A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 5. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1973.
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The parish of Harlton, (fn. 1) containing 1,261 a., (fn. 2) lies 5 miles south-west of Cambridge. The ancient Mare Way, running along a ridge over 200 ft. high, marks the southern boundary with Barrington and Orwell. Thence the land descends quite sharply northwards to the site of the village on the spring line at 100 ft., (fn. 3) north of which the land is mainly level, falling gently to less than 50 ft. by the Bourn brook, which forms the northern boundary with Comberton. The southwestern corner of the parish lies west of the road from Arrington Bridge to Cambridge which, with the road to Comberton, forms most of the western boundary with Little Eversden. The eastern boundary is partly marked by old watercourses. The parish lies on boulder clay over chalk in the south, on chalk in the middle, on gault in the north, and on gravel and alluvium by the Bourn brook, into which the streams and springs of the parish flow. (fn. 4) The high ground adjoining Orwell in the south-west of the parish was called Beacon Green from the late 17th to the early 19th century, and was apparently intercommoned with Orwell. (fn. 5)
Clunch from a quarry south-east of the village was used to build Cambridge castle in 1295, (fn. 6) and was apparently last used for building in 1906. (fn. 7) It was used for marling in 1910, (fn. 8) and by 1971 the heavily wooded quarry was a parish recreation area. (fn. 9) The clay-pit south-west of the village was sometimes called the Lady Quarry from 1484, and had been filled in by 1971. The gravel-pit by the Bourn brook was recorded from 1484 onwards (fn. 10) and, with the quarry and the clay-pit, was allotted to the surveyors of highways in 1810. (fn. 11) By 1869 coprolite digging, not apparently confined to work within the parish itself, (fn. 12) provided work for many in Harlton, (fn. 13) and coprolites continued to be excavated until the 1890s. (fn. 14) The manor included valuable timber in the 16th (fn. 15) and 17th (fn. 16) centuries, and 14 a. of woodland c. 1840. (fn. 17) Three Corner Plantation, in the angle of the Cambridge and Comberton roads, was recorded from c. 1829 to c. 1952. (fn. 18) It had been removed by 1971, when some ancient woodland, Butler's Spinney, (fn. 19) survived. Harlton has remained an agricultural parish since the 11th century, and before parliamentary inclosure in 1810 it was divided into three and sometimes into four open fields. From at least the early 17th century to the early 20th the population consisted mainly of agricultural workers with few, if any, wealthy inhabitants. (fn. 20)
The village lies on either side of High Street which leads to Haslingfield on the east, and on the west forks north into Washpit Lane and west into Eversden Road, both of which join the Cambridge road. In contrast with some neighbouring villages (fn. 21) Harlton had no new housing estates by 1971, and recent development had been confined to infilling and a small amount of building at either end of the village. At inclosure in 1810 settlement was mainly south of High Street and Eversden Road. There were fewer closes north of High Street and either side of Washpit Lane. (fn. 22) Before inclosure some settlement west of the village had evidently been abandoned: Butler's Spinney appears to have been named after the Butler family who held an estate in the 13th and 14th centuries, (fn. 23) and Butler's close, recorded in 1675, (fn. 24) was apparently called Lordship Butlers in 1810 when it immediately adjoined the spinney. (fn. 25) A moated site containing three moats north-west of the village may mark the site of both a medieval and a 16th- or 17th-century manor-house. (fn. 26) The site was apparently disused by the late 17th century when Manor Farm was built at the west end of the village, north of High Street. (fn. 27) The church lies east of Manor Farm and north of it there is an apparently moated site whose purpose has not been discovered, although part of it was called the Moat Orchard at inclosure. (fn. 28) The Old Rectory lies southeast of the church which is connected to High Street by a lane made evidently after 1810, when the green immediately south and east of the church and the Lammas mead immediately east of the green were inclosed. (fn. 29) In 1971 two older houses (fn. 30) survived north of High Street, where a row of council houses was built at the east end of the village in 1947. (fn. 31) A greater number of older buildings survived south of High Street. Formerly there had been mainly meadow north of High Street and orchards south of it, but infilling with bungalows and two-storey houses after c. 1960 (fn. 32) resulted in almost continuous settlement either side of the street in 1971. South of the street settlement had not expanded beyond the pre-inclosure southern limit. North of Eversden Road a row of council houses was built either side of some older houses in 1938, (fn. 33) and on both sides of the road older buildings were mingled with houses and bungalows built after c. 1960. (fn. 34)
The washpit appears to have been at the ford where the Long brook formerly crossed Washpit Lane, (fn. 35) and where it was subsequently piped under the road. Washpit Cottage was recorded there in 1901, (fn. 36) but had been demolished by 1971. No record has been found of farms built away from the village before inclosure in 1810, but Lord's Bridge Farm in the north (fn. 37) and Maypole Farm in the southwest (fn. 38) were apparently built before the 1860s, the latter being named after Orwell maypole. (fn. 39)
Harlton has had one of the smallest populations in the hundred. About 20 people were recorded in 1086, (fn. 40) and c. 57 occupiers of land in 1279. (fn. 41) In 1377 103 people paid the poll-tax, (fn. 42) and 31 people were assessed to the subsidy in 1524. (fn. 43) There were 21 families in 1563, (fn. 44) and c. 30 households in the 1660s and 1670s. (fn. 45) In 1676 74 adults were recorded, (fn. 46) and in 1728 there were c. 130 inhabitants in 25 families. (fn. 47) Population increased steadily from 156 in 1801 and reached a peak of 335 in 1871, (fn. 48) partly as a result of the number of coprolite workers. (fn. 49) It declined to 208 in 1931 (fn. 50) but had increased to 285 in 1961, (fn. 51) when many were employed in Cambridge and elsewhere outside the village, (fn. 52) as were most of the newcomers in the 1960s. (fn. 53)
The Roman road from Arrington Bridge to Cambridge (fn. 54) crosses the parish from south-west to north-east. It was probably sometimes called Portway, (fn. 55) but a track of that name was recorded running north-west of it c. 1808. (fn. 56) It has also been identified with Haydon way or Haydon Hill way (fn. 57) which, however, appear to have been in the southeastern part of the parish. (fn. 58) It was turnpiked under an Act of 1797, (fn. 59) and disturnpiked in 1870. (fn. 60) The Portway trackway and about six ancient roads or trackways were stopped up at inclosure in 1810. (fn. 61) The Bedford-Cambridge railway line, crossing the north of the parish, was opened in 1862; (fn. 62) the track had been removed by 1969. (fn. 63)
There were formerly four public houses in Harlton, of which two remained in 1971: the Wheatsheaf at the junction of the Eversden and Cambridge roads, recorded in 1833, (fn. 64) and the Hare and Hounds, a thatched building south of High Street, recorded in 1879. (fn. 65) The Red Lion, at the east end of High Street, was open by 1825 (fn. 66) and was closed in 1960. (fn. 67) The Railway inn near Lord's Bridge station, (fn. 68) recorded in 1886, (fn. 69) had been closed by 1966 (fn. 70) and demolished by 1971.
