (fn. 37) and by his will he left his house to his wife for life, and the reversion of it and the manor and advowson of Chieveley to his eldest son Robert, with remainder firstly to his younger son Richard and afterwards jointly to his two daughters, Sarah the wife of Christopher Capel and Anne the wife of John Head. (fn. 38) His widow died in 1702. Robert seems to have died without issue and was succeeded by his brother Richard, who married Catherine. He died in 1718 (fn. 39) without issue, and by his will his lands passed to his right heir. His widow was appointed his executor and residuary legatee, unless she married John Nalder, 'my now menial servant. (fn. 40)
His right heirs were his sisters Sarah Capel and Anne Head, and the manor is found early in the next century in the hands of their descendants. (fn. 41) The descent of the Head portion follows that of the manors of Langley and Bradley Court (q.v.). The other share was held in 1728 by Christopher Capel and Sarah his wife. (fn. 42) Christopher Capel was a son of the Rev. Richard Capel of Pitchcombe and rector of Easington, Gloucestershire, by his second wife Dorothy daughter of William Plumstead. He was born in 1669 and by his wife Sarah he had two children. His wife Sarah died 6 May 1733 and he died 15 May 1740, (fn. 43) when the manor passed to his sister Margaret, (fn. 44) as both his children had already died without issue. Margaret was living unmarried in 1753, when jointly with Sir Thomas Head she presented to the living. (fn. 45) She seems to have died soon afterwards, for on 1 October that year Sir Thomas Head and William Capel signed an agreement to have the alternate presentations. (fn. 46) It seems uncertain who this William was, but he was probably the great-grandson of Daniel Capel of Stroud in Gloucestershire, a brother of Christopher and Margaret and son of the John Capel of Prestbury who was killed at Fontenoy in 1745. (fn. 47) This William died, it is supposed, in 1779, when William Capel, second son of William Capel of the Grove, Painswick, an elder brother of John, inherited Prestbury and the share of Chieveley Manor from his cousin. (fn. 48)
William Capel married Ann daughter of Jasper Clutterbuck of King's Stanley and, after her death in 1778 without issue, Susannah daughter of Thomas White of the same place, by whom he had six sons. (fn. 49) He was holding half the manor and advowson in 1806, (fn. 50) and in 1813, (fn. 51) when owing to the inclosure of the common fields his manorial rights here became of little or no value. He died in 1818, when his heir was his eldest son the Rev. Christopher Capel, who, before the year 1822, sold the manorial rights (fn. 52) possessed by this family in the manor of Chieveley.
BRADLEY is not mentioned in the Domesday Survey, but two unnamed manors, held by Gilbert de Gand, have been identified as the manors afterwards known as the manors of Langley and Bradley, which seem now to be represented by the tithing of Langley in the parish of Hampstead Norris (q.v.). The remaining portion of Bradley, lying in Chieveley parish, appears now to be represented by the tithing of Snelsmore and the Bradley Court estate, and to have been included at the time of the Domesday Survey in the Abbot of Abingdon's manor of Chieveley, when it was held by a military tenant for half a knight's fee. (fn. 53)
During the early part of the reign of Henry I Abbot Rainald is said to have unjustly given 5 hides of land here to Sir William de Jumiege, who restored them to the abbey in the time of the Abbot Faritius. (fn. 54)
No connexion has been made out between the later tenants of the abbey in this manor. In 1166–7 Walter de Hottot rendered account for half a mark from this manor, (fn. 55) and in 1190 Gilbert Gifford was holding 3 hides here of the abbey by military service. (fn. 56) In 1202–3 John son of Turold sold to Ives son of Richard land in Harlingeden, (fn. 57) which seems to have been within the manor, and later in the same century Thomas de Jumiege held half a fee in Bradley. (fn. 58)
Thomas de Abberbury of Donnington seems to have succeeded Thomas de Jumiege, and had free warren here in 1292, (fn. 59) and in 1309 Walter, his brother and successor, granted to the abbey a messuage, lands and rents here, which were probably known later as Bradley Court. (fn. 60) In 1315–16 the abbey was said to be holding Bradley Gynming. (fn. 61) In 1401–2 the abbey was holding from the king half a fee in Bradley, (fn. 62) which they were holding also in 1428, when it was stated that it had formerly been held by Thomas Abberbury. (fn. 63) We learn at the same time that the abbey paid 14s. for this fee to the ward at Windsor. (fn. 64)
At the dissolution of the abbey in 1538 the manor came into the hands of the king, and the manor of West Bradley and Langley, described as lately a priory, was surveyed for the king in 1547; courts were held here, apparently on behalf of the queen, in 1563 and 1568. (fn. 65)
In 1626 there was a law-suit between John Grover and John Jordan respecting West Bradley Manor, with appurtenances in Harlington and Chieveley, (fn. 66) and it appears to have been the same manor which, under the name of Harlingdon or Harlington, Richard Smith conveyed in 1654 to Thomas Morrall, clerk, and John Davy. (fn. 67) No further reference to this manor has been found until 12 June 1797, when a court of survey of the manor of Harlingdon, Harlington or Bradley was held by Robert Griffiths, steward, and Benjamin Hancock, lord of the manor. (fn. 68) Benjamin seems to have died before 22 December 1802, when Robert Griffiths held a court of survey on behalf of Thomas Merriman Hancock. (fn. 69) In 1823 another court was held by Thomas Rawdon Ward, lord of the manor, when it was stated that the bounds of the manor were co-extensive with those of the tithing of Snelsmore. Thomas Ward held another court in 1825, but the subsequent history of the manor is not clear. (fn. 70)
The manor was held in the middle of the 19th century by Edgar Corrie, and passed from him in 1879 to Sir Francis Jeune, who was raised to the peerage on 23 February 1905 with the title of Lord St. Helier. After his death on 9 April 1905 it was sold by his executors to the present proprietor, Mr. J. A. Fairhurst.
