Parishes : Weston Underwood

Pages 497-502

A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1927.

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Westone (xi cent.); Weston by Launden, Weston by Olney, Weston Underwode (xiv cent.).

The parish of Weston Underwood has an area of 1, 873 acres, of which 477 are arable land, 1,150 permanent grass and 115 woods and plantations. (fn. 1) The soil is loam, in places rich, but elsewhere very poor; the subsoil is clay. The chief crops are wheat, barley, beans and oats. There is a gradual fall in the level of the ground from about 300 ft. in the north to 200 ft. in the south, where the land is liable to floods along the banks of the Ouse.

The Bedford and Northampton branch of the Midland railway runs through the northern end of the parish.

The small but extremely pretty village of Weston Underwood is situated on the road from Northampton to Olney, at the centre of the parish, and lies along a high ridge of ground overlooking the river. It consists principally of stone-built and thatched cottages, and has been frequently described owing to the residence here of the poet Cowper from 1786 to 1795. His house, Weston Lodge, which stands halfway up the street, is a good-sized 17thcentury building of stone with a tiled roof, having a small garden in front and a larger one behind, and has been practically unaltered since his day. A low wall and railings separate it from the street. It was at one time occupied by the curate in charge, who paid a rent of a basket of pears from an old pear tree, which gave the house the name of Pear Tree House. (fn. 2)

At the south-west end of the village is the church of St. Laurence. To the south of it is a moat, possibly once surrounding the chief messuage which the Pevers had here in 1315. (fn. 3) The Manor House, the residence of Lieut.-Col. W. G. Bowyer, R.E., lies at the north-eastern end of the village, about a quarter of a mile up the road leading to Olney and on its south side. It is a stone house with newly added wings, and has to the north of it the school, endowed in 1826 by the lord of the manor. (fn. 4) Near by is the site of the old manor-house of the Throckmortons, who resided here for nearly six centuries. The house was partially rebuilt by Robert Throckmorton, who died here in 1721. (fn. 5) When it was pulled down in 1827 it was in a dilapidated condition, and the south part had been uninhabited for over 200 years. The extensive and valuable library, numerous family portraits, and many coats of arms in painted glass were removed to the family's Warwickshire home at Coughton. (fn. 6) Nothing now survives of the old house except a small 17th-century building adjoining the stables of Lieut.-Col. Bowyer's house and a pair of stone gate-posts which stand to the north of the house. The former is crowned by a cupola, which contains a good clock.

The Roman Catholic chapel built by the Throckmortons in 1838, after the collapse of a chapei contrived out of a portion of the old building, has a black and white marble pavement which came from the entrance hall of the old Weston House, and occupies a portion of its site. The old park belonging to the Throckmortons' house, about 75 acres in extent, contains fine avenues of lime, beech, elm and chestnut trees. It commands varied and extensive views over the Ouse and surrounding country, and its beauties are celebrated in Cowper's verse. It stretches away to the north of the site, from which it is separated by the road leading to Olney. This road was formerly a private one, and was closed at night by the shutting of the iron gates at the Olney and Weston entrances; only the stone posts of the latter gate are now standing. The old public road passed to the south of the house, but it is now disused except where it joins the village street near where the base of the 15th-century village cross stands.

Cowper's House, Weston Underwood

Noteworthy personalities connected with the parish are George Anderson, Accountant-General to the Board of Control, born here in 1760, and Thomas Scott, commentator on the Bible, curate from 1773 to 1781 at Weston.


Before the Conquest ten thegns, who could sell, men of Borret, held a manor of 7½ hides in WESTON, a man of Alric, also able to sell, holding 3 virgates there. This manor was held in 1086 by the Bishop of Coutances, (fn. 7) after whose rebellion in 1088 it was forfeited to the Crown. Weston Underwood was afterwards divided into two portions, corresponding to the manors held by the Nowers and Pevers, (fn. 8) each owing half a fee, in the 12th and 13th centuries, (fn. 9) though in the later 13th century and during the 14th century the service rendered varied from one-fourth to one-tenth fee. (fn. 10) The overlordship rights over both portions were obtained by William Brewer, (fn. 11) whose son William succeeded him about 1227 (fn. 12) and died five years later without issue. The interest in Weston Underwood devolved on his sisters, Margaret wife of William de Ferte and Isabel wife of Baldwin Wake. (fn. 13) Gundred, daughter and heir of the Fertes, married Payn de Chaworth (Chaurches, Chaorciis, Cadurcis), (fn. 14) and their son Patrick (fn. 15) claimed rights in both manors in Weston Underwood, as part of the honour of Chaworth, in the middle of the 13th century. (fn. 16) The Wakes' interest was confined to the Pevers' manor, Baldwin Wake, the overlord in 1279, (fn. 17) dying in 1282, (fn. 18) when his son, John Wake of Liddell, succeeded. (fn. 19) He was summoned to Parliament as a baron in 1295 and died in 1300. (fn. 20) His son Thomas Wake exercised these rights until his death in 1349, (fn. 21) after which the connexion of the Wakes with Weston appears to have ceased.

