BHO

The borough of Aylesbury: Manors, churches and charities

Pages 12-19

A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1925.

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MANORS

The descent of Aylesbury Manor has been traced under the borough (q.v.). The Manor House on Bierton Road, now occupied by Mr. Lee Stewart, was built by Mr. Acton Tindal. The 13th-century house (fn. 1) had probably disappeared before the time of Sir John Baldwin, whose widow occupied a messuage in Walton. (fn. 2) Apparently the Friary buildings were those occupied by the Pakington family in the 17th century (fn. 3) and destroyed or carried away for fortifications during the Civil War. (fn. 4)

The reputed manor of OTTERS FEE, or more correctly OTTERERS FEE, originated in the grant made by Henry II to Roger Follus, his otter-hunter, about 1179 of the messuage and 3 virgates in Aylesbury formerly held by Ernisius the Reeve. (fn. 5) It was held by serjeanty, the tenant providing the king with straw for his bed in winter and grass for his 'hospicium' in summer, and with two geese or three eels thrice yearly if the king visited the town. (fn. 6) Ralph, the king's otter-hunter in 1216, (fn. 7) was probably the same Ralph who granted this tenement to Robert son of David (of Aylesbury) in 1235. (fn. 8) Richard son of Robert of Aylesbury was holding both in 1247 (fn. 9) and about 1272, (fn. 10) and was succeeded before 1278 by William son of Robert of Aylesbury, who died in that year. (fn. 11) His son William was tenant in 1285–6, and held the fee as heir of Master Richard of Aylesbury. (fn. 12) In the 14th century this family was evidently styled 'Fitz Richard.' Robert son and heir of Robert Fitz Richard did homage for Otters Fee about 1365. (fn. 13) Richard Fitz Robert, possibly son of the last-named Robert, alienated the tenement to John Colyn and his wife Maud and the heirs of Maud. (fn. 14) This Maud was probably identical with the daughter of Richard Fitz Robert, who as Maud Verdon conveyed the tenement to William Clerke of Halling and his brother Henry about 1442. (fn. 15) In 1450 William Clerke alienated to Edmund Brittenell and others, including Thomas Baldwin, John Baldwin the younger (one of the founders of the gild of the Virgin Mary) and William Baldwin. (fn. 16) Richard Baldwin, evidently a member of the same family, died seised of the 'manor called Otterasfee' 21 September 1485. (fn. 17) His brother and heir John was evidently the Chief Justice John Baldwin who purchased the main manor (q.v.), with which Otters Fee was thus united. (fn. 18) Its site may be located by 'Otterells Lane,' which lay near Green End, (fn. 19) a way leading from Temple Square to Rickford's Hill. (fn. 20)

There were two early serjeanties at Aylesbury, which may possibly afford some clue to the later existence of the CASTLE FEE and BAWD'S FEE. The first and most important of these serjeanties certainly existed in the 12th century, for the Peytevin (Pictavensis) of the Pipe Roll (fn. 21) of 1189–90 and the William Peytevin of the later roll (fn. 22) of 1200–1 were doubtless ancestors of the John Peytevin who in 1241 held half a hide in Aylesbury by rendering 6s. at the court and by the serjeanty of keeping the property distrained upon in the county for Crown debts (namia tocius comitatus capta pro debito domini regis). At the same date William Aungevyn held 1 virgate in Aylesbury by the serjeanty of making summons and distresses at the court of Aylesbury within and without the town and guarding the works and customs due to the lord and sowing all the demesne of the manor with the lord's wheat. (fn. 23) In 1247 we hear nothing of the minor Aungevyn holding, but John Peytevin (de Peyto) is returned as holding 2 virgates as before, for one of which he rendered 5s. a year to John Fitz Geoffrey, while for the other he was bound to keep the animals seized for exchequer debts. (fn. 24) John Peytevin apparently died without male heir, and his daughter Margery de Asperville is returned as holding a virgate by the same serjeanty in 1272. She was dead by November 1287, and the extent (fn. 25) shows that she held not only a capital messuage and other property representing the 1 virgate held in capite by serjeanty, but also 21 acres in demesne and 3 acres meadow held of Sir Richard Fitz John at half a mark a year, this latter holding representing the second virgate of John Peytevin's half hide. This estate then descended to Margery's son William Asperville, who died (fn. 26) before the close of September 1295, leaving a widow Agnes and a son and heir John, at that time under age. In October 1329 John de Asperville granted (fn. 27) this property to Sir John de Stonore, kt. This transfer is illustrated by an entry in an account roll (fn. 28) of Richard de Dodecote, serjeant of John the son of Sir John de Stonore, who apparently superintended his master's property at Stokehalling, Walton and Aylesbury. Here under the perquisites of the park (fn. 29) we read of money received for various animals distrained by the Sheriff of Buckingham and impounded (imparcatis) at the house formerly John de Asperville's in Aylesbury. Lands and tenements representing the original Peytevin holding remained with the Stonores (fn. 30) during the 14th century and probably the early 15th century, subject to an occasional lease or mortgage, but the later history is obscure. Part of the estate acquired by the Baldwins under the Tudors may represent some of the Stonore property, and if further research should establish this it is possible that the early Peytevin holding was the nucleus of one of the later fees.

