A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 8. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1982.
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The ancient parish of Trumpington (fn. 1) lay immediately south of Cambridge. Almost triangular in shape, before 1900 it covered 2,312 a. (fn. 2) To the west it was bounded by the river Cam or Granta, and to the north and north-east by a tributary brook and, further south, by the main road, called since the 19th century the Hills road, leading south-east from Cambridge towards Linton and Haverhill. The southeastern boundary with Great Shelford, running slightly south of west from that road, followed a nearly smooth course. In 1912 the north-east corner of the parish, 497 a. including all the land north of the Long or Mill road, which runs due east from the Cambridge-Trumpington road to the Hills road, was transferred to the city of Cambridge. In 1934 most of the rest of Trumpington parish, including the whole of the village, was incorporated in the city; 382 a. in the south-west, virtually uninhabited, were transferred to the adjoining parish of Haslingfield. (fn. 3)
The soil lies mainly upon chalk, overlaid east of the village by a terrace of gravel, and beside the river and brook by valley gravels. The land is level and low-lying, nowhere rising much over 15 metres, and falling below that height along the river, and further east along the brook. That brook, called by 1600 the Vicar's brook, (fn. 4) runs northward across the middle of the parish. It was partly straightened after 1610 to help provide a water supply for Cambridge, (fn. 5) and hence called also Hobson's brook. The low-lying land beside it remained uncultivated moorland until the 19th century. A spring near the village was called Caldwell in the 13th century, (fn. 6) No ancient woodland survives. (fn. 7) There is a well timbered park surrounding Trumpington Hall, owned from 1715 by the Pembertons, who in the 19th century laid out long, narrow plantations along the west side of the road to Cambridge and the south side of the Long road. In the 1830s there were c. 90 a. of woodland. (fn. 8) Trumpington was principally devoted to arable farming, under a triennial rotation before its inclosure in 1802. From the late 19th century its north-eastern quarter was gradually covered by the suburban growth of Cambridge; the remaining open land there came to consist mainly of school and college playing fields. From the 1950s most of the south-west corner was used for agricultural research. Only the areas just north and south-east of the village remained ordinary farmland in 1980.
A settlement close to the ford over the Cam, later leading to Grantchester, was probably established in the Early Iron Age, (fn. 9) and endured through the Belgic (fn. 10) and Roman periods. A Roman cemetery to the north with much pottery and metal ware was found in the early 18th century, (fn. 11) and there was an early Anglo-Saxon cemetery nearby at Dam Hill. (fn. 12)
Trumpington has been relatively populous since medieval times. There were 33 peasants, besides 4 slaves, in 1086, (fn. 13) and c. 100 people held land there in 1279, when nearly 80 houses and cottages were recorded. (fn. 14) Taxpayers there numbered 48 in 1327 (fn. 15) and 50 in 1524. (fn. 16) The 45 households recorded in 1563 (fn. 17) had increased to c. 63 by the 1660s. (fn. 18) In 1676 there were c. 140 adults, (fn. 19) and in 1728 the 62 families comprised c. 380 people. (fn. 20) After further growth, there were 83 families by 1786, 89 by 1794, (fn. 21) and 100 by 1801, comprising 494 people. After a slow increase to 540 in 1821, the population rose rapidly to 722, in some 150 households, by 1831. In the mid 19th century, when habitation was still confined to the neighbourhood of the village, growth was slower. Between 1841 and 1851 numbers grew only from 759 to 771, and were briefly reduced by emigration, partly to Australia, c. 1860. (fn. 22) They recovered to nearly 850 in the 1870s. A rise to c. 960 in 1891 and c. 1,270 by 1911, excluding those in institutions, was largely caused by the spread of new housing in the part near Cambridge transferred to the city in 1912. The village by itself contained 667 people in 1901, 742 in 1911. Fresh building had again raised numbers to 1,183 by 1931, (fn. 23) and growth continued strongly into the 1970s.
The village (fn. 24) stood near the river, at the intersection of the main road from Royston through Harston to Cambridge with a road, called the Moorway c. 1600, (fn. 25) running north-west from Great Shelford towards Grantchester. The latter crossed the river by a ford until Brasley bridge was built there in 1790. (fn. 26) A third road, possibly Roman and still called the Ridgeway c. 1580, crossed the fields on a line slightly west of the Cambridge road. (fn. 27) The roads near the river ran partly through lands subject to flooding and were sometimes styled causeways. (fn. 28) The Cambridge road was a turnpike from 1793 to 1872. (fn. 29) The tollgate keeper's house, put up in 1811 with a weighing machine at the south entrance to the village and sold in 1863, (fn. 30) still stood in 1980. The Cambridge bypass, running across the south-west of the parish, was opened in 1980.