An intermediary lordship was held under the Brewers and their successors by the Bidun family, of whom John de Bidun is mentioned in the reign of Henry I. (fn. 22) After the death of the last John de Bidun without issue the barony was divided among his five sisters and co-heirs, (fn. 23) of whom the eldest, Amice wife of Henry de Clinton, (fn. 24) obtained the rights in Weston Underwood which she was exercising as early as 1222. (fn. 25) Her interest devolved on the Clintons, (fn. 26) and the connexion of the honour of Bidun with both manors was maintained until the early 14th century at least, (fn. 27) the John de Beauchamp of Wotton who held under the Wakes in the Pevers' manor in 1279 (fn. 28) probably representing a younger branch of the Biduns. (fn. 29) After 1300 the overlordship of the Nowers' manor is obscure; it was held of Baldwin Nevill in 1309, (fn. 30) of Geoffrey de Say in 1317, (fn. 31) and of William Eydon in 1327. (fn. 32) By 1518 the two manors appear to have amalgamated, and were then held of Lord Zouche, (fn. 33) to whom the Pevers' portion had come partly by inheritance and partly by purchase. By 1615 the king had replaced the Zouches as overlord, and Weston Underwood was then attached to his manor of Hampstead. (fn. 34)

Half of the Domesday manor was granted by John de Bidun in the reign of Henry I to Ralf de Nowers, who was still holding in 1166. (fn. 35) His descendant Aumary de Nowers was sued in 1222 by Amice de Clinton, mesne lord between Nowers and William Brewer, for service in the king's army at Bytham Castle in Lincolnshire, which was raised to suppress forces of William de Albemarle in 1220. (fn. 36) The Nowers were lords of Gayhurst (q.v.), with which this manor descended (fn. 37) to the last John de Nowers, against whom John Barker of Olney, merchant, obtained judgement in 1361 for the recovery of £20. (fn. 38) The sequel is probably to be found in the transfer of the manor two years later to Barker for the yearly rent of 8 marks, (fn. 39) which rent was quitclaimed to him in the following year by John de Nowers. (fn. 40) John Barker of Olney, who appears to be identical with John de Olney, described in 1371 as 'marchaunt' of Weston, (fn. 41) in 1375 obtained permission for himself and his wife Denise to have a portable altar and to choose their confessor. (fn. 42) John Olney had died before 1396, (fn. 43) and had been succeeded by his son John, then holding the manor with his mother Denise, Sir Richard Abburbury and John Olney of London, the reversion belonging to himself. (fn. 44) On 11 May 1420 he made his will, which was proved on 2 December 1422. (fn. 45) He was survived by his wife Margery, to whom in 1439 Robert Nevill of Gayhurst, son of one of the Nowers heirs (see Gayhurst), released all right in the manor. (fn. 46) John Olney's successor was Robert Olney, probably his son, who in 1434, as Robert Olney of Weston, was required to take the oath not to maintain peace-breakers. (fn. 47) In 1446 Robert Olney's daughter Margaret married Thomas Throckmorton, (fn. 48) who died in 1472. (fn. 49) Their son Robert, who succeeded, (fn. 50) died abroad on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1518 and was succeeded by his son Sir George Throckmorton. (fn. 51) Sir George bequeathed the manor to his son Robert and the latter's second wife Elizabeth, widow of Lord Hungerford, on 20 July 1552, and died at the Throckmortons' Warwickshire seat at Coughton on 6 August following. (fn. 52) His son Sir Robert, whose wife Lady Elizabeth was buried at Weston in January 1553–4, (fn. 53) was dealing with the manor in 1567. (fn. 54) He was succeeded in February 1580–1 by his son Thomas, (fn. 55) who with Margaret his wife and John his son and heirapparent was dealing with the manor in 1598. (fn. 56) John Throckmorton died in February 1603–4, leaving a son and heir Robert, upon whom his grandfather Thomas made a settlement. (fn. 57) Thomas died in March 1614–15 and was succeeded by Robert, (fn. 58) to whom licence to travel for three years had been granted on 25 March 1608, (fn. 59) the Throckmortons being Papist recusants. He petitioned in 1629 for confirmation to himself and his heirs of courts leet, view of frankpledge and other privileges enjoyed by him in his manor of Weston Underwood, (fn. 60) and in 1637, as a recusant, obtained a licence to grant and lease any part of the manor (then stated to be of the clear yearly value of £40, the king's two parts thereof being worth £26 13s. 4d.) for forty-one years. (fn. 61) On 1 September 1642 he was created a baronet. (fn. 62) He 'kept a bountiful house at Weston,' (fn. 63) which was sequestered in 1647, (fn. 64) and suffered much for his loyalty to the king. He died in 1650 and was succeeded by his son Sir Francis Throckmorton, who was dealing with the manor in 1670 (fn. 65) and at his death in 1680 was buried at Weston. (fn. 66) His eldest son Francis had died four years before, at the age of sixteen, at Bruges, his heart being buried at Weston. (fn. 67) His younger brother Robert, who succeeded to the manor, was admitted to Gray's Inn in 1683 (fn. 68) and was dealing with Weston in 1684. (fn. 69) He was a Roman Catholic nonjuror, distinguished for his great charity and benevolence. His son Sir Robert succeeded him in March 1720–1 and made a settlement of the manor in 1723 (fn. 70) and again in 1748 on the marriage of his only son and heir George with Anne Maria Paston. (fn. 71) George died in the lifetime of his father, and his second but eldest surviving son John Courtenay Throckmorton, then of Weston Underwood and the heir-apparent of his grandfather, was dealing with the manor in 1782 (fn. 72) and succeeded his grandfather in 1791. John Courtenay Throckmorton, who was the friend of Cowper and the Benevolus of The Task, died childless in 1819. (fn. 73) He was succeeded by his brother Sir George Courtenay Throckmorton, who seems to have held the manor during his brother's lifetime. (fn. 74) He died here in 1826, also childless, and was succeeded by his brother Sir Charles Throckmorton, the seventh baronet. (fn. 75) Sir Charles pulled down the old manorhouse shortly after his succession to the property, (fn. 76) and made a settlement of the manor in 1826 on his nephew Robert George Throckmorton, (fn. 77) by whom he was succeeded in the baronetcy at his death without issue in 1840. (fn. 78) Sir Robert George Throckmorton was succeeded in 1862 by his son Sir Nicholas William George Throckmorton. The manor was sold by him in 1898 to Lieut.-Col. Wentworth Grenville Bowyer, who now holds it. (fn. 79)