The reputed manor of Castle Fee was a member of the main manor, (fn. 31) and is first found, at least under that name, in the possession of Sir John Baldwin (fn. 32) in the early 16th century. Five houses 'on Castlefee' belonged to the main manor in 1627. (fn. 33) The site may be marked by the present Castle Street. (fn. 34)

Bawd's Fee probably lay at the back of the marketplace between the 'Crown' and the 'Bull's Head.' (fn. 35) It was evidently acquired by the Baldwin family before 1506, (fn. 36) and was settled by Sir John Baldwin in 1518 on his wife Ann, (fn. 37) who survived him and held it in dower together with a messuage in Walton. (fn. 38) It was inherited by John Pakington, (fn. 39) who alienated it in 1578 to John Fountaine, gent. (fn. 40) Fountaine was lessee of the manor of Walton and was trustee for Bedford's Charity. (fn. 41) In 1584 he conveyed the 'manor of Bawdes Fee' to Robert Lane. (fn. 42) Its subsequent history is unknown.

A member of the main manor was acquired by Robert Scot from Geoffrey de Quarrendon in the 12th century. (fn. 43) As Scot failed to do service his land was seized by the king as lord of the manor about 1180, (fn. 44) and granted by Richard I to Roger de Sancto Mauneo, 19 September 1198. (fn. 45) This Roger gave it to his nephew William de Sancto Mauneo (fn. 46) in or before 1203. (fn. 47) He sold to Geoffrey Fitz Piers, then lord of the main manor. (fn. 48) Under Geoffrey's successor, William Earl of Essex, the tenant was Josceline of the Wardrobe, in whose time the holding was unsuccessfully claimed by Geoffrey de Clendona, nephew of Geoffrey de Quarrendon. (fn. 49) The rent reserved by Richard I was 5s. (fn. 50) It seems possible, therefore, that this tenement is identical with the holding for which William Graunt of Hulcott owed 5s. in 1286. (fn. 51) He claimed view of frankpledge by prescription since the time of Richard I. (fn. 52) In this case the lands of Robert Scot probably formed a part of the manor of Hulcott, (fn. 53) and the supposition is strengthened by the fact that lands within Aylesbury parish called 'Scotts Butts' belonged to the lord of Hulcott in 1294. (fn. 54)

The manor of WALTON forms part of the endowment of the prebend of Heydour cum Walton within Lincoln Cathedral, (fn. 55) styled about 1195 the prebend of Walton cum Heydour. (fn. 56) Walton is separately mentioned in the confirmatory charter of William II to the cathedral. (fn. 57) There is record of a lease for sixty years to William Franklayn in 1529, (fn. 58) and subsequently John Fountaine of Walton (fn. 59) acquired a lease from John Josselyn, serjeant of the king's pantry. (fn. 60) In 1650 the manor was purchased from the commissioners for sale of bishops' lands by William Meade of London, linendraper, who sold in 1653 to Henry Phillipps. (fn. 61) The cathedral recovered its rights after the Restoration, (fn. 62) and the estate was transferred to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners under the Cathedrals Act of 1840. (fn. 63)

Within the prebend of Heydour there was a peculiar court. (fn. 64)

The church, probably including the PREBENDAL MANOR OF AYLESBURY, belonged to the see of Dorchester in the time of Bishop Wulfwig (fn. 65) (1053–67), and was confirmed by William I to Bishop Remigius when he transferred the see to Lincoln. (fn. 66) William II confirmed to the bishopric the church of Aylesbury with its lands and tithes, viz., Stoke [Mandeville], Walton and Buckland. (fn. 67) The Prebendal Manor of Aylesbury extended into Walton (fn. 68) and was occasionally styled the Parsonage Manor. (fn. 69) During the episcopacy of Robert Grosteste (1235–53) the church and presumably the manor were taken from the dean, to whom they had belonged from time immemorial. (fn. 70) They were evidently bestowed upon a separate stall endowed also with Milton (co. Oxon.). (fn. 71) About 1290, upon the death of the Archdeacon of Buckingham, who had also been prebendary of Aylesbury, the bishop constituted Milton 'Ecclesia' a separate prebend. (fn. 72) On the pretext that this division had taken place without royal licence Edward II seized the prebend of Aylesbury and bestowed it on his supporter Robert de Baldock, (fn. 73) a notorious pluralist. This step brought the king into contest with the pope (fn. 74) and with the Bishop of Lincoln, who dared not appear in the king's court to defend his right. (fn. 75)

Courts for the Prebendal Manor were held in the name of the prebendary in 1507, (fn. 76) but Sir Thomas Pakington (d. 1571) had a lease which evidently included the courts. (fn. 77) Among lessees of the 17th and 18th centuries were Sir Henry Lee, bart., and his son Sir Francis Henry Lee, bart., (fn. 78) Thomas Turner, D.D., and John Juxon, (fn. 79) Samuel Onley and his wife Katherine and William Bateman and his wife Mercy, (fn. 80) 'Madam Meade' and her daughter Mary, by whose marriage the estate came to John Wilkes, (fn. 81) from whom Sir William Lee had a conveyance in 1765. (fn. 82) In 1864 the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, holding the prebend under the Cathedrals Act of 1840, sold its endowment, then consisting of the prebendal house and demesnes, to Colonel Robert Browne. (fn. 83) It has since passed in succession to the Marquess of Buckingham, Thomas Tindal, (fn. 84) Dr. Bickersteth (fn. 85) and Archdeacon Purey-Cust. (fn. 86) The present proprietor is Sir Arthur Lasenby Liberty and the house is occupied by Dr. Donald Stewart. (fn. 87)