West of the main road that formed the high street there may originally have lain a large, more or less triangular green, with the church and several manor houses around its western apex. Its probable northwest section, 9 a. in private hands by the 1660s, and still known c. 1800 as the Camping Close, was incorporated after 1780 into the Pembertons' park. (fn. 31) The smaller triangular part to the south-east was also gradually overrun with buildings and had entirely gone by inclosure; it was probably there that the cottages occasionally licensed to be built on the waste (fn. 32) were put up. Two lanes, (fn. 33) later School or Church and Maris Lanes, forming the two western sides of that triangle, met at its western corner, to form Church Street, later Grantchester Road, leading west to the river. From that street another lane led north past Trumpington Hall to Dagnell End, recorded by 1500, after 1600 also called Dagling End. (fn. 34) Of several cottages there in 1800, five remained in 1841, but by 1871 only one, soon afterwards absorbed into the park.
By the late 18th century housing lay mainly along the northern part of the high street and in Church Street. The older houses (fn. 35) include some early brick ones. The late 16th-century red brick Old House on Church Lane, perhaps the 'Tiled howse' recorded c. 1600, (fn. 36) has crow-stepped gables at each end, and small windows with labels. Two thatched, redbrick 17th-century cottages stand close to the high street. One timber framed L-plan house near the church is dated 1654. Two similar 17th-century ones on the high street were demolished in the 1970s. (fn. 37) About 1800 the village included seven farmhouses, 29 other houses, and 11 cottages. (fn. 38) Only after inclosure were some farmsteads built away from it, such as Vicarage Farm, Blackland, later River, Farm at the far north end of the parish, and Clay Farm, just south of the newly laid out Long road. (fn. 39)
Extensive new building and rebuilding raised the number of inhabited houses in the parish to 136 by 1831 and nearly 160 by the 1850s. (fn. 40) By then there were 30–35 dwellings along Church Street, including School Lane and Wood End. London Street, the southern part of the high street, had 40–45 dwellings, Cambridge Road, the northern part, 20–25. Before 1841 rows of cottages had been built to the west, including Swan's Yard, probably put up by 1832, (fn. 41) and Workhouse Yard, rebuilt by the parish charity in 1818. (fn. 42) On the latter in 1861 c. 105 people were crowded into 20 cottages on a single small close. (fn. 43) In 1876 the Pembertons were said to have rebuilt in grey brick many of c. 50 lath-and-plaster, thatched cottages that they owned. (fn. 44) Some of their new estate cottages survive opposite the church.
The new building caused by the growth of Cambridge from the 1860s was undertaken mainly on the Trinity College land in the north-east of the parish. (fn. 45) About 1867 the prosperous Cambridge shopkeeper Robert Sayle (d. c. 1885) built the large Leighton House by the Cambridge road, slightly north of the Long road. (fn. 46) In the 1870s and 1880s several more large houses were built east of the main road, just south of the Stone bridge leading to Cambridge. The Pembertons had begun to lay out Chaucer Road on the west side of that road by 1883. That and Latham Road, to its south, built between 1900 and the 1920s, along a former by-road leading to River Farm, were lined with large houses in styles varying from Victorian Gothic and Italianate to 'Queen Anne', designed for wealthy Cambridge residents, including dons, of whom c. 15 lived in the parish in 1904. The Pembertons kept their land further south open into the 1970s, but on the Trinity estate building went on steadily. Newton Road, behind the large houses on the main road, was begun between 1892 and 1896, and Bentley Road, running east to meet its south end, c. 1903. New houses there, in a simplified Garden Suburb style, were still going up in the late 1920s. Further south along the main road Barrow Road was begun in the 1930s and Porson Road in the 1960s. Still on college land Rutherford Road, running north from the Long road, was laid out in the 1970s on a field used since the 1890s by the University Polo Club. Away on the eastern boundary there were already six houses in 1861 on the Hills Road. (fn. 47) Ribbon building, mostly by Cambridge builders, along its west side, began south of Homerton College with eight houses in 1901, and continued, save for a pause between 1915 and 1921, into the late 1920s. Luard Road, running west just south of the Homerton College grounds, started in 1904, was by the 1940s connected by Sedley Taylor Road to the Long Road, on whose eastern part also ribbon building had begun. Further to the south-east the area between the Long Road and scattered early 20th-century housing in the south-east corner of the parish, around the former Red Cross Farm, was filled from the 1960s with the extensive buildings of the new Addenbrooke's Hospital.
