A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 4. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1927.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
QUAINTON with SHIPTON LEE
The parish of Quainton covers an area of 5,346 acres, including 452 acres of arable, 4,444 of permanent grass and 305 acres of woods and plantations. (fn. 1) The slope of the land gradually falls from 610 ft. above the ordnance datum on Quainton Hill in the north-east of the parish to 247 ft. near Binwell Lane Farm in the south-west. The soil is stiff clay, the subsoil loam and clay. There are old stone-pits to the north-east of Quainton Hill, from the summit of which the view is said to extend over seventeen countries.
The large and scattered village of Quainton occupies a fairly central position in the parish. Approached from the south-east along the Vale of Aylesbury, the houses appear to be nestling among trees. A street leads from each angle of a large open oblong space on the highest ground in the village called the square. At its north end, near the centre, stand the remains of the market cross, dating probably from the 15th century, consisting of the lower part of an octagonal shaft with a square base elevated on three much worn steps. The house on Cross Farm, now owned by Mr. M. J. Gibbs, bears the date 1723, and was built by Sir Robert Dormer, (fn. 2) apparently on the site of Quainton Farm-house, mentioned as Dormer property in 1639. (fn. 3) A short distance westward from the cross is the boundary mark on the causeway leading to Lee and Doddershall, at which by ancient custom the clergyman used to meet funerals from these hamlets. (fn. 4)
The rectory, to the north-west of the church, is a 16th-century building of two stories with attics, originally of L-shaped plan, but enlarged and refaced with brick in the 17th and 18th centuries. The original hall and kitchen, now the drawing room and study respectively, are in the east block, and the main staircase is at the back of the hall; the present entrance is in the south wing. The old hall has a panelled ceiling with moulded beams and 16th-century wall panelling, while the fireplace, which is flanked by 17th-century round-headed recesses, has an overmantel of re-used 16th century work. At the north end of the hall is a moulded oak screen with linen-fold panels, dating from the beginning of the 16th century and said to have been brought here from the old manor-house; it has two late 16th-century doors, and above the panels is the inscription 'G de Neil' in fanciful characters, and the shields of Brudenell of Stoke Mandeville impaling Croke of Chilton, Brudenell impaling Englefield, Brudenell impaling another coat, Iwardby of Quainton impaling Brudenell, Pigott of Doddershall impaling Iwardby, Verney of Claydon impaling Iwardby, and Clifford impaling Iwardby, while between the first two letters of the inscription is a shield carried by a bird pierced with an arrow. Some of the other rooms have panelling of the 16th and 17th centuries, and the original kitchen has a wide fireplace, now partially blocked, to the south of which is an old winding staircase. The main staircase dates from the end of the 16th century and is of oak with square newels, flat shaped balusters and moulded handrails, the newels having moulded finials and pendants.
To the west of the churchyard are the Winwood almshouses, built in 1687, which form a picturesque row of eight cottages contained in one brick building. The roofs are gabled and the windows retain their leaded lights, while the chimneys are grouped into four stacks surmounted by diagonal shafts. Stone panels over the two north porches record the foundation by Richard son and heir of Sir Ralph Winwood, (fn. 5) principal Secretary of State to James I. Two of the chimney stacks have been rebuilt. The village contains a disused windmill and several 17th-century timber cottages, more or less restored, with tiled or thatched roofs. Upper South Farm, about a mile south-west, and a farm-house in Station Road, half a mile from the village, date from the same period.
The hamlet of Shipton Lee, a mile north-west from the village, was united to Quainton in 1886. (fn. 6) It comprises several farms. Lee Grange, formerly the manor-house of the Abbots of Thame and afterwards the residence of the Dormers, was taken down in the middle of the 18th century by John Dormer, when a large sum of money was found in a cavity in a beam. (fn. 7) Later in the century Grange House, now a farm, was built on the site, (fn. 8) but remains of the older building exist.