The Dean and Chapter of Lincoln had a peculiar jurisdiction within the manor of Aylesbury. (fn. 88)

CHURCHES

The church of ST. MARY THE VIRGIN consists of a chancel measuring internally 42 ft. by 25 ft. 4 in., a central tower of irregular plan 32 ft. over all from north to south and 27 ft. wide at the north by 28 ft. at the south, north and south transepts 21 ft. wide within the walls, the north transept being 32 ft. 6 in. deep and the south transept 1 ft. less, a vestry and an organ chamber to the east of the north transept and a chapel and vestry to the east of the south transept, a nave 75 ft. by 25 ft. 4 in. with north and south aisles and chapels, and a south porch adjoining the west end of the south chapel of the nave.

A church has stood on this site from an early date, perhaps as far back as the 7th century, though no work of anything like so remote a time is now to be seen. The general appearance of the church is that of a fine 13th-century building, but the irregularity of the plan of the tower shows that an older building was at that time altered and adapted to the new scheme. It was probably cruciform, as now, but with nave and chancel the same width as the transepts (21 ft.). The line of the old north walls of nave and chancel being retained, the church was widened southward by some 4 ft., the new south walls of nave and chancel being built just outside the lines of the older ones. The tower set over the crossing would thus become wider from north to south than from east to west, and the transepts of less width than the nave, as they now are. The 13th-century church consisted of the present chancel, its west bay flanked on the north and south by small chapels, now the organ chamber and south vestry, the central tower with north and south transepts as now, and the nave with its aisles and south porch, but without the north and south chapels. Of the later additions to the plan, the chapel east of the south transept and the north nave chapel were made at different times in the 14th century, while the south nave chapel is probably also of the same period; the vestry east of the north transept was added in the 15th century. The stone being for the most part a rather soft limestone has been much patched and renewed, especially during the repairs carried out under Sir Gilbert Scott in 1850, and in the case of the chancel little of the old work has been preserved.

In the east wall of the chancel are three modern lancets with elaborately shafted jambs and moulded rear arches carved with dog-tooth ornament. On the north and south walls are arcades of seven bays, the wider bays being pierced with lancet windows, which are richly moulded on the outer face. On the north this work has been much restored; on the south the detail is modern, the wall having been rebuilt in 1850 to match the north wall. Lipscomb's plate (fn. 89) of the exterior of the church shows a 15th-century east window and three plain lancets on the south of the chancel. Under the arcade is a string-course, and beneath this, on the north, is a double trefoiled recess of 13th-century date much restored, now used as a credence and covered by modern panelling. Further west is a late 13th-century tomb recess, which may have served as an Easter sepulchre, with a moulded two-centred head and shafted jambs, and to the west of it is a 15th-century doorway opening to the south-east corner of the organ chamber. It passes diagonally through the wall, being almost on the line of the east wall of the organ chamber, and it is clear that when it was inserted the western end of the chancel was taken up with stalls, which made it impossible to set the doorway further to the west than it is. There is now between it and the west wall of the chancel a modern arch to the organ chamber, of 13th-century detail, perhaps a reproduction of a former arch in this position. The jambs have slightly engaged shafts with circular moulded bases and capitals, and the arch is of two deeply moulded orders, the inner being enriched with dogtooth. Above it is the door which once led to the rood-loft and must have been reached by a stair at the north-east angle of the tower. The loft was evidently set in the east arch of the tower, but there is nothing to show how far to the west it projected. On the south side of the chancel is a blocked arch similar to but larger than the one to the organ chamber opposite. It was evidently blocked in mediaeval days, apparently to strengthen the south-east angle of the tower, and a doorway at its eastern jamb leads to the south vestry.

The central tower is carried upon four two-centred arches, each of three chamfered orders, with three shafts in each respond having moulded capitals and bases. All four have been rebuilt, but the old arch-stones have been in many cases re-used. The stage above is open to the church and has an arcaded wall passage running round it, now blocked up on the south and east and lighted by pairs of trefoiled windows. This arcading is of two bays on each side, the bays being subdivided into pairs of lancet openings with central detached shafts and pierced spandrels. This stage is reached by a stair in the west wall of the north transept, from which a short passage leads to the tower above the east arch of the north aisle of the nave, and the belfry stage is reached by a second stair starting from the wall passage at the north-east angle of the tower. The tower is crowned by a leaded wooden clock-turret and spire, almost entirely renewed in modern times, but retaining a few 17th-century timbers. The embattled and panelled parapet is quite modern, and the belfry stage is lighted by a pair of lancets in each face, of 13th-century date, but much restored.

Plan of Aylesbury Church.

