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Analysis of hearth tax assessments

Pages 277-282

A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 6. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1978.

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ANALYIS OF CAMBRIDGESHIRE HEARTH TAX ASSESSMENTS, CHILFORD, RADFIELD, AND WHITTLESFORD HUNDREDS, 1661, 1666, AND 1674

Introductory Note

The following analyses have been prepared from the Cambridgeshire Hearth Tax Assessments preserved in the Public Record Office for 1662 Michaelmas [E 179/84/436], 1666 Lady Day [E 179/244/22], and 1674 Lady Day [E 179/244/23]. In addition, the 1664 Michaelmas Assessment [E 179/84/437], which was a revision of that of 1662 Michaelmas, has been used for recovering the details of hearths in some defective entries. The assessments have been fully described, and the nature of the tax and value of its records have been briefly discussed, in V.C.H. Cambs. iii. 500 and iv. 272. The 1662 lists were prepared by petty constables in June and early July 1662 and were designed to be simply lists of taxpayers, though during the next eighteen months many persons in the lists secured exemption. The 1666 lists were made out in the summer of 1666, after collection had taken place, by the officers of George Wilmot, the sub-farmer, and are drawn up under the headings of 'Paid' and 'Unpaid'; many of the persons with one or two hearths included under the latter heading may have been entitled to exemption, but the lists do not indicate them since they were included as taxpayers in default. The lists for 1674 were made out by the sub-collectors of Edward Miller, the receiver, with the assistance of parish officials, during the spring and summer of 1674, after collection had been made. They are divided into taxpayers and those legally exempt by certificate. The exemption certificates themselves, made out during the winter of 1673–4, survive incomplete and heavily damaged [E 179/326/10]. Among the taxpayers the owners of empty or recently destroyed houses or hearths and the occupiers of houses recently built or with new hearths in them are distinguished. The exempt may include paupers, even though they did not need to be certified.

The three documents have been analysed on the same principle. Against each place is given, in separate columns, the total of entries recording persons as occupiers of from one to ten hearths and a further column gives the occupiers of houses with eleven or more hearths: final columns give the total number of entries and hearths in each place. For 1662 only one line is needed for each place. For 1666 three lines are needed: for those recorded as 'Paid'; for the 'Unpaid'; and for the combined total of the two categories. For 1674 up to four lines may be needed: for the taxpayers; for those among the taxpayers with empty houses, etc.; for the exempt; and for the combined total of those categories. No exempt are recorded for seven out of the twenty-five places in the three hundreds. Certificates also survive which were made out in 1672 or early in 1673 and apparently served for the three collections from Lady Day 1672 to Lady Day 1673 [E 179/84/440]. They include certificates for all the seven places without exempt in 1674, all save one of which were in Chilford hundred. The probable reason why no exempt were recorded for those places in 1674 was that the certificates did not reach the clerk of the peace in time for enrolment. It has therefore been thought useful to give the number of persons in the certificates of 1672 in footnotes to each hundred in the table for 1674. The number is in some cases less than the number of names originally entered in the certificate because in a few certificates some names were cancelled before, or when, the justices of the peace countersigned them. In general, attention is also drawn in footnotes to a few special entries, chiefly of alms-houses or town houses; and to differences, through faulty addition and chiefly in 1674, between the total number of hearths in the recorded entries and the total given in the documents.

In conclusion, a word may be said about the relative comprehensiveness of the assessments. It may be understood that in all lists a person may occur more than once when as a landlord he or she is entered for the hearths in a tenant's house, but in general the number of entries represents the number of households. There is little difference between the totals of entries for 1666 and 1674, which are slightly higher for 1666. The difference is one of five or less, either way, for all but one place in Chilford, two in Radfield, and three in Whittlesford hundreds. In the remaining six places the total is higher for 1666 in four—Ickleton (6), Stetchworth (6), Great Abington (8), and Whittlesford (10)—and for 1674 in two—Burrough Green (7) and Hinxton (8). In Chilford hundred the 1666 lists have the most entries for eight places, the 1674 lists for two places, and in the other they are equal; six of the eight places, however, for which the 1674 lists have fewer entries have no exempt, and if the exempt in those places were about the same as those certified in 1672 the balance would be much more even. In Radfield hundred the 1666 lists have the most entries for six places, the 1674 lists for one, and in the other two they are equal. In Whittlesford hundred the 1666 lists have the most entries for three places and the 1674 lists the most for the other two. The 1662 lists were intended to include only taxpayers. In most other districts in the county they have, however, generally supplied a list for one place which has solely, or jointly with one of the other assessments, the highest number of entries. In these three hundreds they do not do so; their number of entries is the lowest for all places and, in total, the lowest for each hundred. Their totals are also substantially lower than the totals of those chargeable in 1674, but since far more details of the 1662 assessments survive for the country as a whole than from any other date, those lists are the most useful for comparative studies of England and Wales generally.

