A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1925.
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THE BOROUGH OF WENDOVER
The parish of Wendover contains 4,616 acres of land, of which 6 acres are covered by water. (fn. 1) The subsoil is chalk. The Chiltern Hills cross the parish and the village lies over 400 ft. above the ordnance datum. Still higher levels are found at Bacombe Hill to the south-west (741 ft.) and Boddington Hill to the south-east, but the latter is largely in the neighbouring parish of Halton. A branch of the Grand Junction Canal runs from Wendover to Marsworth, but it is now disused. The town of Wendover is supplied with water by the Chiltern Hills Spring Water Company. The main road from London to Aylesbury passes through the town, which lies at the meeting of this road with the Icknield Way. (fn. 2) The road from London is called South Street when it enters the town, and the two pieces of the Icknield Way Pound Street and High Street. Both South Street and High Street are mentioned in 1461, (fn. 3) while the North Gate and the South Gate occur in 13th and 15th-century documents respectively. (fn. 4)
The main streets of Wendover are open and picturesque, containing many old houses, usually with tiled roofs, and a few thatched cottages. The Market House, a modern building with a clock tower and drinking fountain, stands near the junction of High Street and Aylesbury Street. Not far off, at the eastern end of High Street and on its southern side, are two much-altered old houses, each of them now divided into two shops. The first of these houses had a projecting upper story and was probably erected in the early 16th century; in one of the shops is a fireplace with corner seats, now inclosed. The second house was probably built in the early 17th century, the walls being timber-framed with later brick casing. The Red Lion Hotel, a half-timber house with brick nogging, has been lately restored and the framing to a large extent renewed. A tablet inserted in the south end gable bears the date 1669 and the initials W.R.F. Further up the street a house of the Elizabethan period is now represented by a shop and part of the King's Head Inn. Bosworth House, also on the south side of High Street, the residence of Mr. Frederick John Mead, with the adjoining tenement, is a brick and timber two-storied house with cellar and attic erected in the early part of the 17th century and largely refronted with brick at a later period. The three circular shafts of the most westerly of the old chimney stacks rise from moulded bases. A dilapidated pillar piscina under the covered gateway at the east end of Bosworth House has possibly been removed from another site. The houses and cottages on the same side of Pound Street, the continuation of High Street, are also of the 17th century, though much restored. On the opposite side of Pound Street the house now attached to the 'Shoulder of Mutton' and Railway Hotel was probably erected about 1620 and refaced with brick a century or more later. The original half-timber and brickwork is visible on the east gable. Adjoining this house on the east is a two-storied cottage of half-timber work inside which is a beam-bracket dated 1621. Some other houses and cottages on this side both of Pound Street and High Street belong to the same century, one being possibly of earlier date. On an island site between High Street and Back Street, evidently an encroachment on the original market-place, are two half-timber houses now plastered in front, but probably built in the earlier years of the 17th century. One of these is now divided into two and the other is the Two Brewers Inn. On the northern side of Back Lane is Vine Tree Farm, a two-storied brick and timber house of late Elizabethan date, but refronted about 1700 or not long after. The original plan was L-shaped.
In the London Road is the King and Queen Inn, a half-timber house of two stories and an attic, of 17th-century date but much altered. There are also some altered and restored 17th-century cottages on the opposite side of the road. In Aylesbury Street, too, there are several houses of considerable interest. Ivy House, on its western side, the residence of Mr. James Stevens, is a two-storied house, the nucleus of which belongs to the time of Elizabeth or James I, additional wings having been built later in the 17th and early 18th centuries; the overhanging upper story of the eastern front has been built up. There are chimney stacks of old bricks both on the main block and the south-west wing. Other houses on the same side are also of 17th-century date. The Grange, on the eastern side of Aylesbury Street, the residence of Dr. Leonard Henry West, J.P., is a late 17th-century house, but has been much altered. Another earlier house of two stories may belong to the late 16th or early 17th century. Some of the old oak panelled doors, with ornamental ironwork and other interesting internal fittings, still remain. Chiltern House, originally a half-timber house of the early 17th century, was refronted in red and black brick in 1725. A fine oak staircase still remains in the interior.
The present Temperance Hotel on the same side of the street is a 16th-century house, principally of half-timber, with a south-east wing added in the early part of the following century. There are indications that the upper story formerly projected. Both in this house and in the partly rebuilt Red House near by some good original internal panelling is left.
Turning from Aylesbury Street to the Tring Road, the row of 17th-century thatched cottages known as Coldharbour Row, situated on the north side, is passed. On the opposite side of the road Bank Farm is a house mainly of brick, consisting of two stories and an attic with tiled roofs. The nucleus seems to have formed part of a 15th-century house of considerable size, but the western portion was rebuilt in the 17th century, the elevation being a fine example of the design of the period. A south-eastern wing was added somewhat later. Inside, it appears that the north-east kitchen and adjoining passage form part of the original hall. A ceiling with moulded beams was evidently inserted in the 16th century. Three trusses of the original roof are to be found in the north-east room on the first floor above the present kitchen. Brook House, on the same side of the road, was probably built originally in the reign of James I, but has been much altered and enlarged. Hazeldean, on the west side of the road to St. Leonards, (fn. 5) was apparently built in the late 17th century, partly from older materials, but has been completely altered. The front is of the 18th century; some 17th-century fittings still remain.
Outside the limits of the town are several houses of architectural interest. The Marquis of Granby Inn at World's End is probably of the end of the 16th century, but was brick-cased more than a century later. Both The Hale, belonging to Mr. A. C. de Rothschild, and Dean Farm, though originally erected in the 17th century, have been to a great extent altered and restored; but the most interesting buildings outside the town are to be found in the house and barns at Wellwick Farm, about a mile northwest of the town. The house is of rectangular plan and consists of two stories with an attic and cellars. The materials of the original walling are flint and brick, with windows and copings of stone. The date 1616 (fn. 6) found on the chimneys is that of the original building, but the south front, originally gabled, was refaced with brick in the 18th century, and latterly there has been extensive restoration. The 17th-century main doorway has a four-centred arch in a square head. Above it is an achievement of Brudenell with the arms, a cheveron between three hats of estate; the helm and mantle as well as the crest, possibly an arm holding a club, are broken. The chimney stacks of the same date are of handsome design. Inside is a 17th-century oak staircase with central rectangular newel, but without balusters or handrails. A second staircase is later and probably of the 18th century. The two barns near the house are good examples of 17th-century work with opentimber roofs.