The tithing of SNELSMORE, which formed part of the manor of Bradley, was held in the 13th century by the abbey of Abingdon, (fn. 71) which in 1392 acquired 10 acres here from William Somerford, parson of Speen. (fn. 72) The abbey was holding the tithing from the king in 1401–2 as part of the manor of Chieveley. (fn. 73)
At the dissolution of the abbey in 1538 these lands came into the hands of the king, and certain lands here were granted in 1545 to Robert Browne, goldsmith of London, Charles Edmonds and William Wenlowe. (fn. 74) In 1565–6 the queen granted the manor of Snelsmore, late the property of the abbey of Abingdon, to Robert Earl of Leicester and his heirs, (fn. 75) but in 1580 it was the subject of a law-suit between William Dodington and Sir Walter Mildmay and others. (fn. 76) William appears to have been successful, for in 1606 he and Mary his wife conveyed the manor to John Parsons, George Smyth and Richard Marshall. (fn. 77)
The farm known as BRADLEY COURT was let in 1417 by the abbey of Abingdon to John Smith. (fn. 78) After the dissolution of the monastery it was granted in 1540 to John Carleton of Walton-upon-Thames, Surrey, and Joyce his wife, when it was called Bralley Court alias West Bradley. (fn. 79) In 1566 Anthony Carleton and Joyce his wife sold it for £220 to Richard Pocock, (fn. 80) who had apparently amassed a fortune as a clothier. (fn. 81) He died on 15 February 1595–6, and was buried at Chieveley the same day, when the estate passed under a deed of settlement (fn. 82) made in 1588 to his son John, though his widow Elizabeth continued to live here until her death in July 1602. (fn. 83)
John Pocock obtained livery of the property on 17 September 1596. (fn. 84) He had married on 31 August 1584 Margaret Hylbert, by whom he had four sons and six daughters, all baptized at Chieveley. (fn. 85) On his death (fn. 86) in 1627 the estate passed to his eldest son John, born in 1591. Margaret, who held dower, died in 1635. John her son and his brother William must have died without issue, for the estate passed to the next brother Edward, born in 1607 (fn. 87) and married in 1638 to Dorothy Broughton, (fn. 88) and by his will dated 1691 Edward Pocock left legacies to his daughters Elizabeth, Dorothy, Grace and Mary, and Bradley Court to his son Richard in tail, with remainder to his younger son Edward. (fn. 89)
Dorothy died in 1696, having survived her son Richard, who died in 1692. The property passed to Edward, who died in 1702 apparently childless. Bradley Court passed to his sisters, and eventually to Dorothy, who died in 1734. (fn. 90)
By her will dated 1732 she left all her manors, farms and lands in Chieveley to Richard Pocock of North Heath, the eldest son of her second cousin Richard, with reversion to Richard his eldest son, then an infant, in tail-male, with contingent remainder to Christopher Capel and Richard Head, (fn. 91) who had married Sarah and Anne, granddaughters of her second cousin Richard, who had held the manor. By his wife Margaret Richard Pocock of North Heath seems to have had only one son Richard, born in 1730, who died in 1741. Margaret died in 1742 and Richard shortly afterwards, when, as Christopher Capel had died without male issue, the property passed to the heir of Richard Head, who died in 1740, when by his will dated 1739 it passed to his eldest son Thomas, (fn. 92) afterwards Sir Thomas Head of Langley, in the parish of Hampstead Norris (q.v.). His son Sir Walter James Head, who in 1779–80 took the additional surname of James, was holding it in 1806. (fn. 93) He is said to have been a gambler, and sold this and other estates about the year 1824 to John Thomas Wasey, of Prior's Court, a solicitor in Newbury, who was holding it in 1839. (fn. 94) John Thomas Wasey was a bachelor with two sisters, and he seems to have been anxious to leave the large estates that he had acquired to someone who would perpetuate his name; he could find, however, no male relation. While on a visit to Southsea he noticed two small boys building castles in the sand, and being attracted by their appearance he asked their name. To his surprise he learnt that it was Wasey. For long he sought unsuccessfully to prove them relations, and it was believed that he had intended making them his heirs, when he died intestate on 8 October 1852. (fn. 95) His sisters Jane wife of Col. Stackpool and Mary inherited their brother's estates. Mrs. Stackpool died in 1859 without surviving issue, as her only son was killed while hunting. Her sister Miss Mary Wasey died in 1880 and left this estate to the Rev. William George Lee Wasey, and in default of male heirs to his younger brother the Rev. John Spearman Wasey, the two boys whom her brother had met at Southsea, and who were now middle-aged clergymen. The elder of these brothers had died at Quatford, Salop, in 1877, leaving two daughters, and so at the death of Miss Wasey the estates passed to the younger, the Rev. John Spearman Wasey, vicar of Compton, at whose death in 1899 this property passed to his eldest son Mr. Edward John Spearman Wasey, the present owner. (fn. 96)
In 968 King Edgar granted to the abbey of Abingdon certain lands at OARE, (fn. 97) which seem to have been included by successive abbots in their manor of Chieveley until the Dissolution in 1538.
In 1545 the manor was granted to Edward Basshe of London and Thomasia (fn. 98) his wife, who sold it to the king in the following year. (fn. 99) It was leased by Edward VI in 1551 to Sir Thomas Parry, (fn. 100) whose son Sir Thomas (fn. 101) received a grant in tail in 1561 and, with Dorothy his wife, conveyed it in 1601 to William Homes and Edmund Cooke. (fn. 102)
The history of the manor becomes obscure for more than a century. In 1721 Charles Dibley and Joan his wife, with William Boote, junior, and William Boycott, conveyed the manor to Thomas Parsons and Charles Mallett, (fn. 103) and in 1725 John Smith devised it to Richard Smith, (fn. 104) who on 17 August 1733 sold it to Felix Calvert (fn. 105) of Albury Hall, Herts. At his death in 1737 it passed to his son Felix Calvert, M.P. for Windsor, who possessed it in 1740. (fn. 106) He married in 1723 Mary daughter of Felix Calvert of Nine Elms, and died in 1755, when the manor passed to his son John Calvert, M.P. for Wendover in 1754, who conveyed the manor to trustees in 1757 on his marriage with Elizabeth daughter of Sir Edward Hulse, bart. (fn. 107)
In 1771 John Calvert sold this estate to Fysh Coppinger, who under the name of Fysh Burgh sold it on 16 November 1787 to William Brummell. At William Brummell's death his will seems to have been disputed, but it was settled on 14 July 1796 in favour of Sir John Macpherson and others, his executors, (fn. 108) who had on 11 November 1795 sold the estate to William Mount of Wasing (q.v.). From him it has descended to Mr. William Arthur Mount, M.P., its present possessor. (fn. 109)
The greater part of the vill of CURRIDGE was held of Edward the Confessor by two freemen, but was granted after the Norman Conquest to Ralph de Mortimer, who was holding it at the time of the Domesday Survey. (fn. 110) As in the case of the manor of Brimpton (q.v.) the overlordship descended in this family, as part of the honour of Wigmore, and came by inheritance into the hands of King Edward IV.
Baldwin held this manor of Ralph at the time of the Domesday Survey, (fn. 111) and another Baldwin was holding it in 1189–90. (fn. 112) Roger de Curridge was holding it in 1225, when he had a dispute with the abbey of Abingdon respecting rights of common pasture between his manor and that of Oare, (fn. 113) and a few years later his son Roger granted the manor to the priory of Poughley, to whom it was confirmed by the king in 1248. (fn. 114) Roger also granted three tenements here to the Knights Hospitallers. (fn. 115)
The priory was holding this manor later in the 13th century, (fn. 116) and is referred to as holding it in 1315–16, (fn. 117) 1360, (fn. 118) 1398, (fn. 119) 1424 (fn. 120) and 1428. (fn. 121) The priors attached several of their neighbouring manors to this and held their courts at the principal messuage here, which thus received the name of Prior's Court. The priory was dissolved in 1524, when it was found to be holding this manor, (fn. 122) which was granted in 1525 to Cardinal Wolsey. (fn. 123) The following year the cardinal granted it to his new college at Oxford, (fn. 124) but on his attainder it reverted to the king, and was granted in 1531 to the Abbot and convent of St. Peter's, Westminster, (fn. 125) and transferred in 1542 to the dean and chapter, (fn. 126) who received a grant of further privileges here in 1560. (fn. 127)
The dean and chapter leased the site of the manor in 1543 to Edward Fettiplace for fifty years, and in 1556 let it or the manor for seventy years to William Weston, who in 1564 granted his right in it to Richard Weston. (fn. 128) In 1649 the manor was held of the dean and chapter by Sir Edward Ernle, whose lease had fourteen years to run when he was deprived of it by the Parliament, (fn. 129) which sold it in the same year to Alexander Constantine. The house of Prior's Court, which had been held by Walter Groveley, was at the same time sold to William Godwin. (fn. 130) In 1654 Alexander Constantine and Anne his wife sold the manor to Richard Fincher, (fn. 131) a major in the Parliamentary army, who died at Prior's Court in 1684 and was buried at Chieveley. (fn. 132).
At the Restoration the dean and chapter regained possession, though Major Fincher seems to have been allowed to remain as their tenant. It was usually let on lease by the dean and chapter, and in the 18th century was held by the family of Barton. It seems to have passed from Dr. Barton, warden of Merton College, Oxford, to his sister Mrs. Batchelor, and to her daughter the wife of Lewis Buckle, who was holding it in 1806, (fn. 133) but by 1824 it had passed into the hands of John Thomas Wasey, who was holding it in 1839. (fn. 134) The estate has since passed with the adjoining estate of Bradley Court (q.v.), the copyhold being redeemed in 1871. The present proprietor is Mr. E. J. S. Wasey.