The hamlet of Denham with its dairy farms is half a mile north-east from Quainton. The mansion erected on the site of the original manor-house of Dundon or Dundon Court (fn. 9) and inhabited by Richard Winwood and his widow Anne was partly taken down after her death, and the remainder converted early in the 18th century into the farm-house known as Denham Lodge. (fn. 10) It is a stone and brick building of about 1620, with later side wings, built on the site of the manor-house, and entirely surrounded by a moat, which was probably crossed by a draw-bridge at the spot where the old gate-house still stands to the south of the house. The moat is fed by springs from the hill behind the house called Church Hill, whence the foundation stones of the church, according to village tradition were repeatedly removed by an unseen power to its present site. On Wood Hill, to the north-west, human remains were found in 1878. (fn. 11)
Doddershall house (Dodereshill or Dodereshull, xiii–xiv cent; Dodershill, xvi cent.), beautifully situated in a large park about 1½ miles west of Quainton, is the seat of Vice-Admiral William Harvey Pigott, and has been in his family for over 400 years. It is a two-storied brick building coated with roughcast, and was originally surrounded by a quadrangular moat, of which only fragments remain. The plan consists of a main block and north-east wing, built probably by Thomas Pigott, serjeant-at-law, about 1510, to which a south-west block containing some principal rooms and the main staircase was added late in the 17th century. A former north-west wing was destroyed after the death of Christobella Viscountess Saye and Sele in 1789, (fn. 12) and the house, which is now—shaped with the wings projecting north-west, has been somewhat altered and enlarged since that date. The hall, which occupies the centre of the main block and has been subdivided, has an original panelled ceiling with moulded beams, and a moulded stone fireplace with a four-centred arch. Projecting from the south-east front is a fine early 16th-century chimney-stack with a rusticated panel above the eaves line and two octagonal shafts with moulded bases and capitals; built into this chimney-stack and into the south front are several stones carved with heads and foliage. On the north side facing the courtyard is a gabled two-storied porch with a four-centred doorway. To the east of the hall is a 17th-century winding staircase with square newels, turned balusters, and moulded handrail. The apartment to the east of this, originally the kitchen, is now subdivided, and the present kitchen and offices are in the north-east wing. The main staircase is of oak with large panelled newels, twisted balusters, and heavy moulded handrails. Panelling of the 16th and 17th centuries, incorporating some 15th-century carving, has been refixed in the staircase hall, and there is some 15th-century tracery in the frieze and on the door, while the stair newels are ornamented with 17th-century figures and have finials formed from 15th-century poppy-heads halved and placed round a central nucleus; it is supposed that this mediaeval woodwork came from the old church at Hogshaw. The fireplace has a 17th-century panelled overmantel, and on the panelling of the staircase are three shields of Pigott impaling Iwardby, while in the window glass is a quartered shield of Holt dated 1577. The arms of Pigott are represented on two wood shields on the south front of the house and in some fragments of old glass in the north-west window of the hall. The drawing room and room above are panelled, and there is a panelled overmantel in a firstfloor room on the south-west. Two rain-water heads on the south-east are inscribed 'T.L. 1689.'
Doddershall Wood, a mile to the west of Doddershall House, extends into the parish of Grendon Underwood. Finemere Wood, in which there was formerly a hermitage and later a chapel, is situated in the north-west of the parish. Quainton Meadow, in the south-east, formed part of the race-course maintained during the late 17th and early 18th centuries by Thomas Earl of Wharton and by his son Philip. (fn. 13)
Dr. Richard Brett the Orientalist, and one of the translators of the Authorized Version of the Bible, was rector of this parish from 1595 until his death in 1637. (fn. 14) It was the birthplace in 1773 of George Lipscomb, the historian of Buckinghamshire, (fn. 15) whose parents were buried in the churchyard.