The church and manor-house stand nearly half a mile from the town, and possibly mark the site of the original settlement, which migrated to the road when Wendover became a market town and borough. There is the old and not uncommon tradition to account for its position, that the building of the church was begun in a field close to the town, but when the materials had been collected they were taken away in the night by witches or fairies and found next day on the present site of the church. The field originally chosen was known as 'Witches Meadow,' (fn. 7) and in support of the tradition 'Wychewelle Croft' may be noted as an early 14th-century field-name in this parish. (fn. 8) Wendover Church was of considerable local importance in the middle ages, the Rood Cross of Wendover being a place of pilgrimage. Amongst the punishments meted out in 1506 to certain people at Chesham, who had spoken against idolatry and superstition, was an obligatory pilgrimage to the cross. (fn. 9) The rood screen was not removed till about 1842. (fn. 10) The Manor House, the residence of Mr. C. S. Routh, is just beyond the church. Between the church and the town are the vicarage and Bucksbridge House, the latter formerly belonging to the families of Stace and Hakewill. The Congregational chapel was built in 1811 and rebuilt in 1903; the Baptist chapel, in South Street, represents a cause dating from 1683. The Literary Institute, containing a reading room and library, was given to the town by the late Lieut.General Smith. The Metropolitan and Great Central joint railway passes through the parish with a station at Wendover. Wendover Dean lies in the southwest of the parish, the chief house being Mayertorne Manor, the residence of Mr. H. W. Massingham.
In 1771 an Act of Parliament for making exchanges within the parish and settling a corn rent on the vicar in lieu of tithes was obtained. (fn. 11) The common fields were inclosed by Act of Parliament, the award being dated 1795. (fn. 12)
The Parliamentary troops came to Aylesbury in August 1642, and passed through Wendover, where they refreshed themselves after marching 'four long miles,' burnt the rails and accidentally shot a girl, one of the men forgetting that his musket was loaded. (fn. 13) Prince Rupert and his troops were there the next year and did far more damage, while two years later the town suffered from the raids of the garrisons at Boarstall and Oxford. (fn. 14)
The antiquities found at Wendover are very few in number, the most important being an uninscribed British gold coin. (fn. 15) There are, however, two moats 2 miles west of the town, (fn. 16) and a moated site in Brays Wood. Grimsdyke runs near King's Ash in the parish. (fn. 17)
The following place-names appear, amongst others, at different times during the history of Wendover: Medecroft, Colham, le Belges, Holtmede, Hageleyne, le Napeye, Bomondescroft, Northbrech, le Maline, Socchfeld, Oswynedene, Fastyngdych, Peronescroft, Comyngescroft, Dame Agnes Lane, Casteldytchmede, Fowleslodene, Stonybrech, Crowmerschstokkyng, Gloversacre, Oxpennyng, Personespynnyng (xiv cent.); Haspang, Buryfeld, Paradise, Harperhanger (xvi cent.).
Wendover was a borough by prescription, but it never attained to any degree of self-government, and always remained in the hands of the lord of the manor. There is no trace of a borough in the entry in Domesday Book, but there are distinct traces of a local dyeing and fulling industry (fn. 18) in the early 13th century, and it is possible that burgage tenure may have been granted by the lord about this time, especially as Wendover, from its position at the mouth of one of the gaps in the Chilterns, was favourably situated for a market town. The borough was first mentioned in 1227 or 1228, when it made presentments at the assizes separately from the rest of Aylesbury Hundred. (fn. 19) In the reign of Edward I the tenants of the borough all held by burgage tenure, some of them having shops as well as burgages, (fn. 20) and in 1461 John Barker held certain land according to the custom of the borough. (fn. 21) The yearly assized rent due from the tenants varied very considerably during the 14th and 15th centuries; it was returned at £12 14s. 4d. in 1302, (fn. 22) £6 15s. 1d. in 1337, (fn. 23) £11 0s. 3½d. in 1340, (fn. 24) £15 3s. 5¼d. in 1411, (fn. 25) and £11 6s. 8d. in 1417. (fn. 26) A 13th-century extent gives 121 burgages, 76 of which paid a rent of 18d., the remainder varying between that sum and 5s. (fn. 27) It would seem to have been the custom to remit burgage rents while a burgess held office, for in 1411 the collector of rents had his rent of 18d. remitted per consuetudinem, (fn. 28) and similar references to remittance of rent for the bailiff of the borough during office have been found. (fn. 29) This may account for the statements in the 'Customes of Wendover Borough,' quoted by Lipscomb, that a bailiff held office for a year and then became a burgess, (fn. 30) that is, again took up the financial responsibilities temporarily dropped. The chief official was the bailiff, who appears in the 14th century, and held office for a year. (fn. 31) There were also two constables, who were the returning officers from the 17th century, (fn. 32) and dozoners, who collected the headsilver. These officials had no powers outside the borough, except in regard to the church of Wendover, which was common to the borough and the Forrens manor, and to which they appointed two churchwardens, who made the church ale and kept their book of accounts. (fn. 33) The lord of Wendover held a special court of the borough, which is mentioned in 1298, (fn. 34) and two views of frankpledge each year for the borough tenants; the court-house of the borough appears in 1461. (fn. 35) Separate courts leet, baron and the three weeks court are mentioned in the 'Customes of Wendover Borough.' (fn. 36) In the reign of Edward VI all inhabitants who owned a plough were bound to find and cart flints and other materials for the repair of the roads. (fn. 37) The tenants in 1556 claimed the right to sell by a free deed the burgages that they held by copy of court roll and to hold their lands in the borough by burgage tenure, paying rent without heriot or relief. (fn. 38) As a matter of fact, however, they mostly held at this time by charters, in which suit of court and the payment of relief were stipulated. (fn. 39) The common at Beacon Hill also appertained to the borough tenants, but the tenants of Halton Manor also had common rights there. (fn. 40) The chapel of St. John Baptist (q.v.) belonged to the borough, the rent of the land and other property belonging to it being paid to the burgesses, who were not bound to give any account of it. (fn. 41) The borough consisted of about 30 to 40 acres of land, almost all of which was covered with buildings. It probably reached northwards to the end of North Street (now Aylesbury Street), where the Wharf Road joins it, eastwards along East Street (now the Tring Road) to Holly House or Cold Harbour, westwards along West Street (now Pound Street) to about where the 'Shoulder of Mutton' stands, and southwards down South Street nearly as far as the Baptist chapel. (fn. 42)