ANALYSIS OF CAMBRIDGESHIRE HEARTH TAX: CHILFORD, RADFIELD, AND WHITTLESFORD HUNDREDS

1662 Michaelmas

Totals of entries, with hearths Totals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 over 10 Entries Hearths
Chilford Hundred
Great Abington 16 7 3 1 1 of 24 28 67
Little Abington 4 6 4 1 1 16 41
Babraham 3 5 4 2 1 1 1 of 43 17 95
Bartlow 3 3 1 1 1 9 34
Castle Camps 18 11 8 2 1 1 1 1 of 20 44 128
1 of 15
Shudy Camps 10 6 3 4 4 2 2 31 93
Hildersham 2 6 4 4 1 17 62
Horseheath 12 8 3 3 2 1 3 32 86
Linton 65 42 24 12 4 5 2 1 1 1 of 19 158 392
1 of 14
Pampisford 9 8 4 2 1 1 1 26 65
West Wickham 6 7 5 3 3 1 1 of 11 26 79
Total 145 109 65 29 17 7 14 4 5 2 7 (with 146) 404 1,142
Radfield Hundred
Balsham 17 27 6 2 1 1 1 of 12 55 127
Brinkley 9 5 3 3 3 2 1 26 75
Burrough Green 25 4 2 1 1 of 26 33 72
Carlton cum Willingham 17 8 2 2 1 30 56
Dullingham 26 8 8 5 1 1 1 50 104
Stetchworth 15 10 5 1 1 1 33 65
Westley Waterless 7 3 2 1 1 14 33
Weston Colville 20 10 2 2 1 35 65
West Wratting 18 21 6 5 1 1 1 53 118
Total 154 96 36 18 8 6 2 3 3 1 2 (with 38) 329 715
Whittlesford Hundred
Duxford 31 22 3 6 1 1 of 12 64 127
Hinxton (fn. 1) 8 10 7 8 4 1 of 11 38 112
Ickleton (fn. 2) 33 17 4 9 2 65 125
Sawston 16 12 8 4 1 1 1 1 of 17 44 117
Whittlesford 16 16 12 4 3 1 1 1 54 148
Total 104 77 34 31 7 1 4 1 2 1 3 (with 40) 265 629

