A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 6. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1978.
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The parish of West Wickham, (fn. 1) lying 10 miles south-east of Cambridge, covers 2,931 a. (fn. 2) and is nearly rectangular. The straight southern boundary follows the ancient Wool Street, called in the Middle Ages Wulves street, (fn. 3) while on the west and north field boundaries delimit the parish. On the east is the county boundary with Suffolk. In 1814 c. 66 a. by the southern part of the eastern boundary and belonging to West Wickham landowners were alleged to be extra-parochial, never having paid tithes, rates, or taxes in any parish. Shortly before, however, the rector of Withersfield (Suff.) had them perambulated and assessed as part of his parish, (fn. 4) in which they were subsequently included. (fn. 5) West Wickham lies mainly upon boulder clay, overlying chalk, which is exposed at the western corner, lying at c. 250 ft. There a water-course runs west down a narrow valley before turning south into Horseheath. From there the ground rises sharply eastward to over 300 ft., and then gradually but steadily to over 400 ft.
The parish was once well wooded, especially on the higher ground to the east and north. In 1086 the woodland could feed 152 pigs. (fn. 6) In 1279 three manors had woods covering 74 a., (fn. 7) and in 1770 there were over 3,200 oaks. (fn. 8) Mill wood (19 a.) and Yen Hall wood (18 a.) by the northern border were cleared after 1813. (fn. 9) Leys wood (18 a.) belonged in 1394 to La Hayes manor. An adjacent close, then called Stocking, recalled earlier clearances. (fn. 10) By the eastern border lay Cadges wood (12 a.) and Over wood (53 a.), belonging by 1395 to Streetly manor, (fn. 11) which had 40 a. of demesne wood in 1300. (fn. 12) Hare wood (43 a.) by the southern boundary, probably called Cow Pasture wood c. 1614, (fn. 13) lay for a time within Horseheath park. (fn. 14)
The parish has long been mainly agrarian. The land to the east, consisting mainly of closes held in severalty, was possibly brought under cultivation later than the western two-thirds, where open fields survived until inclosure in 1813. (fn. 15)
The Cambridgeshire Wickham was regularly distinguished as West Wickham only after 1330, (fn. 16) presumably with reference to the Wickhams in Suffolk. By 1066 there were three settlements, of which Wickham itself at the centre of the parish and Enhale (later Yen Hall) by the northern boundary were already recorded in 974. (fn. 17) In 1086 Enhale had 10 tenants, all bordars, while Streetly by the southern boundary had 10 tenants and servi and Wickham thirteen. (fn. 18) Enhale later declined in population relatively to the other settlements: few men are described as belonging to it, (fn. 19) whereas men of Streetly occur frequently from the early 13th century. (fn. 20) In 1279 only three free tenants, out of c. 50 in the parish, held solely of Enhale manor. (fn. 21) The parish contained 50 taxpayers in 1327; (fn. 22) numbers afterwards fell sharply. Only 25 people were taxed in 1524, (fn. 23) and there were only 33 households in 1563. (fn. 24) In 1676 there were 178 adults. (fn. 25) From 332 in 1801 the population rose rapidly to 517 in 1821 and a peak of 572 in 1841, declining after 1851 to 522 in 1871. (fn. 26) In 1851 and 1871 c. 100 people lived at Streetly End. (fn. 27) From 455 in 1881 numbers fell steadily to 336 in 1911, and thereafter remained nearly constant. (fn. 28)
In West Wickham village the houses lie in two groups. The larger forms a street running northeast from the Horseheath-Balsham road, with the church and Manor (formerly Parsonage) Farm close to the junction. Further along the street, after a wide gap, is Burton End. Residents and messuages at 'Bovetoun' were recorded from the 1340s, (fn. 29) and in 1381 it was called 'Bovetounstreet' hamlet. (fn. 30) Streetly End lies ½ mile south of the church, on the road to Horseheath; from that hamlet another road formerly ran to Balsham, but at inclosure it was stopped where it crossed the road which runs across the western half of the parish from Bartlow to West Wratting. Streetly had a village green in 1452, and some crofts there had dwellings newly built on them in the 1460s. (fn. 31) At Yen Hall only the farm-house survived in the 18th century. (fn. 32)
Some prosperous peasants in the 14th century had fairly elaborate homesteads. In 1322 John Sewale granted his sister a little solar joined to his hall with a granary, a stable, and the use of his bakery. (fn. 33) Seven 17th-century timber-framed and thatched cottages, mostly single-storeyed, survive at Burton End, and there are eight others, mostly 18th-century, at Streetly End, also single-storeyed with dormers and central chimney-stacks. About 1974 the second group, after restoration, was declared a conservation area. (fn. 34) Larger houses include White Hall in the main village, where a 17th-century timber-framed house received a four-bay brick Georgian front and classical doorcase, and the Mill House at Streetly End, where an early-17th-century T-plan house has a doorcase with ornate carved brackets. Nextdoor the Red House, built in 1779 probably by Daniel Taylor, (fn. 35) had a three-bay red-brick front with a classical doorcase, and contained woodwork possibly from Horseheath Hall. (fn. 36) It was demolished c. 1945. (fn. 37)
In 1851 about half the houses in the parish stood along the main village street, and most of the remainder were divided equally between Streetly End and Burton End. (fn. 38) Between 1945 and 1960 c. 30 council houses were built north of Streetly End and between the village and Burton End. (fn. 39) Each settlement had its own public house, the White Hart at Burton End, probably mentioned in 1768 (fn. 40) and closed by 1933, (fn. 41) and the White Horse on the street and the Chequers at Streetly End, both probably existing in 1813 (fn. 42) and open in 1975. The village had little organized social life in the mid 20th century, the villagers mostly resorting to West Wratting. A village hall was being built in 1974. (fn. 43) High, flat ground north-east of Burton End was included between 1943 and 1952 in the R.A.F. airfield on Wratting Common. (fn. 44) Two hangars surviving in 1975 had been converted to warehouses. (fn. 45)
Manors and Other Estates.