A friendly society was recorded between 1803 and 1815, (fn. 71) and a free parochial library recorded in 1888 (fn. 72) and 1897 (fn. 73) contained c. 150 books in 1907 when it was kept in the vestry. (fn. 74)
The Air Ministry requisitioned the northern part of Manor farm and Lord's Bridge farm south-east of the Cambridge road for an ammunition dump in 1938, (fn. 75) and sidings were laid down from the Bedford-Cambridge railway line. (fn. 76) The ammunition dump was closed in 1955 (fn. 77) and in 1957 the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, built the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory on the site, (fn. 78) which was bought from the Ministry of Defence in 1971. (fn. 79) New telescopes were built after 1957, and the former Bedford-Cambridge railway line was being brought into use in 1971, (fn. 80) when the aerials were a striking contrast to an otherwise rural landscape.
Manors and Other Estates.
Of the five hides in Harlton in 1086 Walter Giffard (d. 1102) was lord of four, (fn. 81) later the manor of HUNTINGFIELD or HARLTON. Walter was created earl of Buckingham perhaps in 1097, and was succeeded by his son Walter who died without issue in 1164, (fn. 82) when his lands escheated to the Crown. Richard I gave part of the Giffard estates to Richard de Clare, earl of Hertford, the great-great-grandson of Rose sister of Walter Giffard the elder. (fn. 83) Richard de Clare was succeeded in 1217 by his son Gilbert, earl of Gloucester and Hertford (d. 1230), and the overlordship of Harlton descended with the earldom of Gloucester. (fn. 84) After the death of Gilbert, the last Clare earl of Gloucester, in 1314 (fn. 85) the reversion of the overlordship of the manor was assigned to Margaret his second sister and coheir, (fn. 86) and the view of frankpledge to Elizabeth his third sister and coheir. (fn. 87) The overlordship and the view thereafter descended with those of Arrington, (fn. 88) although in 1473 Huntingfield manor was said, apparently in error, to be held from George, duke of Clarence, of the honor of Richmond. (fn. 89)
The four hides which Achi had held in 1066 were held of Walter Giffard by Walter son of Aubrey in 1086. (fn. 90) William de Huntingfield had apparently obtained the land before 1166, (fn. 91) when his son Roger (d. 1204) probably held one fee in Harlton. (fn. 92) Roger's mother Sibyl held £10 worth of land in 1185, (fn. 93) and after her death in 1189 (fn. 94) the fee descended in general with the main line of the Huntingfield family until at least 1313. (fn. 95) William de Huntingfield (d. 1220) helped to obtain Magna Carta in 1215 (fn. 96) and fought against King John. (fn. 97) Some of his confiscated lands were restored to him in the same year, (fn. 98) and some again apparently in 1217. (fn. 99) In 1253 Roger de Huntingfield and his heirs were granted free warren in his demesne lands in Cambridgeshire. (fn. 100) Roger's widow Joan bought the wardship of his lands on his death in 1257, when his son William (d. 1290) was almost 20. (fn. 101) William opposed the king in the Barons' War, (fn. 102) but was pardoned in 1267 and his lands were restored to him in 1269. (fn. 103) Isabel Paunton held the fee from him in marriage in 1279, (fn. 104) apparently for life, (fn. 105) and still held it in 1312. (fn. 106) William's grandson, William de Huntingfield (d. 1313), evidently gave the fee, or the reversion of it, to his collateral relation Roger de Huntingfield, because William's son and heir Roger was a minor in 1313 (fn. 107) whereas the fee was held by Roger de Huntingfield who was of full age. Roger the elder settled the manor on John, rector of Pettistree (Suff.), in 1313. (fn. 108) He retained possession of it, (fn. 109) apparently with Eleanor his wife; (fn. 110) they acquired another estate in Harlton in 1314 (fn. 111) and held the manor jointly at Roger's death in 1328 when his son Roger was a minor. (fn. 112) Eleanor (fn. 113) had married Sir Robert Sewerby of Sewerby (Yorks. E.R.) apparently by 1332. (fn. 114) He died c. 1335 (fn. 115) and by 1343 Eleanor had married Richard of Kelshall, (fn. 116) the judge, (fn. 117) who held the manor in 1346 (fn. 118) and 1349 (fn. 119) and died in 1365. (fn. 120) The manor was afterwards divided between Eleanor, widow of Sir John Northwich and daughter of Richard Francis (fn. 121) and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Roger de Huntingfield, (fn. 122) and Sir John Sewerby, son of Sir Robert's son Sir Thomas. (fn. 123) In 1376 William Potton, rector of Harlton, (fn. 124) and William Bateman acquired Harlton manor and advowson, part from Sir John Sewerby by quitclaim (fn. 125) and part from Eleanor and her second husband Geoffrey Cobb by lease at 8 marks rent. (fn. 126) In 1382 Eleanor and Geoffrey quitclaimed the rent to Potton and Bateman, (fn. 127) and Sewerby repeated his quitclaim; (fn. 128) in 1383 Bateman quitclaimed his interest to Potton (fn. 129) who in 1388 granted Harlton manor called Huntingfield to Ralph Bateman. (fn. 130) Ralph held the manor until at least 1425: (fn. 131) he claimed to be sole lord of the town c. 1410, (fn. 132) and in 1424 he contested a verdict of 1421 (fn. 133) that Huntingfield manor should be delivered to Eleanor Hunt for payment of legal costs and a debt owing to her deceased mother Elizabeth Flambard. (fn. 134) In 1423 Ralph was presented for incitement to murder, and he was outlawed in 1429. (fn. 135) Alexander Childe had acquired the manor by 1428. (fn. 136) He was alive in 1448 (fn. 137) but by 1450 had apparently been succeeded by Richard Childe, (fn. 138) whose wife Joan had conveyed Huntingfield manor probably to feoffees in 1444. (fn. 139) By his will proved in 1459 Richard left his manors and lands in Harlton to Joan for life with remainder to his son Thomas. (fn. 140) Joan died in 1473 (fn. 141) and Thomas in 1494 leaving to his daughter and heir Alice and her husband John Hutton certain land held of the duchess of York, (fn. 142) apparently the manor of Harlton. (fn. 143) John Hutton died in 1501 leaving Thomas, a minor, as his son and heir. (fn. 144) Alice had married Thomas Whitehead by 1503, when the manor was settled on them with remainder to John Hutton's male heirs. (fn. 145) Thomas Whitehead died c. 1522, (fn. 146) and in 1537 Alice demised the manor for 20 years to Thomas Hutton, (fn. 147) who died in 1552 and was succeeded by his son John. (fn. 148) In 1561 John sold the manor to his younger brother Thomas, (fn. 149) and Thomas sold it to William Barnes of Milton (Cambs.). (fn. 150) William