The borough returned two burgesses to the Parliaments of 1300–1, 1307 and 1309, (fn. 43) but after the last date its representation ceased for three centuries. In the early 17th century, however, William Hakewill, a barrister and afterwards M.P. for Amersham, presented petitions in 1621 and 1624 from the boroughs of Amersham, Marlow and Wendover, claiming the right of sending burgesses to Parliament. James I opposed the petitions on the grounds that there were already too many members, but finally they were brought before the committee of the Commons to consider elections and returns, under the chairmanship of Sir John Glanville. (fn. 44) From the records found by Selden and Noy the case of the boroughs was proved, and from 1625 Wendover returned two members to Parliament. The franchise, according to a decision of the following century, belonged to 'the inhabitant housekeepers within the borough not receiving alms,' and by a second decision 'persons coming by certificate to live in the borough' were excluded from the privilege. (fn. 45) The borough was one of the smallest in England, and from its dependent position on the lord of the manor it became a proprietary borough. It was remarkable, however, for the list of distinguished men who represented it, including John Hampden in 1625, Richard Steele in 1722, and Edmund Burke in 1765. (fn. 46) After the Restoration Richard Hampden, who purchased the manors of Wendover Borough and Forrens (q.v.) in 1660, represented it. (fn. 47) Corruption seems to have been rife in the borough, since in 1672 his colleague Backwell was unseated, (fn. 48) and in 1702 the same fate befell Sir Roger Hill, who was found guilty of corruption, (fn. 49) Richard Crawley being elected in his place. (fn. 50) A second petition against Sir Roger Hill was brought in 1710 for bribery, but he was not unseated. The constables of the borough worked openly to return the candidates brought forward by the lord of the manor. (fn. 51) The year before this election an unavailing effort to bring about greater purity at election times was made, and a sermon was preached by the vicar of Great Kimble before the Society for the Reformation of Manners in Wendover Church, making a great appeal to the voters of the borough. (fn. 52) Wendover was controlled by the Hampdens, and in 1727 Richard Hampden, who had been ruined in the South Sea Bubble, offered the reversion of his seat at Wendover to the Government, but no price is named. (fn. 53) The borough came into the possession of Ralph Verney, second and last Earl Verney in Ireland, presumably by purchase, since he sat as member for the borough from 1754 to 1761, (fn. 54) and the Hampdens reserved only the paramountcy of the manors of the borough and forrens of Wendover (q.v.). In 1768 the tenants of the borough were dispossessed on account of their politics, and in 1784 there was the most open bribery at the election, large sums of money being distributed as a gift from the Moon. (fn. 55) The affairs of Earl Verney had long been in a disastrous condition, his estates being sequestered in the Court of Chancery, and in 1774 he was forced to find a candidate for the borough who could bear the election expenses himself. (fn. 56) Burke, who was then member, retired. He testified, however, to the disinterestedness of the earl's friendship and to the fact that he had been entirely his own master at St. Stephen's. (fn. 57) Verney sold the borough to John Barker Church, who sat as one of its representatives in 1790. (fn. 58) He shortly afterwards sold it to Robert Smith, (fn. 59) created Lord Carrington in 1796, who conveyed it with the manor to his brother Samuel Smith. (fn. 60) It remained a proprietary borough, belonging to his family until the first Reform Bill. It is interesting to note that in the 1831–2 election for the Parliament that passed the bill even Wendover was contested by two Liverpool merchants, though the Smith candidates, Abel and Samuel Smith, were of course elected. (fn. 61) Wendover lost both its members in 1832.
There appears to have been a market at Wendover from an early period, and the lords held it until the manor of Wendover (fn. 62) came to the Crown with the accession of Edward IV. In 1464 he confirmed to his 'tenants and residents within the borough or town of Wendover … a market which they have always had weekly on Thursdays, within the said town or borough, with all liberties and franchises.' (fn. 63) The market was still held on Thursday in 1792. (fn. 64) It had dwindled into insignificance by 1869, when it was held on Tuesday, and it disappeared before 1888. (fn. 65)
As early as the year 1214 (fn. 66) Hugh de Gurnay was permitted to hold a yearly fair at Wendover on the eve, day and morrow of St. John Baptist. In 1347 Edward III granted a fair at Wendover to Sir John de Molyns to be held on the eve, day and morrow of St. Barnabas. (fn. 67) This fair does not seem to have continued for long, but in 1464 Edward IV granted two fairs to the tenants of the borough, to be held on the vigils, feasts and morrows of St. Philip and St. James (1 May) and St. Matthew (21 September) respectively (fn. 68); they were held on 12 May and 2 October in 1792 and 1888, (fn. 69) and at the present day on 13 May and 2 October.
Wendover is mentioned between 965 and 971 in the will of Ælfheah the Ældorman of Hampshire and Wiltshire, who owned land in 'Ægelesbyrig' (Aylesbury) and 'Wændofron' (Wendover). (fn. 70) The manor of WENDOVER, which was afterwards divided into the manors of WENDOVER BOROUGH and WENDOVER FORRENS, was held by Edward the Confessor, and after the Norman Conquest it remained in the possession of William I, and therefore formed part of the ancient demesne of the Crown. (fn. 71) It was assessed throughout the 11th century at 24 hides, but the farm of the manor was raised from £25, by tale, in the time of the Confessor to £38, assayed, in 1086. (fn. 72) There were at the later date two sokemen holding 1½ hides of land. (fn. 73) Additions to Wendover Manor were made after the Conquest by Ralph Taillebosc, (fn. 74) who possibly held the office of Sheriff of Buckinghamshire. In 'Wandene,' which has been identified with Wendover Dean, Lewin of Neweham held half a hide both before and after the Conquest, but in the reign of the Confessor it was not attached to the royal manor. (fn. 75) Again, another half hide was held by three men who could sell their land, but in 1086 it had been added to the farm of Wendover. (fn. 76) The manor of Wendover remained in the king's possession until Stephen granted it in 1151 to Hugh de Gurnay, (fn. 77) one of his active supporters, by whom it was held until after the expedition of Henry II to Toulouse. (fn. 78) The king then granted the greater part of Wendover to Faramus of Boulogne, who was already in possession at Michaelmas 1158. (fn. 79) He is said to have received it in exchange for the castle of Dover. Faramus was succeeded by his daughter and heir Sibyl de Tingres, (fn. 80) the wife of Ingram de Fiennes, who paid the farm of the manor in 1185. (fn. 81) Ingram went on the third Crusade and was killed at the siege of Acre in 1190. (fn. 82) His name, however, appears as paying the farm of the manor until 1194, (fn. 83) when it seems to have escheated to the king. In 1199 his widow Sibyl paid a fine for possession of the manor and for licence to marry whom she would. (fn. 84) She held it in 1200, (fn. 85) but the following year Hugh de Gurnay, the son of the former lord of the manor, brought an action against the heirs of Ingram de Fiennes to recover it. (fn. 86) The result of this suit is not given, but Hugh was banished shortly after this date (fn. 87) and Sibyl retained Wendover till 1208, (fn. 88) possibly the date of her death. In the