In 1086 Count Alan, lord of Richmond, held in demesne at Wickham 2 hides, which in 1066 had belonged to Eddeva the fair and two sokemen of hers. (fn. 46) Before 1133 Alan's heir Count Stephen had granted the manor to Aubrey de Vere (fn. 47) (d. 1141), whose descendants the earls of Oxford subsequently held, as 3 or 4 knights' fees, the mesne lordship of Wickham under the honor of Richmond. (fn. 48)
Probably c. 1150 Earl Aubrey (d. 1194) divided the manor, granting half, later LA HAYES or LEYES manor, reckoned as 2 knights' fees, to Stephen de la Haye. (fn. 49) Stephen was succeeded in 1176 or 1177 by his son Walter, (fn. 50) whose lands in Cambridgeshire, confiscated in 1215, were restored to him in 1216. (fn. 51) He was succeeded between 1226 (fn. 52) and 1232 by Stephen de la Haye, who held the manor c. 1236 (fn. 53) and died probably in 1258. His son and heir, another Stephen, (fn. 54) redeemed his lands as a rebel in the 1260s (fn. 55) and held the manor in 1279. (fn. 56) In 1287 he ceded it to his son John, (fn. 57) who held it in 1302 and died after 1306. (fn. 58) John's son and successor Thomas de la Haye (fn. 59) survived his son Simon (d. after 1349) (fn. 60) and at his death c. 1362 his heir was his brother Robert, a clerk. By 1363 Robert had released his inheritance to Thomas's widow Agnes, who by 1366 had married Alan Ayete. (fn. 61) Ayete held Leyes in 1394 and 1406, (fn. 62) and died probably between 1413 and 1418. Perhaps in 1415 he or his daughter and heir Margery, who married William Purefoy, sold it to William Alington of Horseheath, the owner by 1428. (fn. 63)
Alington already held Streetly manor, and the other manors in the parish were later added to his family's estates, Bernhams in 1476, Yen Hall in 1548, Wolves in 1626. The West Wickham estates descended with Horseheath Hall, (fn. 64) with which they were sold in 1700 to John Bromley. In 1777, when the lands of Bromley's great-grandson Thomas, Lord Montfort, were sold, (fn. 65) Philip Yorke, earl of Hardwicke (d. 1790), agreed to buy West Wickham, but the conveyance was not completed or possession transferred until 1785, (fn. 66) and c. 215 a. by the southern boundary remained with the Horseheath estate. (fn. 67) The Hardwickes retained West Wickham until the 1890s. (fn. 68) In 1899 A. H. Irvine, having foreclosed upon a mortgage, sold the estate to the Revd. John Hodgson, lord until after 1902. (fn. 69) By 1904 West Wickham belonged to P. A. S. Hickey (fn. 70) who sold most of the farms to their tenants c. 1912, (fn. 71) and was dead by 1915. In 1916 his executors sold the remaining manorial rights, (fn. 72) which by 1922 belonged to H. F. Beales, owner of Manor farm, and were again sold after his death in 1927. (fn. 73) Until 1937 manor courts were held in the names of Maggie M. Skarsey and Ella Slater. (fn. 74)
Earl Aubrey, having for a time retained half his estate, later BERNHAMS manor, later enfeoffed Gerald the marshal with it. (fn. 75) From Gerald it apparently passed to Iseult, daughter of his son Roger (d. by 1180) and wife by 1199 of William Russell, (fn. 76) who still held the manor c. 1236 (fn. 77) and was possibly living in 1249. (fn. 78) Russell's son William, although appealed of murder in 1244, (fn. 79) apparently still held the estate c. 1255. (fn. 80) His son Roger Russell, (fn. 81) having fought for the rebels at Lewes and Ely in the 1260s, probably forfeited it, (fn. 82) although his sisters Alice and Philippa in 1279 had 55 a. at West Wickham and later granted part to Roger's son John (d. after 1298). (fn. 83) The manor had been occupied, probably in 1265, by the royalist Sir Drew Barentyn (d. 1265). (fn. 84) Drew's son Sir William (fn. 85) sold it in 1274 to another royal retainer, Sir Emery Pecche (d. 1288), (fn. 86) who held it in 1279. (fn. 87) In 1285 Pecche granted the manor with 2 carucates to Sir Walter Bernham. Sir Walter's son John, tenant from the 1280s, (fn. 88) was succeeded between 1304 and 1307 by his son, another John, (fn. 89) tenant in 1316, (fn. 90) who probably died soon after 1331. (fn. 91) His widow Agnes held land at Wickham in 1345. Walter Bernham (fl. 1352) was succeeded by 1364 by his son Roger, (fn. 92) who in 1369 sold his lands there to William Wolf of Easton Maudit (Northants.) (fn. 93) who died after 1372. (fn. 94) By 1381 the lands belonged to William Wolf of Bottisham, who held Bernhams in 1397 (fn. 95) and died in 1401. (fn. 96) After being held for a time by feoffees, possibly for John Wolf of Bottisham, (fn. 97) Bernhams belonged by 1428 to John Bury (fn. 98) (fl. 1418–48), (fn. 99) who in 1442 granted it to his son John (d. after 1468). The younger John's feoffees conveyed Bernhams in 1476 to John Alington (d. 1480) and his son William. (fn. 100) Despite William's will of 1485 (fn. 101) the manor remained with the main Alington estate.