1666 Lady Day

Totals of entries, with hearths Totals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 over 10 Entries Hearths
Chilford Hundred
Great Abington, paid 21 10 3 1 1 of 14 36 68
unpaid 5 2 2 9 19
total 26 10 5 3 1 45 87
Little Abington, paid 4 6 1 5 16 39
unpaid 2 2 1 5 9
total 6 8 2 5 21 48
Babraham, paid 7 3 5 1 1 1 1 of 40 19 86
unpaid 5 1 6 10
total 12 3 5 1 2 1 1 25 96
Bartlow, paid 6 1 1 3 1 1 13 34
unpaid 1 1 2 3
total 7 2 1 3 1 1 15 37
Castle Camps, paid 32 11 3 3 1 2 1 of 20 53 120
unpaid 10 3 1 1 1 16 29
total 42 14 4 4 1 1 2 1 69 149
Shudy Camps, paid 14 10 7 3 2 36 77
unpaid 2 1 2 1 6 14
total 16 11 9 4 2 42 91
Hildersham, paid 7 4 4 2 1 2 20 55
unpaid 2 2 4 10
total 9 4 4 4 1 2 24 65
Horseheath, paid 19 9 4 3 1 1 1 of 16 38 88
unpaid 4 2 2 2 10 22
total 23 11 6 5 1 1 1 48 110
Linton, paid 72 41 21 14 2 1 2 2 1 of 18 156 337 (fn. 3)
unpaid 15 2 3 6 2 1 29 68
total 87 43 24 20 4 2 2 2 1 185 405
Pampisford, paid 15 10 5 2 1 33 64
unpaid 2 1 1 4 9
total 17 10 6 3 1 37 73
West Wickham, paid 24 7 2 3 2 1 1 40 82
unpaid 7 2 1 10 15
total 31 9 2 4 2 1 1 50 97
Total, paid 221 112 56 40 10 6 4 2 1 3 5 (with 108) 460 1,050
unpaid 55 13 12 16 3 2 101 208
combined 276 125 68 56 13 8 4 2 1 3 5 561 1,258
Radfield Hundred
Balsham, paid 31 24 8 4 1 1 1 70 140
unpaid 19 (fn. 4) 9 2 1 31 47
total 50 33 10 5 1 1 1 101 187
Brinkley, paid 15 5 5 2 2 1 1 31 72
unpaid 2 2 1 1 6 14
total 17 7 6 2 3 1 1 37 86
Burrough Green, paid 27 7 1 1 1 1 of 20 38 75
unpaid 5 4 1 1 11 20
total 32 11 2 2 1 1 49 95
Carlton cum Willingham, paid 32 2 3 2 1 40 60
unpaid 5 3 1 1 10 18
total 37 5 4 3 1 50 78
Dullingham, paid 52 11 7 3 1 2 76 124
unpaid 11 3 1 15 23
total 63 14 7 3 1 3 91 147
Stetchworth, paid 20 8 6 2 2 1 39 79
unpaid 11 4 1 16 22
total 31 12 7 2 2 1 55 101
Westley Waterless, paid 11 3 1 1 16 28
unpaid 1 1 2 4
total 12 3 1 1 1 18 32
Weston Colville, paid 19 11 3 2 1 1 of 12 37 77
unpaid 3 2 1 1 7 14
total 22 13 4 3 1 1 44 91
West Wratting, paid 30 14 3 4 4 (fn. 5) 55 107
unpaid 8 2 3 1 14 25
total 38 16 6 5 4 69 132
Total, paid 237 85 36 21 6 8 5 1 1 2 (with 32) 402 762
unpaid 65 29 11 5 1 1 112 187
combined 302 114 47 26 7 9 5 1 1 2 514 949
Whittlesford Hundred
Duxford, paid 25 19 12 6 1 1 1 1 66 151
unpaid 9 2 1 3 15 28
total 34 21 13 9 1 1 1 1 81 179
Hinxton, paid 16 6 6 4 2 1 of 11 35 83
unpaid 6 1 2 9 16
total 22 7 6 6 2 1 44 99
Ickleton, paid 52 26 6 4 88 138
unpaid 4 1 2 2 1 10 25
total 56 27 8 6 1 98 163
Sawston, paid 25 19 11 7 1 2 1 of 12 66 153
unpaid 4 3 (fn. 6) 2 2 1 12 29
total 29 22 13 9 2 2 1 78 182
Whittlesford, paid 44 13 8 4 1 1 1 1 73 143
unpaid 2 3 1 1 1 1 9 26
total 46 16 9 5 1 2 1 1 1 82 169
Total, paid 162 83 43 25 4 4 1 1 1 2 2 (with 23) 328 668
unpaid 25 10 6 10 3 1 55 124
combined 187 93 49 35 7 5 1 1 1 2 2 383 792