following year Hugh de Gurnay, who had been pardoned at the request of Otto, King of the Romans, (fn. 89) the king's nephew, paid a fine for the manor of Wendover, (fn. 90) which he held in 1215. (fn. 91) He supported the barons against King John and his lands were forfeited, (fn. 92) but he seems to have died a little later. After the accession of Henry III, William de Fiennes, the son and heir of Ingram and Sibyl, obtained Wendover. (fn. 93) Hugh son and heir of Hugh de Gurnay obtained restitution of his lands in 1222, (fn. 94) but before this Fiennes had had difficulty in obtaining the homage and service of a tenant of the manor enfeoffed by the Gurnays. (fn. 95) In 1220 he did not hold the whole manor, and there was considerable litigation over the matter. (fn. 96) In 1223, however, a compromise was reached by which William de Fiennes granted Hugh de Gurnay certain lands, rents and services in the manor, to hold of the lords of the manor, for the service due from one knight's fee. (fn. 97) William died before 1243 and was succeeded by his son Ingram, (fn. 98) who granted Wendover in 1251 for three years to Peter of Savoy. (fn. 99) Ten years later he obtained a confirmation of the grant of the manor from Henry III. (fn. 100) After his death before 1284 his widow Isabel held it of his son and heir William. (fn. 101) The latter died seised in 1301 and was succeeded by his son John, (fn. 102) who, however, lived on his French fief of St. Omer in Picardy. (fn. 103) He gave Wendover to his brother Robert, the king's yeoman, (fn. 104) who demised it in 1314 to Edward II for ten years, (fn. 105) but shortly afterwards regained possession of the manor from the king. (fn. 106) Roger Mortimer of Wigmore, one of the chief supporters of Thomas of Lancaster in his attack on the Despensers, was the brother-in-law of John and Robert, having married their sister Margaret. (fn. 107) Robert supported him and in consequence lost his lands and goods. (fn. 108) After the successful attempt of the king to crush the Mortimers, Robert joined his brother at St. Omer. (fn. 109) Mortimer was imprisoned in the Tower, but escaped in 1323, and he also sought refuge in Picardy. (fn. 110) There the king wrote to both John and Robert de Fiennes commanding them to give up the rebels. (fn. 111) John made his peace with the king, (fn. 112) but neither he nor Robert seems to have recovered the manor of Wendover, since they followed their French allegiance in the wars that were shortly to begin. (fn. 113) The manor remained in the Crown till 1339, when Edward III gave it to Sir John de Molyns. (fn. 114) The latter settled it the following year on himself, his wife Gille and their sons John and William in tail, (fn. 115) but it appears to have been forfeited already to the king on account of Sir John's bankruptcy. (fn. 116) His lands were restored to him in 1345, (fn. 117) and he gave certain manors including Wendover to his son William for his life. (fn. 118) His lands were again forfeited, but in 1359 William de Molyns obtained a release of those manors in which he had a life interest, on condition that he found 'competent maintenance' for his father and mother. (fn. 119) William seems to have held Wendover peaceably for a few years, (fn. 120) but about 1364 Robert de Fiennes claimed it under the treaty with King John of France. (fn. 121) He did not succeed, however, and in spite of the grant to William de Molyns the manor reverted to the Crown. (fn. 122) The king granted the manor in 1371 to Alice Perrers, (fn. 123) who finally forfeited her lands on the accession of Richard II. (fn. 124) Her husband, Sir William Windsor, sheltered her after the sentence of banishment pronounced on her by Parliament, (fn. 125) and some years later obtained a grant of much of her property (fn. 126); but Wendover in spite of a petition made in 1381 (fn. 127) was not restored. In that year Richard II granted the manor to his half-brother Thomas Holland. (fn. 128) In 1384 he granted it to Queen Anne for her dower, (fn. 129) and in 1385 temporarily to the chancellor Michael de la Pole, (fn. 130) but it was again in his hands in 1387. (fn. 131) In 1388 it was given to Edmund Duke of York in fee-tailmale. (fn. 132) The duke held it till his death in 1402, (fn. 133) when he was succeeded by his son Edward. (fn. 134) The second duke died in 1415 and Wendover passed to his nephew Richard, (fn. 135) who became the leader of the Yorkist party. His property was forfeited under the Act of Attainder of 1459, but came into the possession of his son Edward IV on his accession. (fn. 136) Edward gave it to his mother for her life and Richard III afterwards confirmed the grant, (fn. 137) but Henry VII resumed the manor in 1495 and assigned it to his wife Elizabeth of York as part of her jointure. (fn. 138) It passed to Henry VIII, who obtained a quitclaim from his aunts, Katherine Countess of Devon and Anne the wife of Sir Thomas Howard, both daughters of Edward IV. (fn. 139) The king granted lands and rents in Wendover to Catherine of Aragon, (fn. 140) and afterwards the manor was given to her, (fn. 141) to Jane Seymour, (fn. 142) Anne of Cleves, (fn. 143) and Catherine Howard in succession. (fn. 144) On the execution of Catherine Howard it reverted to the Crown, (fn. 145) and was not alienated till 1564, when Queen Elizabeth granted the manors of Wendover Borough and Wendover Forrens to Sir Francis Knollys and his wife Katherine. (fn. 146) The following year she also granted them the fee-farm rent due from the manors. (fn. 147) Before 1575 the Wendover manors passed, probably by sale, to William Hawtrey of Chequers. (fn. 148) It is not clear to which William Hawtrey this refers, as a father and son of this name succeeded one another in the second half of the 16th century. (fn. 149) The son, who was knighted in 1591 before Rouen by the Earl of Essex, (fn. 150) left three daughters and heirs, Mary the wife of Sir Francis Wolley, Bridget wife of Sir Henry Croke and Anne wife of John Saunders. (fn. 151) Wendover was assigned to the eldest daughter Mary, who held the manors in 1613. (fn. 152) She died leaving no descendants, (fn. 153) and her lands before 1638 were divided between her niece Elizabeth wife of Sir Walter Pye and Sir Henry Croke. (fn. 154) Sir Walter settled his moiety in that year on his wife Elizabeth and his heirs, (fn. 155) but after her death in 1640 (fn. 156) a further settlement appears to have been made and the Wendover manors became the property of Sir Walter only. (fn. 157) His estates were sequestered during the Civil War, (fn. 158) but he sold Wendover Borough and Forrens to George Gosnold and Robert Style, (fn. 159) who resold them to John Baldwin before 1650. (fn. 160) Ten years later they were purchased from him by Richard Hampden of Great Hampden (fn. 161) (q.v.). The Hampdens held the manors until the middle of the 18th century, (fn. 162) when the borough (q.v.) was acquired by Earl Verney, the Hampdens, however, retaining the paramountcy of both manors. (fn. 163) After Lord Carrington had bought the borough, he obtained also the life interest in the manors of Thomas second Viscount Hampden, (fn. 164) who then owned the Hampden estates, and finally obtained the paramountcy of the manors from the Earl of Buckinghamshire, (fn. 165) who succeeded to the estates in 1824. (fn. 166) Lord Carrington conveyed the manors to his brother Samuel, whose grandson the Rev. Albert Smith is now lord of the manor of Wendover.