The sites of La Hayes and Bernhams manorhouses are uncertain. The latter apparently stood in 1293 by other messuages, perhaps on the village street. (fn. 102) The former may have been within the moat at Hill Farm, ½ mile east of the main village, between Leys wood and Hall field, so named by 1608. (fn. 103) The modern Manor Farm, a timber-framed 17th-century house with an eastern cross-wing, containing panelling of c. 1700, (fn. 104) was perhaps derived from the parsonage mansion house mentioned c. 1546. (fn. 105) Until the 1850s it was also called Parsonage Farm, and the tithes were let with it. (fn. 106)
Part of William Wolf's land remained separate from Bernhams, probably passing by 1412 to Sir John Tiptoft, later Lord Tiptoft, (fn. 107) steward of Bottisham manor since 1405, (fn. 108) who held land called WOLVES at West Wickham at his death in 1443. Tiptoft's son and heir John, later earl of Worcester, (fn. 109) executed in 1470, left Wolves manor, held of John Alington, to his infant son Edward (fn. 110) (d.s.p. 1485). Edward's heirs were his aunts, including the aged Philippa, widow of Thomas, Lord Ros (d. 1464). (fn. 111) In 1488 she conveyed the reversion of Wolves manor, then held for life by Earl John's widow Elizabeth (d. 1498) and her husband Sir William Stanley, to John Ward, grocer, of London (d. 1501). (fn. 112) The estate was later recovered from Ward or his heirs by Henry VII's minister Sir Thomas Lovell (d. 1524), third husband of Philippa's daughter Isabel. (fn. 113) Lovell devised Wolves to his brother Sir Gregory's younger son John for life, with remainder to John's elder brother Francis Lovell, (fn. 114) who probably held Wolves at his death in 1552. His son and heir Sir Thomas died in 1567 having settled it on his younger brother Gregory, (fn. 115) who, after serving for many years in Elizabeth I's household, (fn. 116) died in 1597. (fn. 117) His son Sir Robert Lovell sold Wolves with 200 a. of arable in 1598 to James, (fn. 118) a younger brother of Giles Alington (d. 1573). James died in 1626, leaving his land to Giles's son, Sir Giles Alington (d. 1638). (fn. 119)
By 1066 the abbot of Ely had at STREETLY a manor of 1½ hide, which although retained in 1086 (fn. 120) was possibly later subinfeudated since Bishop Niel recovered it before 1135 for the see of Ely. (fn. 121) Probably after 1166 it was granted to Jordan of Sandford, a Wiltshire landowner (fn. 122) (fl. 1155–74), succeeded in 1175 by his son Thomas. (fn. 123) In 1194 Thomas held Streetly as ½ knight's fee of the bishop of Ely, (fn. 124) whose successors remained overlords (fn. 125) and were compensated with a rent-charge of 2 marks when the manor was granted in mortmain in 1370. (fn. 126) That rent was paid to the Charterhouse, their successors as lords of Balsham, until redeemed in 1906. (fn. 127) Thomas of Sandford, who had served King John as keeper of Devizes castle 1199–1216, (fn. 128) joined the Knights Templars c. 1217, (fn. 129) and his lands passed to his son Richard (fn. 130) (d.s.p. 1221), whose brother and heir Warner (fn. 131) died on pilgrimage in 1222 and was succeeded by his next brother Hugh (fn. 132) (d.s.p. 1229). Hugh's heir, his brother Thomas, (fn. 133) held the manor c. 1236 (fn. 134) and died c. 1241. Under a settlement of 1230 Streetly passed in turn to the three sons of Thomas's younger sister Cecily by Hugh Peverel (d. 1229) of Sampford Peverel (Devon), (fn. 135) William (d. on crusade 1241), Thomas (d. 1242), and Hugh (fn. 136) (d. 1296). It then descended to Sir Hugh's grandson Thomas Peverel, aged 18, who died in 1300 leaving as heirs his sisters Margery, who soon died, Joan, and Denise. (fn. 137)
Joan (d. by 1331) and her husband Sir John Wroxall (fn. 138) leased their moiety in 1328 to Denise, (fn. 139) married by 1302 to John de la Rivere of Tormarton (Glos.), (fn. 140) who was granted free warren at Streetly in 1304. (fn. 141) Rivere died in 1314, leaving a son John, aged 2, (fn. 142) but Denise retained Streetly in her own right. (fn. 143) In 1337 or 1343 she obtained a release of Wroxall's rights by the curtesy, (fn. 144) and died in 1347 having settled the manor for life on her daughter Lavine, who apparently lived at Ickleton priory. Denise's son and heir Sir John de la Rivere (fn. 145) sold his reversionary interest in Streetly in 1350 to Sir Walter Manny, K.G. (d. 1372), who in 1363 procured a release from Joan Wroxall's coheirs. (fn. 146) Manny probably had possession by 1367, (fn. 147) and in 1370 his feoffees agreed to grant the manor to St. Bartholomew's hospital, London, (fn. 148) which received a release from the feoffees and Manny's widow in 1372. (fn. 149) The hospital still held the manor c. 1388 (fn. 150) but in 1389 released it to John Sleaford, rector of Balsham, and Thomas Fotheringay, already tenants there. Fotheringay released his interest c. 1393 to Sleaford, who in 1399 agreed to sell Streetly to William Alington, (fn. 151) to whom Sleaford's feoffees released it in 1410. (fn. 152)
The site of the manor-house, recorded in 1260, (fn. 153) and called by c. 1280 Streetly Hall, (fn. 154) was presumably at Streetly Hall Farm, ½ mile west of Streetly hamlet. Its park was mentioned in 1393. (fn. 155) It had a timber-framed farm-house, enlarged eastwards in the 18th century with a three-bay brickfronted range, which survived in 1975. The house and farm were sold c. 1911 to S. O. Webb, (fn. 156) whose family had been tenants there since c. 1800. (fn. 157) About 1912 Webb built a larger house; (fn. 158) the old farmbuildings were burnt down in 1930. (fn. 159)
In 974 King Edgar's thegn Elfhelm (d. c. 990) gave his wife 3 hides at Enhale on their marriage. (fn. 160) By 1066 1 hide there comprising ENHALE, later YEN HALL, manor belonged to King Edward's thegn Tochi, of whose successor William de Warenne it was held in 1086 by Lambert de Rosey. (fn. 161) From William's son William, earl of Surrey (d. 1138), lordship over Enhale passed to his younger son Reynold (fn. 162) (d. 1179), whose heirs were mesne lords under the earls of Surrey. (fn. 163) After 1209 Reynold's granddaughter Beatrice brought the mesne lordship, with the honor of Wormegay, to the Bardolfs, of whom Enhale was still held c. 1400. (fn. 164) Lambert de Rosey was succeeded by his son Walkelin, (fn. 165) and Ralph de Rosey (fl. 1158) (fn. 166) by his son Baldwin, (fn. 167) who went on crusade in 1189. By 1195 his land had come to Walkelin de Rosey (fn. 168) (d. 1221), who left as heir a son, Baldwin, under age. (fn. 169) Baldwin, in possession in 1242, (fn. 170) died after 1260, (fn. 171) when his lands may have passed to Walkelin de Rosey, probably his son, (fn. 172) murdered c. 1270, (fn. 173) or to Saher de Rosey, a ward of Earl John de Warenne c. 1260. (fn. 174)