Quainton was inclosed in 1840, when provision was made for a recreation ground of between 3 and 4 acres. (fn. 16)
The land which afterwards became the vill of Quainton was assessed in 1086 at 10 hides. Of these, 7½ hides were held by Miles Crispin, the successor of Wigod of Wallingford, as one manor, (fn. 17) known as QUAINTON or QUAINTON MALET, (fn. 18) or later as QUAINTON DUNDON or DUNDON alias DONINGTON. It was held of the honour of Wallingford, (fn. 19) by the service of sending two armed men to Wallingford Castle in time of war, and paying the expenses of one for forty days and of the other for twenty (fn. 20); in the 16th and 17th centuries it was attached to the honour of Ewelme. (fn. 21)
The lands of Miles Crispin in Quainton were held by Rowland Malet in 1162 (fn. 22) and a few years later by his son (fn. 23) Hervey. (fn. 24) He or another of the same name represented the family in 1201, (fn. 25) and was living in 1224. (fn. 26) Robert Malet had succeeded before 1234. (fn. 27) He or his successor Robert (fn. 28) was steward of Wallingford Castle in 1254, (fn. 29) and another Robert Malet, probably his son, held Quainton in 1284 (fn. 30) and died seised of it about 1295. (fn. 31) His son Robert succeeding, (fn. 32) settled the manor in 1319 on Robert Malet, his son, his wife Isabel, and their issue. (fn. 33) In 1348 this manor was split up among co-heirs. William Beauvoir and his wife Alice and Robert atte Hull and his wife Joan were holding a half of two parts, with equal rights in the reversion of a third of a third held by Richard Talbot in right of his wife Joan, widow of John Malet. In that year their rights were purchased by Thomas de Missenden and his wife Isabel, (fn. 34) who also bought Richard Talbot's lands in Quainton (fn. 35) and came to an agreement with Thomas Lambin in respect of a half of two parts and two parts of a third of the manor. (fn. 36) Further conveyances were made to the Missendens of a third of the manor in 1351 by William de Heure and his wife Joan, (fn. 37) and in 1352 by Aylmer Fitz Warin and Isabel his wife, (fn. 38) and finally in 1356 of a half of two parts by John Poignant and his wife Alice. (fn. 39) The whole manor thus acquired follows the same descent as that of Overbury in Great Missenden (q.v.) until the death in 1485 of John Iwardby, (fn. 40) whose window Joan held it in 1525. (fn. 41) Owing to the death in 1509 of his second daughter Margery, first wife of Sir Ralph Verney, the reversion passed to their son Ralph, (fn. 42) who died seised in 1546. (fn. 43) On the death after 1559 (fn. 44) of his widow Elizabeth it passed to his son Sir Edumund Verney, heirs of his brother Edumund. (fn. 45) Sir Edumund died seised in 1600, having settled this manor on his wife Mary and his elder son Francis. (fn. 46) Francis Verney and his stepmother sold the Quainton estate in 1607 to Richard Abraham and others. (fn. 47) In 1615 Richard Abraham and his wife Judith, with Thomas and Mary Johnson, conveyed Quainton Dundon to Sir Ralph Winwood. (fn. 48) Richard Winwood succeeded his father in 1617, (fn. 49) and from the death of his mother in 1659 this manor descended with Ditton Park in Stoke Poges (q.v.) until 1718, (fn. 50) and afterwards with Chalvey (fn. 51) (q.v.). No other manor is mentioned in Quainton in 1840. (fn. 52) The present owner is George Godolphin Osborne, tenth Duke of Leeds.
A grant of free warren in Quainton was made to Thomas de Missenden in 1354. (fn. 53) The right of view of frankpledge with pleas and return of writs belonged to Richard Earl of Cornwall in 1254. (fn. 54) References to a mill occur in the 16th and 17th centuries. (fn. 55)
The remaining 2½ hides in Quainton previously held by Azor, son of Toti, housecarl of King Edward, were held as one manor in 1086 of Hascoit Musard. (fn. 56) The overlordship remained attached to the Musard barony, the head of which was at first Miserden Castle in Gloucestershire, (fn. 57) and afterwards Staveley Castle, Derbyshire, (fn. 58) the last reference to it occurring in 1254. (fn. 59)