1674 Lady Day

Totals of entries, with hearths Totals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Entries Hearths
Chilford Hundred (fn. 7)
Great Abington, charged 18 12 3 3 1 of 24 37 87
Little Abington, charged 2 7 2 4 1 16 47
Babraham, charged 8 1 7 2 2 1 of 40 21 99
Bartlow, charged 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 11 37
Castle Camps, charged 16 15 7 4 1 1 1 1 of 20 47 139
1 of 15
exempt 26 26 26
total 42 15 7 4 1 1 1 2 73 165
Shudy Camps, charged 13 7 7 6 2 2 37 94
exempt 8 8 8
total 21 7 7 6 2 2 45 102
Hildersham, charged 4 6 4 1 1 3 1 20 67
Horseheath, charged 17 8 6 3 3 1 2 1 of 26 41 124
exempt 6 6 6
total 23 8 6 3 3 1 2 1 47 130
Linton, charged 47 42 23 16 10 3 5 1 2 1 of 19 150 414 (fn. 8)
exempt 29 2 31 33
total 76 44 23 16 10 3 5 1 2 1 181 447
Pampisford, charged 12 14 4 2 1 1 34 74
West Wickham, charged 8 9 6 3 3 1 1 of 11 31 88 (fn. 9)
exempt 19 19 19
total 27 9 6 3 3 1 1 50 107
Total, charged 148 123 71 43 23 10 10 2 5 3 7 (with 155) 445 1,270
exempt 88 2 90 92
combined 235 125 71 43 23 10 10 2 5 3 7 535 1,362
Radfield Hundred (fn. 10)
Balsham, charged 27 26 12 6 3 1 1 1 of 13 77 181
empty 1 1 1
newly erected 1 1 1
exempt 22 22 22
total 51 26 12 6 3 1 1 1 101 205
Brinkley, charged 7 6 3 4 2 4 1 27 86
exempt 7 7 7
total 14 6 3 4 2 4 1 34 93
Burrough Green, charged 19 6 2 1 1 of 22 29 65
newly erected (fn. 11) 2 2
exempt 25 25 25
total 46 6 2 1 1 54 92
Carlton cum Willingham, charged 27 4 3 3 1 of 11 38 67
exempt 7 7 7
total 34 4 3 3 1 45 74
Dullingham, charged 32 14 10 3 2 1 1 53 125
empty 1 1 2
exempt 34 34 34
total 66 15 10 3 2 1 1 88 161
Stetchworth, charged 17 12 8 3 3 1 of 13 44 105 (fn. 12)
exempt 5 5 5
total 22 12 8 3 3 1 49 120
Westley Waterless, charged 9 4 1 1 1 16 37
Weston Colville, charged 14 11 7 1 1 1 1 of 11 36 84
exempt 8 8 8
total 22 11 7 1 1 1 1 44 92
West Wratting, charged 22 21 6 4 1 3 1 58 130
exempt 9 9 9
total 31 21 6 4 1 3 1 67 139
Total, charged 174 104 51 24 13 10 3 3 1 5 (with 70) 388 880
empty 1 1 2 3
newly erected 3 1 3
exempt 117 117 117
combined 295 105 51 24 13 10 3 3 1 5 508 1,003
Whittlesford Hundred (fn. 13)
Duxford, charged 16 23 10 9 2 2 1 of 13 65 165
exempt 15 15 15
total 31 23 10 9 2 2 1 78 180
Hinxton, charged 9 10 (fn. 14) 8 7 5 1 of 11 40 117
exempt 12 12 12
total 21 10 8 7 5 1 52 129
Ickleton, charged 32 27 5 11 3 78 160
exempt 14 14 14
total 36 27 5 11 3 92 174
Sawston, charged 22 17 (fn. 15) 12 7 1 3 1 of 17 63 160
empty 1 1 4
exempt 17 17 17
total 39 17 12 8 1 3 1 81 181
Whittlesford, charged 17 19 11 6 1 1 1 1 57 146
empty 1 1 9
exempt 14 14 14
total 31 19 11 6 1 1 2 1 72 169
Total, charged 96 96 46 40 11 3 3 1 1 1 3 (with 41) 301 746
empty 1 1 2 13
exempt 72 72 72
combined 168 96 46 41 11 3 3 1 2 1 3 375 831

Footnotes

  • 1. Two details of hearths recovered from the 1662 copy in the 1664 Michaelmas assessment.
  • 2. Eight details of hearths similarly recovered.
  • 3. The total in the book is given wrongly as 336, owing to the entries on p. 13 of the book being wrongly totted as 58 hearths instead of 59.
  • 4. One of the entries is for Two Townehouses.
  • 5. One of the entries is noted as for two houses.
  • 6. One of the entries has two names against it.
  • 7. The numbers of persons in the 1672 exemption certificates for Chilford hundred were: Great Abington 7; Little Abington 2; Babraham 6; Bartlow 3; Castle Camps 26; Shudy Camps 7; Hildersham 2; Horseheath 10; Linton 28; Pampisford 3; West Wickham 16. Fragmentary 1674 certificates survive for Castle Camps, Horseheath, Linton, and West Wickham.
  • 8. Wrongly given as 411 in the roll.
  • 9. Wrongly given as 81 in the roll.
  • 10. The numbers of persons in the 1672 exemption certificates for Radfield hundred were: Balsham 15, 5 of whom were receiving alms; Burrough Green 24; Dullingham 35, 5 of whom were living in town houses; Stetchworth 17; Westley 6; Weston Colville 7. Damaged 1674 certificates survive for Balsham, Brinkley, Burrough Green, Carlton cum Willingham, Dullingham, Stetchworth, Weston Colville, and West Wratting.
  • 11. Both the newly erected hearths were in existing houses and are therefore not reckoned in the totals of entries.
  • 12. Wrongly given as 96 in the roll.
  • 13. The numbers of persons in the 1672 exemption certificates for Whittlesford hundred were: Duxford 23, of whom 4 were marked paid; Hinxton 9; Ickleton 16; Sawston 15, of whom 8 were marked paid; Whittlesford 9.
  • 14. One of these entries—Tho Clarke for the vicarage—is marginated Arrear 1 yeare, but is not said to be empty.
  • 15. One of these is marked Arrear 1 yeare, but is not said to be empty.