died in 1562 and left two-thirds of the manor to his wife Alice for life, his son Thomas being a minor. (fn. 151) Thomas died in 1579 shortly after settling the manor on his brother Robert and his future wife. (fn. 152) The manor-house was deserted apparently by 1587. (fn. 153) Robert was attainted c. 1598 for helping two Roman Catholic priests in London, but he was pardoned and his lands were restored to him in 1603. (fn. 154) In 1608 he and his daughter Anne sold the manor to Thomas Fryer, a Roman Catholic physician, (fn. 155) and his wife Mary, (fn. 156) who in 1613 settled the manor on their second son Henry. Mary died in 1614, (fn. 157) and by his will proved in 1623 Thomas confirmed the settlement to Henry and left £50 to his eldest son John, denouncing his treatment of his parents 'and other horrible immanities and cruelties towards his second brother Henry and other detestable misdemeans towards his sister Susan too horrible and shameful to repeat'. (fn. 158) Henry died without issue in 1631 (fn. 159) having devised the manor to charitable uses subject to certain bequests, (fn. 160) and John Fryer instituted proceedings against his executors. (fn. 161) Henry's executors continued to hold the manor in 1634, (fn. 162) and in 1635 Henry's widow Bridget obtained her dower, including the manor-house. (fn. 163) In 1638 on the king's order John obtained the manor subject to Henry's specific bequests, (fn. 164) although disputes over the will continued. (fn. 165) By his will proved in 1672 John settled the manor on his nephews John Peacock and Andrew Mathew and their sons, (fn. 166) and Andrew Mathew took possession. (fn. 167) In pursuance of a decree of the Commissioners for Charitable Uses in 1675, (fn. 168) and another of Chancery in 1676, (fn. 169) the manor was conveyed to Christ's Hospital in 1677 (fn. 170) subject to Henry Fryer's specific bequests and Bridget's dower. The choice of Christ's Hospital was the king's, acting on advice about his powers, and he directed that the endowment should be for his new foundation there for teaching mathematics and navigation. (fn. 171) Bridget Fryer leased her dower to Christ's Hospital in 1677 (fn. 172) and died in 1684. (fn. 173) The school was allotted c. 237 a. at inclosure in 1810, (fn. 174) and in 1919 sold the manorial estate to the rector, W. Ellison. (fn. 175) He died in 1922 (fn. 176) and in 1924 his executors sold it to Mr. Percy Banks, who owned it in 1971. (fn. 177)
Manor Farm, to the west of the church, has two storeys with red brick walls and hipped slate roof. It is of the late 17th century, remodelled in the 19th. (fn. 178)
LUDES manor probably originated (fn. 179) in the ⅓ knight's fee which Ralph Lovel held from Isabel Paunton in 1279. (fn. 180) Ralph gave an estate in Harlton to Edmund Lovel c. 1291, (fn. 181) and in 1305 John Atmill of Horton (fn. 182) and his wife Annora gave a lifeinterest in an estate of similar size and description to John de la Lude, (fn. 183) apparently sent to Parliament in 1300 by High Wycombe (Bucks.). (fn. 184) John was recorded in Harlton in the 1320s (fn. 185) and in 1329 Richard of Wiggonholt released all his right in the lands he held in John's manor of Harlton to John, (fn. 186) who was living in 1337. (fn. 187) No further mention of the manor has been found until William Potton granted it to Ralph Bateman with Huntingfield manor in 1388. (fn. 188) Until at least 1425 Ralph held both manors, which thereafter apparently descended together. (fn. 189) The property which Thomas Childe (d. 1494) left to his daughter Alice included certain lands called Ludy's, (fn. 190) and in 1635 Bridget Fryer's dower included the Ludes. (fn. 191)
In 1279 John of Folksworth held 240 a. by the curtesy from Isabel Paunton. (fn. 192) Alan Boun held ¼ knight's fee, possibly the same estate, from Isabel Paunton c. 1303, (fn. 193) and Richard Boun was recorded as a free tenant in 1336. (fn. 194) Nicholas Anketyne and William Tailboys held the estate from Richard of Kelshall in 1346, (fn. 195) and it was held by Walter Tailboys and John Ellis in 1428. (fn. 196) No further record of it has been found.
Peter Butler probably held land in Harlton between 1225 and 1238. (fn. 197) In 1257 Hugh Butler granted two plough-lands to Ralph Camoys, (fn. 198) and in 1279 William Thede held 15 a. from Isabel Paunton through Hugh's heirs. (fn. 199) John Butler (fn. 200) and land formerly owned by him were recorded in 1332, (fn. 201) and land of Stephen Butler in 1343, 1346, (fn. 202) and 1349. (fn. 203) Thomas Whaddon's 'Botelerislandyes' descended to his brother and heir Nicholas, who conveyed them to Henry Godfrey and five others in 1421. (fn. 204) Sir John Rotse was licensed to hear mass in his house in Harlton in 1342 and 1345, (fn. 205) and his property there was recorded between 1342 and 1352. (fn. 206) The two above estates apparently formed the manors of ROTSES and BUTLERS which John Chishall and his wife Joan sold to Alexander Childe and six others in 1448. (fn. 207)
In 1086 one hide in Harlton was held by Picot the sheriff; in 1066 it had been held by Godman from Ansgar the Staller. (fn. 208) Picot died after c. 1092 (fn. 209) and his son Robert was accused of plotting against Henry I, who had given his lands to Pain Peverel by c. 1110. (fn. 210) Thenceforth the overlordship descended in the Peverel and Pecche families who held the barony of Bourn until it was sold to the Crown in 1284. (fn. 211) About 1303 ½ knight's fee in Harlton was said to be held of Gilbert Pecche, apparently in error. (fn. 212)
The hide was held from Picot by Sefrid in 1086. (fn. 213) Sefrid's estate was apparently represented by the ¾ knight's fee which Adam de Perrers held in 1166. (fn. 214) In 1198 Alexander Mangant, possibly Robert Mangant's son Alexander, (fn. 215) acquired 5 a. (fn. 216) He, or perhaps his successor Alexander, held 18 a. and was dead by 1230. (fn. 217) In 1235 or 1236 and c. 1243 another Alexander Mangant held ½ knight's fee, (fn. 218) and in 1279 Alexander Mangant held the ½ knight's fee of Roger de Perrers by service of suit to the county and the hundred and 12d. for the sheriff's aid. (fn. 219) The estate was held by John Mangant, John in the Willows, and Robert of Waldingfield c. 1303, (fn. 220) and by 1328 Roger de Huntingfield and Eleanor his wife apparently held part of it of Roger de Perrers by service of 1/16 knight's fee. (fn. 221) Richard of Kelshall held it in 1346, (fn. 222) and John Waldeffe and his wife Elizabeth in 1428. (fn. 223) No further record of the estate has been found.