The north transept has a large north window of late 14th-century date and of five trefoiled lights with tracery over, which has been much restored. In the west wall is a late 15th-century window of three cinquefoiled lights with smaller lights over and a four-centred head and moulded rear arch, and the transept has a late 15th-century clearstory with three two-light windows on each side. At the west end of the north wall is a 14th-century tomb recess with a cinquefoiled head and shafted jambs, now containing the marble effigy of a man in armour, c. 1390, which was dug up, according to Lysons, in the ruins of the Grey Friars' Church in the town. (fn. 90) The arms on the surcoat, which are now nearly indecipherable, appear to be a fesse dancetty between three leopards' heads. The walls of the transept are of 13th-century date, and in the east wall near the north angle is an image niche of this time, marking the site of an altar; there were probably two altars in each transept. Further south is a small square locker, in which has been inserted a much scraped and restored 13th-century pillar piscina, and close to it is a modern door to the vestry and a 14th-century piscina with a trefoiled head and stone shelf. The western arch of the organ chamber is of the same type as that opening to it from the chancel and is in the main of 13th-century date. The north aisle opens to the transept by a similar but narrower arch, much restored; the vice doorway to the north is of the 15th century. The vestry to the east of the transept is an interesting two-story building of the same period, originally entered from what is now the organ chamber, and not as now directly from the transept. It is lighted by two narrow barred lights, one on the east and one on the north, and has a modern outer doorway at the south-east. In the upper story is a fireplace and evidence of its use as a living room as well as a place for the safe keeping of the church goods. The door which opened to it from the present organ chamber retains its old hinges and a bolt worked by a crank handle set in a circular iron plate, but has been a good deal tampered with. A very uncommon relic of the old vestry fittings is now preserved in the north transept, namely, a wooden cupboard fitted with 'perks' on which the vestments were hung. It is now used for the cassocks and surplices of the choir boys. The organ chamber, originally a chapel, has a modern three-light east window, but is now entirely filled up with the organ, and nothing of its former arrangements can be seen.

The south transept is lighted by one large 15th-century window of five cinquefoiled lights with tracery over and a straight-sided four-centred head. Beneath this is a modern south doorway with deeply moulded four-centred head and jambs copied from a 15th-century doorway which appears to have been originally covered by a porch, since removed, shown by Lipscomb in the drawing already mentioned. In the east wall of this transept are two arches, the northern of the two being of 13th-century date, much restored, and blocked by a thin wall, probably at the time when the south-east angle of the tower was strengthened. In the blocking is a window of three cinquefoiled lights under a square head of 15th-century style, and to the north of it a cruciform sinking, which must have held a large rood, and suggests that the altar of the Holy Cross was set here. The second arch, opening to the south chapel, is much patched with modern stonework, like the rest, but is probably of early 14th-century date and was inserted when the chapel was built. It has two engaged shafts in each respond and an arch of two chamfered orders. On the west side of the transept are two arches to the south chapel of the nave, one being entirely modern and the other, close to the south-west pier of the tower, being the original 13th-century arch from aisle to transept, and of the same detail as that in the north aisle, though much restored.

On the east side of the south transept is a vestry corresponding to and contemporary with the organ chamber on the north. It is partly filled by a large block of added masonry at the south-east angle of the tower, and in addition to the three-light window opening to the transept has a modern east window, also of three lights, and a wide-arched opening of 14th-century detail on the south leading to the south chapel.

The south chapel measures 25 ft. by 16 ft., and is irregularly set out at the east, as often happens in such cases of addition to a mediaeval church. It dates from c. 1320, and preserves the rear arches of its original three-light east window and two-light south windows, but their tracery is modern. South of the east window is an embattled 15th-century image bracket, and at the east end of the south wall a piscina and triple sedilia, which, though very much restored, appear to be in part of 14th-century date. At the west end of the south wall is a small external doorway of modern stonework. Beneath the chapel is a large charnel originally entered by steps at the west end, and having bone shoots on the east and south. Arched recesses, formerly blocked by thin walls built across them, open from the charnel on the north-east, east, and south-east, and were intended for the storage of bones, many of which yet remain beneath the present floor.

The nave has north and south arcades of six bays, with pointed arches of two chamfered orders and a moulded label, piers of four engaged half-round shafts, and simply moulded capitals and bases following the plan of the pier. The work appears to be all of one date, c. 1250, and above the arches is a contemporary string-course which is stepped down a few inches in the third bay from the east. The reason is not quite clear, but the arcades may have been begun from both ends, and a mistake in the levels might easily be made requiring this adjustment at the junction of the work. The string also suggests that a clearstory was part of the 13th-century design. The existing clearstory dates from the 15th century, its walls being thinner than those of its predecessor, and has on each side six windows of two cinquefoiled lights with a sexfoil over. The west window is a late 15th-century opening of five cinquefoiled lights with modern tracery. Below it is a good but much repaired west doorway of the third quarter of the 13th century, an interesting commentary on the gradual completion of the 13th-century scheme of rebuilding, which must have spread over some forty or fifty years. It has a moulded arch with engaged jamb shafts and foliate capitals.

The aisles preserve their original width in the three western bays on each side, but the only original window is the south window in the west bay of the south aisle, a widely splayed lancet with edge rolls in the jambs and head. Both aisles are spanned by four-centred arches, which appear to have been inserted at some date in the 15th century, probably with the intention of abutting the arcades of the nave. The north-east chapel takes up the three east bays of the north aisle, being 18 ft. wide and lighted on the north by three three-light windows, the eastern of which has a head and jambs contemporary with the chapel, c. 1330, while the other two are 15th-century insertions, though not of the same date. The tracery in all is modern of 15th-century style, and below the second and third windows are tomb recesses, probably contemporary with the chapel, having plainly moulded arches and small shafts in the jambs. Each contains a cross-slab of 14th-century style, and in the east wall is a 14th-century piscina with a trefoiled head and a label. In the west wall of the chapel is a late 15th-century window of three cinquefoiled lights.