Eudo was Hascoit Musard's tenant in 1086. (fn. 60) In the middle 13th century the greater part of his land in Quainton was held by Geoffrey Neyrnut, the remainder in free alms by the Knights Hospitallers. (fn. 61) John Neyrnut had succeeded his father (fn. 62) before 1270 (fn. 63) and the Knights Hospitallers claimed view of frankpledge in their land in Quainton and Donington in 1286. (fn. 64) Robert Malet, at his death about 1295, held the whole of this land partly of John Neyrnut for the rent of a clove pink at Christmas, partly of the Knights Hospitallers. No trace of the Neyrnuts in Quainton has been found after 1303, (fn. 65) and their land was apparently retained by the Malets and absorbed into their manor, but the land of the Hospitallers appears in 1525 as the manor of QUAINTON, later QUAINTON VERNEYS, when it was held of their manor of Hogshaw, (fn. 66) the overlordship being vested in the Crown in 1618. (fn. 67) It was settled in jointure in 1523 on Elizabeth widow of John Breton on her marriage with Sir Ralph Verney, who died in 1525. (fn. 68) On her death it reverted to his son Sir Ralph, and descended with the principal manor of Quainton (q.v.), retaining its distinctive name into the first quarter of the 19th century. (fn. 69)
SHIPTON, later SHIPTON GRANGE or SHIPTON LEE MANOR, before the Conquest was held by Boding the 'constable'; in 1086, when it was assessed at 7 hides, by Henry Ferrers. (fn. 70) Later it was held as one knight's fee of the honour of Tutbury, (fn. 71) which descended in the Ferrers, Earls of Derby, (fn. 72) and in the duchy of Lancaster. (fn. 73)
The Ferrers' land in Shipton was given by William Fitz Otho before 1146 to Thame Abbey, his brother Everard being the first abbot. (fn. 74) Shipton Lee remained with the abbey (fn. 75) until its surrender in 1539, (fn. 76) a lease for ninety-nine years having been granted in 1534 to Peter and Agnes Dormer. (fn. 77) In 1576 the manor was granted subject to the terms of this lease to John Dudley and John Ayscough, (fn. 78) and in 1609 to George Salter and John Williams. (fn. 79) The latter sold their estate in it in 1617 to Sir William Garaway, (fn. 80) who transferred it in 1622 to Sir Fleetwood Dormer, then holding the manor (fn. 81) as grandson of the original lessee. (fn. 82) He died seised in February 1638–9. (fn. 83) His son and successor John Dormer (fn. 84) made a settlement of Shipton Lee Manor in 1648 (fn. 85) and in 1662, on the marriage of his son John, (fn. 86) who had been created baronet in the previous year. (fn. 87) John the son died at Leghorn in 1675, but was buried at Quainton. (fn. 88) The baronetcy became extinct on the death of his son and heir Sir William Dormer, bart., who was buried at Quainton in March 1725–6. (fn. 89) Shipton Lee passed by entail (fn. 90) to his uncle Sir Robert Dormer, justice of the Common Pleas. (fn. 91) He also died in 1726, his only son Fleetwood, whose name occurs in settlements of the manor in 1717 (fn. 92) and 1726, (fn. 93) having predeceased him by a few months. (fn. 94) Elizabeth, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Sir Robert Dormer, had married Sir John FortescueAland, justice of the King's Bench, afterwards Lord Fortescue of Credan, (fn. 95) and the other co-heirs, Ricarda wife of John Parkhurst and Katherine Dormer, joined in confirming his title to the whole of the Shipton Lee estate in 1730. (fn. 96) John Dormer claimed it as next male heir in 1732, and obtained a judgement in his favour in 1740. (fn. 97) He died in 1747, (fn. 98) and his son Robert Dormer (fn. 99) sold the manor in 1764 (fn. 100) to John Calcraft. (fn. 101) He died about 1772, when his heir was his son John, (fn. 102) who sold Shipton Lee Manor about 1786 (fn. 103) to Thomas Quintin of Hatley St. George, Cambridgeshire, (fn. 104) and sheriff for that county in 1795. (fn. 105) He died in 1806, (fn. 106) and his son and heir John (fn. 107) in 1833. (fn. 108) He was succeeded by his only son Thomas Quintin, (fn. 109) owner of the family estates both in Hatley St. George and Shipton Lee in 1862. (fn. 110) The property now belongs to Corpus Christi College, Oxford.