Olney. Argent a battled fesse between six crosslets fitchy gules with three crescents argent on the fesse.

Throckmorton. Gules a cheveron argent charged with three gimel bars sable.

A windmill was included among the appurtenances of the Nowers Manor in 1278 (fn. 80) and in 1309, (fn. 81) and rights to a free fishery were claimed by the lords of the manor in 1723 (fn. 82) and 1782. (fn. 83)

The other half of the Domesday Manor was subinfeudated by John de Bidun in the reign of Henry I to Robert Curtfaluz (Curifale, Curtfelun, Curcefalur), who was in possession in 1166, (fn. 84) and was fined 2 marks in 1176 for a breach of the forest law. (fn. 85) His descendant, Simon Curtfaluz, left a son Robert, (fn. 86) who held about 1235. (fn. 87) He transferred 1 carucate to Peter de Mora, from whom it was obtained in 1244 for 100 marks by Paul Pever, Robert Curtfaluz confirming the grant, and bestowing upon Pever the reversion of the land then held by Olive widow of his father Simon. (fn. 88) Paul Pever was to render all services due, but this clause notwithstanding it was said in 1275 that suit of court and hundred had been abstracted and 9s. hidage unpaid for the last twenty-four years, (fn. 89) and a similar complaint was made in 1276. (fn. 90) There was considerable dissension between the Pevers and the former owners, and in 1261–2 Hawise daughter of William de Sherington and widow of Robert Curtfaluz brought an unsuccessful action to recover dower in Weston (fn. 91); in 1275 the land was taken into the king's hand for default against Henry Curtfaluz. (fn. 92) The Curtfaluz claim was renewed in 1286 in the person of Alice wife of Simon son of John, and heir of Robert Curtfaluz, her uncle. She contended that Peter de Mora had a lease only of the estate, here extended at a messuage, 24 acres land, 7 acres meadow and 4s. rent. (fn. 93) The Pevers successfully contested these suits and claimed view of frankpledge in 1279 and 1286 as held from the time of Paul Pever, the purchaser of the manor. (fn. 94) He had also obtained Chilton (q.v.), with which Weston Underwood descended (fn. 95) to the John Broughton who succeeded his grandfather Thomas Pever in 1429. (fn. 96) A settlement of half the manor had been made by the latter in 1389, (fn. 97) apparently on his daughter Mary, mother of John Broughton, who by her second husband Richard Lord St. Maur had a daughter Alice, wife of William Lord Zouche. (fn. 98) In 1430 Alice obtained from her halfbrother John Broughton, here called John Pever, a renunciation of rights in this half manor. (fn. 99) It remained in the Zouche family, as did Chilton, and the other half was doubtless acquired by them after the death in 1489 of John Broughton, who alludes to it in his will as 'my manor called Yongis in Weston.' (fn. 100) It appears to be the whole manor with which the Zouches were dealing in 1501, (fn. 101) but it had passed before 1518 to the Throckmortons, lords of the Nowers' manor (q.v.), the Zouches retaining merely a nominal interest. (fn. 102)