Three other hides of land in Curridge were held of Edward the Confessor by Edward, and one of these he was holding in alod of King William at the time of the Domesday Survey. (fn. 135) From Edward this passed to Sewal, who granted it to the abbey of Waverley before 1147, when it was confirmed to that abbey by Pope Eugenius III. (fn. 136)
The other 2 hides passed after the Norman Conquest to the abbey of St. Peter-sur-Dive, who were holding it at the time of the Domesday Survey (fn. 137) and in 1220–1. (fn. 138) In 1299–1300 the abbot was still holding it, but the property of this as of other alien priories was taken into the king's hands during the wars with France. (fn. 139) The manor seems to have been held of the abbey in the 13th century by Nicholas of Ely, Bishop of Winchester, and after his death in 1280 his executors, Ralph de Staunford, parson of Alton, and Hugh Tripacy, parson of Martyr Worthy, had licence in 1310 to grant the manor to the abbey of Waverley. (fn. 140)
The abbey seems to have attached both these estates, which had now become one manor, to its manor in the parish of Shaw (q.v.), known as the manor of Shaw Grange, and the subsequent history of all three manors is the same.
The township or tithing of LECKHAMPSTEAD became a parish on the dedication of the church in or about 1050, (fn. 141) but it was at a later date included as a chapelry in the parish of Chieveley. In 1835 it became a civil parish, and in 1884 it was again made into an ecclesiastical parish.
The monks of Abingdon claimed that 10 manentes here were granted to them in 811 by Kenwulf, King of Mercia, but the charter including this gift is usually considered a forgery. (fn. 142) In 943 King Edmund granted 10 mansae here to his servant Edric, who gave them to the abbey of Abingdon. (fn. 143) In the time of King Cnut the abbey leased these lands for the term of three lives to Brihtmund, at whose death they were enjoyed for a while by his widow. At her death they passed to their son Brihtnoth, and at his death they were claimed by Brihtwine, another son of the first lessee. Before 1043 Brihtwine persuaded Siward, then Abbot of Abingdon, to extend the lease for the period of his own life, but, not content with this, he claimed the land as his inheritance. On hearing this claim Siward, who had become Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to Earl Godwin, Bishop Herman and the nobles of Berkshire pointing out the true state of affairs, but the monks were unable at that time to establish their possession of the land. About 1050, on the appointment of Ordric to the abbacy, the monastery made a further attempt to recover possession; but Brihtwine still argued that the lands were his by right of inheritance, in evidence of which he produced the charter. Ordric seems for a while to have temporized, and asked to see the charter, which he prudently retained in his own hands, while he lost no time in appealing to Harold, who was now Earl of Berkshire. The case was fully tried by the earl's delegates, and the decision given in favour of the monks. (fn. 144)
Brihtwine, or Bricstuin as he is called, was holding the land of the abbey in the time of Edward the Confessor, 'but could not go to another lord.' At the time of the Domesday Survey he had been succeeded by Reinbold. (fn. 145) The abbey continued to hold the manor after the Norman Conquest, and attached it as a member to their adjoining lordship of Welford (q.v.). They are mentioned as holding it from the 13th to the 15th century, (fn. 146) after which no further mention of their overlordship occurs.
As we have seen, the tenant at the time of the Domesday Survey was Reinbold or Raimbald, (fn. 147) who was a son-in-law of Rainald the abbot. Soon after the Survey was taken he had a dispute with the abbot, and while the suit was being tried he fled secretly to Dover and passed over to the court of the Count of Flanders, under whose protection he placed himself, leaving his sureties to pay the fines for his nonappearance. The abbot then took the lands into his own hands, to which Ralph, the justiciar, took exception, whereupon the abbot excommunicated all those who should deprive the abbey of their property at Leckhampstead. (fn. 148) Shortly afterwards he leased Leckhampstead to Hugh de Dun for £20, but in 1100 there seems to have been a dispute with the king as to the tax from the abbey for this manor in lieu of military service, and Hugh, while retaining an interest in the manor for himself and his successors, assigned it to the king. When the bailiff of the abbey, Motbert, heard this he used his influence with Robert the elder, Count of Meulan, paid the £20 required, and then granted the manor to be held by knight's service to Herbert, chamberlain and treasurer of the king. (fn. 149)
Early in the reign of Henry I the abbey had considerable trouble with its military tenants, who desired to shake off the monastic yoke, and none more so than Herbert the Chamberlain. He restored several manors that he held, but endeavoured to retain Leckhampstead free of all service to the monastery, but failed in his endeavour. (fn. 150)
Herbert the Chamberlain died about 1129, and was succeeded by his son Herbert, who is said to have married Sibil, Adela or Lucy, daughter and co-heir of Robert Corbet of Alcester, and mother by King Henry I of Reynold de Dunstanville Earl of Cornwall. On his death, which occurred before 1155, he was succeeded by his son Herbert, who rendered account for half a mark in respect of this manor in 1166–7, (fn. 151) and was holding it between 1175 and 1190. (fn. 152) In 1195 he leased 5 carucates of land here to Osbert son of William, (fn. 153) which he sold to him in 1199, (fn. 154) while the king granted 8 acres of assart to Richard, Osbert's son, a few years later. (fn. 155) Herbert married Lucy daughter and co-heir of Miles Earl of Hereford, and died before June 1204, when the manor passed to his widow in dower. In 1217 it seems to have been seized by Richard son of Reynold Herbert's son, but the king ordered him to restore it to the abbot. (fn. 156)
At the death of Lucy the manor passed to her son Peter, who had a park here, and received for it from the king 4 April 1228 six does from the royal forest at Marlborough. (fn. 157) In 1232, like his predecessors, he had a dispute with the abbot, who proceeded against him for scutage which he had failed to pay. (fn. 158) He married as his first wife in 1203 Alice daughter of Robert Fitz Roger or Sibil daughter of John Dynaunt, (fn. 159) and afterwards Isabel sister of Henry de Ferrers and widow of Roger de Mortimer. (fn. 160) He died in May 1235, and was buried at Reading Abbey, being succeeded by his son Herbert.
The manor of Leckhampstead seems to have been held in dower by his widow Isabel, who is described as Isabel de Mortimer, (fn. 161) and was the inheritance of Herbert the son of Peter. (fn. 162) Herbert died in May 1248 and was buried at Reading, and as he left no heir the manor passed to his brother Reynold, who obtained possession of it on the death of his mother about 1252. Reynold obtained a grant of free warren here in 1257, (fn. 163) and was holding the manor in 1275–6. (fn. 164) He died seised of it in 1286, when it passed to his son John, then aged thirty. (fn. 165) John, who died in 1309–10 leaving a son Herbert, (fn. 166) had, before his death, demised the manor to Piers Gaveston, (fn. 167) who on 19 May 1308 granted it to the king. It was, however, regranted to the favourite on 9 June the same year, with free warren added on 12 June. (fn. 168) On 31 March 1311 Gaveston leased the manor for life to Robert de Sapy at the rent of a sparrow-hawk, having, it was stated, unjustly disseised John's heir Herbert. (fn. 169) Robert de Sapy was holding the manor in 1328 when Eleanor, the widow of Herbert son of John son of Reynold, endeavoured to obtain a third of the manor which had been settled on her at her marriage. (fn. 170) It would seem that in 1291 Herbert had married Eleanor daughter of Roger le Rous, and that on that occasion John had settled the manor upon them. Herbert had died on 25 June 1321, having omitted to establish his claim against Piers Gaveston, and in 1328 his widow was claiming her dower. The suit lingered on for some time, and the king ordered that judgement should not be given without his consent. (fn. 171) In 1332 Herbert's son Matthew claimed the remaining two-thirds, also the third for which his mother was pleading, but, as the king claimed the reversion by the grant from Piers Gaveston in 1308, judgement was postponed. (fn. 172)
The king had evidently determined not to relinquish the reversion to a manor which he had acquired however unjustly, and in 1336 he ordered the justices not to decide the case in favour of Matthew, as he had granted his right in the manor to Sir Nicholas de la Beche. (fn. 173) Sir Nicholas did not, it would appear, feel equally confident of the security of his title, for the following year he came to terms with Matthew, who signed the necessary conveyance at Newbury, and acknowledged the same in the court of Chancery on 12 March following. (fn. 174) In 1338–9 Michael de Penynges and others, probably the trustees of Nicholas's wife, conveyed all their rights in the manor to Nicholas and his wife, who seem to have held the manor jointly. (fn. 175)
The manor passed at the death of Nicholas in 1345, like the manor of Yattendon (q.v.), to his widow Margery, (fn. 176) his brother Edmund, and, finally, to the heirs of his nieces, Joan wife of Sir Andrew de Sackville, Isabel wife of William Fitz Ellis, and Alice wife of Robert Danvers. (fn. 177) In 1365 Sir Andrew sold his share to Ralph de Restwold and Thomas Hancepe. (fn. 178) Ralph at once quitclaimed to Thomas, (fn. 179) who sold it in 1371 to Sir Thomas de Coleshill, (fn. 180) after which we hear no more about it. William Fitz Ellis's share passed in 1408–9 to William Bruyly and his heirs, (fn. 181) while the share of Alice and Robert Danvers passed to their son Edmund Danvers, who died seised of it in 1381, when it was held of him by John Shortecombe. (fn. 182) William Danvers son of Edmund held in 1428. (fn. 183) His widow Joan afterwards held the manor with Thomas Hanne and Isabella his wife (fn. 184); the latter was probably the daughter of William Danvers. About 1446–7 they conveyed the manor to trustees of Alice de la Pole, Duchess of Suffolk, (fn. 185) to whom in 1466 the heir of the de la Beche family quitclaimed all right. (fn. 186) The duchess held the manor of Donnington (q.v.), with which Leckhampstead then descended.