Richard Bevin held 12 a. from Ralph Lovel in 1279. (fn. 224) In the 14th century the Bevin family acquired another 24 a., part of which, with 12 a. acquired by Thomas Fordham of Cambridge in 1441, apparently formed the estate of Queens' College, (fn. 225) which held land in Harlton by 1482. (fn. 226) The estate, Bagwaynes, comprised c. 30 a. in 1556. (fn. 227) Thirty acres were allotted at inclosure in 1810, (fn. 228) and were sold in 1920. (fn. 229) The estate which the Pratt family began to acquire in 1351 apparently formed part of that acquired by Michaelhouse after 1441, (fn. 230) which was later called Pratts. (fn. 231) By c. 1540 Michaelhouse held c. 32 a. (fn. 232) which were surrendered and granted to Trinity College in 1546. (fn. 233) The 19½ a. allotted to the college at inclosure in 1810 (fn. 234) were sold c. 1920. (fn. 235) St. Catharine's College held an estate let for 20s. c. 1540. (fn. 236) About 8 a. allotted at inclosure in 1810 (fn. 237) were sold in 1920. (fn. 238)
LIMES FARM and YEW TREE FARM were formerly one estate which can be traced in two parts from the earlier 18th century. John Smith held c. 112 a. copyhold at his death c. 1732 when he was succeeded by his son Thomas, who died c. 1758 and was succeeded by his brother John. (fn. 239) By his will proved in 1764 John left the estate to his daughter Mary, wife of Joshua Eversden of Bourn, (fn. 240) and Mary and Joshua sold it to John Whitechurch the younger in 1799. (fn. 241) The Wilson family had acquired land in Harlton before 1562 (fn. 242) and were recorded during the 16th and 17th centuries. (fn. 243) By 1729 Anne Robson of Cambridge and William Fuller had conveyed c. 96 a. freehold to John Wilson who died c. 1730, (fn. 244) and was succeeded by his son John. (fn. 245) John died intestate in 1775 leaving as heir his son John aged 18 (fn. 246) who, by his will proved in 1796, directed that his land should be sold for the benefit of his son John, apparently a minor. (fn. 247) At inclosure in 1810 John Wilson was allotted c. 86 a. freehold and c. 100 a. copyhold, (fn. 248) which was all sold in 1811 to John Whitechurch, (fn. 249) who had been allotted c. 15 a. freehold and c. 98 a. copyhold. (fn. 250) By his will proved in 1828 John Whitechurch directed that his freehold and copyhold lands should be sold. (fn. 251) In 1832 the Revd. T. S. Hughes of Cambridge was admitted to 166 a. copyhold. (fn. 252) He died in 1847 and was succeeded by his wife Maria in 1848. J. H. Monk, bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, had acquired an interest in the estate by 1834. (fn. 253) He died in 1856 and was apparently succeeded by his wife Jane (fn. 254) who, with Maria Hughes, held 290 a. of John Whitechurch's freehold and copyhold lands. Jane Monk was succeeded by her son C. J. Monk, M.P. for Gloucester, (fn. 255) who bought Maria Hughes's moiety and enfranchised the copyhold. (fn. 256) In 1894 he gave the estate to his son J. H. Monk, who died c. 1941 when the estate, comprising Limes farm of c. 78 a. and Yew Tree farm of c. 215 a., (fn. 257) was sold. Peter and James Banks bought Yew Tree farm which Peter owned in 1971, (fn. 258) and A. B. Worboys apparently bought Limes farm which he sold in 1961 to Mrs. H. M. Roderick, (fn. 259) whose family owned it in 1971.
A number of other estates are recorded in Harlton. First, in 1202 ½ hide was disputed between Peter son of Ailbrith and Gilbert of Harlton. (fn. 260) Second, Geoffrey Carbonel granted ½ plough-land to Thomas Carbonel in 1230, (fn. 261) and Roger Carbonel owed suit and 12d. for the sheriff's aid c. 1235. (fn. 262) In 1279 Robert of Waldingfield held c. 75 a. from Ralph Lovel, rendering Ralph Carbonel one pair of gilt spurs, and Roger Carbonel's heirs held c. 19 a. (fn. 263) Third, William de Lenne and his wife Isabel in 1305 sold to John de Rede and his wife Joan 1 plough-land in Harlton and Eversden. (fn. 264) Fourth, William le Sap, chaplain, granted 2/3 plough-land and 33s. rent in Harlton to John of Croydon and Joan his wife in 1310. (fn. 265) John was apparently living in 1327, (fn. 266) but had either died or granted away all or part of the land by 1332. (fn. 267) Fifth, William Ames was recorded c. 1321 (fn. 268) and in 1375 John Ames and John By acquired c. 28 a. in Harlton. (fn. 269) Members of the Ames family were recorded until the 16th century, (fn. 270) and in 1542 Robert Ames, his first wife Joan, and their son Richard, exchanged 12 a. in Haslingfield for 12 a. in Harlton. (fn. 271) Joan and Richard were dead by 1567, when Robert and his second wife Joan quitclaimed that estate to John, apparently their younger son, (fn. 272) and c. 90 a. in Harlton to Francis, apparently their elder son. (fn. 273) Francis and John were recorded in 1585, (fn. 274) and Robert Ames and his wife Audrey in 1591. (fn. 275)
The 4 hides held of Walter Giffard in 1086 were worth £8 in 1066, when there were five sokemen of whom four held 1½ yardland and one held ½ yardland. They provided five watchmen for the sheriff and could sell their land. By 1086 the estate was worth £7, there was land for 6 ploughs, 2 on the demesne and 4 villein ploughs, and meadow for another three. There were 7 villani, 9 bordars, and 2 servi. (fn. 276) The hide held of Picot in 1086 was worth £1, as in 1066. There were 2 bordars, land for one plough which was not there, and meadow for 4 oxen. (fn. 277) The parish remained divided into two main estates in 1279 on which there were many cross-holdings and interlocking tenancies. Only the larger estate had unfree tenants, 11 in number, and of the 49 free tenants two had large estates for which they paid scutage and which together had 30 free tenants. (fn. 278)
After 1279 the larger estate, held by Isabel Paunton, appears first to have been fragmented (fn. 279) and later to have grown at the expense of other estates in the parish. Isabel held two plough-lands in 1311. (fn. 280) More land was acquired in 1314, (fn. 281) and Ludes and Huntingfield manors passed into the same ownership in 1388. (fn. 282) In 1410 it was alleged that all the wastes of the town pertained to the manor of Harlton, (fn. 283) which may have been enlarged by the addition of Rotses and Butlers manors in 1448, (fn. 284) and included Butlers close before 1675. (fn. 285) There was a large demesne farm held by the lady of the manor in 1524, when her family was evidently the wealthiest in the parish. (fn. 286)
The manor-house and the demesne were let in 1545 (fn. 287) and thereafter, (fn. 288) and a new farm-house was built c. 1587. (fn. 289) From the mid 16th to the mid 17th century the Harlton manor demesne appears to have comprised between a third and a half of the parish, (fn. 290) and in the mid 17th century it was divided into two farms. (fn. 291) A copyhold estate of c. 75 a. was recorded in 1631, (fn. 292) and at least four copyhold estates in 1675. (fn. 293) There were c. 421 a. copyhold after inclosure in 1810 when the manor farm comprised 298 a. (fn. 294)
Assarts had been made on Roger de Huntingfield's demesne by 1196. (fn. 295) Field-names found from 1295 onwards show that Harlton was divided into three and sometimes into four fields, (fn. 296) although no evidence has been found to correlate them with crop-rotation. Apart from the north-east corner of the parish, known as Cow Common before inclosure in 1810, the north field comprised approximately the area north of the Long brook. Land in the 'brach' there in 1332 and 1349 suggests an extension of the area under cultivation. The north field was known as Brook field from c. 1683 onwards. The west field comprised the area south of Eversden Road, and from c. 1635 it was known as Mill or Windmill field. (fn. 297) The remaining land in the east and south parts of the parish was sometimes divided into two. In 1295 all or part of it was called Mill field, but in the early 14th century it was divided into East or Nether field apparently north of the Haslingfield road, and South or Over field south of it. By the mid 15th century it was apparently one field, East field, later South field, but it is possible that there were again two fields in the early 16th century. By 1562 it was one field and remained so until after 1683. (fn. 298) In the late 17th or early 18th century it was again divided into two fields: Low field north of the Haslingfield road, and Home field south of it, known as High field at inclosure in 1810. Traces of the four open fields were visible c. 1968. (fn. 299)