The following customary payments made by the tenants of the manor are mentioned in different documents: medesilver (xiii cent.), (fn. 167) Christmasyeld, (fn. 168) and bensed. (fn. 169) The lords of the manors of Wendover held very important franchises. The grant to Faramus of Boulogne included sac and soc, toll and team, infangthief and other liberties, (fn. 170) and in the 13th century Ingram de Fiennes held the view of frankpledge, for which he paid 20s. to the sheriff and half a mark to the king's bailiff, but he afterwards ceased these payments, since he obtained a charter omitting them. He also had the assizes of bread and ale, the return of writs and gallows. (fn. 171) Sir John de Molyns obtained still greater privileges in 1340, (fn. 172) but they do not seem to have been renewed in the grant to the Duke of York in 1388, only the view of frankpledge being specially mentioned. (fn. 173)
An estate which obtained the name of BRADSHAW'S MANOR was purchased from Henry VIII by Henry Bradshaw, chief baron of the Exchequer. (fn. 174) He was probably the son of William Bradshaw of Wendover, to whom there is a brass in the church, though Bradshaw's Manor was apparently not the family property, but the land of the priory of St. Mary Overy in Wendover Forrens obtained by him in 1540. (fn. 175) The right of free warren which he exercised in Wendover Forrens Manor was presumably appurtenant to Bradshaw's Manor. (fn. 176) Henry died seised of the manor in 1553, (fn. 177) and it passed with Halton Manor, (fn. 178) after the death of his son Benedict and one of his daughters, to the surviving daughter Bridget wife of Thomas Fermor. (fn. 179) The name Bradshaw's Manor does not appear after her death in 1578, (fn. 180) but probably the lands belonging to it are to be identified with the property in Wendover belonging to the lords of the manor of Halton. (fn. 181) In 1641 Sir Richard Fermor paid a lay subsidy for lands in Wendover, (fn. 182) which were in the possession of Henry Fermor in 1671. (fn. 183) In that year Henry bought the fee-farm rent of £4 8s. 7d., due from his property in Wendover, from Richard Hampden, then lord of the Wendover manors. (fn. 184) In 1795 Sir John Dashwood, who was lord of Halton Manor, was also a landowner in Wendover. (fn. 185)
The abbey of Missenden obtained grants of land in Wendover in the 12th and 13th centuries. (fn. 186) In the index of the abbey cartulary charters from the lords of the manor of Wendover, Faramus of Boulogne, Sibyl his daughter, William de Fiennes and Hugh de Gurnay are enumerated, but they have been lost from the text. (fn. 187) In spite of this the charters of smaller tenants of Wendover are recorded. At the Dissolution the monastery held land in Wendover worth £1 15s. 4d. a year, (fn. 188) and the greater part of this was granted in fee in 1540 and 1543 to Sir Michael Dormer. (fn. 189) He died in 1545 seised of lands in Wendover, (fn. 190) and it seems probable that these may be identified with the manor of MARTINS or MAYERTORNE MANOR, which was held of the manor of Wendover Forrens by fealty and rent. (fn. 191) Sir Michael's heir was his son Thomas, (fn. 192) and though he made settlements on his other sons in tail-male (fn. 193) as well, the reversion of Mayertorne Manor seems to have passed shortly after to his nephew Sir Robert Dormer. (fn. 194) The latter died seised of this reversion in 1552, (fn. 195) and the manor remained with his descendants (fn. 196) till the second half of the 17th century. Charles Earl of Carnarvon, the last of the eldest branch of Sir Robert's heirs male, (fn. 197) sold it in 1670 to Thomas Lewis, a London alderman. (fn. 198) In 1712 it belonged to Francis Lewis, (fn. 199) from whom it, like West Wycombe, passed to the Dashwood family, who purchased Halton Manor in 1720. (fn. 200) Mayertorne Manor was bought by Matthew Raper before 1795. (fn. 201) His son Matthew succeeded him and died in 1826. (fn. 202)
Mayertorne was afterwards held for many years by Mr. Lanford Lovell of Hampshire and was purchased about 1860 by Mr. Tubbs, whose son's widow Mrs. Tubbs is the present owner. (fn. 203)
The manor of WYVELSGATE, which was held of the manor of Wendover Forrens (fn. 204) by fealty, suit of court and a rent of 11s. 4d., is first mentioned in the 15th century, (fn. 205) but the name Wyvelsgate appears in 1223 and 1315–16. (fn. 206) In 1414 Roger Cheyne of Drayton Beauchamp held rents in Wyvelsgate and a fulling-mill in Wendover. (fn. 207) Most probably this estate formed a large part of the manor, which belonged in 1493 to Robert Bulstrode and his wife Margaret as part of her inheritance. (fn. 208) They sold the manor to Abraham Sibylles, (fn. 209) who died before the accession of Henry VIII, leaving his son Isaac, then a minor, as his heir. (fn. 210) Isaac obtained livery of his inheritance in 1518, (fn. 211) but died in 1526, when he was seised of 46s. 8d. rent in Wyvelsgate, no manor being mentioned. (fn. 212) His heir was his sister Anne, the wife of John Cheyne of Kent. (fn. 213) She does not appear in the pedigree of the Cheyne family, (fn. 214) but apparently she died leaving two daughters as her heirs, Anne wife of John Poyntz and Frances wife of John Asteley. (fn. 215) The Poyntzes released the manor in 1542, and the Asteleys in 1545, to Henry Bradshaw. (fn. 216) From him it seems to have passed to George Baldwin, who died seised of Wyvelsgate Manor in 1576. (fn. 217) He was succeeded by his son Ralph and by Henry Baldwin, presumably his grandson, in turn. (fn. 218) The latter had succeeded before 1620–1, when James I granted him free warren in his manor and lordship of Wyvelsgate. (fn. 219) He was living in 1633–4, when a Ralph Baldwin is also mentioned. (fn. 220) The manor seems to have come before 1641 into the possession of William Hakewill, (fn. 221) to whom reference has already been made in the history of the Parliamentary franchise of the borough (q.v.). He died in 1655, and both he and his wife Elizabeth daughter of Sir Henry Woodhouse are buried at Wendover. (fn. 222) William Hakewill, probably his son, held the manor in 1672 and was succeeded by Gresham Hakewill. (fn. 223) In 1672 William and Gresham Hakewill released it to John Collet and William Hill of Wendover, (fn. 224) and in 1676 Gresham Hakewill and his wife Katherine, together with William Hill, sen., and Thomas Ligoe further released it to John Rose. (fn. 225) In 1724 it was in the possession of Edward Martin, who with his wife Frances sold Wyvelsgate to Thomas Holloway and his wife Anne. (fn. 226) Holloway still owned it in 1737, (fn. 227) but it afterwards came into the possession of the Collet family. Possibly the Collets had possessed it since 1672, in which case the interest of Martin and Holloway must have been that of lessees, or again John Collet may have had a mortgage on the manor which was afterwards foreclosed. Before 1770 it was in the possession of Robert Collet, (fn. 228) the last direct male descendant of a family which had been connected with Wendover for several centuries. (fn. 229) He settled it on his sister's family, and at his death it passed to his nephew Richard Stratford, who took the name of Collet in addition to his own. (fn. 230) In 1862 it was in the possession of Robert S. Collet, (fn. 231) but the Collet estate was afterwards sold and broken up. The house called The Hale is said to have been the residence of the Collets in the 14th century, (fn. 232) and according to one account was the birthplace of Sir Henry Collet. (fn. 233) In the 16th and 17th centuries it belonged to the lords of Wyvelsgate Manor and was not regained by the Collets till they obtained the manor.