By 1279 Enhale manor belonged with other Rosey estates to Sir Baldwin de Manners, (fn. 175) who was granted free warren there in 1291, was lord in 1316, (fn. 176) and died without issue in 1320. Baldwin's widow Joan sought dower in Enhale in 1321, (fn. 177) but Baldwin had in 1311 granted the reversion of other Cambridgeshire manors, and perhaps of Enhale, to Sir John Botetourt (fn. 178) (d. 1324): by 1331 Joan, widow of Botetourt's son Thomas (d. 1322), held Enhale. (fn. 179) When Joan died in 1338 Enhale descended to her son Sir John, later Lord Botetourt, (fn. 180) who held it in 1346 and 1359, (fn. 181) but had alienated it before he died in 1385. (fn. 182)
It was probably acquired by Roger Harleston, a Cambridge burgess (fl. 1359–88), (fn. 183) whose son Ives was recorded in 1390 as holding the fee and came of age in 1399. (fn. 184) Ives died in 1403 leaving a son John, aged 1, (fn. 185) whose mother Eleanor probably occupied the manor until her death in 1416. (fn. 186) John had livery in 1424. (fn. 187) In 1452–3 Enhale was briefly taken into the king's hands. (fn. 188) John died in 1457 and his son John in 1458. The latter's son and heir John, then aged 3, (fn. 189) apparently died after 1464, (fn. 190) for Enhale passed to Robert Harleston, his uncle, (fn. 191) and was forfeited upon Robert's attainder in 1471. (fn. 192) It was successively granted to Richard, duke of Gloucester, in 1471, and to Sir William Stanley in 1475. (fn. 193) The attainder was repealed in 1485, (fn. 194) and the manor presumably restored to Robert's son John (d. by 1500), who left a son Clement, aged 5. (fn. 195) In 1535 Sir Clement Harleston sold Enhale to John Wheatley of Fulbourn, whose widow Anne and son George sold it in 1549 to Sir Giles Alington (d. 1586). (fn. 196) From the 17th century the estate was erroneously referred to as two distinct manors called Eynall and Yennolds. (fn. 197)
The manor-house, later Yen Hall, recorded by 1315, (fn. 198) stood ¾ mile north of the village, probably within a curved moat. A timber-framed farm-house, built north of the moat probably in the 17th century, was left empty from c. 1960 and was derelict in 1975. (fn. 199)
The yardland and the half-yardland at Wickham held in 1086 respectively by Hardwin de Scalers and by Ulveva of Richard son of Gilbert (fn. 200) presumably descended with the fees of those lords in Horseheath. (fn. 201) The Sewale family had a substantial freehold in the 14th century. John Sewale (fl. 1279–1311), (fn. 202) son of Peter Sewale (fl. c. 1250), (fn. 203) son of Richard, (fn. 204) son of Sewale (fl. before 1190), (fn. 205) held c. 30 a. under Emery Pecche in 1279, and bought much other land, (fn. 206) which passed to his son John (fl. 1303–29) (fn. 207) who held over 100 a. in 1315. (fn. 208) John's son and heir Thomas (fl. 1331–69) (fn. 209) was permitted a private oratory in 1352 (fn. 210) and apparently occupied Bernhams manor in 1361. (fn. 211)
By 1484 Queens' College, Cambridge, had acquired 40 a. at West Wickham, (fn. 212) and after further purchases owned c. 130 a. held freely of the Alingtons in 1549. (fn. 213) At inclosure 121 a. were allotted to the college's lessee F. L. Charlton, whose underlessee farmed it from White Hall. (fn. 214) The estate comprised 146 a. when the college sold it in 1920. (fn. 215) St. John's College, Cambridge, had c. 1540 a close of 2 a., and after inclosure 6 a., sold in 1945. (fn. 216) Pembroke College, Cambridge, owned from c. 1505 18 a. attached to its Horseheath estate, (fn. 217) with which it was regularly let to the lords of Horseheath from 1748 until sold in 1877. (fn. 218)
West Wickham rectory, appropriated to Earl's Colne priory (Essex) by 1366, (fn. 219) was granted on the priory's suppression in 1536 to the priory's patron, John de Vere, earl of Oxford, (fn. 220) whose grandson Earl Edward sold it in 1592 to Edmund Stubbing, a local yeoman. (fn. 221) In 1606 Stubbing sold it to Sir Giles Alington (d. 1638), lord of the manors, (fn. 222) who by 1613 had bought out a contingent remainder made to the Crown in 1588 and granted by the Crown in 1592. (fn. 223) The rectory descended with the Alingtons' West Wickham estate (fn. 224) until William, Lord Alington (d. 1685) gave it, perhaps before 1665, to Dr. Henry Harrison, his companion on a continental tour. (fn. 225) In 1680 Harrison settled the rectory with its tithes and over 200 a. on himself with remainder to his son Alington, (fn. 226) and died in 1690. (fn. 227) Alington Harrison was succeeded in 1731 by his son Alington (d. 1733) (fn. 228) who devised the rectory absolutely to his wife Anne. (fn. 229) Anne sold it c. 1740 to Henry Bromley, Lord Montfort. (fn. 230) Thereafter the rectory descended with the manors, and at inclosure Lord Hardwicke was allotted 151 a. for glebe and 458 a. for tithes. (fn. 231) After the division of c. 1912 the estate was represented by Manor farm. (fn. 232)
In 1086 1½ out of 2 hides, comprising land for 5 plough-teams, of Count Alan's manor lay in demesne, but he had only 1 demesne plough-team with 4 servi to cultivate it, while his 4 villani could provide 4 teams. At Streetly the abbot of Ely had only ½ hide in demesne but had 2½ teams, while his 6 villani had 2 teams on the remaining 1 hide. Most of the land for 3½ teams in Enhale lay in demesne, and the lord had 2 teams while 10 bordars, his only tenants, had 1½ between them. Count Alan's manor had increased in value since 1066 from £8 to £10, and Streetly from £2 to £3 5s., but Enhale was still worth only £5. On the land for ½ team of Hardwin de Scalers 3 bordars had succeeded 3 sokemen. Altogether the demesnes had 5½ plough-teams out of 13½ for the vill. (fn. 233)