The later history of the manor is obscure. When the manor was in the hands of the Crown the queen granted the site of it to Giles Spicer and others in 1586, (fn. 187) but in 1599 William Stepto, son of Isabel Stepto and brother of Thomas Stepto, sued Giles Spicer for the manors of Leckhampstead and Donnington. Richard Hatt was then stated to be the farmer of the manor under the Crown. (fn. 188) The manor passed with that of Donnington to the Earl of Nottingham, (fn. 189) and from him to John Mordaunt Earl of Peterborough and Elizabeth his wife, who sold the site in 1632 to Robert Awbrey and Charles Hamley. (fn. 190) It is probable that the two latter were trustees of the Spicer family, for in 1743 a number of members of that family conveyed the site to John Line. (fn. 191) In 1798 it was the property of William Hopson Goodenough. (fn. 192) The manorial rights seem to have been purchased by the Nelson family, (fn. 193) and attached to their adjoining manor of Chaddleworth. The Marquess of Downshire was said to have been the owner in 1839, (fn. 194) but they have now lapsed.
The vill of WINTERBOURNE has been a chapelry of Chieveley since the 12th century, and still remains so. Before the Norman Conquest there were three manors, which appear to have been united before the close of the 15th century.
The first manor belonged to Edith wife of the Confessor, and, passing to the Conqueror, was held by him at the time of the Domesday Survey. (fn. 195) It seems probable that this manor was included among the lands granted by Henry I to Henry de Newburgh Earl of Warwick, a son of Roger de Beaumont, and the overlordship remained with the successive Earls of Warwick until the death in 1446 of Henry Beauchamp, created Duke of Warwick in 1444, when his fee here passed with the title to his only daughter Anne, then aged two years. (fn. 196) She died on 3 January 1448–9, when the title and estates, including the overlordship of this manor of Winterbourne, lapsed to the Crown.
This manor had been held of Queen Edith by Lanc, and at the time of the Domesday Survey was being farmed of the king by Theodoric, (fn. 197) who appears to have been identical with Theodoric the goldsmith, who succeeded to Lanc's estates at Hampstead Norris (q.v.). Lane's wife held the manor of Aston Tirrold, which, however, did not pass to Theodoric, (fn. 198) yet in the 13th century the two estates of Winterbourne and Aston Tirrold were held by the same tenants. (fn. 199)
The subsequent history of the property is obscure, but there is evidence which seems to support a suggestion that the manor of Winterbourne and the manor of Aston Tirrold were for some time after the Conquest in the hands of one Turold of Aston, apparently the son of Geoffrey, who perhaps married the heiress of lands at Sulham and Bolney. He had three sons, Miles, Nicholas and Richard, and as no descendants of these are found in possession of these lands it is possible that they died without issue. It seems likely that after the death of Turold his widow married William of Sulham. The latter, in the reign of Henry I, granted to the abbey of Abingdon the tithes on his land at Bolney, and confirmed a former gift of tithes on his lands at Chilton, which belonged to his step-daughter Leodseline, (fn. 200) who was probably Turold's daughter. That he had two daughters, eventual heirs of their brother Nicholas, seems almost certain.
Nicholas son of Turold of Aston was holding the manor of Winterbourne in 1156, (fn. 201) and was living in 1189–90, but by 1207 the manor had probably passed to the descendants of his sisters, one of whom apparently married Ralph Danvers and the other Maenfel of Bolney. In 1207 Roland Danvers, the elder son of Ralph Danvers, was disputing with Nicholas de Bolney about land at Wokefield. (fn. 202) In 1210 Ralph died, leaving the Winterbourne estate to his younger son Robert, (fn. 203) who was one of the three co-heirs in 1242.
Nicholas son of Maenfel de Bolney died before 1219, leaving two daughters, Alice and Margery, who married Reginald de Whitchurch and Alan de Farnham. Nicholas's widow, Agnes, had taken as her second husband William de Bowen or Boveney, and in 1219 they were claiming a third part of certain lands in Fawley held of Reginald de Whitchurch and Alice his wife by Simon de Lewknor, which it is said had been inherited by Nicholas from his uncle Nicholas de Sedham, (fn. 204) in whom, perhaps, we may recognize Nicholas of Winterbourne who quitclaimed half a fee here to the Bishop of Salisbury. (fn. 205)
The estates inherited by the daughters of Nicholas seem to have been considerable, for we find Alan and Reginald sharing lands in Aston Tirrold, Winterbourne, (fn. 206) Colrugge, (fn. 207) Chilton, Winton, (fn. 208) Wokefield, (fn. 209) Bolney and Fawley. (fn. 210) Lands were held of the Earl of Warwick in 1242 by Simon de Lewknor, a tenant of Reynold de Whitchurch, Alan de Farnham and Robert Danvers. (fn. 211) We also find Robert de Anvers or Danvers, or members of his family, holding land in Aston Tirrold, Winterbourne, (fn. 212) Chilton (fn. 213) and Wokefield. (fn. 214) It seems clear, then, that these three were co-heirs to the same estates. About 1242 Reginald and his wife granted their share to Robert, (fn. 215) and this probably became part of the estate which was afterwards known as the manor of Winterbourne Danvers (vide infra).
Alan de Farnham and his wife then held part of a fee at Winterbourne, which, like most of their estates, seems to have passed after the death of Margery, who was holding them in 1259–60, (fn. 216) to their daughter Juliana, who married Gilbert de Ellesfield, and after his death John de St. Helens. (fn. 217) The latter was holding other lands that had belonged to Alan in 1275–6 (fn. 218) and 1280, (fn. 219) and he died before 1295. (fn. 220) These lands passed to Gilbert son of John de Ellesfield, (fn. 221) who was holding lands at Bolney in 1313 (fn. 222) and a knight's fee here in 1315. (fn. 223) After his death they passed to his son Gilbert, (fn. 224) who died before 1402, leaving no issue, when the fee was held by the heirs of the elder Gilbert. (fn. 225) In 1446 it was still held by the heirs of Gilbert, (fn. 226) but there is no later mention of this mesne overlordship.