The history of the fee obtained by Hugh de Gurnay in Wendover, in settlement of the dispute between his family and the Fiennes as to the possession of the manor, can be traced for several centuries. (fn. 234) On his death, about 1238, it passed to his daughter Juliana the wife of William Bardolf, (fn. 235) but all the land was subinfeudated at the time of her death in 1295, (fn. 236) and her descendants held the fee in mesne lordship. (fn. 237) The Bardolfs held it until the death of Thomas Lord Bardolf in 1407–8. (fn. 238) He took part in the Earl of Northumberland's rising against Henry IV, and died of wounds received at the fight of Bramham Moor. (fn. 239) He was attainted after his death, and presumably the rents and services due to him from Wendover lapsed to the Crown, (fn. 240) since they do not appear among the possessions recovered by his heirs.
The manor of the HALE can be identified with one of the tenements from which these services were due. In 1223 the rent from half a hide of land held by Edmund of the Hale was assigned to Hugh de Gurnay in his share of Wendover. (fn. 241) This perhaps did not include all the land afterwards known as the manor, but it is evidence that the Hale was held of Gurnay. Some years later Judlemus de Evermia and Lady Joan Mumby(?) each held half a fee of his heir, (fn. 242) but it seems impossible to identify which half was afterwards held by the Vache family. In 1294 Richard Vache held lands in Wendover, (fn. 243) and in 1329–30 Matthew Vache held half a knight's fee there. (fn. 244) His son Richard obtained a grant of free warren in his demesne lands in Wendover in 1363. (fn. 245) The Vache lands passed, on the death of Sir Philip Vache, c. 1408, to his daughter, the wife of Richard Lord Grey de Wilton. (fn. 246) In a settlement made in 1442 (fn. 247) Wendover le Hale and certain lands in Aston Clinton are described as being 'the same manor of Weston Clinton,' i.e., as Vaches Manor in Aston Clinton, but in the following year Reginald Lord Grey de Wilton held a separate view of frankpledge for Wendover with le Hale. (fn. 248) It appears to have followed the same descent as Vaches Manor in Aston Clinton at this time, coming into the possession of Sir Henry Collet, alderman and twice Lord Mayor of London, (fn. 249) whose family are said to have been living at the Hale before this time. Sir Henry died in 1505 and his lands passed to his only surviving son John, Dean of St. Paul's, (fn. 250) who held, a year or two later, lands worth £10 4s. 2d. a year in Wendover and Vaches Manor in Aston Clinton and Wendover worth £7 13s. 6d. a year. (fn. 251) On the foundation of St. Paul's School by Dean Collet, lands adjacent to the Hale were given to the Mercers' Company, (fn. 252) the trustees of the school, and they were shortly involved in considerable litigation with their Wendover tenants. (fn. 253) The Mercers still held this property in the 19th cen tury, (fn. 254) but the manorial rights had been retained by the Collets and were alienated by Mr. Robert Stratford Collet in 1880 to Mr. Alfred Charles de Rothschild. (fn. 255)
The Fitz Niel family held land in Wendover during the 13th and 14th centuries. Robert Fitz Niel acquired land from Roger le Someter in 1287 (fn. 256) which was held of Wendover Manor. (fn. 257) The land followed the descent of the manor of Fenel's Grove in Great Kimble (in Aylesbury Hundred, q.v.), (fn. 258) the last mention of it being after the death of Sir Michael Dormer in 1545. (fn. 259)
Two mills are mentioned in Domesday, attached to Wendover Manor and worth 10s. yearly, (fn. 260) and known later as the Upper and Nether Mill. In 1295 they were worth £10 yearly, (fn. 261) while in 1417 their value had decreased to £1 13s. 4d. (fn. 262) In the 16th century they were leased for £6. (fn. 263) Sheahan mentions two mills which have since disappeared. (fn. 264) The Nether Mill stood on the site of the present mill. Another water-mill, called Clerks Mill, was also attached to Wendover Manor and is mentioned in 1411 (fn. 265) and again in 1555. (fn. 266)
A fulling mill is mentioned in Wendover in 1296 (fn. 267) and again in 1414, when Roger Cheyne died seised. (fn. 268) Two mills known as Poyntz Mills were attached to Wyvelsgate Manor (q.v.) in the 16th century.
The hospital of ST. JOHN BAPTIST (fn. 269) for a warden and an unknown number of brethren existed in Wendover in the late 13th century. In 1311 the brethren obtained an indulgence from Bishop Dalderby. (fn. 270) The warden held land in the borough and Forrens of Wendover until the reign of Henry VIII, when the hospital presumably was dissolved. (fn. 271) In 1554 land formerly held by the hospital was unlet in the hands of the lord of the manor. (fn. 272) Nothing more is known of the hospital, but it seems probable that it may have been connected with the chapel of St. John Baptist, which formerly stood on the Tring Road. (fn. 273) The chapel seems to have belonged to the borough (q.v.), its property being administered by the burgesses, (fn. 274) but it was dissolved as a chantry chapel in 1547. (fn. 275) Ten years later an inquisition was held on the property of this chapel, which consisted of a messuage and lands valued at 59s. a year, which was received by the warden of the chapel, for the salary of a priest to celebrate divine service in it. (fn. 276) It then seems to have been in the occupation of William Wyre, (fn. 277) which continued in spite of a grant of the chapel and its estate to George London in 1558 for twenty-one years. (fn. 278) The reversion was granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1562 to Robert Moulton and William Barrell and their heirs. (fn. 279) The rent of 59s. was not paid by William Wyre to the grantees, and apparently as the result of a complaint on their part his widow Katherine and her second husband William Girdler were afterwards called upon to account for the issues of the estate. (fn. 280) The woods belonging to the chapel were mentioned in 1573. (fn. 281) The chapel lands, containing 12 acres, however, are mentioned as paying tithes to the impropriator of the rectory in 1680. (fn. 282) The chapel, which had long been disused, was pulled down and on the site the infants' school was built. (fn. 283)
The church of ST. MARY consists of a chancel 40 ft. by 18 ft., a north organ chamber and vestry and a south chapel, a nave 64 ft. by 17 ft. 6 in., north and south aisles 9 ft. 6 in. and 10 ft. wide respectively, a west tower 13 ft. square, and north and south porches. These measurements are all internal.