In the bay of the north aisle immediately adjoining the chapel is an original 13th-century doorway, but so much repaired that only the internal stonework is old. In the next bay westward is a three-light 15th-century window with modern tracery, and the west window of two lights is also filled with new stonework, but on a stone of the internal jamb is cut a calvary cross within a quatrefoil, probably one of the consecration crosses which marked the re-dedication of the church after its 13th-century rebuilding.

The south-east chapel of the nave does not extend quite as far westward as the north chapel because of the 13th-century south porch, but is set out as a square of 32 ft. 6 in., its south wall being nearly in line with that of the south transept. There is a 15th-century cinquefoiled piscina at the south-east, and in the south wall three windows apparently entirely modern, each of three cinquefoiled lights with transoms and tracery. The roof of the chapel is supported by a central wooden octagonal post, with a moulded capital worked on it by Scott, it having been plain and rough before his time.

The south doorway of the nave in the bay adjoining the south-east chapel is a modern insertion of 13th-century style. There are three shafts in either jamb with moulded capitals and bases, and the head is two-centred and of three deeply moulded orders. In the next bay to the west is a 15th-century window of two cinquefoiled lights with modern tracery, and the west window is also of 15th-century date with modern tracery of two cinquefoiled lights under a four-centred straight-sided head.

The large south porch has on the east and west a much-restored 13th-century wall arcade of five and a half bays with detached shafts and simply moulded capitals, its irregular arrangement suggesting that it has been rebuilt with the old materials. The outer arch of the porch, which is of two continuous moulded orders, is of the 15th century.

The font, of c. 1160, is perhaps the finest example of a type rather common in this neighbourhood. The bowl is cup-shaped, with a broad band of floral ornament round the upper part and hollow flutes below, curving outwards to the base of the carved band. The circular stem is very short, consisting of a torus worked with a double line of zigzag, and the base, which is square, is not unlike an inverted scalloped capital with two large scallops on each side, the vertical faces of which are filled with scrolls of floral ornament in high relief. The chalky stone of which the font is made is easily worked, and there is a freedom and depth of undercutting which makes the work most attractive.

With the exception of the chancel, tower, and south chapel, the roofs of the church are in the main of 15th or 16th-century date. In the chancel are some 15th-century bench-ends with poppy heads, and some of the stalls retain their old misericordes, but the most notable piece of woodwork is the vestment cupboard in the north transept already mentioned; it is doubtful whether another example in such preservation is to be found in the country.

The only monument of any importance in the church is set against the west wall of the north transept; it is that of Lady Lee, who died in 1584, wife of Sir Henry Lee and daughter of Sir William Paget, and has the kneeling alabaster figures of Lady Lee and her daughter Mary and of her two sons Henry and John, who died in infancy. Above is an entablature carried by Corinthian columns and bearing the arms, incorrectly repainted, of Lee impaling Paget. These arms are repeated separately below. There is a rhyming inscription of more than usual merit and quaintness, and its request, 'Goode frēd, sticke not to strew with crimisō floures | This marble tombe wherin her ashes rest,' is by a pretty custom literally fulfilled at the present day, a vase with a bunch of flowers being set before her effigy. In the south vestry is a small stone to Alexander Farmberrow set up in 1612 with a blank left for the age and date of death. In the same place on a stone in the blocking wall of the western arch are inscribed the names Thomas Reie and Thomas Furniss and the date 1596.

The tower contains eight bells and a sanctus. The treble, second, third, fourth, sixth and seventh were cast by Pack & Chapman in 1773 and the fifth and tenor by C. & G. Mears in 1850. The sanctus bears the date 1612 with a shield between the initials W. Y. On the shield are the initials D (?) M on either side of a bell. On the bell-frame is carved 'William Chapman Bellhanger 1663.'

The communion plate is modern and consists of two chalices, a large and small paten, a standing paten and a flagon.

The registers before 1812 are voluminous, in extremely good order, and the earlier books have illuminated initials, title-pages, &c. They are as follows: (i) all entries from 1564 to 1653; (ii) those from 1653 to 1683; (iii) 1684 to 1700; (iv) 1701 to 1729; (v) 1730 to 1736; (vi) 1737 to 1753. Baptisms and burials are then continued separately in three books, running from 1754 to 1771, 1771 to 1790, and 1790 to 1812, while marriages are continued in two more, from 1754 to 1799 and 1799 to 1812. The overseers' accounts are also in good preservation.

The church of ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST, in Cambridge Street, was built in 1883. It is of red brick and consists of nave, chancel (added in 1894) and belfry. It is a chapel of ease to the parish church.

The church of the HOLY TRINITY, Walton, built about 1845, is of flint with red brick facings and consists of chancel, nave, aisles, west porch and west tower. The parish was constituted out of Aylesbury parish in 1845. (fn. 91) The living is a vicarage in the gift of the Church Patronage Society.