Three virgates and two-thirds of a virgate held before 1086 by two thegns, men of Borret, and a virgate held at that date by another thegn, a man of Alric son of Goding, were included among the lands of the Count of Mortain in 1086, (fn. 103) and were later held of that part of the honour of Berkhampstead (fn. 104) known as the little fee of Mortain, (fn. 105) in virtue of which the Earl of Cornwall claimed view of frankpledge here in 1279. (fn. 106) The last mention of the connexion with the honour of Berkhampstead occurs in 1649. (fn. 107)

In 1086 the count had an under-tenant, Ivo. (fn. 108) A 13th-century successor was Hugh son of Walter, whose holding in Weston amounted to a hide of land. (fn. 109) Another son of Walter, Adam, to whom William de Fering quitclaimed half a virgate of land in Weston in 1238, (fn. 110) may have been identical with Adam de Furtho who held 40 acres in Weston of the honour of Berkhampsted in 1279, (fn. 111) perhaps by inheritance from his brother. Adam de Furtho remained in possession of this estate, returned at 4 virgates in 1284, (fn. 112) until some time after 1316, (fn. 113) when he was succeeded by William de Furtho, who held in 1346. (fn. 114)

Three virgates in Weston which had been held before the Conquest by Ulvric, a man of Earl Waltheof, who could sell, were assessed in 1086 among the lands of the Countess Judith and held of her by Anschitil. (fn. 115) Her possessions afterwards became known as the honour of Huntingdon, to which half a virgate in Weston in the tenure of Ellis son of Richard of Weston was appurtenant in 1279. (fn. 116)

The third part of half a fee in Weston was held in the 13th century by Simon de Ravenstone of the Earl of Albemarle. (fn. 117) It was possibly part of this property which Adam de Ravenstone and his wife Alice held in Weston in 1250. (fn. 118)

Sir William Andrews, bart., of Denton (co. Northampton) held property in Weston Underwood in 1647, which was sequestered for his delinquency, twothirds of it being leased to Thomas Tripp of Olney for £73 6s. 8d. (fn. 119) This was held by his son, Sir John Andrews, bart., in 1649. (fn. 120)

The priory of Ravenstone held messuages and rents in Weston, which at the Dissolution were given to Cardinal Wolsey, and after his attainder were granted to the Dean and Canons of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, in 1532, (fn. 121) the king also granting rent from the same property to Sir Francis Bryan in 1535. (fn. 122)

In 1279 property in Weston was held by the hospital of St. John, Northampton, and by Lavendon Abbey, (fn. 123) the latter acquiring further property in 1344 (fn. 124) and 1367. (fn. 125)


The church of ST. LAURENCE consists of a chancel 28 ft. 6 in. by 15 ft., nave 44 ft. by 17 ft., north aisle 9 ft. wide, south aisle 10 ft. wide, west tower 10 ft. 6 in. square, and a north porch. All these measurements are internal.

The nave probably incorporates part of the walling of a 12th century church to which aisles were added about the middle of the 13th century. The chancel arch was rebuilt in the first half of the 14th century, but by the middle of the century the condition of the fabric must have become very unsatisfactory, as its restoration was undertaken by John Olney, lord of the manor, about 1368, in which year the church was refounded. (fn. 126) The rebuilding of the chancel was probably the only work accomplished by this date, but the reconstruction of the rest of the building appears to have been continued during the next twenty years, the nave arcades being rebuilt, largely with the old material, the clearstory added, and new windows inserted in both aisles. The tower and north porch were added about the middle of the 15th century. The church was restored in 1891.

All the details of the chancel are of about 1368. The east window is of three cinquefoiled lights with elaborate tracery under a pointed head and is a typical example of the period. In the tracery is a considerable quantity of old glass comprising the following subjects: a bishop with nimbus; St. Peter; St. John Baptist; St. John Evangelist with a chalice and serpent; St. Lawrence with a gridiron; St. Paul with a sword; the Ascension; a piece with a censing angel on either side of the last subject, one probably modern; and two pieces, each painted with a yellow and white rose with a blue band on a red background with white and yellow borders. In each side wall are two pointed windows, both of two cinquefoiled lights with quatrefoiled tracery in the head. The western windows are transomed and prolonged downwards to form lowside lights, now blocked, and the sill of the south-east window is lowered internally to form a sedile. The north-east window contains some original glass with canopy work, while the two south windows have foliated and floral designs. There is a contemporary doorway between the windows on the north side and in the north-east corner is a plain aumbry of uncertain date. Near the sedile is a large piscina with a pointed and cinquefoiled head and a basin of eight foils. The early 14th-century chancel arch, which is of two chamfered orders, probably contains re-used material from an earlier arch. The jambs are chamfered, and the inner order rests on triple shafts with moulded bases and capitals.