Four hides of land in 'Sortelai' (Sotelehe, xiii cent.) (fn. 113) were held in the time of Edward the Confessor by Wlward, a man of Queen Edith. She gave them in marriage with Wlward's daughter to Alsi, (fn. 114) who was holding them in 1086 as one manor, (fn. 115) called DODDERSHALL MANOR in 1286. (fn. 116) In the 12th century this land was held with 2 hides in Shipton as a knight's fee of the barony of Clifford, (fn. 117) to which Doddershall remained attached as late as the 14th century. (fn. 118) The overlordship was vested in the Crown in 1520, (fn. 119) but later in the century appertained to the Lees of Quarrendon (fn. 120) (q.v.), the last reference to it occurring in 1637. (fn. 121)
In the early 13th century Roger Cramford, who held Doddershall, agreed that Robert de Baskerville was to hold 1 hide of Roger and his heirs. (fn. 122) In 1208 Richard and Agnes Fitz Osbert quitclaimed to Roger Cramford the yearly rent due to them from half this land. (fn. 123) Roger was holding Doddershall in 1235, (fn. 124) but was succeeded before 1254 by Robert Cramford. (fn. 125) He or another of the same name was holding in 1284, (fn. 126) and was succeeded by his son Walter, (fn. 127) who was living in 1332. (fn. 128) Robert Cramford, who was holding Doddershall in 1346, (fn. 129) was alive in 1361. (fn. 130) William Cramford represented the family in 1429 (fn. 131) and Richard Cramford later in the century. (fn. 132) Margaret, his widow, was to hold Doddershall Manor for life, and brought it to her second husband, John Goldwell. (fn. 133) He claimed over four years' rent after her death from her son Richard Cramford, who stated that his mother had surrendered the manor to him for an annuity. (fn. 134) The manor appears to have passed to Thomas Pigott of Whaddon, serjeant-at-law, about 1495. (fn. 135) He died in February 1519–20, and his widow, Elizabeth, by marriage settlement held Doddershall Manor for her life with remainder to their son Thomas and other sons in fee-tail. (fn. 136) She died about 1549, (fn. 137) and Thomas Pigott settled the manor in 1551. (fn. 138) He was sheriff for the county in 1552 and 1557, (fn. 139) and died in 1559. (fn. 140) His son and heir Thomas Pigott (fn. 141) met with various difficulties in the settlement of his father's estate, (fn. 142) and in 1580 secured his title to Doddershall Manor. (fn. 143) He died in 1606, (fn. 144) and his son and successor, Sir Christopher Pigott, (fn. 145) was member of Parliament in 1604, (fn. 146) but expelled in 1606 for a violent speech against the Scots. (fn. 147) He died in 1613, and was succeeded by his brother Richard. (fn. 148) At his death in 1637 his heir was his son Richard, (fn. 149) afterwards Sir Richard Pigott, who died without issue and was buried in Quainton Church in 1685. (fn. 150) His wife Ann was also buried there in 1686, (fn. 151) and his nephew and heir Thomas Pigott in 1704. (fn. 152)
Thomas Pigott was the last of the Whaddon branch of the Pigott family, and his widow Lettice held Doddershall Manor (fn. 153) in dower until her death in 1735, (fn. 154) when John Pigott, second son of Robert Pigott of Chetwynd in Shropshire, (fn. 155) secured his title in law. (fn. 156) His will was proved in 1751 by his widow Christobella, upon whom he had settled Doddershall Manor for life, (fn. 157) and she survived her third husband, Richard last Viscount Saye and Sele. (fn. 158) On her death in 1789 (fn. 159) this estate passed by John Pigott's will to his nephew William Pigott, (fn. 160) who made a settlement of it in tail-male in 1794. (fn. 161) He died in 1802, (fn. 162) and the manor has descended in the direct line (fn. 163) to his great-grandson Vice-Admiral William Harvey Pigott, (fn. 164) the present owner.
References to the manorial courts occur in the 15th and 16th centuries. (fn. 165)
In 1086 Alsi also held 2 hides in Shipton which he had acquired by the name means as the 4 hides in Sortelai, (fn. 166) with which they were held later as Doddershall and Southlee (fn. 167) and Doddershall and La Lee. (fn. 168) They descended in the Cramford family, but were subinfeudated by Roger Cramford to Thame Abbey, (fn. 169) which held them of Richard Cramford in the middle of the 13th century. (fn. 170) They formed the estate known as the LEE or LEE GRANGE, which, descending with the abbey's manor of Shipton (q.v.), gave it the additional name of Lee.
One hide of land in Sortelai formerly held by two thegns, Brictric's men, was held in 1086 by Miles Crispin, and, under him, by two tenants. (fn. 171) This does not reappear in Quainton, and probably passed with Waddesdon Manor (q.v.), where Miles Crispin succeeded Brictric.
Alwin, a thegn of King Edward, held a hide of land in Shipton, which in 1086 formed part of the lands of William Peverel. (fn. 172) This evidently passed with Hogshaw Manor (q.v.) to the Knights Hospitallers, who in 1254 made an agreement with Thame Abbey for the mutual convenience of their tenants for pasturage in Shipton. (fn. 173) The Knights Hospitallers also held Quainton Verneys, and this estate probably amalgamated with it.