Margery de Bolney, the wife of Alan de Farnham, or her successor appears to have enfeoffed Thomas de Valognes of the manor, and he enfeoffed his daughter Joan on her marriage with Sir Robert Grey of Rotherfield. Joan died seised of this estate in 1312, when her grandson John, son of her son John, was found to be her heir, and was then aged eleven years. (fn. 227) John Grey was holding the manor in 1315, (fn. 228) though it was in the custody of Hugh le Despenser the elder during John's minority. (fn. 229) In 1330 John obtained a grant of free warren here, (fn. 230) and Ralph de Grey afterwards held here. (fn. 231) The manor is subsequently called the manor of WINTERBOURNE GREY. In 1423 the estate had passed into the hands of William Danvers, (fn. 232) the lord of the manor of Winterbourne Danvers (q.v.). Possibly it was the manor of Winterbourne quitclaimed to William by trustees in 1409–10. (fn. 233)
The second manor of Winterbourne was held in the time of the Confessor by Herman Bishop of Salisbury, and at the time of the Domesday Survey by Osmund, his successor. (fn. 234) The bishop was holding the manor in 1166, (fn. 235) and in 1202 received a quitclaim of half a knight's fee here from Bernard de Pinefeld and others, (fn. 236) and later in the same year a fee of the same extent from Nicholas de Winterbourne, (fn. 237) in whom may be recognized Nicholas the son of Turold of Winterbourne who held land here in 1177–8, (fn. 238) possibly a relation of Turold of Aston; it seems impossible that they can have been the same person. No further reference has been found to the bishop's connexion with this manor, except that he owed half a mark in 1227 in respect of it, for which he received pardon that year. (fn. 239)
We find that in 1379–80 Thomas de Oldington (fn. 240) and Sir Hugh Segrave, apparently the third son of John Lord Segrave, independently granted their interest in lands at Winterbourne, Chilton and Colrugge to the Bishop of Winchester and others. (fn. 241) How Thomas and Hugh acquired an interest in the lands formerly belonging to Nicholas son of Turold does not seem clear.
Ralph Flambard, the notorious chancellor, was holding the manor of the Bishop of Salisbury at the time of the Domesday Survey, (fn. 242) and presumably continued to do so until his arrest early in the reign of Henry I. John de Exonia or Oxonia was tenant in 1166, (fn. 243) but there is no trace of later tenants.
Possibly it became part of the land held here by the Danvers family, since their estate in Winterbourne seems to have been a large one. Their manor is afterwards known by the name of WINTERBOURNE DANVERS. Robert Danvers married in or before 1224 Muriel daughter of Alan de Dunstanville, was coroner of Berkshire, and died in or before 1246, when the sheriff was ordered to elect a coroner in his place. (fn. 244) He seems to have been succeeded by his son Robert, of whom little is known but that he married Amice, who inherited land at Littlecote. (fn. 245) It was probably his son or nephew Sir Thomas Danvers who was in 1285 made Sheriff of Berkshire and Oxfordshire, an office which he held for four years; he held the office also in 1307 and again a few years later. (fn. 246) This Thomas Danvers was holding the manor in 1315–16, (fn. 247) and died in 1323, leaving three grandsons, Edmund, Richard and William, the sons of his son Thomas, who had predeceased him. (fn. 248)
The youngest of these married Margaret daughter and heiress of John Lovell of Benham, and thus came into possession of the manor of Benham Lovell in the parish of Speen (q.v.). The eldest, Edmund, seems to have been in banishment or in prison at the time of his grandfather's death, but was pardoned on the accession of Edward III, when his estates were restored to him. The name of his first wife was Alice, and after her death he married Isabel widow of Sir John de Swanland. By his first wife he had two sons, Robert and Edmund, and he died in or soon after 1358. (fn. 249) He was succeeded by his elder son Robert, who married Alice, one of the sisters and co-heirs of John de la Beche of Aldworth. Robert died in 1361 seised of this manor, when his heir was his son Edmund, then aged sixteen years and more. (fn. 250)
Edmund Danvers was born in 1345, and in March 1366 he left England, after enfeoffing his uncle Edmund Danvers (who died shortly afterwards) of his lands here. The younger Edmund married Alice daughter of John Cleet, and died seised of lands here in 1381, when his heir was his son William, then aged fourteen. In the inquisition taken after his death it is stated that the lands here were held of him by military tenure by Roger de Colyndon, Richard Mauduyt and John Elyn. (fn. 251)
William Danvers was born in 1367, and was brought up at Donnington Castle by Sir Richard Abberbury, who had married his mother. (fn. 252) She seems to have held the manor of Winterbourne Danvers in dower, for in 1390 Sir Richard obtained for himself and his heirs a grant of free warren at his manors here. (fn. 253)
William Danvers married Joan, who seems to have been related to Maud daughter of Sir Ralph Ufford and wife of Thomas Earl of Oxford. He is returned as lord of this manor in 1428, (fn. 254) though his stepfather was still living, and by this time he had acquired the manor of Winterbourne Grey (q.v.), which with other estates he settled on his son Robert on his marriage. In 1423 he executed another deed instructing the trustees on the death of Alice, Robert's wife, to hold the manor for his wife Joan for her life, and afterwards to sell it for the good of their souls. (fn. 255)
In 1442–4 the manor of Winterbourne Danvers was conveyed by Peter Fettiplace and John Hyde, (fn. 256) possibly trustees for William Danvers, and by Thomas Hannes and Isabella his wife, (fn. 257) who was probably William's daughter, to William de la Pole Earl of Suffolk and Alice his wife, who already held Donnington (q.v.), with which this manor then passed.
The third manor was held at the time of the Confessor by Bristec, a free tenant, and in 1086 by Hascoit Musard, (fn. 258) who was living as late as 1101–2. He was succeeded in this overlordship by his son Richard Musard, Baron of Staveley, who in turn was followed by his son Hasculf, who died in 1167. Ralph Musard inherited his estates, and married Isabel de Mesnil, widow of John Nevill. Ralph was living in 1200, (fn. 259) and certainly as late as 1230, but later in the 13th century the overlordship had passed to his son Robert, who had died, leaving an infant son in the custody of the king. (fn. 260) Robert's son seems to have died young, and the overlordship passed to Ralph, the second son of the former Ralph. He was holding it in 1260–1, (fn. 261) but died in 1264, when it is stated that two and a half years before he had given his lands here to his eldest son Ralph, to hold of the king in chief. (fn. 262) No further mention of this family has been found in connexion with the overlordship of this manor, the further history of which is obscure, but by 1415 it had passed into the hands of the king, who had attached it to his honour of Wallingford. (fn. 263)
Richard son of John was holding the manor in 1234–5, when he sold a messuage and land here to Margery daughter of John Torald. (fn. 266) In the same year he sold some land also to Stephen de Chausie. (fn. 267) He was holding the manor later in the century, but by 1259 he had taken vows and become preceptor of Dinsley. He obtained a grant of free warren here for his son Maen, (fn. 268) who died in 1260–1 seised of this manor, his heir being his daughter Beatrice, then aged nine years. (fn. 269)
Beatrice married Richard of Clopton, who had warren here in 1275–6, (fn. 270) but he died before 1303–4, when Beatrice sold the manor to Henry Pentlow. (fn. 271) Henry was holding it in 1315–16, (fn. 272) and was succeeded by John Pentlow, who conveyed the manor, now known as the manor of WINTERBOURNE MAYNE, in 1379–80 to Edmund Giffard and others. (fn. 273) In 1383 Thomas Loveden and Katherine his wife claimed the manor from some of these others because it had been given to Katherine by the king. (fn. 274) The case was postponed, but ultimately decided in their favour, as in 1393 they sold this manor to Richard Abberbury, (fn. 275) who had already acquired an interest in the other manors here, after which it passed with the lordship of Donnington in the parish of Shaw (q.v.).