In 1279 (fn. 234) the demesnes covered at least half the parish, comprising 1,240 a. of its arable, compared with c. 645 a. held by free tenants and only 200 a. of villein land. The La Hayes and Bernhams demesnes, as moieties of the Vere estate, were almost exactly equal, each including 340 a. of arable, 3 a. of meadow, and 12 a. of wood. On La Hayes, however, the tenants held 253 a. freely and 73 a. by villein tenure, while on Bernhams there were only 125 a. of freehold and 22 a. of villein land. Enhale manor had 320 a. in demesne and only 110 a. of tenant land, all but 27 a. held in villeinage. At Streetly there were 240 a. of demesne, (fn. 235) 138 a. held freely, and only 22 a. of villein land. Some large freeholds belonged to landowners from neighbouring vills: William of Berardshay owned 80 a., held, under the Veres, of Hugh le Breton, whose predecessor Jordan had sold 100 a. before 1219, (fn. 236) and Geoffrey and John of Horseheath and William le Harper of Horseheath had together 100 a. Of c. 50 free tenants in the vill 2 occupied 40 a. each, 6 more with 15–22 a. had 115 a. in all, and 32 others with under 10 a. owned 116 a. Only 3 out of 34 customary tenants had 20 a. or more, 10 had 10 a. each, and 21, including 11 cottars holding 2 a. each of Enhale manor, had together c. 40 a. On both La Hayes and Bernhams manors a villein holding 20 a., besides ploughing 9 a. yearly, owed 79 week-works between Michaelmas and Lammas and 23 during harvest, and 3 carryingservices. On Enhale manor the week-work due from 20 a. was similar, and the tenant had to plough 12 a. and do 6 carrying-services. In 1300 equally heavy services of 2 works a week fell on holdings of only 10 a. at Streetly, a former monastic estate, where even a 3-a. holding owed 40 works between Michaelmas and Lammas and 14 during harvest. (fn. 237)
Although services were probably still exacted in 1300 on Streetly manor, (fn. 238) other lords exploited them for cash. In 1304 John Bernham sold his single villein, his reeve's son, with his land and descendants to a St. Albans man who probably had no other land in the parish. (fn. 239) During the 14th century the demesnes were reduced, or leased, usually to prosperous local peasants. Thus 245 a. of the Enhale demesne were alienated c. 1320 to 13 people, (fn. 240) and in 1338 only 180 a. remained. (fn. 241) La Hayes demesne was leased in 1366 and 1394, (fn. 242) Bernhams in 1397, (fn. 243) Streetly by 1395. (fn. 244) One manor was leased to one of the rectors, who had decamped by 1340 with his rent £120 in arrear. (fn. 245) Customary land was put to rent. (fn. 246) Under James I there were 12 to 15 tenants of the combined manors, (fn. 247) probably mostly copyholders, but by the 1790s the enlargement of the lord's holdings had reduced the copyhold land to c. 80 a. (fn. 248) Only c. 50 a. were allotted for copyhold at inclosure. (fn. 249)
In 1232 William Russell vindicated his right to run a bull and boar in the open fields and pastures of West Wickham. (fn. 250) Streetly was occasionally said in the 13th century to have fields of its own, which included Stone field, (fn. 251) later of 17 a., halfway between the village and Streetly End, (fn. 252) and c. 1318 the West field. (fn. 253) Surviving deeds suggest, however, that in the open fields the strips of the four main demesnes and of the tenants were intermingled throughout the vill. (fn. 254) Inclosure was already in progress in the 13th century: c. 1250 Sir Hugh Peverel was obtaining, partly in exchange for land, releases from his free tenants of their rights of common in his pastures, meadows, and assarts. (fn. 255) Of a 49-a. holding of Streetly manor in 1319 24 a. lay in severalty and 25 a. in common. (fn. 256)
West of the road (fn. 257) from Bartlow to West Wratting lay the West field, (fn. 258) still reckoned in 1606 to belong to Streetly, (fn. 259) and divided by 1667 into the Hither and Further West fields. (fn. 260) In 1813, with its northern neighbour Bleachman field, it covered 376 a., and Pageant Hill field (fn. 261) north of the Balsham road had 96 a. South of the road west from Streetly End lay Dodwell, (fn. 262) later Doddle, field (30 a.), east of Streetly Hall, and Down field (fn. 263) (74 a.) to the west. Between that road and the Horseheath-Balsham road lay seven named fields in the Middle Ages, (fn. 264) represented in 1813 by Tenacredean field (101 a.) near Streetly End, Causeway (formerly Chalkpit) field (fn. 265) to the west, and Stanebury Hill to the north (270 a. together). North of the village street there were in the Middle Ages four named fields, (fn. 266) of which Reading field (68½ a.) lay north-east of the village in 1813, with Willow field (fn. 267) (106 a.) to the west. North of them 238 a. of ancient inclosures then surrounded Yenhall farm. The common pasture, 60 a. in 1279 and called by 1419 the Shrub, (fn. 268) lay east of those closes. In 1813 Shrub Common covered 95 a. South-east of the village street were Little, Hall, and Stone fields (fn. 269) (114 a. together); in 1608 the tenants acknowledged the lord's customary right to keep Hall field inclosed between harvest and 1 November. (fn. 270) The land to the south and east was probably in the Middle Ages, as later, held mostly in severalty as part of the demesnes. (fn. 271) Immediately east of Streetly End Blunts field (37 a.) and Button field (20 a.) still contained arable held in strips c. 1450. In 1456 part of Blunts field had been newly hedged and ditched, making it several. (fn. 272)
The usual crops were grown in the open fields, the peasants perhaps sowing mostly barley. (fn. 273) A farmer in 1522 left 8 a. of wheat and 7 a. of bullymong. (fn. 274) Saffron was possibly grown before 1592. (fn. 275) The many small fields were presumably grouped into larger units in a triennial rotation, still followed on the demesne farms in the 1770s. (fn. 276) Of 795 a. under crops in 1801 there were 229 a. of wheat, 259 a. of barley, 212 a. of oats, and 66 a. of peas, but only 20 a. of turnips. (fn. 277)
In 1086 there were 266 sheep on the manors, Enhale's flock of 146 being the largest. (fn. 278) In 1260 the Wickham shepherd was accused of taking in stolen sheep. (fn. 279) There were 4 shepherds in 1279. (fn. 280) In 1319 the lady of Streetly granted with an estate the right to run 120 sheep over all the land, several or common, where she was herself entitled to feed sheep, except for the closes around her hall. (fn. 281) In 1497 it was recalled that a Horseheath flock had pastured in the southern fields of West Wickham from the West field to Stone and Button fields in succession. (fn. 282) As the demesnes were enlarged lesser men concentrated on cattle rather than sheep. (fn. 283) Common rights were customarily measured in bullocks (fn. 284) by 1813, when claims were made for common for 59 bullocks. (fn. 285) Lord Hardwicke then claimed the sole right of sheep-walk over the common fields and wastes. (fn. 286) In 1801 his tenant at Hill farm had a flock of 160 sheep, and in 1816 one of 105 Norfolk sheep. (fn. 287)