The nave has on each side an arcade of four bays, with chamfered arches and circular columns, with moulded capitals and bases. The westernmost columns and the chamfered west responds are of 13th-century date, but the remainder, with the semicircular eastern responds, are Olney's work of 1368 and are partly built of earlier material. The capitals and bases are moulded. At the north-east of the nave is the upper doorway to the rood-loft, the stairs to which have been removed. The late 14th-century clearstory windows, three on each side, are each of two trefoiled lights, with quatrefoil tracery in a pointed head. Both the chancel and nave have flat plastered ceilings.

The north aisle is lighted from the north by two square-headed late 14th-century windows, each of three trefoiled lights with vertical tracery in the head, and the south aisle has two corresponding windows of the same date and design. Both aisles have doorways between the windows, the north doorway being of the late 14th century, while the south doorway is of the 13th century. The aisle roofs contain some old timbers.

The 15th-century tower is of two stages and has diagonal buttresses, a north-west staircase, and an embattled parapet. The tower arch is of two chamfered orders. In the west wall of the ground stage is a restored doorway with a pointed head, and above it is a pointed window of two cinquefoiled lights with tracery, also much restored. The bell-chamber is lighted by four two-light windows of the same character.

The north porch has a moulded entrance archway, and in each side wall is a single trefoiled light.

The font is of the 15th century and has an elaborate octagonal tapering bowl. In each face of the octagonal stem is a trefoiled ogee-headed panel containing a shield of arms: (I) a cheveron with three fleurs de lis thereon, for Pever; (2) a chief indented; (3) an embattled fesse between six crosslets fitchy with three crescents on the fesse, for Olney; (4) a plain fesse; (5) an embattled fesse with three crosslets fitchy in the chief; (6) a plain cross, for Hussey; (7) an embattled fesse with a pierced molet thereon; (8) two bars with three roundels in chief, for Hungerford. The pyramidal wooden cover is of the 17th century.

The late 17th-century communion table has twisted legs, and the communion rail of the same date is moulded and has twisted balusters. At the east end of the north aisle is a plain iron-bound chest with the initials IH on the top and the date 1662 on the front marked in nail-heads.

Nailed to the modern boarded floor of the chancel is an inscription on strips of brass to John Olney, kt., and his wife Denise, 1395. The inscription is in Latin but very defective, (fn. 127) and the strips are fixed in the wrong order. At the four corners are the symbols of the Evangelists. There were probably brass figures within the inscription, but they have disappeared, and the only remaining portion is a brass shield bearing an embattled fesse. At the east end of the floor of the south aisle is the brass figure of a lady in an embroidered gown with slashed sleeves, the head missing; beneath is an inscription to Elizabeth (d. 1553) daughter of Lord Hussey, wife of (I) Walter Lord Hungerford, and (2) Robert Throckmorton. There are also a group of five daughters and four shields of arms: (I) Throckmorton; (2) Hussey; (3) Throckmorton with six quarterings impaling Hussey and Fortescue; (4) Hungerford impaling Hussey; and the indent for a fifth shield now missing. On the east wall of the same aisle is a large monument of marble to (I) Thomas Throckmorton, 1614; (2) Sir Francis Throckmorton, kt. and bart., 1680; (3) Francis son of the last (d. at Bruges, his heart buried here, 1676); (4) Robert son of Sir Robert Throckmorton, bart., 1688; (5) Sir George Throckmorton, bart., 1826; and (6) his wife Catherine, 1839. In the same aisle are mural tablets to members of the Higgins, Chapman and Ruck families, 1726 to 1819; in the north aisle are three Higgins tablets, 1792 to 1802, and a floor slab to Dorothy wife of John Frasie, 1709. In the north porch are two slabs to Ann Butcher, 1729, and Mary wife of Charles Bennet, 17–. In the chancel is a tablet to the Rev. John Buchanan, friend of the poet Cowper (d. 1826).

There are six bells: the first five by Henry & Matthew Bagley, 1687; the tenor by William Emerton of Wootton, 1779. The bells were rehung in 1914.

The plate includes a cup and paten of 1700.

The registers previous to 1812 are as follows; (i) baptisms and burials 1681 to 1775, marriages 1681 to 1753; (ii) baptisms 1782 to 1812; (iii) marriages 1754 to 1812.