By 1635 the demesne included blocks of land ranging from 8 a. to 20 a. or more. (fn. 300) Several large closes north of Eversden Road and west of Washpit Lane were recorded in 1675 (fn. 301) and 1810 as part of the manor, and out of the 113 a. inclosed before 1810 c. 60 a. belonged to the demesne. (fn. 302)
Engrossment of landholding can be traced from the end of the 18th century. John Whitechurch the younger bought c. 112 a. in 1799 (fn. 303) and as a result of inclosure in 1810, (fn. 304) when 1,096 a. were inclosed, (fn. 305) and another sale in 1811 (fn. 306) Christ's Hospital held c. 298 a., the rector c. 275 a., and John Whitechurch c. 325 a. The Whitechurch family as landowners and tenants (fn. 307) occupied about half the parish until the Whitechurch estate was sold c. 1829. (fn. 308)
After inclosure Manor farm occupied one block of land north of Eversden Road and High Street and east of the Cambridge road. (fn. 309) It was apparently farmed as one farm, and members of the Whitechurch family were tenants until the early 20th century. (fn. 310) Recorded enfranchisements of copyhold land are of 33 a. by 1863, (fn. 311) c. 166 a. after 1884, (fn. 312) and c. 79 a. in 1898. (fn. 313) The glebe was divided into two farms by 1867: Lord's Bridge farm in the north of the parish comprising c. 161 a., and Rectory farm of c. 120 a. east of Manor farm and partly south of the Haslingfield road. (fn. 314) The Whitechurch estate was divided into two farms by the time it was sold c. 1829, (fn. 315) and after it had been acquired by the Monk family it was divided into Yew Tree and Limes farms. (fn. 316) Maypole farm in the south-west corner of the parish is recorded from 1864 onwards. (fn. 317) John Brand was allotted c. 16 a. copyhold in 1810, (fn. 318) and members of the Brand family were landowners and farmers in Harlton during the 19th century. (fn. 319) Benjamin Banks married a member of the Brand family (fn. 320) and had acquired land in Harlton by 1900. (fn. 321) His son Percy bought the Trinity College estate c. 1919, (fn. 322) and Manor farm in 1924, and his son Peter bought Yew Tree farm in 1941, (fn. 323) Rectory farm in 1950, (fn. 324) and that part of Maypole farm east of the Cambridge road in 1970. (fn. 325) In 1971 the Banks family owned most of the parish except for Lord's Bridge and Limes farms, part of Maypole farm, and the land occupied by the radio astronomy observatory.
Little evidence has been found of the way in which the land was cultivated. There were 20 sheep on Walter Giffard's estate in 1086, (fn. 326) but no further evidence of sheep-farming has been found until the 16th century. The manor included one foldage by 1561, (fn. 327) and in the later 16th century sheep worth at least 200 marks. (fn. 328) A sheep-walk and fold-course belonging to the manor were recorded in 1675. (fn. 329) In the mid 17th century the manor contained between 320 and 400 a. of arable, and between 50 and 60 a. of meadow and pasture. (fn. 330)
After inclosure cultivation was, apparently, mainly arable, and fruit-growing became important. There were five orchards in 1810 apart from those attached to homesteads. (fn. 331) John Whitechurch (d. 1828) apparently increased the number of orchards in the parish. (fn. 332) Lord's Bridge farm and Rectory farm were mostly arable in 1867. The same tenant farmed them and sold the hay and chaff from both, buying London manure instead. Sainfoin had been sown on c. 30 a. of Rectory farm. (fn. 333) By the late 19th and in the early 20th century fruit, especially greengages, was an important crop. (fn. 334) There were c. 998 a. of arable, c. 147 a. of permanent grass, and c. 15 a. of woodland in 1903. (fn. 335) In the 1930s dairying was the main source of income on Manor farm which nevertheless remained predominantly arable. (fn. 336) There was a greengage orchard of 2 a. south of the High Street in 1941, (fn. 337) and in 1947 Chivers & Sons Ltd. bought c. 22 a. in the south-east corner of the parish which was afterwards planted with fruit trees. The orchard produced mainly dessert apples in 1971, (fn. 338) when many of the older orchards were either overgrown or used for building land. (fn. 339) At that time the farms owned by the Banks family were farmed as one unit for arable produce and beef cattle, and the fields were being enlarged. (fn. 340)
In 1086 there was half a mill, worth one mark and 100 eels, on Walter Giffard's estate, (fn. 341) of which no further record has been found. In 1291 (fn. 342) and 1305 (fn. 343) the estate later known as Ludes manor had a mill, but it is not known whether it was the mill recorded in East field in 1332. (fn. 344) There was a windmill, possibly in Nether field, in 1349, (fn. 345) a mill was recorded in 1404 (fn. 346) and 1476, (fn. 347) and Mill Hill, apparently in Nether or Low field, was recorded from 1497. (fn. 348) Between 1679 and 1709 Robert Leete the younger of Little Eversden built a windmill adjoining the Beacon Green. (fn. 349) By his will proved in 1713 he left it to his wife Judith, (fn. 350) and his son Simeon sold it to Edward Harley in 1719. (fn. 351) No further record of it has been found.
A malt-house was recorded in 1574 and 1590, (fn. 352) and the following occupations in the 19th and early 20th centuries: shoemaker, (fn. 353) cattle dealer, (fn. 354) rag and bone dealer, (fn. 355) blacksmith, (fn. 356) wheelwright, carpenter, coal merchant, steam miller, and draper. In 1971 there were an electrical contractor, a garage, and one general store, shopkeepers having been recorded since 1869. (fn. 357)
The glebe south of Eversden Road was let in allotments to the poor from c. 1867 to c. 1905. (fn. 358) In 1897 unemployment was causing distress in the parish, (fn. 359) and in 1925 most girls between 15 and 20 had left the parish to work as domestic servants, and many of the men worked at cement works c. 6 miles away. (fn. 360)
Harlton, as part of the liberty of the honor of Gloucester, was withdrawn from suit of the shire and hundred c. 1249. (fn. 361) The income from the Harlton court leet was being paid to the honor of Gloucester in 1321 (fn. 362) and to the honor of Clare in the 14th and 15th centuries. (fn. 363) The court belonged to the lords of the honor of Clare and was held by the Crown in the 16th and early 17th centuries. (fn. 364) Court rolls survive intermittently between c. 1321 and 1585. (fn. 365) The court made regulations c. 1332 for common pasture. (fn. 366) It exercised the assizes of bread and ale: ale-tasters were recorded regularly, (fn. 367) and two tasters were elected in 1525. (fn. 368) A roll for the court baron belonging to the lord of the manor survives for 1631–4 and shows the court regulating numbers of livestock, drainage, pasturing of the common, and settlement in the parish. (fn. 369)
Parish expenditure on poor-relief rose from £36 10s. in 1776 to £121 in 1803 when 12 adults received relief permanently, and Harlton was one of eight Cambridgeshire parishes to provide work for the poor, who earned c. £8 towards their maintenance. (fn. 370) Expenditure reached a peak of £184 in 1821 (fn. 371) and thereafter fluctuated between £153 in 1827 and £106 in 1832. (fn. 372) Harlton was included in the Chesterton poor law union in 1836, (fn. 373) and remained in the Chesterton R.D. in 1971.