It is probable that previous to the middle of the 13th century the church had a nave with north and south aisles and that at this date these were lengthened by two bays and the chancel and chancel arch rebuilt and widened. In the first half of the 14th century the older arcades and the aisles were rebuilt and also the arches of the two western bays, the columns and responds of which were retained, the nave thus preserving its old width and probably its old length. At the same time the chancel was again widened, but only towards the north, and the chancel arch and its responds were rebuilt, though probably the old width of the opening was retained. A north vestry was also added. The tower may possibly have been begun when the old aisles were lengthened, but if this was the case the tower arch was rebuilt with the aisles, and the tower itself may have been added to at the same time, but modern restorations have destroyed nearly all traces of the early history of this part of the church. A clearstory was probably added in the 15th century, but the present clearstory in 14thcentury style is a part of the restorations and additions of G. E. Street in 1869, when the chancel arcades, the north organ chamber, south chapel and both porches were carried out. A considerable amount of work was also done in every part of the church, and not a single window remains in its original state.
The east window of the chancel is of three lights. The opening is of 14th-century date, but the tracery is modern and of the 'net' type. On either side, in the north and south walls, is a window with two trefoiled lights and flowing tracery over. Only a few stones of that on the north are old, but the window on the south is in the main of 14th-century date, to which period the opening at least of that on the north belongs. On the south is also a 13th-century double piscina with a roll moulded shouldered head. West of these windows are two small 14th-century doorways, that on the north, which was originally the vestry door, now opening into the organ chamber, while that on the south is external. They are identical in internal design, with double wave moulds and two-centred heads, but the vestry door is plain on the north side, while the other is similarly moulded on both jambs. To the west of these doorways on both sides are modern arcades of two bays in the decorated style, opening on the north to the organ chamber and on the south to the chapel. The chancel arch, which is of 14th-century date, is two-centred and of two plain chamfered orders without a label and is central with neither the nave nor the chancel. The jambs are shafted, each having three engaged columns with circular moulded capitals. The bases, which are circular and common to all three shafts, are of 14th-century date much restored.
The nave is of five bays. The two-centred arches of the arcades are of two moulded orders and have ogee labels with grótesque heads as stops and the columns are of four rather less than half-round shafts with square fillets between. The first three columns on both sides and the east responds have bell capitals enriched with deeply undercut foliage and grotesques, and the moulded abaci and bases are of the same plan as the columns. The western columns and responds have plain capitals and abaci more elaborately moulded; these in the case of the columns are octagonal in plan and common to the four shafts. The bases also are of different section from those of the rest of the arcade and earlier. They are circular, are common to the four shafts and have an octagonal plinth upon a low square sub-plinth.
At the east end of the north aisle is a modern arch to the organ chamber of 14th-century detail, and in the north wall are four windows, each of two uncusped lights with a quatrefoil over. The rear arches are old and are moulded with an ogee and a sunk chamfer, and the external splays are of two moulded orders. The north doorway in the fourth bay is wholly modern and of 14th-century detail, and is covered by a modern traceried wooden porch on a dwarf wall of stone.
The south aisle is also lighted by four two-light windows which have even less old work than those on the north. The external jambs are like those of the north windows, but the rear arches are of two wave-moulded orders. The tracery is later in design than in the case of the north-aisle windows, and is similar to that in the north and south windows of the chancel; but, as all the tracery is modern, there is no reason to suppose that the windows of the two aisles are of different dates, since such old work as remains is approximately the same in both cases. The head of the south doorway is a good piece of 14th-century work elaborately moulded and enriched with a string of alternating ball flowers and fourleaved flowers. Like everything else in the church it is much restored, and the western carved stop of the label and some of the voussoirs are modern, and the jambs are entirely so.
The north organ chamber has two modern windows on the east similar to those in the north aisle, and another on the north in which are a few old stones, probably reset from an old chancel window displaced when the chancel arcades were formed. This is also probably the history of a fourth window in the organ chamber, a much-restored 15th-century single light, and of the east window of the south chapel, which is of the same detail as the windows of the south aisle.
The tower arch is of fairly late 14th-century date and of three chamfered orders, the outer being continuous and the two inner resting upon three nearly detached circular shafts with circular moulded capitals. The arches are of two-centred form and the inner is stilted. There is no west doorway. The west window of three lights retains its 14th-century rear arch of three moulded orders, but the tracery is modern. The tower is of three stages with a modern embattled parapet. The belfry openings are of two lights with modern tracery. There is a muchrestored small window with shafted jambs in the north wall of the second stage, and on the east is a square-blocked opening visible only internally. A square turret staircase on the south-east leads to the belfry, and there are curiously planned angle buttresses, which, however, appear to be largely modern.
The fittings throughout the church are modern, including the font, which is octagonal and designed in 14th-century style, and the roofs are also modern. In the south aisle there is a portion of a curious brass to William Bradshaw, who died in 1537, and his wife Alice with their kneeling figures and those of their two sons and seven daughters, while the names of twenty-three grandchildren are engraved below. There are also slabs to William Hakewill, 'sometime solicitor to Queen Anne,' who died in 1655, Mrs. Elizabeth Hakewill, 1652, John Stace (?), 1661, Henry Playstow, 1675, Thomas Machell, 1698.
The tower contains a ring of six bells: the treble and fourth dated 1633, the third dated 1651, and the tenor 1623, are all by Ellis Knight; the second was cast by Chandler in 1722. There is also a sanctus inscribed 'R. Wells Albourne fecit.'
The church plate consists of an Elizabethan cup of 1569, gilt inside, with a cleverly imitated modern cover to match it, and a cup and cover paten dated 1571. The bowl has been altered and a new rim added. There is also a modern set consisting of a chalice, salver and two standing patens dated 1838.
The registers before 1812 are as follows: (1) marriages from 1678 and baptisms from 1629, both to 1726; (ii) marriages 1726 to 1754, baptisms 1726 to 1791 and burials in woollen 1732 to 1791; (iii) burials and baptisms 1792 to 1812; (iv) (v) and (vi) marriages 1754 to 1778, 1778 to 1809, and 1809 to 1812 respectively. There is also a separate book of burials in woollen with a printed title-page dated 1678 and the Act itself printed in black letter at the beginning. This contains burials and notes of the affidavits between 1678 and 1731. It also contains an apparent transcript of previous burials from 1671 to 1677.