In 1524 25 people were assessed for tax on a total sum of £86; 2 of them were assessed at £20 each, 5 others at £26 between them, and the remaining 18 at less than £2 each. (fn. 288) Those who prospered were mainly the lessees of the demesne farms: Richard Challis (d. 1616) left £200 and land in three other parishes; (fn. 289) Philip Richardson, lessee of the rectory and agent to Sir Giles Alington, bequeathed £620 in 1633 and owned land in eight neighbouring parishes. (fn. 290) About 1640 members of the Flack family held the leases of Yenhall and Streetly farms, and the Webbs that of the parsonage. (fn. 291) John Webb, whose ancestors had owned property at West Wickham since the 1470s, (fn. 292) was said to be worth £40 in 1522. (fn. 293) Richard Webb (d. 1653) provided for legacies totalling £300. (fn. 294) Those families' holdings were among the largest not absorbed into the manorial estate. In 1549, out of 215 strips abutting on Queens' College land, 97 belonged to the Alingtons, 58 to the rectory and other manors later acquired by the Alingtons, and 10 to other colleges, while only 50, including 20 owned by John Webb, were possessed by villagers. In 1667 Richard Webb had 25 and four Flacks 20 of the strips not included in the Alington estate; only 7 other landholders were named. (fn. 295)
The demesnes of the several manors were long preserved as farming units. Thus Wickham Wolves was a separate farm in 1656 as in 1524, (fn. 296) and still comprised 207 a. in 1726. The estate then also included Yennolds farm (372 a.), Wickham Lodge farm (344 a.) whose farmstead had been burnt down by c. 1768, Streetly Hall farm (186 a.), and three others of 260 a., 185 a., and 78 a. (fn. 297) In the 1760s Yenhall farm included 490 a. in the north part of the parish, Hill farm (505 a.) comprised most of the closes to the east, and Streetly Hall farm (260 a.) lay to the south. Former glebe and the Pembroke College land were combined in a farm of 110 a., and most of the manorial open-field land was probably divided between Parsonage farm (372 a.) and Lower House or Malting farm (300 a.), leased together from 1774. In 1775 Lord Montfort's land, including the woods and park, covered 2,390 a. Other owners had not much over 370 a., including 128 a. belonging to Queens' College and 94 a. to Richard Webb. (fn. 298)
In 1811 Lord Hardwicke, whose estate amounted in 1813 to 2,015 a. including three farms of over 400 a. and two of over 300 a., (fn. 299) decided to inclose the parish, (fn. 300) and an Act was obtained in 1812. (fn. 301) The land was surveyed and allotted in 1813, but the award was delayed, mainly because of disputes over compensation for tithes, until 1822. (fn. 302) There were 1,688 a. of ancient inclosures and 1,328 a. of open fields and commons. Of the land allotted Lord Hardwicke received 610 a. for glebe and tithes and 395 a. for other open-field land, besides retaining 1,242 a. of old inclosures; Queens' College and its lessee received 133 a.; (fn. 303) Daniel Taylor, whose ancestor had in 1715 acquired Streetly End farm by marrying into the Allen family and who had been buying up land since 1775, (fn. 304) received 97 a.; Thomas Hayward received 62 a.; the Williamson estate at West Wratting 12 a.; and 13 others 28 a. between them, mostly for rights of common. Queens' College and Pembroke College each retained 18 a. of old inclosures, Daniel Taylor 52 a., and Stanlake Batson 206 a. once part of Horseheath park. (fn. 305)
Following the inclosure Lord Hardwicke's estate was divided into five large farms. (fn. 306) Skipper's Hall farm, probably established by 1822, covered 375 a. north and east of Burton End, and Hill farm 375 a. in the east part of the parish. Yenhall farm, varying between 425 a. and 475 a., lay north-west, and Streetly Hall farm (540 a.) south-west, with Parsonage, later Manor, farm (305 a.) between them. They survived as units into the 1950s, after their sale c. 1912 to the tenants. (fn. 307) In the interstices were three smaller farms: 180 a., mostly Queens' College land, were apparently farmed from the White Hart at Burton End; Streetly End farm (120 a.), sold by Daniel Taylor in 1827, (fn. 308) descended in the Kidman and Bird families until sold again in 1899; (fn. 309) Ivy Tod farm (60 a.) was farmed until the 1880s and owned until 1914 by the Hayward family.
Most villagers continued to work on the farms during the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1821 85 families depended on agriculture and only 15 on crafts or trade. (fn. 310) In 1851, when there were 87 adult farmlabourers, the farmers employed 90 men and 19 boys. (fn. 311) In 1877 nine-tenths of the population were said to be of the labouring class. (fn. 312) In 1905 West Wickham included 2,232 a. of arable and 302 a. of grass. (fn. 313) Sugar-beet was grown on Hill farm in the 1950s. (fn. 314)
By 1700 the Allen family had a tanyard next to their farm at Streetly End, with which it descended to Daniel Taylor. (fn. 315) It was still working in 1794, (fn. 316) and probably in 1813 and 1827, but had apparently closed by the 1840s. Taylor also owned in 1827 a brick-kiln, alluded to in 1813, east of Burton End. (fn. 317) In the mid 19th century the village had up to 6 shoemakers, one or two wheelwrights, carpenters, and smiths, and in 1871 a building firm employing 9 men. (fn. 318) The village craftsmen had mostly disappeared by 1920, although there was still a building firm in the 1930s and a blacksmith's shop in 1937. The smith had retired by 1960, leaving no successor. (fn. 319)
There were two millers in 1279. (fn. 320) La Hayes manor's windmill, standing south of the village, had been demolished by 1453. (fn. 321) Bernhams manor included a windmill in 1286. (fn. 322) In the 1220s Richard of Sandford sold Streetly manor's windmill, with his villeins' suit of mill, to a Balsham man who later resold it to Sir Hugh Peverel. (fn. 323) It still belonged to Streetly manor in 1296, and apparently in 1428. (fn. 324) In 1827 Streetly End farm included a six-storey brick tower-mill, built in 1802 immediately west of the farm-house. The mill ceased working, having lost its sails, after 1895, (fn. 325) and only the base survived in 1975.