Although Harlton church was not recorded in 1086 it has been suggested that before that date Walter Giffard gave it with the tithe of the demesne and one tenant to the priory of St. Faith at Longueville (Seine Maritime), (fn. 374) which founded a cell at Newton Longville (Bucks.). (fn. 375) Certainly Walter or his son Walter had done so by c. 1155, when the gift of Harlton church was confirmed. (fn. 376) The gift was further confirmed before 1164 by the bishop of Ely (fn. 377) and again c. 1186. (fn. 378) By 1189 two vicars in succession had held the church in the priory's name, and a third had been presented. Roger de Huntingfield's appeal against the presentation of the third vicar was discussed at the diocesan synod c. 1192, (fn. 379) and the dispute went to the king's court. (fn. 380) In 1196 Roger gave up his claim to the advowson in return for the priory's agreement to present as rectors the nominees of Roger and his heirs, subject to the priory's right to a pension of 40s. payable by Roger and his heirs if it was not recoverable from the rector, and to the tithes from Roger's demesne in Harlton. (fn. 381) The living thereafter remained a rectory, although it was occasionally called a vicarage, (fn. 382) and a vicar was recorded in 1378. (fn. 383)
The advowson was apparently disputed again c. 1234, (fn. 384) and the agreement of 1196 was confirmed in 1236, Roger de Huntingfield (d. 1257) and his heirs being given the right to present if the prior and convent's proctor could not be found at Newton Longville within three months of a vacancy. (fn. 385) The right of nomination afterwards descended with the manor, and in 1311 and 1312 Isabel Paunton's claim to it was vindicated. (fn. 386) The lord of the manor's right to nominate was probably confirmed c. 1349, (fn. 387) and the king presented in 1349, 1388, 1392, (fn. 388) and 1393 (fn. 389) on account of war with France. The Crown presented in 1435 on the nomination of feoffees, (fn. 390) and Robert Kirton, chaplain, nominated and the king presented in 1446, (fn. 391) but thereafter no record of separate nomination and presentation has been found. The advowson was probably conveyed with the manor to feoffees in 1444, (fn. 392) and a feoffee presented in 1460. (fn. 393) The king presented in 1465, 1484, (fn. 394) and 1540, (fn. 395) and Henry VIII conveyed the advowson to Thomas Hutton in 1543. (fn. 396) Although it had apparently continued to descend with the manor (fn. 397) the lord of the manor's right of nomination may have been overlooked in the later 15th and earlier 16th centuries. (fn. 398) The advowson afterwards descended with the manor until 1584, but was held from the Crown. (fn. 399) The lord of the manor presented in 1557, the Queen in 1564 and for one turn in 1579, (fn. 400) and Thomas Hopkins LL.B., perhaps of Jesus College, Cambridge, for one turn in 1580. (fn. 401) John Duport, formerly a fellow of Jesus College, (fn. 402) had acquired the advowson by 1585, (fn. 403) and in 1604 he obtained a licence to convey it to his college, (fn. 404) to which he left it by his will proved in 1618, having given the next turn to a Dr. Newcome. (fn. 405) William Pyott, apparently a Jesus College M.A., (fn. 406) presented in 1628. (fn. 407) In 1636 John Duport's son, Richard, granted the advowson to Jesus College (fn. 408) which thereafter retained it, notwithstanding a dispute in 1642. (fn. 409)
By 1187 the priory of Longueville had acquired a yardland from the fee of Roger de Huntingfield, which it still held in 1279. (fn. 410) In addition to the 40s. pension Roger de Huntingfield (d. 1257) granted 8s. rent from Harlton to Longueville in 1236. The rector c. 1240 was responsible for paying 20s. of the pension, (fn. 411) and in the 1240s the priory received 20s. pension, 2 marks for tithes, 5s. rent apparently for the yardland, and the 8s. rent granted in 1236. (fn. 412) The priory received the 20s. pension and 20s. for tithes in 1254, (fn. 413) a portion of £2 in 1291, (fn. 414) and £2 in 1339. (fn. 415) Between 1341 and 1345 arrears were disputed between the prior of Newton Longville and the rector, (fn. 416) who owed £14 in 1344. (fn. 417) About that time Newton Longville had £2 in Harlton, (fn. 418) but in 1372 the priory's lessee agreed that the rector and his successors should be exempt from all claims for a pension or a portion during his lease. (fn. 419) In 1425 the king's lessee of Longueville's property claimed 25 years' arrears of a £3 portion, and also a 40s. pension, but in 1427 he apparently abandoned his right to both. Longueville's property was granted to New College, Oxford, in 1441, which received the £2 portion in 1460, but afterwards ceased to hold it. (fn. 420)
In 1092 Picot endowed the canons of St. Giles's church, Cambridge, with two-thirds of the tithes of his knight's demesne in Harlton. (fn. 421) The gift was confirmed before 1110 by Pain Peverel who moved the canons to Barnwell in 1112. (fn. 422) The prior received 6s. 8d. for tithes c. 1254, (fn. 423) and although the payment was not recorded in 1291 (fn. 424) the prior farmed the portion of the tithes to the rector for 30s. a year in 1337. (fn. 425) He was awarded arrears of tithes against the rector c. 1441, (fn. 426) and in 1443 was directed to demise the portion to the rector for life at an annual farm of 2s. (fn. 427) In 1492 (fn. 428) and c. 1540 (fn. 429) the portion was worth 20s. It was apparently granted later to the bishop of Ely, who received c. £1 in 1844. (fn. 430)
The living was valued at £4 c. 1217, £6 in 1254, (fn. 431) and £6 13s. 4d. in 1291. (fn. 432) Its income was said to be under £8 in 1491, (fn. 433) but it was valued at £14 9s. 7d. in 1535. (fn. 434) There were c. 29 a. of glebe in 1615, (fn. 435) and the living was worth £90 in 1650 (fn. 436) and £140 in 1728 (fn. 437) and 1785. Jesus College augmented it by £30 a year from 1785 until 1806 when it endowed the living with c. 32 a. in Preston (Suff.). (fn. 438) At inclosure in 1810 the rector was allotted c. 19 a. for glebe and common, and c. 254 a. for tithes. (fn. 439) Income was £313 c. 1830, (fn. 440) and between 1863 and 1865 the Preston estate was exchanged for c. 27 a. south of the Haslingfield road. (fn. 441) Income rose to £480 in 1873, (fn. 442) but had dropped to c. £189 in 1887. (fn. 443) The Proby trust further augmented the living c. 1926, (fn. 444) and c. 1946 total income was £327. (fn. 445) The glebe was sold in 1950 and 1960. (fn. 446)