Henry II confirmed to Nutley Abbey the hermitage of Finemere, in Rowland Malet's fee of Quainton, (fn. 174) in 1162, (fn. 175) and his charter was confirmed in 1328. (fn. 176) Later in this century it is mentioned as one of the abbey holdings in connexion with which Bishop Bek appointed a commission of inquiry. (fn. 177) The abbey was dissolved in 1529, (fn. 178) and in 1535 4s. was paid in pension to the former abbot out of 20s. which went to Quainton Church yearly from offerings at Finemere Chapel. (fn. 179) The abbey lands in Quainton and Grendon Underwood were granted in fee in 1540 to Michael, (fn. 180) afterwards Sir Michael Dormer, who in 1543 obtained a licence to alienate them to Peter Dormer (fn. 181) of Shipton Lee Manor (q.v.), into which they were apparently absorbed.
The church of ST. MARY THE VIRGIN AND HOLY CROSS consists of a chancel 43 ft. 6 in. by 19 ft. 6 in., north vestry, north chapel 26 ft. 6 in. by 12 ft., nave 61 ft. by 21 ft., north and south aisles each 7 ft. wide, south porch, and a west tower 13 ft. 6 in. by 13 ft. These measurements are all internal. The tower is faced with ashlar, but the rest of the building is of rubble. The nave and chancel roofs are tiled, the other roofs being lead-covered.
No part of the existing building appears to be earlier than the first half of the 14th century, to which date the nave and aisles belong. About 1353 the patrons, Thomas and Isabel de Missenden, proposed to make the church collegiate, (fn. 182) and with this end in view they probably rebuilt the chancel, lengthening it eastward, widening it on the north, and adding a vestry on this side. Considerable alterations were made in the 15th century, when the arcades were heightened and the clearstory added, and the west tower, north chapel and south porch were built. In 1877 it was found necessary to take down and rebuild the chancel and vestry, both the 14th-century nave aisles, and the south porch, the new walls being built on the old foundations and most of the old detail re-used. The nave arcades, which were leaning seriously, were at the same time brought back to the perpendicular and the clearstory was rebuilt. At the time of its demolition the chancel is said to have been in a very ruinous condition; apparently it had been in part rebuilt in the 16th century, and almost every trace of the old windows had disappeared, but the doorway to the vestry and a piscina still remained in situ. The nave clearstory had been built or rebuilt in the 18th century, probably during a restoration of about 1772, vertically upon the leaning walls. (fn. 183)
All the chancel windows are modern. The original 14th-century doorway to the vestry, in the eastern half of the north wall, has a pointed head and moulded jambs, all scraped and retooled. A fourcentred arch of the 15th century occupies most of the remainder of the wall. The chancel arch, which survived the reconstruction of the chancel about 1353, is of earlier 14th-century date than the vestry doorway. It springs from half-octagonal responds with moulded capitals and bases and is of two pointed orders; in the north respond of the arch is a recess with a four-centred cinquefoiled head, probably the reredos of a nave altar.
The north or Winwood chapel is lighted from the north by two restored late 15th-century windows; the eastern window has a four-centred head with tracery and is of three lights. The western window is similar, but almost round-headed. The doorway in the east wall, communicating with the vestry, and the arch to the aisle, are entirely modern, but the doorway to the churchyard at the north-west is of original 15th-century date, though renewed externally.
The nave arcades are each of five bays, with octagonal columns having moulded capitals and restored bases, and pointed arches of two orders. There are five square-headed clearstory windows on either side, each of two trefoiled lights.
A square-headed doorway, rebated for a door, opens from the north aisle to the rood-stairs, some of the steps of which remain. The three windows in the north wall of this aisle are of the 15th century and are each of three cinquefoiled lights under a square traceried head, but the westernmost has been almost wholly renewed. The pointed north doorway is of the original date of the aisle. A gallery was erected in this aisle in 1828.
The south aisle is lighted from the east by a twolight window with modern tracery, but original 14th century inner jambs and rear-arch, and from the south by three much-restored square-headed 15th century windows, each of three lights with tracery. In the east jamb of the south-east window, the opening of which appears to be of the 14th century, is an angle piscina of that date with a sexfoiled basin and trefoiled ogee head. At the east end of the south wall is a second piscina, quite plain, with a similar basin. The pointed south doorway is contemporary with the aisle. The 15th-century porch has a pointed outer doorway and square-headed windows of three lights in the east and west walls. At the south-east corner is a 15th-century stoup with a round basin.