In 1133 Henry I confirmed to Aubrey de Vere the manor held of the honor of Richmond, with sac and soc, tol, team, and infangthief. (fn. 326) Although Bernhams manor was said in 1279 to have view of frankpledge, (fn. 327) it was to the honor court, at which in 1334 two customary tenants from Bernhams and La Hayes manors presented a defaulting ale-taster, (fn. 328) that view of frankpledge in the two manors was ascribed in 1425. (fn. 329) Each of those two manors had its own three-weekly court c. 1300. (fn. 330) At Streetly in the 13th century the bishop of Ely had an annual view of frankpledge with the assize of bread and of ale, gallows, and tumbrel. (fn. 331) By 1600 the Alingtons were holding a single court for their combined manors of West Wickham and Streetly. It was styled a view of frankpledge and court baron, and occasionally dealt with agricultural matters, besides transferring copyholds, (fn. 332) its only function by the 19th century. A court book survives for 1856–1937. (fn. 333)
The court elected two constables in 1606. (fn. 334) In 1705 there were two parish constables, dominated by Alington Harrison, as both lay rector and a resident J. P. (fn. 335) In the early 19th century there was usually only one churchwarden, chosen by the parishioners. (fn. 336)
Expenditure on the poor, though only c. £70 in 1776, had reached £255 by 1803, when there were 24 people permanently supported. (fn. 337) In 1813 the parish owned a poorhouse at Burton End, (fn. 338) and c. 30 people received permanent relief. The cost averaged £570, (fn. 339) and until 1833 seldom fell below £500, reaching £740 in 1818. (fn. 340) Of £538 spent in 1832 £396 went to widows, children, and the sick and aged, and only c. £80 on casual relief or to paupers employed by the parish. (fn. 341) From 1835 the parish was part of the Linton poor-law union, (fn. 342) and with the Linton R.D. was merged in 1934 in the South Cambridgeshire R.D., (fn. 343) being included in 1974 in South Cambridgeshire.
The parish council established in 1894 was unusually active, nominating two constables and a pinder, keeping the pound in repair, and providing allotments. (fn. 344)
By c. 1200 West Wickham had a church, (fn. 345) which had probably belonged to the Veres before they subinfeudated their manor, for the advowson of the rectory was said in 1279 to belong to the earl of Oxford. (fn. 346) The lords of Bernhams, half the Vere fee, also claimed the advowson, which Sir William Barentyn sold with that manor to Sir Emery Pecche. (fn. 347) In 1298, however, John Bernham released the advowson to Alice, dowager countess of Oxford, with remainder to her son Earl Robert, (fn. 348) in whose heirs it descended (fn. 349) until 1361. Earl Thomas was then licensed to grant the church to his priory at Earl's Colne. (fn. 350) By 1366 the church had been appropriated to the priory. (fn. 351)
Tithe portions in West Wickham belonged to Castle Acre priory (Norf.), Linton priory, and, by the time of inclosure, to the rectors of Balsham, Horseheath, and Bartlow. Castle Acre was granted, probably c. 1100, the demesne tithes of Enhale by Lambert de Rosey, under-tenant of the priory's founder William de Warenne. (fn. 352) By 1290 the rector of West Wickham was collecting the tithes and paying the priory £1 2s. a year. (fn. 353) In 1535 Colne priory owed 2 marks a year to Castle Acre (fn. 354) for the Enhale tithes, which in 1600 the Crown granted to the bishop of Ely. (fn. 355) Linton priory was said in 1291 to be entitled to a portion of £5, (fn. 356) but in 1346 nothing had been paid for over 30 years. (fn. 357) At inclosure the rector of Horseheath claimed tithes from 56 a. of ancient closes adjoining his parish (fn. 358) which had been leased free of tithes due to West Wickham rectory in 1624. (fn. 359) The rector of Balsham claimed tithes from 37 a. of Streetly Hall farm and alleged that his predecessors had received a modus for tithes of venison from 92 a., once in Horseheath park. (fn. 360) The park itself had been sold free of tithes due to West Wickham to Stanlake Batson, whose son refused to pay the sum assessed upon it when the tithes were commuted. (fn. 361) The two rectors and the rector of Bartlow were allotted 19 a. in 1822 for their tithes. (fn. 362)
The rectory was taxed at c. 26 marks in 1217 and 1291 and at 30 in 1276. (fn. 363) It included 60 a. of glebe in 1279. (fn. 364) Notable early rectors included c. 1300 Mr. Stephen of Haslingfield, chancellor of Cambridge university, (fn. 365) and c. 1312 Mr. Robert of St. Albans, Dean of Arches. (fn. 366) Later the earls chose for the rich living men inadequately qualified. John Lavenham, presented in 1339, was directed to study at a university, but repeatedly broke promises to do so and in 1346 obtained leave to remain in attendance on his patron the earl. (fn. 367) His successor John Pelham, instituted in his absence in 1347, only later took major orders, (fn. 368) and received leave of absence in 1349. (fn. 369)
In 1308 John de la Rivere sought a license to endow with 30 a. a chaplain to say daily masses in a chapel at Streetly manor-house. (fn. 370) The churchwardens held 6 a. given to maintain lights and obits, which were sold by the Crown in 1550, (fn. 371) as was a former guildhall c. 1570. (fn. 372)
When the church was appropriated no vicarage was ordained, and the bishop authorized the prior of Colne to serve the cure by a monk of his house. (fn. 373) In 1375 the parishioners successfully sued the prior for not providing a priest. (fn. 374) There was a chaplain at West Wickham in 1379, (fn. 375) and in 1454 a parish chaplain, paid 9 marks a year in 1463, had charge of the church. (fn. 376) Curates were recorded in the early 16th century, (fn. 377) and in the 1540s were paid by the farmer of the rectory. (fn. 378) When the lay impropriators did not leave the cure deserted, as in the late 1560s, (fn. 379) they provided curates, sometimes licensed by the bishop but considered removable at pleasure. (fn. 380) In 1650 the minister had £20 a year from the lay rector's lessee. (fn. 381) Dr. Harrison, the lay rector, may have served in person from c. 1671, but since he held neighbouring livings such as Withersfield (Suff.) and West Wratting he employed a curate in 1682. (fn. 382) His son Alington quarrelled with the curate, Samuel Richardson, whom he had appointed c. 1690, and sought to eject him on his own authority. In 1705 he brought to replace him two clergymen from Cambridge, and the congregation witnessed a physical contest for the pulpit and reading-desk. Richardson won the succeeding ecclesiastical lawsuit. (fn. 383) In 1728 Harrison, having taken orders, styled himself rector of West Wickham, (fn. 384) although it does not seem that he had been admitted or instituted.