The chapel of Weston Underwood, which was annexed to the parish church of Olney, was founded anew in 1368. The parishioners thereupon refused to attend the church at Olney, claiming that the rector, then one Adam, was bound to provide them at his own cost with a priest in their chapel at Weston. The official of the court of Canterbury had decided against the rector and excommunicated him for non-compliance with the order, notwithstanding an appeal of Adam to Rome. (fn. 128) The dissension continued until 1376, when a papal bull was obtained according the right of burial to the chapel, in which all the other sacraments were administered. (fn. 129) The successful petitioners were the parishioners and John Olney, then lord of the manor, to whom is due the rebuilding of the chapel, he having found it small and in ruins. (fn. 130) The right of presentation remained in the rectors of Olney, who were responsible for the stipend of the priest, (fn. 131) but the appointment of the latter was reserved in the 16th and early 17th-century leases of Olney rectory. (fn. 132) The Pigotts, who obtained Olney rectory in the spring of 1610, appear to have retained Weston chapel when they alienated Olney, (fn. 133) but by 1670 the advowson of this perpetual curacy was vested in the lord of Weston Underwood Manor, (fn. 134) with which it has since descended. (fn. 135)

The will, dated 1420, of John Olney, lord of the manor, and son of the re-founder of 1368, directed that his body should be buried in the chapel of our Lady in the church of Saint Nicholas of Weston, (fn. 136) but the dedication is now to St. Laurence.

At the suppression of the chantries lands and rents worth 8d. yearly given for the keeping of a lamp, and a rent of 6d. from a tenement, given for an obit, were recorded. (fn. 137) In 1552 the land formerly devoted to the maintenance of the lamp was bestowed on Sir Edward Bray. (fn. 138)

A messuage called the Chapel House lately belonging to the chantry in Olney Church was granted to Sir George Howard in 1560. (fn. 139)


The parochial charities were amalgamated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 24 January 1893, comprising the following charities, namely:—

1. The Feoffee Estate Charity, endowed with 6 a. and cottages purchased in 1695 with legacies by will of Thomas Porter and Mrs. Elizabeth Tripp and by will of John Derry, 1674.

2. Town Dudley charity, consisting of 20 a. 2 r. 30 p., formerly known as common land, the origin of which appears to be unknown.

The lands of the two charities are let to various tenants, producing about £40 a year, and the official trustees also hold a sum of £107 4s. 9d. consols, producing £2 13s. 4d. yearly, arising from the sale in 1902 of 20 p. and two cottages thereon belonging to the Feoffee Estate.

3. Unknown donor's charity, consisting of 1 a. of land called Maids' Meadow, part of a field called Near Town, let at £2 a year.

These three charities are administered under the provisions of a scheme of the Court of Chancery of 6 March 1860. In 1912–13 the sum of £9 was distributed among widows, £15 was distributed in coal, and £5 applied in apprenticing, in respect of which there was a balance in hand of £27.

4. Charles Higgins's charity, founded by will dated 15 May 1792, proved in the P.C.C., trust fund, £592 5s. 3d., producing £14 16s. yearly, applicable in the distribution of clothing to ten poor women in December annually.

5. Sarah Spink's charity, founded by will proved 8 October 1833, trust fund, £355 4s. 9d. consols, the annual dividends, amounting to £8 17s. 8d., to be applied in the distribution of clothing among the poor on St. Thomas's Day.

The several sums of stock are held by the official trustees, and the dividends therefrom are duly applied.