ADVOWSON

Two legends of the 7th century imply the existence of a monastic church. The one is that St. Edburga, daughter of King Redwald (ob. 627), and her sister Edith took the veil at Aylesbury, (fn. 92) and the other that St. Osyth was buried there, reference to which has already been made. (fn. 93) In any case the church of St. Mary belonged in the time of Edward the Confessor, and possibly before, to the Bishops of Dorchester (fn. 94) and was later confirmed to their successors the Bishops of Lincoln. It afterwards passed with the Prebendal Manor (q.v.) to the prebendaries of Aylesbury, who were patrons of the church (fn. 95) until 1877, when the patronage was transferred to the Bishops of Oxford. (fn. 96)

A vicarage was ordained in 1274, (fn. 97) and the chapelries of Bierton, Buckland and Stoke were erected into distinct parishes in 1294. (fn. 98)

CHARITIES

For the Grammar school see the article on 'Schools.' (fn. 99)

The charity of John Bedford for amending the highways and for alms was founded by will towards the end of the 15th century and was established by an Act of 39 Elizabeth and placed under the management of a 'corporation' entitled the 'Surveyors of the Highways of Aylesbury.' The endowment consists of houses and about 107 acres of land, in respect of which £540 was received in 1911 as net rents, and of £2,361 10s. 9d. consols, with the official trustees, arising from sales of land from time to time. In 1911 £172 was applied in the repairs of the highways and £282 in relief of poor.

In 1695 Thomas Hickman by will devised land for the poor and five cottages to be used as almshouses. The trust property consists of a house and shop in Market Square, a house in Church Street and about 16 acres of land, producing £124 yearly, also £600 10s. 10d. consols in the High Court and £555 18s. 3d. consols with the official trustees, producing yearly £28 17s. The inmates of the almshouses each receive 4s. weekly, and about £50 a year is distributed among the poor.

In 1719 William Harding, by his will proved in the P.C.C., directed his residuary personal estate to be laid out in land, the rents to be applied in apprenticing boys and girls of Aylesbury and Walton and in coats to poor men and women in Walton. The real estate consists of about 190 acres of land of the annual rental value of £390, and the personal estate of £1,499 1s. 2d. consols with the official trustees, £1,329 18s. 6d. consols in the High Court, and £952 7s. 5d. consols in the names of trustees, producing together £94 10s. 6d. yearly, arising from sales of land from time to time. In 1911 a sum of £367 10s. was applied in apprenticeship premiums and £17 10s. in clothes for the poor of Walton.

In 1723 Elizabeth Eman by her will devised a messuage known as the Red Lion Inn, situated in Kingsbury, for the benefit of three poor widows. The inn is let at £60 a year. A sum of £100, or thereabouts, has been accumulated in the savings bank.

Ecclesiastical Charities.

The Clock and Chimes Estate, stated on a tablet in the church, dated 1494, to have been founded by will of John Stone, consists of a house, stables and out-houses with garden ground, let at £25 a year, which with the dividends on £175 consols, amounting to £4 7s. 6d., is applied in maintaining the clock and chimes in the parish church.

In 1800 Mary Pitches, by will proved in the P.C.C., bequeathed £500, the interest to be paid to the organist of the parish church. The legacy was invested in £491 15s. 3d. consols, producing £12 5s. yearly.

The two sums of stock are standing in the names of administering trustees.

The lectureship trust, founded by the Marquess of Buckingham by deed 31 July 1806, is endowed with a rent-charge of £17 17s. 9d. issuing out of a farm in the parish of Stone, which under the provisions of a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 23 October 1885 is payable to a lecturer for a sermon every Sunday evening to be delivered in any church in Aylesbury. The income is paid to the vicar.

Lord Wharton's Charity.

A distribution of religious books is made in respect of this charity.

The ten charities next mentioned are under the administration of the vicar and churchwardens, namely:—

Robert Brickett, by deed 1567, gave a rent-charge of £2 issuing out of lands in Therfield, co. Hertford, for the use of the poor.

William Findall, founded in 1604, consisting of a rent-charge of £6 13s. 4d. issuing out of lands in Weston Turville; 6s. 8d. is distributed to the poor of Weston Turville, 13s. 4d. is paid to the Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society, 13s. 4d. for sweeping the churchways, and the remainder is distributed to the poor.

Dorothy, Dame Pelham, in 1613 gave £13 6s. 8d. and Robert Lord Dormer in 1616 gave £6 13s. 4d. These sums are now represented by £20 7s. 1d. consols, producing 10s. yearly.

William Swaddon, D.D., in 1623 gave a rentcharge of £3 12s. issuing out of lands in Singleborough; 8s. is paid to the churchwardens of Great Horwood and the remainder is distributed to the poor.

Thomas Elliott, as appeared from a tablet in the church dated 1494, gave two tenements in Green End for almshouses. The premises were afterwards burned down and the land subsequently sold and the proceeds invested in £20 16s. 9d. consols. The dividends, amounting to 10s. 4d., are distributed to the poor.

Mary Syms, will proved in 1737. The endowment consists of £259 19s. consols, producing £6 10s. yearly.

Jane Pigott, date unknown, consisting of a sum of £40 14s. 3d. consols. The dividends, amounting to £1 0s. 4d., are applied in aid of the National Sunday schools.

Thomas Bigg, will 1867, consisting of £175 consols, producing £4 7s. 4d. yearly. The income is distributed among twenty-one deserving persons on 24 December in each year.

Thomas Perrin, will proved 1878. The endowment consists of £75 4s. 5d. India 3½ per cent. stock in the names of T. G. Parrott and C. C. Chilton, producing £2 12s. 4d. yearly. The income is distributed in bread, clothes and coals between the months of December and March in each year.