Thus the three original manors of this tithing came eventually into the hands of the king or of Sir Richard Abberbury, excepting such rights as William Danvers and Joan his wife had been able to dispose of for the good of their souls. When the manors came with the lordship of Donnington into the hands of the king the Crown became possessed of the whole tithing. The manors passed with the lordship of Donnington (q.v.) until the 17th century, when John Earl of Peterborough and Elizabeth his wife sold them in 1632, under the title of the sites of the manors of Winterbourne Mayne and Winterbourne Danvers, to Robert Awbry and Charles Hamley. (fn. 276) For a few years their history is again obscure, but in 1644 Mr. Lawrence Head was living here and is said to have entertained King Charles, Prince Rupert and the royal staff shortly after the second battle of Newbury. That Lawrence Head held the manor of Winterbourne Danvers is clear, for in 1682 he with Elizabeth his wife, together with Giles Clagrove and Christian his wife, conveyed that manor to three trustees. (fn. 277)
At the death of Lawrence Head the manors seem to have passed to his grandson John Osgood, who settled them in 1714. (fn. 278) He was succeeded by his son Lawrence Head Osgood, who in 1757 settled them on his wife Rebecca and his children. He died soon afterwards intestate, when the manors passed to his brother Berry Osgood. He also died intestate and was succeeded by his sister Elizabeth and her husband John Cousins and his nephew Thomas son of another sister Sarah the wife of William Atkinson, and they settled the manor in two moieties in 1774. (fn. 279)
In 1779 Thomas Atkinson sold his share to John Cousins, late of Henwick, but then of Winterbourne, yeoman, and he and his wife Elizabeth settled the manors in 1780, but after his wife's death, which occurred shortly afterwards, he sold the manor to Thomas Atkinson in 1782. Thomas Atkinson died in or before 1807, and in that year his representatives sold the manor to Richard Basing of Boxford and William Harbert of Bradley. In 1834 Richard Basing of Snelsmore, nephew and heir of Richard of Boxford, sold his share to William Harbert, who was then described as of Winterbourne, and he in turn sold it 17 December 1844 to William Fisher of Copyhold. William Fisher died 4 September 1869, aged sixty-seven, and his representatives sold the manor in 1871 to Richard Fisher of Winterbourne, who sold it 24 January 1903 to Mr. Roland Greene Hill. Mrs. Robert Greene Hill is its present possessor. (fn. 280)
The church of ST. MART THE VIRGIN consists of a chancel 35 ft. by 21 ft. 2 in., nave 68 ft. 2 in. by 24 ft. 3 in., north aisle 12 ft. 2 in. wide extending one bay eastwards beyond the nave and forming a vestry and organ chamber, west tower 15 ft. by 14 ft. 3 in., and a south porch. These measurements are all internal.
The earliest parts of the present building are the chancel and the lower part of the tower, which belong to the 13th century. The original nave, which was pulled down and rebuilt in 1873, may have dated from the 12th century, and the modern south doorway, which is designed in the style of that period, is probably a copy of its predecessor. Beyond the upper stage of the tower, which was added or rebuilt in the 14th century and a window of the same date inserted in the chancel, no further evidence of the history of the fabric remains.
In the east wall of the chancel is a much-restored triplet of lancets with continuously moulded external heads and jambs, labels on both faces and wide internal splays with concentric rear arches carried by detached shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases. Externally the labels are returned horizontally at the springing and joined between the lights, while they are also continued for a short distance on either side of the group. At the level of their sills is a moulded string, dropped at either end of the wall, where it passes round low buttresses, and continued at the lower level as the sill string of the lancets in the side walls, of which there are two on the north and three on the south, all apparently restorations of 13thcentury work. At the south-west is a late 14thcentury square-headed window of two trefoiled ogee lights with pierced and foliated spandrels, placed low in the wall, and interrupting the external sill string, which is again broken by a small late doorway with a flat four-centred head between this and the westernmost lancet. Near the east end of the south wall, below the sills, is a small square recess with chamfered edges, probably a piscina niche, and at the north-west is a modern arch opening into the organ chamber. The chancel arch is modern and the nave, which is designed in the 13th-century manner, has a north arcade of five bays and, like the aisle, is lighted by single and coupled lancets. The south doorway has a semicircular head with shafted jambs, and all the stonework appears to be modern. The walls of the chancel are plastered, while those of the nave and aisles are of flint and stone.
The tower arch is of three continuous chamfered orders and has some old stones in the jambs. In the west wall of the ground stage is a 15th-century doorway, with a four-centred head under a square label, and above it is a wide lancet of original 13th-century date. Externally the tower is of two stages with low buttresses at the western angles and an embattled parapet, the 14th-century bell-chamber being divided from the lower and earlier stage by a moulded string with large grotesques at the angles, on which rest shallow angle buttresses originally continued upwards as pinnacles. The floors in the lower stage are lighted by plain lancets and the bell-chamber by pointed windows of two trefoiled lights with quatrefoil tracery in their heads. Below the parapet is a shallow cornice with gargoyles at the angles. The walls are coated with pebble dash plaster.
The roof of the chancel is concealed by a curved plastered ceiling which leaves exposed a central tiebeam of 15th-century date supported by moulded uprights from which spring curved braces with traceried spandrels. The elaboration with which the feature is treated suggests that it may have been used to support the Lenten veil.
On the north wall of the chancel is a small brass plate, set on a carved stone, to Mrs. Lucy Fincher, who died in 1687/8 'in ye 3 yeare of her age.' On the floor below is a slab to Richard Fincher, who died 16(? 8)4.
There is a peal of six bells, the first and third bearing the name John Corr, bellfounder, 1740; the second is inscribed 'Honar God 1633'; the fourth has the inscription 'Praysed be the name of the Lorde. Joseph Carter 1584'; the fifth was cast by J. Corr, 1728, and the sixth is by W. Taylor, 1845. Besides these there is a small undated bell in a cote on the tower roof cast by James Wells, Aldbourne, Wilts.
The registers previous to 1812 are contained in six books, the first having all three entries from 1560, the baptisms to 164–, marriages to 1644 and burials to 1643; the second book contains baptisms from 1646 to 1649, marriages 1651 to 1719 and burials 1647 to 1718; the third book includes some of the registers of Leckhampstead and Oare and contains baptisms from 1700 to 1743, marriages 1720 to 1743 and burials 1718 to 1744; the fourth has baptisms and burials from 1745 to 1813 and marriages for 1744 and 1745; the fifth has marriages only from 1754 to 1779, and the sixth the same from 1780 to 1812.
The Winterbourne registers are also kept with these and are as follows: (i) baptisms from 1565 to 1696, marriages from 1564 to 1727 and burials 1567 to 1726; (ii) contains all three entries from 1729 to 1748; (iii) contains baptisms from 1749 to 1779 and burials 1749 to 1800, and there are some marriages 'from old book' 1749 and a note that there were no marriages in 1750, 1751, and 1752; the fourth book has marriages 1754 to 1812, and the fifth baptisms and burials 1779 to 1812.
The east window of the chancel is of the late 14th century and has three cinquefoiled ogee lights with interlacing tracery and a two-centred arch with a moulded label. The north wall is occupied by two modern arches opening into the organ chamber. In the south wall are two 13th-century windows, the easternmost a single lancet partly blocked at the bottom, and the other of two lancet lights much restored with a small much worn head corbel above it. Between these is a four-centred 15th-century priest's doorway. The three-centred chancel arch is modern. The nave arcades have circular columns with moulded bases and capitals and arches of two splayed orders. On the south side of the chancel arch is a small shallow recess with rebated jambs and an ogee trefoiled head. The aisle windows are all modern. Near the east end of the south aisle are the remains of the head and jambs of a trefoil-headed 15th-century piscina now blocked.
The brick tower is of three stages with semicircularheaded lights and a west doorway. The rest of the walls are of flint with stone dressings except the organ chamber, which is of brick. The eastern quoins to the chancel are old. The roofs are of open timber work, and portions appear to be old, but the interior fittings are all modern.
At the back of the organ is the base of a large marble monument to Philip Weston, 1729, with his arms, Ermine a chief azure with five bezants therein. In the churchyard is a slab to John Pocock, 1657, and near the south wall of the chancel a 13th-century coffin slab with a much worn cross upon it.