The church of Wendover appears to have been attached to the manor (q.v.) until the time of Faramus of Boulogne, who gave it to the priory of St. Mary Overy in Southwark during the reign of Henry II, (fn. 284) whose charter of confirmation is recited in 1389 by Richard II. (fn. 285) There seems to have been some dispute between the priory and the king at this time, since very shortly after the grant of the charter an inquiry was held which returned that the king was the true patron of Wendover rectory. (fn. 286) The priory, however, seems to have retained the church until the Dissolution, (fn. 287) when the rent of the rectory was £20 a year. (fn. 288) Henry VIII granted the rectory of St. Mary in Wendover in 1543 to Henry Bradshaw, formerly in the tenure of William and Henry Bradshaw. (fn. 289) Henry obtained it for himself, his heirs and executors, but he seems to have surrendered it to the Crown before his death. (fn. 290) Queen Elizabeth gave leases of the rectory for various terms, (fn. 291) but it does not appear to have been alienated from the Crown in her reign. James I gave it in 1609 to Francis Morris and Francis Phillips, (fn. 292) but it shortly came into the possession of Sir Thomas Lake. (fn. 293) In 1624 Sir Thomas, together with Sir Nicholas Fortescue, Richard Cooper, Francis Phillips and William Lake, appears to have leased it for twenty years to Sir John Trevor, (fn. 294) but in 1629 he died seised of Wendover rectory, which he had settled on his third son Lancelot. (fn. 295) His grandson Sir Lancelot Lake (fn. 296) sold it in 1676 to Joshua Lomax, (fn. 297) who resold it before 1680 to Edward Jolley, clerk. (fn. 298) During the following century the tithes appear to have come into various ownership, and in 1795, on the occasion of the inclosure of the open fields of the parish, allotments in lieu of the rectorial tithes were made to Thomas Lord Hampden, the lord of the manors of Wendover, Sarah Geary, Matthew Raper, Mary Town, Sir John Russel, bart., Joseph Smith and John Stace. (fn. 299)
The vicarage of Wendover was ordained during, or possibly before, the episcopate of Hugh of Wells, (fn. 300) and in 1291 its yearly value was estimated at £5 6s. 8d. (fn. 301) After the dissolution of the priory of St. Mary Overy the advowson of the vicarage was granted to Henry Bradshaw together with the rectory, (fn. 302) but it was not included in the later grants of the rectory. The Crown presented as the owner of the advowson in 1660, and the Lord Chancellor is patron of the living at the present day. (fn. 303)
At the visitation of 1519 it was presented that beasts pastured in the churchyard and that the vicar had neglected for two years to give the parishioners a yearly dinner (prandium) on Easter Day, as he ought. (fn. 304)
Nicholas Almond, deed 21 July 1629, trust fund, £632 8s. 2d. consols with the official trustees, producing £15 16s. yearly, arising from the sale in 1867 of a messuage in New Thame in the county of Oxford. Out of the income a yearly sum of 6s. 8d. is paid to the vicar for a sermon in Easter week.
William Sanderson, will proved in P.C.C. 28 July 1660, trust fund, £377 19s. 7d. consols in the High Court, arising from the sale of property in St. James's, Clerkenwell, originally devised, producing £9 8s. 8d. yearly.
Henry Benning, will proved in P.C.C. 7 February 1728, trust fund, £160 6s. 9d. consols with the official trustees, producing £4 yearly, arising from sale of land in Kensworth (Herts.), originally devised.
Thomas Mallison by indenture of 21 November 1801 conveyed half an acre of land to trustees, the rents to be distributed every alternate year in Bibles and Prayer-books and every other alternate year in bread to the poor. The land was sold in 1891 and the proceeds invested in £123 14s. 3d. consols with the official trustees, producing £3 1s. 4d. yearly, of which one moiety constitutes the ecclesiastical charity of Thomas Mallison and is applicable for the distribution of Bibles, &c., and the other moiety for the poor.
The charity of William Hill, founded by will 3 June 1723, is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 10 March 1911. The property consists of a farm containing 64 acres at Burcott, in the parish of Bierton, producing £160 yearly. The beneficial area comprises the parishes of Bierton, Buckland, Marsworth Oving, Thornborough and Wendover. Wendover is entitled to £4 yearly, to be applied in coats to two poor men, and a yearly sum of £2 for distribution to the poor. The residue of the income, after deducting £16 due to the parishes of Bierton, Buckland, Marsworth Oving and Thornborough, for coats and for distribution to the poor, is applicable equally between the parishes of Bierton and Wendover. One-third of the moiety belonging to Wendover is for educational purposes and called William Hill's Educational Foundation, another third is applicable for apprenticing, and the remaining third for the benefit of the poor.
In 1849 Caroline Whitchurch, by her will proved in P.C.C. 6 November, gave £500 to the vicar to be distributed in charity at his discretion. The legacy is now represented by £342 17s. 10d. consols in the High Court, producing £8 11s. 4d. yearly. By direction of the court the annual sum of £6 6s. is paid to the Royal Bucks Hospital, Aylesbury, and the remainder to Scrubwood School.
The Organ and Choir Fund.
In 1870 a sum of £1,000 was given by an anonymous donor, the income arising therefrom to be applied towards the organist's salary, in music and other necessary books for the choir, in surplices for the choir, and any surplus towards such other objects of parochial charity as the trustees might think fit, subject to certain conditions.
The endowment consists of £1,080 London, Brighton and South Coast Railway 5 per cent. Consolidated Preference stock, in the names of the Rev. A. Smith and two others, producing £54 a year. In 1910 £34 was paid to the organist and £10 towards the expenses of an excursion, and the balance for other expenses in connexion with the choir.
Scrubwood School, founded in 1849, is endowed with £100 17s. 8d. consols with the official trustees, producing £2 10s. 4d. yearly, arising from a gift in 1862 of Miss Ann Lovell. (See also under charity of Caroline Whitchurch, above.)
By deed dated 26 August 1862 Archdeacon Thomas Hill gave £6 yearly issuing out of lands in Bierton and Hulcott, one moiety to be distributed in Bibles or New Testaments in equal proportions to children of Bierton and Wendover and the remaining moiety to be applied in the education of poor children in the said parishes.
In 1910 Allen Juson, by his will proved at Oxford, bequeathed £50 for the benefit of scholars of the Sunday school in connexion with the Baptist chapel, Wendover. The legacy was invested in £62 15s. 7d. consols with the official trustees, producing £1 11s. 4d. yearly.