Rebecca Hatten, will proved 1903, trust und, £55 6s. 5d. consols, producing £1 7s. 8d. yearly, which is applied for the benefit of the sick and needy.

In 1831 Stephen Holloway, by a codicil to his will proved 27 August, bequeathed a sum of bank annuities, the dividends to be distributed among poor tradesmen and poor women of the age of sixty years and upwards in sums of £5. The bequest is now represented by £1,476 5s. 5d. consols, which is standing in the names of administering trustees, and the annual dividend, amounting to £36 18s., is divided among poor men and women in sums of £5 11s.

In 1844 Jacob Clements, by a codicil to his will proved in the P.C.C., bequeathed £833 6s. 8d. consols, the annual dividends, amounting to £20 16s. 8d., to be distributed in bread and fuel. The same testator bequeathed £300 consols, the annual dividends of £7 10s. to be applied for the benefit of poor communicants.

In 1866 Mrs. Sarah Maria Clotilda Raper by her will left a legacy, now represented by £529 0s. 7d. consols, producing £13 4s. 4d. yearly, of which £3 is paid to the blanket club, £5 to the clothing club and £5 4s. 4d. to the coal club.

The several sums of stock, unless otherwise stated, are held by the official trustees.

Hamlet of Walton.

In 1638, as appeared from a tablet in the church, William Jorden by will devised 40s. a year, to buy two gowns for two poor people of Walton, issuing out of 3 acres of land in Walton.

In 1672 Margaret Babham by her will directed that £100 should be laid out in the purchase of land and that out of the rents 40s. yearly should be applied in coats for two poor people. The annuity is paid out of land at Chinnor.

These annuities are distributed to poor widows and other aged persons in sums of 2s. 6d. each.

For charity of William Harding see under Aylesbury, above.

In 1670 Simon Miles by deed conveyed 16 acres in Walton to trustees towards mending and repairing the highways. The trust property now consists of five cottages in Walton Street with 2 r. 24 p. of garden ground adjoining, £1,150 8s. 1d. consols with the official trustees, arising from sales of real estate, and £62 5s. 9d. consols in the names of two trustees, producing together £78 16s. yearly.

In 1844 Jacob Clements, by a codicil to his will proved in the P.C.C., bequeathed £200 consols, with the official trustees, for the benefit of poor communicants. The dividend of £5 a year is added to the alms fund and distributed as necessitous cases arise.