Alington Harrison the younger (d. 1733) bequeathed £30 a year charged on the rectory for the person serving as curate. (fn. 385) In the 1760s the lessees of Parsonage farm were paying the curate that sum. (fn. 386) About 1792 Lord Hardwicke increased the stipend to £50, but it was uncertain whether the cure was a donative or a perpetual curacy. (fn. 387) In 1825 Lord Hardwicke matched £1,000 received for the living by lot from Queen Anne's Bounty by settling the £50 as a permanent rent-charge, (fn. 388) and by that endowment the living became a perpetual curacy, (fn. 389) worth £88 net c. 1830 and in 1871. (fn. 390)
Thomas Bromley, Lord Montfort, had chosen as curate a disreputable crony, Philip Bearcroft (d. 1776). (fn. 391) The parish was served after Bearcroft's death by John Maule, rector of Horseheath 1776– 1825. In 1807 he held one Sunday service, preaching alternately in each parish, and three communions a year, attended by c. 10 people. (fn. 392) Lord Hardwicke offered the succeeding curate £70 a year in 1825 for performing two Sunday services, as requested by the parishioners. (fn. 393) In 1836 there were c. 60 communicants. (fn. 394) C. W. Lamprell, perpetual curate 1841–66 and also rector of Little Bradley (Suff.), (fn. 395) claimed an 1851 average attendance of 200, filling the available sittings. (fn. 396) From 1866 the cure was held jointly with West Wratting, where the incumbent lived, and, perhaps by association, came to be styled a vicarage. In 1877 and 1897 only one Sunday service was held. Communions every four to six weeks had small attendances. (fn. 397) In 1912 the lay rector, P. A. S. Hickey, transferred the patronage to the bishop of Ely, (fn. 398) with whom it remained in 1974. From 1973 the living was held with Horseheath rectory. (fn. 399)
The church of ST. MARY, named before the Reformation from the Assumption (fn. 402) but later simply by the Virgin's name, (fn. 403) consists of a chancel, nave with north chapel and south porch, and west tower, and is built of field stones with ashlar dressings. The tower may be 13th-century, but its west window has Decorated tracery. The chancel is 14th-century: the three south windows have curvilinear tracery and are matched by the east window, flanked by ornate contemporary niches inside and renewed after 1852, (fn. 404) while the three north windows, one blocked with a tablet to Henry Harrison (d. 1690), have simpler tracery. Glass once included the arms of England simply and the Vere arms with a label, suggesting a date before 1340. (fn. 405) The nave and porch also appear to be 14th-century, but three new windows on each side of the nave were inserted at two periods in the 15th or 16th centuries. The north chapel may have been built in the 15th century; it was walled off from the church by 1744, (fn. 406) and remained so in 1852. (fn. 407)
Three late medieval benches survive in the nave. The old rood-screen, intact in 1744, (fn. 408) was cut down and removed to the tower arch c. 1900. (fn. 409) The late medieval nave roof has side-posts standing on braced tie-beams, the easternmost beam being carved with vine-leaf scrolls. Following storm damage in 1579 and c. 1608 (fn. 410) the roof was repaired in 1615. (fn. 411)
The windows were in bad repair from the mid 16th century, (fn. 412) and in 1644 William Dowsing destroyed eight superstitious pictures in the chancel, (fn. 413) which had been in decay in 1591. (fn. 414) In 1665 the impropriator was ordered to have it paved and pointed. (fn. 415) By 1783 the tiling of the nave was defective; that of the chancel was virtually all gone, so that rain poured in and services could not be held there. (fn. 416) The earls of Hardwicke had put the chancel in decent repair before 1836. (fn. 417) The whole church was thoroughly restored between 1898 and 1900, the old pews and pulpit being replaced and a new roodscreen installed. (fn. 418) An organ of 1800 brought from St. Mary's, Newmarket, (fn. 419) almost fills the north chapel.
The church had a silver chalice c. 1275, in the 1380s, (fn. 420) and in 1552. (fn. 421) About 1960 it had a silver beaker made at Newcastle in 1774 and a paten of 1802. (fn. 422) Of the five bells recorded in 1744 and later (fn. 423) the earliest, cast at London c. 1460, has a black-letter Latin inscription, as have two made by Richard Holdfield of Cambridge in 1606. The other two were cast in 1706 and 1714 by Henry Pleasant and John Thornton, both of Sudbury (Suff.). (fn. 424) The church records earlier than 1639 were all missing in 1783; (fn. 425) the surviving registers begin in 1647. (fn. 426)
About 1670 a Quaker from West Wickham attended the Balsham meeting (fn. 427) and there were two dissenters in 1676. (fn. 428) In 1783 two dissenting families attended the Linton meetinghouse, (fn. 429) and in 1825 five Independent families, including those of two farmers, similarly worshipped elsewhere. (fn. 430) In 1836 Thomas Hopkins, the Linton Independent minister, registered a house in West Wickham for dissenting worship. (fn. 431) In 1847 James Blades registered a room and in 1849 a barn for a Primitive Methodist meeting, (fn. 432) and another building was registered for it in 1853. (fn. 433) By 1867 there was a Primitive Methodist chapel with a minister, (fn. 434) for which a brick Gothic mission hall was built on the village street in 1870. (fn. 435) It closed between 1960 and 1974, the building being converted for a play-school. (fn. 436) The Salvation Army opened a hall near the school in 1892. (fn. 437) It drew the largest congregations in the parish in 1960, (fn. 438) and the hall was in use in 1975. (fn. 439)
In 1744 the walled-off north chapel of the church was said to have been once used for a school. (fn. 440) A Sunday school, started by 1807, (fn. 441) was the only school in the parish in 1818 and 1825. (fn. 442) By 1833 it had c. 115 pupils, and was maintained by subscriptions. (fn. 443) The minister and his wife taught there in 1836, when it was associated with the National Society; (fn. 444) in 1846, when two masters and a mistress taught c. 110 children, there was still no day-school. (fn. 445) In 1861 a farm-labourer's wife was teaching a school, still open in 1871, when it had c. 70 children. (fn. 446) The Sunday school was still held in the church until 1877, when a schoolroom was built on land rented from Lord Hardwicke. By 1878 a National school had been opened in it, managed by a committee of the parishioners who had paid for the building. By 1883 a teacher's house had been added. (fn. 447) Average attendance was usually 45–50 from the early 1880s until after 1900. (fn. 448) After rising briefly to c. 60 (fn. 449) it declined to the previous level. (fn. 450) In 1919 there were mixed and infants' departments. (fn. 451) Reorganization in 1937, when the older children were sent to Linton village college, halved numbers to 22. The school was closed in 1971, the younger children going to Balsham. (fn. 452)
Charities for the Poor.
Philip Richardson, lessee of the rectory, by will proved 1634, left £10 to buy land yielding 10s. a year to help the parish poor. (fn. 453) If ever established, the charity had been lost by 1783. (fn. 454) In 1837 a few acres with odd names were popularly believed to be held for the benefit of the poor. (fn. 455)