The tower is of three stages with a stair-turret at the south-west and western angle buttresses stopping midway between the second and third stages, above which are diagonal buttresses of slight projection. The walls of the tower are crowned by an embattled parapet, as are also those of the stair-turret, which rises above the tower parapet. In the west wall of the ground stage is a reset 14th-century window of two trefoiled ogee lights under a traceried and pointed head, and beneath it is a pointed doorway of the same date with elabotately moulded jambs. The tower arch is of three pointed and chamfered orders with plain responds. The intermediate stage is lighted by small loops on the north and west, and there is a similar loop on the south, now blocked. On all four sides of the bell-chamber are traceried 15th-century windows of two lights with pointed heads. There is a clock, a successor to one existing here in 1682. (fn. 184) The roofs are modern, but a few old timbers have been made use of in the aisle roofs.
The font is of the 15th century and has an octagonal bowl panelled on all sides but one. At the east end of the north aisle are fragments of a late 15th-century screen, comprising four panels with traceried heads, the mouldings being painted white and red, and the panels with figures of saints, each holding a book, upon backgrounds of brown and red sprinkled with roses. In the south aisle is an early 17th-century oak communion table, and upon it is a carved oak desk, bearing the date 1682 with the names of the churchwardens.
On the north wall of the chancel are placed five interesting brasses which were taken up from the floor when the church was restored. The earliest, which is undated, is probably of the mid-14th century and has a French inscription to Joan 'Plessi' with a demi-figure of a young girl with long hair. Next in date is a brass with a kneeling figure of John Lewys, rector of the parish, who died in 1422. A later rector. John Spence, who died in 1485, is commemorated by a brass with a marginal inscription and a figure in processional vestments. The two latest brasses are to Margery wife of Sir Ralph Verney and daughter of John Iwardby, who died in 1509, with figures of herself and her children (one son and three daughters) and two shields of arms, and to Richard son of Nicholas Iwardby, who died in 1510, with his figure in civil costume, and two shields of arms.
Against the north wall of the north aisle is a large and elaborate marble monument to Sir Richard Pigott of Doddershall, who died in 1685, and his wife Ann daughter of Sir Edward Harrington, who died in the following year; later members of the same family are also commemorated. The monument was the work of I. Leoni, whose name is inscribed upon it. In front, included in the design, is a floor slab to Lettice daughter of the Hon. Thomas Cooke of Doddershall, who died in 1693. On the west wall is a monument commemorating Susan (Brawne) wife of Sir John Dormer of Lee Grange, Quainton, who died in March 1672–3, and her husband, who died in 1675. Richard Brett, who died in 1637, is commemorated by an elaborate monument of black marble and alabaster on the south wall of the south aisle, with kneeling figures of himself, his wife Alice (who erected the monument) and his sons and daughters. At the west end of the same aisle is a table tomb with recumbent effigies, erected by Anne Winwood, to Richard Winwood, who died in 1688, and Ann, daughter of Sir Thomas Read, his wife, who died in 1693. The inscription records that Richard Winwood, one of the deputy-lieutenants of the county in the reign of Charles II, was the son and heir of Sir Ralph Winwood, principal Secretary of State to Charles I. Elizabeth, Susan and Martha Rachael, daughters of Sir Gilbert Cornwall of Burford, Salop, nieces of Ann Winwood, are also commemorated upon the monument. Against the south wall of the tower is a large marble monument to Fleetwood Dormer of Lee Grange, who died in 1638, his son John, who died in 1679, and Fleetwood Dormer, who died in 1696. Against the opposite wall of the tower is a large and elaborate marble tomb, designed by Roubiliac, to Robert Dormer, a justice of the Court of Common Pleas, who died in 1726, Mary his wife, who died in 1728, and Fleetwood their son, who died in 1726. On the monument is represented the effigy of the judge in his robes with figures of his wife and son. Behind is an entablature supported by Corinthian pilasters, and in the tympanum is a shield with the Dormer arms. On the walls and floor are slabs to other members of the Dormer and Pigott families.
There is a ring of five bells: the treble inscribed 'Thinke no cost to much. H.K. 1621 '(for Henry Knight); second, 'That you bestow of all. H.K. 1621'; third, 'To bring to pas. H.K. 1621'; and the fourth, 'So good a thing. H.K. 1621'; and the tenor, 'I. Eeles & W. Tomes Ch Wardnes 1745. T. Lester of London made me.' The inscription is incised, and it appears likely that the original inscription has been cut off. There is also a sanctus inscribed in small black letter 't e.' (fn. 185)
In 1223 Hervey Malet secured his claim to the advowson of Quainton Church against the Knights HosPitallers and Roger de Wimbervill. (fn. 186) It descended with the manor of Quainton Malet (q.v.), being valued at £20 in 1291 (fn. 187) and at £31 6s. 8d. in 1535, (fn. 188) until the early 18th century, (fn. 189) when it was alienated by John Duke of Montagu. (fn. 190) Benjamin Alicock presented in 1732, (fn. 191) and soon afterwards the advowson belonged to the Elkins of Barton Seagrave, Northamptonshire, (fn. 192) and descended in that family or their assigns until after 1862. (fn. 193) After several transfers it was purchased about 1890 by the present owner, Captain H. Cautley.