Harlton rectory house was recorded in 1421 (fn. 447) and 1458. (fn. 448) The old rectory, between the church and High Street, (fn. 449) was ruinous in 1783, (fn. 450) and repairs were estimated at c. £285 in 1784. (fn. 451) It had been demolished by 1807, (fn. 452) and in 1825 the curate lived in lodgings. (fn. 453) In 1843 a new rectory of white brick with hipped slated roofs in the Regency style (fn. 454) was built south-east of the church. (fn. 455) Gwendolen Raverat, the wood-engraver and author of Period Piece, and a granddaughter of Charles Darwin, lived there from 1925 to 1941. (fn. 456) The house was sold in 1946. (fn. 457)
Thirty acres were charged with maintaining a light in the church in 1279. (fn. 458) The 'Yelde Hall', possibly the guildhall, on the east side of the green was recorded from 1460 onwards, and was bought in 1829 to augment the living. (fn. 459) In 1463 there was either a chantry or a chaplain with an income of 8 marks. (fn. 460) St. Mary's chapel was recorded in 1473, (fn. 461) the guild of the Assumption in 1516, and the fraternity and guild of the Trinity in 1516, (fn. 462) 1524, (fn. 463) and 1525. (fn. 464) In 1549 the Crown granted 20 a., apparently those left c. 1516 by Richard Ames for his obit, (fn. 465) to William Warde of London. (fn. 466) A dilapidated chantry to the north of the chancel was recorded in 1743. (fn. 467)
The two vicars who held the living before 1189 (fn. 468) are the first recorded incumbents of Harlton. Of the earlier rectors John of Bourn was also rector of Snargate (Kent) in 1312, (fn. 469) and John Athoo was licensed for three years' absence for study in 1394. (fn. 470) Further known pluralists include three Cambridge graduates, William Spalding, c. 1435–46, (fn. 471) John Abbot, 1460–5, (fn. 472) and Ralph Shaw, 1465–84. (fn. 473) Spalding was later Dean of Arches (fn. 474) and Shaw was perhaps a prebendary of St. Paul's. (fn. 475) Roger Lupton, rector 1484–1540, held a number of other livings and was a canon of Windsor, provost of Eton, and founder of Sedbergh school. (fn. 476) By his will proved in 1540 he left a chalice and £7 to the church, and £10 to the parishioners. (fn. 477) Five of the eight other rectors in the 16th century were Cambridge graduates, and from 1579 to 1908 most rectors were fellows of Jesus College, Cambridge. (fn. 478) A curate was recorded in 1543, when there was a farmer of the rectory, (fn. 479) in 1567, and in the 1570s. (fn. 480) John Duport, rector 1580– 4, who later left the advowson to Jesus College, was a pluralist, and also precentor of St. Paul's, four times vice-chancellor of Cambridge University, and a translator of the 1611 Bible. (fn. 481) William Pentlow was licensed in 1582 to serve the cure until he became a priest, and was rector 1584–1627. (fn. 482) The parsonage house and some of the tithes were apparently leased to William Lyne before 1587, the former was disputed between his widow Joan and his brother John, (fn. 483) and in 1601 the farmer of the rectory was ordered to repair the chancel. (fn. 484) Marmaduke Thompson held the living 1628–40 apparently with Wimpole rectory. (fn. 485) His successor, Richard Sterne, was not presented until 1642 as a result of a dispute in Jesus College. (fn. 486) A zealous royalist, he was deprived in 1645, but was restored and resigned in 1660. (fn. 487) John Allen, rector during the Civil War and the Interregnum, belonged to the Cambridge Presbyterian classis. (fn. 488) William Cook, rector 1671– 1707, was chancellor of the diocese of Ely. (fn. 489) There was a curate in 1685, (fn. 490) 1692, (fn. 491) and 1697. (fn. 492) In the earlier 18th century marriages from Harlton were frequently celebrated in Jesus College chapel as a result, it has been suggested, of the non-residence of the rectors. (fn. 493) Lees Ward, rector 1723–55, resided at Jesus College. In 1728 he went to Harlton often, where two services were held on Sundays, there were c. 15 Easter communicants, and the church was in good repair. He drowned himself at Harlton in 1755. (fn. 494) His successor, Richard Oakley, rector until 1784, was vicar of Comberton to 1775, and thereafter resided on his rectory of Broughton (Hunts.). (fn. 495) There was a curate in 1775 and 1783, (fn. 496) and at least four successive curates in the 1790s, (fn. 497) but Edward Daniel Clarke, rector 1806–22, traveller, antiquary, and professor of mineralogy in Cambridge University, conscientiously performed the duty himself, although he lived in Cambridge and Trumpington. He started a Sunday school which he himself conducted, making the children repeat their lessons in front of the congregation. (fn. 498) Charles McCarthy, rector 1824–39, (fn. 499) was non-resident: there was a resident curate in 1825, (fn. 500) and a non-resident curate in 1836, when many regular church-goers were reluctant to take communion. (fn. 501) James Fendall, rector 1839–67 and J.P. for the county, was also vicar of Comberton, (fn. 502) but lived at Harlton. (fn. 503) In 1851 there was a general congregation of 40 and 47 Sunday school children. (fn. 504) Osmond Fisher, rector 1867–1906, (fn. 505) was also resident. (fn. 506) By 1873 there were c. 190 church-goers, of whom only one was a farmer, and communion was celebrated 12 times a year. (fn. 507) Lawrence Fisher, one of the rector's sons, was curate 1887–97, (fn. 508) and started a parish magazine in 1888. (fn. 509) Another son, Edward, also assisted in the parish. (fn. 510) By 1897 there were 32 communicants and a choir of 22, of whom four were paid. (fn. 511) From c. 1930 to 1952 the living was held with that of Orwell where the incumbent resided, (fn. 512) and from 1952 to 1960 the vicar of Comberton was curate-in-charge of Harlton. (fn. 513) After 1960 Harlton was held in plurality with the vicarage of Haslingfield, where the incumbent resided. (fn. 514)
The church of THE ASSUMPTION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY is built of clunch ashlar and field stones and has a chancel, with north vestry, aisled and clerestoried nave with north and south porches, and west tower. The whole of the medieval church is the product of a complete rebuilding which took place in the later 14th century. Variations in construction and decorative detail suggest that this work extended over a considerable period and may even have continued into the 15th century. (fn. 515) The chancel arch was closed by a late-14th-century stone screen above which there was a tympanum bearing a doom painting. A small quantity of 14th- and 15th-century glass remains in the windows and there are some much restored early-16th-century stalls in the chancel.