  • 1. Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).
  • 2. Oliver Ratcliff, Hist. and Antiq. of Newport Hund. 81.
  • 3. Chan. Inq. p.m. 9 Edw. II, no. 55.
  • 4. Lewis, Topog. Dict.
  • 5. Lipscomb, Hist. and Topog. of Bucks. iv, 401.
  • 6. A description of the old mansion, with its priest's hole and attic chapel, is to be found in Sheahan's Hist. and Topog. of Bucks. 637, 641–2, and there is a plate of the building, a quadrangle inclosing a court, in Ratcliffe, op. cit. 78.
  • 7. a V.C.H. Bucks. i, 240.
  • 8. In 1279 each manor was assessed at 3 hides (Hund. R. [Rec. Com.], ii, 349, 350).
  • 9. Red Bk. of Exch. (Rolls Ser.), 332; Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 244, 251, 259; Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 349, 350.
  • 10. Feud. Aids, i, 74, 105, 131; Cal. Inq. p.m. (Edw. II), v, 63, 377; Chan. Inq. p.m. 1 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 69; Inq. a.q.d. file 130, no. 9.
  • 11. Maitland, Bracton's Note Bk. ii, 165.
  • 12. Dugdale, Baronage, i, 702.
  • 13. Ibid.; Cal. Close, 1231–4, pp. 228, 229.
  • 14. Excerpta e Rot. Fin. i, 239.
  • 15. Dugdale, op. cit. i, 517.
  • 16. Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 244, 251; cf. Feud. Aids, i, 105.
  • 17. Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 350.
  • 18. Cal. Inq. p.m. (Edw. I), ii, 262.
  • 19. G.E.C. Peerage, viii, 35; Feud. Aids, i, 74.
  • 20. G.E.C. loc. cit.; Chan. Inq. p.m. Edw. I, file 94, no. 3.
  • 21. Cal. Inq. p.m. (Edw. II), v, 377; Chan. Inq. p.m. 17 Edw. II, no. 67; 23 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 75.
  • 22. Red Bk. of Exch. (Rolls Ser.), 332.
  • 23. Chan. Inq. p.m. Hen. III, file 16, no. 18.
  • 24. Maitland, Bracton's Note Bk. ii, 498; iii, 316.
  • 25. Maitland, op. cit. ii, 165; Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 258, 259.
  • 26. Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 349; Feud. Aids, i, 74.
  • 27. Feud. Aids, i, 105.
  • 28. Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 350.
  • 29. Maitland, op. cit. ii, 498; Chan. Inq. p.m. Hen. III, file 16, no. 18. The Earl of Gloucester laid claim to the overlordship of this and most of the other Pever manors in 1272 (Chan. Inq. p.m. 2 Edw. I, no. 65), but had apparently no legal title.
  • 30. Cal. Inq. p.m. (Edw. II), v, 63.
  • 31. Inq. a.q.d. file 130, no. 9. He was also overlord of the Nowers' manor of Gayhurst.
  • 32. Chan. Inq. p.m. 1 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 69.
  • 33. Ibid. (Ser. 2), xxxiii, 46.
  • 34. Ibid. ccclxvii, 100.
  • 35. Red Bk. of Exch. (Rolls Ser.), 332.
  • 36. Maitland, op. cit. ii, 165.
  • 37. Assize R. 68, m. 37; Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 251; Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), i, 38 (where Lady Joan de Nowers is said to hold 20 acres of land of the assart of wood of Chemenhey); ibid. ii, 349; Feud. Aids, i, 74, 105, 110; see also p. 131, which gives Joan widow of John de Nowers as lady of Weston in 1346. Grace, however, was the name of the widow of the John de Nowers who died in 1327 (Chan. Inq. p.m. Edw. III, file 98, no. 9), and Agnes that of the widow of her son John, who was dead by 1349. (Ibid. 44 Edw. III. (2nd nos.) no. 15).
  • 38. Cal. Close, 1360–4, p. 257.
  • 39. Ibid. 548.
  • 40. Ibid. 1364–8, p. 54.
  • 41. Ibid. 1369–74, p. 332.
  • 42. Cal. of Papal Letters, iv, 204, 216.
  • 43. a See M. I.
  • 44. Close, 20 Ric. II, pt. i, m. 31 d. As John Olney the younger of Weston he appeared in 1400 as executor of the will of John Olney the elder, late citizen and woolman of London (Cal. Pat. 1399–1401, p. 314).
  • 45. P.C.C. 55 Marche.
  • 46. Close, 17 Hen. VI, m. 9.
  • 47. Cal. Pat. 1429–36, p. 397.
  • 48. Add. MS. 5839, p. 405.
  • 49. Chan. Inq. p.m. 12 Edw. IV, no. 33.
  • 50. Court R. (Duchy of Lanc.), bdle. 1, no. 7.
  • 51. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xxxiii, 46. A letter from Sir Geo. Throckmorton to Thomas Cromwell was dated at Weston in 1535 (L. and P. Hen. VIII, viii, 90).
  • 52. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xcviii, 75.
  • 53. Add. MS. 5839, p. 410.
  • 54. Feet of F. Bucks. East. 9 Eliz.
  • 55. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cxciii, 89.
  • 56. Feet of F. Bucks. Mich. 41 Eliz.
  • 57. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccclxvii, 100; Feet of F. Bucks. East. 1 Jas. I.
  • 58. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccclxvii, 100.