In 1353 Thomas and Isabel de Missenden obtained a licence to endow a college of priests with a messuage and a carucate in Quainton and the advowson of the church and also to appropriate the church to the uses of the college, (fn. 194) but their purpose appears never to have been effected. An allotment for glebe to the rector was made in 1840. (fn. 195)
There was formerly a chapel at Shipton Lee, and Ingram Berenger endowed a chantry in it in 1312 with 2 virgates of land. (fn. 196) It appertained to Lee Grange and had been destroyed before the end of the 18th century. (fn. 197)
Shipton Lee was tithe-free in common with the other lands of Thame Abbey, (fn. 198) the Cistercian Order being freed from such payments in the early 13th century. (fn. 199) In the middle of the 19th century £8 yearly was paid from the hamlet of Denham to the rector of Quainton for exemption from tithes. (fn. 200)
The almshouses founded and endowed by will of Richard Winwood, dated 20 January 1686–7, (fn. 201) are administered under the provisions of a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 14 October 1910. The trust estate consists of eight almshouses in Church Street, a farm at Quainton containing 156 acres let at £174 a year, other pieces of land containing 5 acres or thereabouts, and cottages and gradens producing about £40 a year, and £1,372 7s. 8d. consols, and £167 Metropolitan Railway 3½ per cent, stock arising from sales of land from time to time, and producing £40 2s. 10d. a year. The sums of stock are held by the official trustees, who also hold a sum of £315 16s. 9d. consols, derived under the will of Alice Bett, proved at London 13 June 1873, the annual dividends of which, amounting to £8 19s. 8d., are applicable in providing coal or warm clothing for the inmates. By the scheme the net income is applicable in providing stipends for the inmates at a rate of not more than 5s. a week, and any surplus may be applied in providing a nurse to attend the inmates, also any sick or infirm persons of the parish. Provision is also made in the scheme for the building of cottages out of surplus income to be let at a low rent, which is in course of being carried into effect.
Distributive Charities.— Matthew Nash, as recorded on a tablet in the church, by his will in 1667 devised certain properties at North End for the distribution of twelve sixpenny loaves to the poor of Quainton every Good Friday and 1s. to be given to the overseer for his trouble, and the same for the poor of Waddesdon and Westcott. The charge of 7s. yearly, being the share of Quainton, was redeemed in 1887 by the transfer to the official trustees of £11 16s. 8d. consols, now producing 5s. 8d. yearly, which is expended in the distribution of fourteen loaves to fourteen widows on Good Friday (see also under parish of Waddesdon).
Educational Charities.—It was recorded on tablets in the church that in 1692 Susannah Booth and Helen Plydwell gave £20 for educating poor children, which was laid out in land in 1724; also that in 1691 Patrick Symmer, rector, gave £50 for the same purpose, which was also invested in land. The endowment of these charities now consists of 11a. 1r. 11p. let at £11 a year, which is applied for the benefit of the National school.
It was further recorded that in 1672 Dame Ann Pigott laid out £160 in land at Ambrosden, Oxfordshire, to educate children of Quainton and Grendon Underwood and buy them Bibles. The endowment consists of 7 acres called the Pix, comprised in deed 13 December 1678, which is let at £8 a year, one moiety of which is applied in each of the two parishes.
In 1704 Thomas Pigott by deed gave £300 for apprenticing poor children of Quainton and Grendon Underwood. The principal sum, with accumulations, is now represented by £484 2s. 2d. consols with the official trustees, producing £12 2s. yearly. The charity is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 4 September 1908, a moiety of the dividends being applied in each of the two parishes.
Church Land or Bridge Land.—It was further recorded on a church tablet that a person unknown gave a parcel of land, now called Church Land, to repair the causeways and bridges leading to the church. The land comprises about 6 acres and is let at £6 a year, which is duly applied.