There are two bells, one a small bell cast by James Wells, Aldbourne, Wilts., 1808; the other is a large bell inscribed 'The gift of Philip Henshaw Esq. 1760,' above which is a band of Tudor flower cresting.
The church of ST. JAMES, Leckhampstead, was erected in 1860 to replace the old church near Chapel Farm which was pulled down in 1859. It consists of a chancel, north vestry, south organ chamber, nave, south aisle and south porch. Over the east end of the nave is a gabled lantern with a small bell-turret. The building is of flint with brick and stone dressings and the roofs are tiled. The porch, the sides of which have turned balusters, is composed partly of woodwork from the screen of the old church, which stood about a mile from the village. The Jacobean pulpit and the font also belong to the old church. The latter is a fine piece of early 13thcentury work; the bowl is hemispherical and ornamented with bands of foliage at the top and bottom. The base is modern.
The plate consists of an unstamped Elizabethan silver cup with moulded stem and base, a stand paten inscribed 'The gift of Mrs. Eliz Hatt to Lackhampstead chapple A.D. 1737' with the date letter of 1723, and a silver flagon with the date letter of 1866 inscribed 'DD Joannes E Robinson Vicarius.'
The chapel at OARE is a small mainly modern building of flint with stone dressings consisting of a chancel and nave, but containing a partly restored north doorway of the 15th century with moulded jambs and a four-centred arch in a square head with carved leaf spandrels; the moulded label has grotesque head stops. The style of the 15th century is also used in the modern work. Over the west gable is a stone bellcote and set in the walling of the gable is a stone cross which appears to be old, probably dating from the 17th century. The furniture is all modern. To the south of the church stand two fine yew trees.
The church at Chieveley was no doubt built by the abbey of Abingdon, and all dues from it went to that abbey and were confirmed to it in 1152 by Pope Eugenius III. (fn. 283)
About 1291 the church here, with a chapel, probably that at Oare, was valued at £53 6s. 8d., while the value set on the abbey's pension was £3 6s. 8d. Under the same heading are given a pension arising from the chapel at Beedon, afterwards a parish church, valued at 6s. 8d., and a portion from the chapel at Winterbourne valued at £1 6s. 8d. (fn. 284)
In 1340–1 the value was sworn at £40, and it was said that the church was endowed with a carucate of land with pasturage and rents and customary services. The tithes were then said to be worth £20 a year, although 7 carucates of land were uncultivated. The chapel of Winterbourne was valued at 2 marks. (fn. 285)
The advowson of Chieveley remained with the abbey of Abingdon and was surrendered by Thomas, the last abbot, to the king in 1538. (fn. 286) It was granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1559 with the manor to William Button and Thomas Estcourte, (fn. 287) who sold it on 22 December in that year to Sir Thomas Parry. (fn. 288) His son Thomas Parry conveyed it to trustees in 1589, (fn. 289) and it was freshly granted to him in 1601, (fn. 290) soon after which he and his trustees conveyed it to Giles Pocock and his trustees, who received possession of it in 1602. (fn. 291)
Giles Pocock conveyed it to trustees in 1611 (fn. 292) in trust for his son Richard, and died seised of it in 1624, (fn. 293) when by his will it passed to his eldest son Richard, (fn. 294) who presented in 1637, and from him to his son Richard, who presented in 1666. (fn. 295) The advowson continued to pass with the manor, though the right of presentation was sold on one occasion to Jacob Bulfar, who presented in 1724. (fn. 296) Like the manor it came into the joint possession of Sir Thomas Head and Margaret Capel, spinster, who presented in 1753, (fn. 297) and on 1 October that year Sir Thomas Head and William Capel signed an agreement to have the alternate right of presentation.
The share of Sir Thomas Head passed with his share of the manor and the Bradley Court estate to the Rev. John Spearman Wasey, who sold it on 22 January 1896 to James John Dand of Togston Hall, Morpeth, who had previously acquired the other share. He sold it subsequently to Mrs. Mary Jane Mills, from whom it passed to Mr. H. Henry Attlee of Thorpele-Soken, Essex, and Robert Attlee is the present patron. (fn. 298) The Rev. Christopher Capel, when he sold the manor before 1822, retained the alternate presentation; his son sold it some years later. (fn. 299)
The abbey of Abingdon, as we have seen, held all the land in Chieveley, Oare and Leckhampstead, and doubtless paid their tithes to the church of Chieveley. It was the revolt of the landowners at Peasemore which caused that part to become a separate parish. In the reign of Henry I the abbey secured also the tithes of Winterbourne, some of which were granted to them by Norman, whose son Eude wished to enter the monastery (fn. 300); these tithes were confirmed to them by Pope Eugenius III in 1152, (fn. 301) and were set aside for the service of the altar. (fn. 302) How the tithes from Curridge came to the abbey has not been ascertained.
On 8 May 1308 the abbot had licence to appropriate the church of Chieveley, together with the chapels of Beedon, Leckhampstead, Winterbourne and Oare, (fn. 303) and the pension arising from the church in 1322–3 was returned as worth 26s. 8d. (fn. 304) The same figure is mentioned in 1369–70, while other references to the profits of the rectory are given for 1375–6, 1383–4 and 1428–9. (fn. 305) These profits included rents from the tenants of the manor of the rectory and perquisites of the courts of that manor. (fn. 306) At the time of its dissolution among the possessions of the abbey were Chieveley rectory, £7 0s. 6d.; Leckhampstead, portion of tithes £6; Winterbourne, £6 13s. 4d. (fn. 307)
In 1538 the rectories of Chieveley and Winterbourne, including the portion of tithes from Leckhampstead, were transferred to the king, (fn. 308) who the same year granted the tithes in Leckhampstead to Thomas Cokkys, junior, (fn. 309) while the rectorial tithes of Winterbourne were granted in 1545 to Edward Fettiplace, the king's servant. (fn. 310)
The rectory of Chieveley was let to farm in 1567 to Charles Howard, (fn. 311) and in 1570 it was leased, with the tithes of Leckhampstead and Winterbourne, to Thomas Parry for twenty-one years from Michaelmas 1588. (fn. 312) At the expiration of this lease they were granted on 14 March 1600 to Giles Pocock, who held Chieveley Manor, and Richard Pocock of Chieveley, (fn. 313) possibly his son, but more probably his elder brother Richard, who is later described in Giles's will as of Shaw. Giles died in 1624, and left the parsonage of Chieveley and lands near Ham Bridge to his third son John and legacies to John's children Giles and Elizabeth. (fn. 314) As the tithes of Winterbourne and Leckhampstead are not mentioned, it is reasonable to infer that they were the share of his brother Richard of Shaw, who was overseer to his will.
John Pocock inherited the rectory of Chieveley from his father Giles. Giles his son seems to have inherited the rectory and married in or before 1658 Rebecca, who is said to have been a daughter of Giles Pocock and Joan widow of Silvester of North Heath. He died in 1682, and left the parsonage of Chieveley, with lands at Thatcham, to his eldest son Giles. (fn. 315) In 1684 this Giles and his wife Mary, with Hugh Pocock, probably his uncle, conveyed the rectory of Chieveley to trustees. (fn. 316) He died in 1690, leaving a son John, who married Mary Eustace about the year 1711, when he and his wife conveyed the rectory of Chieveley to John Pocock of Skynner and Thomas Eustace, junior. (fn. 317) He died about 1762, leaving the rectory between his son and four daughters.