  • 59. Cal. S. P. Dom. 1603–10, p. 418.
  • 60. Ibid. 1625–49, p. 345.
  • 61. Pat. 13 Chas. I, pt. xxiii, m. 7.
  • 62. G.E.C. Complete Baronetage, ii, 197.
  • 63. Ibid.
  • 64. Cal. Com. for Comp. 68.
  • 65. G.E.C. op. cit. ii. 198; Feet of F. Div. Co. Hil. 21 & 22 Chas. II.
  • 66. M.I. in church.
  • 67. Ibid.
  • 68. G.E.C. Complete Baronetage, ii, 198.
  • 69. Feet of F. Div. Co. Hil. 36 & 37 Chas. II; Recov. R. Trin. 36 Chas. II, m. 226. See also Chan. Proc. (Bridges Div.) bdle. 163, no. 41.
  • 70. G.E.C. loc. cit. Recov. R. Mich. 10 Geo. I, m. 236.
  • 71. Com. Pleas Recov. R. Trin. 21 & 22 Geo. II, m. 118, 120.
  • 72. Recov. R. East. 22 Geo. III, m. 151; Com. Pleas Recov. R. Trin. 22 Geo. III, m. 280.
  • 73. a G.E.C. loc. cit.
  • 74. Lysons, Mag. Brit. i (3), 661.
  • 75. a G.E.C. loc. cit.
  • 76. Sheahan, op. cit. 637.
  • 77. Com. Pleas Recov. R. 974, m. 28; Recov. R. Trin. 7 Geo. IV, m. 184; Mich. 7 Geo. IV, m. 262.
  • 78. G.E.C. op. cit. ii, 199.
  • 79. Ratcliff, op. cit. 77. Many documents dealing with the manor are among the Throckmorton documents at Coughton (Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. iii, App. 256).
  • 80. Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 349.
  • 81. Chan. Inq. p.m. 2 Edw. II, no. 70.
  • 82. Recov. R. Mich. 10 Geo. I, m. 236.
  • 83. Ibid. East. 22 Geo. III, m. 151.
  • 84. Red Bk. of Exch. (Rolls Ser.), 332.
  • 85. Pipe R. 22 Hen. II (Pipe R. Soc.), 23.
  • 86. Feet of F. case 15, file 27, no. 6.
  • 87. Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 244.
  • 88. Feet of F. case 15, file 27, no. 6.
  • 89. Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), i, 37.
  • 90. Ibid. 45; cf. also Assize R. 68, m. 37.
  • 91. Assize R. 58, m. 11 d., 16 d.
  • 92. Cal. Close, 1272–9, p. 230.
  • 93. Assize R. 68, m. 9 d.
  • 94. Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 350; Plac. de Quo Warr. (Rec. Com.), 91.
  • 95. See also Feud. Aids, i, 74, 105, 110, 131.
  • 96. Chan. Inq. p.m. 8 Hen. VI, no. 21.
  • 97. Feet of F. case 21, file 107.
  • 98. G.E.C. Peerage, vii, 24.
  • 99. Close, 8 Hen. VI, m. 1.
  • 100. P.C.C. 18 Mills.
  • 101. De Banco R. 958, m. 118.
  • 102. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xxxiii, 46.
  • 103. V.C.H. Bucks. i, 246.
  • 104. Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.) 244; Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 350; Feud. Aids, i, 74, 77; Chan. Inq. p.m. 28 Edw. I. no. 44; Court R. (Gen. Ser.), ptf. 177, no. 14.
  • 105. Feud Aids, i, 107, 133.
  • 106. Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 350.
  • 107. Ct. R. (Gen. Ser.), portf. 177, no. 21.
  • 108. V.C.H. Bucks. i, 246.
  • 109. Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 244b.
  • 110. Feet of F. Bucks. 12 Hen. III, no. 40.
  • 111. Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 350.
  • 112. Feud. Aids, i, 74.
  • 113. Ibid. 107, 110.
  • 114. Ibid. 133.
  • 115. V.C.H. Bucks. i, 273.
  • 116. Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 350.
  • 117. Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 244, 252.
  • 118. Feet of F. case 16, file 30, no. 7.
  • 119. Cal. Com. for Comp. 67, 1739, 1740.
  • 120. Feet of F. Bucks. Mich. 1649.
  • 121. L. and P. Hen. VIII, v, 1351.
  • 122. Ibid. viii, g. 481 (31).
  • 123. Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), ii, 350.
  • 124. Cal. Pat. 1343–5, p. 333.
  • 125. Abbrev. Rot. Orig. (Rec. Com.), ii, 295.
  • 126. See under advowson and M. I. in the church.
  • 127. The full inscription is given in Lipscomb, op. cit. iv, 405. The Latin is obscure, but the date is rather 1395 than 1405. The inscription records that he made the old chapel into a parish church. Cf. Add. MS. 5839, p. 409.
  • 128. Cal. of Papal Letters, iv, 75. See also Linc. Epis. Reg. Memo., Buckingham, fol. 68, 62.
  • 129. Cal. of Papal Letters, iv, 224; V.C.H. Bucks. i, 295; Linc. Epis. Reg. Memo., Buckingham, fol. 205 d.
  • 130. M. I. in church.
  • 131. Pat. 4 Jas. I, pt. viii.
  • 132. Ibid. 33 Eliz. pt. ii, m. 38; I Jas. I, pt. xxi; L. and P. Hen. VIII, xx (1), p. 678.
  • 133. Cf. Feet of F. Bucks. Mich. 9 Jas. I; Hil. 18 Jas. I.
  • 134. Ibid. Div. Co. Hil. 21 & 22 Chas. II; the lord of the manor in 1567 claimed the right of presentation (ibid. Bucks. East. 9 Eliz.).
  • 135. Bacon, Liber Regis, 503; Clergy Lists.
  • 136. P.C.C. 55 Marche.
  • 137. Chant. Cert. 5, no. 19.
  • 138. Pat. 6 Edw. VI, pt. ix.
  • 139. Ibid. 2 Eliz. pt. xiii.