Footnotes

  • 1. See above.
  • 2. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), clvi, 1.
  • 3. Cott. Chart. i, 4.
  • 4. The Case of Sir John Pakington.
  • 5. Pipe R. 25 Hen. II (Pipe R. Soc.), 73; Cal. Pat. 1377–81, p. 176.
  • 6. Cal. Pat. loc. cit.; the same tenure is recorded as late as 1606 (Chan. Inq. p.m. [Ser. 2], cccvii, 93); see also Round, King's Serjeants, 300.
  • 7. Cal. Pat. 1377–81, p. 176.
  • 8. Ibid.; a David of Aylesbury had viewed the gaol in 1182 (Pipe R. 28 Hen. II [Pipe R. Soc.], 115).
  • 9. Assize R. 56, m. 44.
  • 10. Ibid. 60, m. 29.
  • 11. Cal. Inq. p.m. 1–19 Edw. I, 167.
  • 12. Madox, Baron. Angl. i, 247.
  • 13. Abbrev. Rot. Orig. (Rec. Com.), ii, 285.
  • 14. Cal. Pat. 1388–92, p. 112.
  • 15. Ibid. 1441–6, p. 53.
  • 16. Ibid. 1446–52, p. 311.
  • 17. Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, 46.
  • 18. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), clvi, 1.
  • 19. Rentals and Surv. (Gen. Ser.), portf. 1, no. 8.
  • 20. Gibbs, op. cit. 423.
  • 21. Gt. R. of the Pipe 1 Ric. I (Rec. Com.), 31.
  • 22. Rot. Canc. John (Rec. C m.), 343.
  • 23. Assize R. 55, m. 3 (xxi). cf. the virgate held by a sokeman in 1086 (V.C.H. Bucks. i, 232a).
  • 24. Assize R. 56, m. 44 d.
  • 25. Cal. Inq. p.m. 1–19 Edw. I, 374–5.
  • 26. Ibid. 20–8 Edw. I, 148.
  • 27. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), C 231.
  • 28. Mins. Accts. bdle. 1240, no. 27 (3 & 4 Edw. III).
  • 29. This is doubtless the park called 'Poundefold' in the town of Aylesbury mentioned on Close, 14 Ric. II, m. 38 d.
  • 30. cf. Chan. Inq. p.m. 13 Ric. II, no. 48; Close, 14 Ric. II, m. 38 d.; Chan. Inq. p.m. 3 Hen. V, file 243, no. 34.
  • 31. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), clvi, 1.
  • 32. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), clvi, 1; cf. the earlier Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lxxiii, 7.
  • 33. Cott. Chart. i, 4.
  • 34. But this is said to have been formerly 'Cat Street' (Gibbs, op. cit. 421).
  • 35. Gibbs, op. cit. 425.
  • 36. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xx, 18.
  • 37. Ibid. lxxiii, 7.
  • 38. Ibid. clvi, 1.
  • 39. cf. the main manor.
  • 40. Feet of F. Bucks. Mich. 21 Eliz.
  • 41. Chan. Proc. Eliz. F. bdle. 3, no. 43; bdle. 9, no. 25; L. bdle. 8, no. 43; M. bdle. 3, no. 42.
  • 42. Feet of F. Bucks. Mich. 26 Eliz.
  • 43. Maitland, Bracton's Note Bk. iii, 411–12.
  • 44. Pipe R. 26 Hen. II (Pipe R. Soc.), 129.
  • 45. Cal. Chart. R. 1300–26, p. 432.
  • 46. Maitland, Bracton's Note Bk. iii, 411–12.
  • 47. Pipe R. 5 John, m. 7.
  • 48. Maitland, loc. cit.
  • 49. Ibid.
  • 50. Cal. Chart. R. loc. cit.
  • 51. Plac. de Quo Warr. Rec. Com., 95; cf. 93.
  • 52. Ibid. 95.
  • 53. See V.C.H. Bucks. ii, 342.
  • 54. Doc. of D. and C. of Linc. D ii, 66 (2).
  • 55. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iv, 19.
  • 56. Bradshaw and Wordsworth, Linc. Cathedral Statutes, i, 301.
  • 57. Dugdale, Mon. viii, 1270; it may have been included with Aylesbury in the charter of William I to the Cathedral (see below).
  • 58. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), A 12184.
  • 59. See the account of Bawd's Fee.
  • 60. Ct. of Req. bdle. 6, no. 12; cf. bdle. 8, no. 304.
  • 61. Indre, quoted by Lipscomb, Hist. of Bucks. ii, 70.
  • 62. A fresh lease for lives was granted by the prebendary, 27 Oct. 1660 (Marcham, Cat. of Bucks. Deeds, i, 2).
  • 63. Stat. 3 & 4 Vict. cap. 113.
  • 64. Bradshaw and Wordsworth, op. cit. ii, 661 n; Return of Courts empowered to grant probate of Wills (Parl. Papers 1828, xx), 805. The extent of jurisdiction in Walton is, however, undefined.
  • 65. V.C.H. Bucks. i, 233b.
  • 66. Dugdale, Mon. viii, 1270; cf. Cal. Chart. R. 1327–41, pp. 140, 145.
  • 67. Dugdale, loc. cit.
  • 68. Ibid. 1277; Chan. Proc. Eliz. F. bdle. 3, no. 43; Ct. of Req. bdle. 6, no. 12; bdle. 8, no. 304.
  • 69. Chan. Proc. (Ser. 2), bdle. 284, no. 21.
  • 70. Matth. Paris, Chron. Maj. (Rolls Ser.), iv, 425.
  • 71. Doc. of D. and C. of Linc. D ii, 66 (2).
  • 72. Ibid.; Luard, Ann. Mon. (Rolls Ser.), iii, 362.
  • 73. Cal. Pat. 1317–21, p. 453.
  • 74. Cal. Papal Letters, ii, 214; Cal. Close, 1318–23, p. 538; Doc. of D. and C. of Linc. D ii, 66 (2); Cal. Pat. 1317–21, p. 559; 1321–4, pp. 25, 35; 1324–7, p. 36.
  • 75. Cal. Pat. 1327–30, p. 394.
  • 76. De Banco R. 981, m. 324 (Trin. 22 Hen. VII).
  • 77. Chan. Proc. (Ser. 2), bdle. 284, no. 21; Eliz. A. bdle. 9, no. 61.
  • 78. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccccxci, 89; Recov, R. Mich. 18 Jas. I, m. 73.
  • 79. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1638–9, p. 1911 Pat. 14 Chas. I, pt. xliv, no. 2.
  • 80. Feet of F. Bucks. Hil. 30 & 31 Chas. II.
  • 81. Feet of F. Bucks. Hil. 28 Geo. II; Trin. 5 Geo. III; Dict. Nat. Biog.
  • 82. Inform. supplied by Mr. Edwin Hollis.
  • 83. Lond. Gaz. 2 Dec. 1864, p. 6369; Gibbs, op. cit. 69.
  • 84. Gibbs, op. cit. 69.
  • 85. Inform. supplied by Mr. Edwin Hollis.
  • 86. Gibbs, loc. cit.
  • 87. Inform. supplied by Mr. Edwin Hollis.
  • 88. Return of Courts empowered to grant probate of Wills (Parl. Paper, 1828, xv), 805.
  • 89. Lipscomb, Hist. Bucks. ii, 46.
  • 90. Lysons, Mag. Brit. i, 505.
  • 91. Pop. Ret. 1881, i, 20.
  • 92. Acta Sanctorum (Bollandists' ed.), xxxi, 349; Leland, Itin. (ed. L. Toulmin Smith, 1908), v, 112.
  • 93. See above.
  • 94. V.C.H. Bucks. i, 233b.
  • 95. Inst. Bks. (P.R.O.); occasionally the advowson was let on lease with the Prebendal Manor (Chan. Inq. p.m. [Ser. 2], ccccxci, 89; Feet of F. Bucks. Hil. 30 & 31 Chas. II).
  • 96. Lond. Gaz. 27 Feb. 1877, p. 978.
  • 97. Doc. of D. and C. of Linc. D ii, 66 (2).
  • 98. Ibid.
  • 99. V.C.H. Bucks. ii, 215–16.