The son John died soon afterwards, leaving three sons, Thomas, John and Richard, and in 1782 his four sisters sold their share of the rectory to John Garrard. (fn. 318) John, the second son, was holding the rectory at the time of the common award in 1810 and died in 1836. His elder son John Pocock of Downend, Chieveley, married Harriet Bartholomew. He was succeeded at his death in 1866 by his younger brother Joseph, who married Marianne daughter of James Elgar Owen of Kintbury and died 27 October 1874. (fn. 319) He left the rectory between his only surviving son John Wernham Pocock of the Mount, Chieveley, and two daughters, who now hold the estate in common. (fn. 320)
The chapel at Winterbourne seems to have been built soon after the Norman Conquest; the tithes were certainly given to Chieveley in the reign of Henry I, (fn. 321) and the chapel, with its cemetery, is mentioned in 1156. (fn. 322)
It appears likely, as we have seen, that the tithes of Winterbourne belonged to Richard Pocock of Shaw, the second son of Richard Pocock of Bradley Court, and elder brother of Giles, who purchased the manor and advowson. It seems probable that this Richard left two sons, Richard and John, between whom he divided the rectory of Winterbourne; Richard died insane about 1640 seised of half the rectory of Winterbourne and certain tithes in Oare, which passed to his niece Elizabeth. (fn. 323) His brother John had died earlier, leaving a son John and this daughter Elizabeth, who with her husband Hugh Pocock conveyed her interest in the rectory of Winterbourne in 1657 to William Nelson and John Pocock. (fn. 324) It seems uncertain whether this John was her brother, but he was certainly the John Pocock of Ham Mills who left annuities from the rectory of Winterbourne to his wife Elizabeth and to his mother Elizabeth, (fn. 325) who had married 29 January 1641–2 Richard Money. (fn. 326)
No further reference to these tithes has been found until 1701, when John Pocock, clerk, conveyed them to Charles Hinde, clerk. (fn. 327) In 1715 Richard Coulston and Margaret his wife conveyed them to Francis Turner and Mary Turner, widow, (fn. 328) while in 1836 the greater part belonged to Rebecca H. Pottinger and the remainder to James Wilkes Best. (fn. 329)
A church was built at Leckhampstead some years before the Norman Conquest and dedicated by Bishop Herman (fn. 330); it is referred to in the Domesday Survey. (fn. 331) A century later it was endowed with half a virgate of land by Herbert son of Herbert, and this gift was confirmed by King John in 1204, when the church is described as dedicated in honour of St. Edmund. (fn. 332) It was apparently attached as a chapel to the parish of Chieveley in 1308, when the abbey had licence to appropriate the tithes. (fn. 333) The chapelry of Leckhampstead was made into a separate ecclesiastical parish in 1884.
The history of the tithes here is obscure after the purchase in 1600 by Giles and Richard Pocock. It seems probable that they formed part of Richard's share, but nothing further has been found respecting them until in 1774 they were sold by John Noble and Elizabeth to Richard Vaughan and Joseph Smith. (fn. 334) In 1777 they were sold by Richard Adnam and Mary his wife to Stephen Pearce, (fn. 335) and the daughters of John Pocock, senior, of Langley, sold their share in 1782 to John Garrard. (fn. 336) In 1836 they were held in unequal portions by Joseph Shuff, Edward Trill and Noah Hughes. (fn. 337)
There seems to have been a chapel at Oare at an early date, though no reference to it has been found before 1291. The tithes of Oare were in 1627 granted by the king to Richard Longe and others, (fn. 338) and passed soon afterwards into the hands of Edward Pocock, vicar of Chieveley, who by his will dated 29 January 1635–6 left the parsonage of Oare to the next vicar of Chieveley and his successors. (fn. 339) These tithes still form part of the endowment of the vicarage.
In 1732 Dorothy Pocock by will devised 23 a. 1 r. 35 p., known as 'Anstell's Downs,' now let at £12 a year, the rents and profits to be divided among poor men and women not receiving collection from alms. The official trustees also hold £42 8s. 5d. consols arising from sale of timber. The sum of £4 16s. 8d. is due to the vicar as tithe rent-charge. In 1907 the net income was distributed on St. Thomas's Day in doles to sixty-eight families, including eight from the tithing of Oare.
The Candlemas Charity.—Under this head are included the charities of Elizabeth Wayte, founded by will, trust fund, £272 0s. 10d. consols, transferred in 1886 to the official trustees, of which £44 8s. 1d. consols belongs to the charities of John Houghton, by will, —Coxhead, by will, and Thomas Smith, by will. The dates of the respective wills are unknown, but are referred to in the Parliamentary returns of 1786.
Also the charity of Christian Smith, being a moiety of a rent-charge of £4, charged by deed of 24 January 1643 by Bernard Lyford on a farm called Peasemore (see under Reading). The annual sum of £2 is now paid by the agent of Lord St. Leonards.
The sum of 12s. a year is also paid out of two cottages, formerly known as 'Gregory's,' in respect of Richard Pocock's bread charity, founded by will 1652, and a sum of £2 a year is paid out of the manor of West Fosbury in Shalbourne in respect of the charity of Thomas Henshaw, for the poor, comprised in deed of 12 April 1759. The income derived from these sources is applied in gifts of 6s. to each of fourteen persons under the title of 'Great Coat Money,' and in doles of money and bread on Candlemas Day.
Waste Lands.—Under the Inclosure Act 17 a. 3 r. 28 p. of common land were allotted for the purchase of apparel, fuel, &c., for the poor of the tithing of Curridge. The official trustees hold a sum of £143 7s. 10d. consols, representing the proceeds of the sale of 2½ acres to the Great Western Railway. The income of about £18 a year is distributed in coal among poor householders.
The Church Lands, which are mentioned in a decree of the Commissioners of Charitable Uses of 2 June 6 James I, now consist of farm buildings, cottage and land, containing 10 a. 3 r. 10 p., and four cottages and gardens acquired under an award dated 19 October 1812, made under the Chieveley Inclosure Act. The official trustees also hold £270 16s. 3d. consols. In 1906 there was also a balance on deposit in the bank of £175. The gross income is about £50 a year. Large sums arising from surplus income were in 1870 and the following years applied towards the restoration of the parish church.
Educational Charities, including the charities of Richard Lucas, trust fund, £21 4s. 2d. consols; Mrs. Catherine Mather, will, 1805, trust fund, £411 12s. 2d. consols; Thomas Henshaw, deed, 1759, consisting of an annuity of £10 out of the manor of West Fosbury in the parish of Shalbourne, lately paid by Mr. A. H. Huth.
The sums of stock are held by the official trustees, and the income of the charities, amounting together to £20 16s., is paid to the local education authority and applied in aid of the general funds of the Chieveley school.
The old infants' school, comprised in deed of 15 May 1860, is now used partly for the church Sunday school and partly as a parish room, and the mistress's house is occupied by two parish nurses, rent free.
Chapelry of Winterbourne.—Poor's Cottages.—It appeared from an inscription on the gallery in the chapel that a sum of £14, given by persons unknown, together with a legacy of £50 left by Mrs. Dorothy Sayer, by will, 1753, was laid out in erecting two cottages on North Heath, the rents of which were distributed amongst poor labourers or labourers' widows. In 1899 the cottages were sold and the proceeds invested in £36 5s. 1d. consols with the official trustees, producing yearly 18s., which is distributed at intervals of four years among the poor.
A sum of £34 3s. 3d. is deposited in the Newbury bank for savings, representing legacies by will of Sarah Lodge, proved in the P.C.C. 25 November 1826, the interest of which is applicable for the benefit of the Sunday school or for girls going out to service.
Chapelry of Leckhampstead.—In 1805 Catherine Mather by will bequeathed a sum of money, now represented by £425 5s. consols with the official trustees, producing yearly £10 12s. 4d., which is paid to the local education authority.
In 1866 Joseph Shuff, by his will proved at Oxford on 10 November, left £400, the annual income to be applied at Christmas among ten poor men and ten poor women, the oldest and most deserving. The estate was insufficient to pay the legacy in full, which is represented by £380 14s. 7d. consols with the official trustees, producing yearly £9 10s. 4d.
In 1872 Hugh Barton Gledstanes, by will proved at London on 27 April, left £1,000, the income to be used for the relief of the poor brethren and for the help of the Lord's servants who carried on the work of the Gospel at Leckhampstead and neighbourhood. The estate was administered in court, and by the direction of an order of 1 June 1883 a sum of £693 19s. 8d. consols was transferred to the official trustees, producing yearly £17 7s., which is distributed among poor Plymouth Brethren.