The pulpit is of the early 17th century but the most notable addition of that period is the large alabaster monument to Henry Fryer (d. 1631), (fn. 516) his wife, (fn. 517) and parents. It was described in the 18th century as a 'most beautiful and magnificent monument', (fn. 518) but in 1844 as 'a cumbrous and unsightly structure'. (fn. 519) In the 1780s the church was neglected, (fn. 520) and some of the chancel windows were reglazed in 1809. (fn. 521) In 1843–4 the church was restored; (fn. 522) the Cambridge Camden Society was responsible for the design of the font and probably also the seats, which were paid for by the Incor- porated Church Building Society. (fn. 523) The mid-19thcentury Roman cement covering (fn. 524) was removed from all the exterior except the tower during extensive restoration in the 1960s. (fn. 525)
There are three bells. There were three in 1552, (fn. 526) apparently four in the Interregnum, (fn. 527) and three in 1743 (fn. 528) and 1844 of which two were dated 1622 and 1636. (fn. 529) Three new bells were installed c. 1856. (fn. 530) The plate includes a cup of 1810 and a cup and paten of 1882. The registers begin in 1567 for burials, in 1574 for marriages, and in 1584 for baptisms.
The Revd. O. Fisher designed an organ which was installed in the church in 1869 in memory of his wife, with a case which he had designed for the organ of All Saints, Dorchester (Dors.). In 1889 he gave the cottage and garden at the south-west corner of the churchyard for the maintenance of the organ and the repair of the church. (fn. 531) The Organ Cottage was let for £6 in 1892 and £6 10s. in 1951. It was sold c. 1957 and the proceeds of sale were invested in stock. (fn. 532)
Three dissenters were recorded in the parish in 1676, (fn. 533) and in 1679 one man was presented for attending conventicles. (fn. 534) There were said to be four Independents and a licensed, but unused, meeting-house in 1728, (fn. 535) and two families of dissenters in 1783. (fn. 536) In 1807 there were allegedly no dissenters, (fn. 537) and in 1825 no meetinghouse. (fn. 538)
A building was registered for Protestant dissenting worship in 1829. (fn. 539) One in High Street, registered in 1855 as an Independent meeting, (fn. 540) was presumably the one which, from 1861 onwards, was listed as a mission station of the Independent church at Great Eversden. (fn. 541) It had 50 sittings in 1894, (fn. 542) but it was closed c. 1895. (fn. 543)
A building previously used for worship was registered as a Primitive Methodist chapel in 1871, (fn. 544) when it shared a minister from Cambridge with Haslingfield. (fn. 545) It was closed by 1895. (fn. 546) Although in 1873 there were c. 30 chapel-goers in the parish, and only one of the farmers was a churchman, (fn. 547) there was no meeting-house in Harlton in 1897, (fn. 548) and allegedly no dissent by 1905. (fn. 549)
A schoolmaster was recorded in 1601, (fn. 550) 1604, (fn. 551) 1607, (fn. 552) and 1638. (fn. 553) In 1639 John Fryer and the rector, churchwardens, and overseers agreed that £6 out of the £35 left by Henry Fryer should be used to teach poor children. (fn. 554) William Cook (d. 1707), rector of Harlton, gave £100 in trust to pay for a schoolmaster, (fn. 555) and in 1743 a school was held in the chancel of the church. (fn. 556) Although part of the interest from Cook's gift was paid until c. 1777, in 1807 it was reported that the money had been misapplied and that a very good school had been allowed to go to ruin. (fn. 557)
About 1816 the rector, E. D. Clarke, built a schoolroom and teacher's house on glebe land by Snake's Lane, with income from Fryer's charity. (fn. 558) Attendance declined from c. 45 in 1818 (fn. 559) to c. 15 in 1837, when there were two paying pupils, although the master was required to give free tuition to all children in the parish. (fn. 560) The parish clerk was apparently the first schoolmaster but he was dismissed, the school having fallen into disuse as a result of his neglect. In 1833 the parish appointed a new master who restarted the Sunday school, (fn. 561) which was attended initially by c. 18 children. The parish clerk still occupied the teacher's house in 1837. (fn. 562)
The school was united with the National Society in 1852. A new schoolroom and teacher's house were built on the enlarged site in 1853, with the aid of accumulated income of the poor's share of Fryer's charity. (fn. 563) The teacher received £17 10s., half the yearly income of Fryer's charity, from 1817; in 1852 the school's share was increased to £20 and in 1855 to £23. (fn. 564) Average attendance was 38 in 1871, when school fees were 1d. and the teacher was not certificated. (fn. 565) An annual government grant was first received in 1875, (fn. 566) and an evening school was recorded in 1871, (fn. 567) 1873, (fn. 568) and between c. 1893 and c. 1900. (fn. 569)
In 1905 half of the income of Fryer's charity was allotted by a Scheme to the Fryer Educational Foundation, (fn. 570) and in 1909 another Scheme empowered the foundation's trustees to apply part of the income towards a school library, and part for maintenance allowances and technical instruction. (fn. 571) By 1925 there had been only two applications for maintenance since c. 1915, and the technical instruction grants were too low to attract apprentices. (fn. 572) The foundation's objects were altered by a Scheme in 1926, and in 1927 its accumulated income was represented by c. £180 stock. (fn. 573)
After the school became a junior school in 1920 the older children went to Haslingfield. (fn. 574) Average attendance was 44 in 1893, (fn. 575) and 16 in 1938. (fn. 576) The school was closed in 1959, and in 1970 children under 11 went to Haslingfield and those over 11 to Comberton village college. (fn. 577) In 1971 the educational foundation inter alia provided further education grants and helped the Sunday school, and the school building was used by a choral group, the Sunday school, and the Women's Institute. (fn. 578)
Charities for the Poor.
Henry Fryer, by will dated 1631, gave £100 a year to the poor of Harlton and two other parishes, requesting that Harlton should be remembered 'amply . . . because the parishioners be most or all of them of mean condition and not able to relieve them as their wants require'. (fn. 579) Between 1636 and 1638 during disputes over Henry's will the bishops of London and Ely apportioned £35 a year to Harlton, subject to which Henry's estate was conveyed to John Fryer in 1638. (fn. 580) In 1639 John and the rector, churchwardens, and overseers of Harlton agreed that a chaldron of coal should be bought annually with part of the money. (fn. 581) By 1676 the £35 was paid from the manor of Harlton (fn. 582) which was conveyed to Christ's Hospital in 1677, the earlier apportionment being confirmed. (fn. 583) In 1728 (fn. 584) and 1788 (fn. 585) the £35 was said to have been left to the poor, and in 1783 the money was apparently used to augment the rates. (fn. 586) From 1817 to 1852 about half the income was spent on education (fn. 587) and the other half mainly on coal for the poor. The poor's share of the charity was reduced to £15 in 1852, and £12 in 1855. (fn. 588) Despite a resolution of the parish meeting in 1904 that the whole £35 should be given to the poor, a Scheme of 1905 allotted half the net annual income to be spent in specified ways for the poor, and limited expenditure on fuel or other articles in kind to £5 a year. In 1925 there were still strong complaints about the use of half the income for education. The yearly payment of £35 was redeemed for £1,400 stock in 1926, half of which was transferred to the Fryer Educational Foundation in 1928.
Notwithstanding the Scheme of 1905 the whole of the poor's share of the charity apparently continued to be spent on coal. The Charity Commissioners instructed the trustees to enforce the £5 limit in 1937, but apparently yielded to opposition in the parish by raising the yearly limit for fuel and other articles in kind to £10 in 1938. In 1970 c. 16 pensioners received £1 each at Christmas. (fn. 589)