The village itself had grown little after the mid 19th century. It had c. 160 dwellings in 1901, no more than in 1861. (fn. 48) Just north of the old inhabited area the plain, grey-brick cottages of Alpha Terrace, planned in the 1880s, (fn. 49) but mostly built between 1897 and 1910, (fn. 50) run eastwards. Soon after 1900 (fn. 51) ribbon building began in discontinuous blocks along the Great Shelford road, which by the 1950s was continuously built up as far as the parish boundary. Trumpington contained 221 houses in 1921, 352 in 1931. (fn. 52) In the 1950s and 1960s new closes and crescents, including some bungalows for retired clergymen, (fn. 53) laid out in the angle between the Shelford and Harston roads produced another densely built-up area: by 1972 one close had 30 houses. (fn. 54) Further north the city council built from 1945 (fn. 55) a large council estate just east of the village, including many prefabricated houses. An inner rectangle of houses surrounded a central green and playing field called Byron Square, and was itself encircled by a road built up on both sides. By 1965 there were over 300 houses there. (fn. 56) Some smaller private estates were laid out north of the village, and there was rebuilding within it on the sites of demolished cottages. (fn. 57) By the mid 1970s, however, further development on the remaining Green Belt land to the east was being discouraged. (fn. 58)
The main line of the former Great Eastern Railway from London to Cambridge, opened in 1845, (fn. 59) runs northward across the east of the parish, parallel to Hobson's brook. It was still open in 1980. The Bedford-Cambridge line of the L.N.W.R., opened in 1862, curved closely past the south-east of the village to meet the earlier line just within the parish. It was closed in 1965 and the track removed. (fn. 60)
Standing on an important road, much used by coaches from the late 18th century, Trumpington had several inns. The Ram's Head, owned by Edward Pychard in 1547, (fn. 61) was perhaps one. An innholder left £20 in 1657. (fn. 62) The White Lion was recorded in 1667 and 1764, the Black Swan in 1686 and 1704. (fn. 63) By the late 18th century two inns, both still open in 1980, faced one another at the north end of the village. The Green Man east of the road occupies a timber framed 15th-century hall-house with cross wings. In the 16th century its hall was divided to give two floors. Substantial later extensions include a bay window towards the main road. Remodelling c. 1954 has largely concealed its original character. The Coach and Horses to the west includes an early 17th-century northern section, also timber framed, gradually extended south and east until the early 19th century. It was later mostly refaced in brick. It retains early 17th-century panelling in two ground-floor rooms. (fn. 64) Those two were the only inns recorded in the 1790s. (fn. 65) Horse shows, well attended, were held at the Green Man in the 1850s by the Blands, (fn. 66) who had kept it since the 1780s. (fn. 67) By the 1840s the Tally Ho and Red Lion had been opened further south along the main street. (fn. 68) The former remained open in 1980, along with the Unicorn in Church Street, once a beerhouse, recorded from 1858, and the Volunteer, built at that period near Long road. (fn. 69) The Red Lion, rebuilt c. 1950, was closed c. 1975. (fn. 70)
In 1314 Sir Giles of Trumpington was granted a three-day fair at the feast of St. Peter's Chains (1 August). (fn. 71) Possibly still held at that date c. 1805, (fn. 72) it had been transferred by the 1850s to the feast of St. Peter and Paul (28–30 June). The fair, allegedly notorious for drunkenness and disorder, then drew numerous visitors from Cambridge by fly and omnibus. (fn. 73) From 1882 it was reduced to one day, 29 June, on which it was still held in the 1930s. (fn. 74) About 1815 a friendly society had 45 members. (fn. 75) A branch of the Oddfellows, started in 1894, rapidly attracted most of the younger members of the older village benefit club, bringing it near collapse. (fn. 76) Some farmers were still holding the traditional horkeys or harvest suppers in the 1890s. (fn. 77) Popular culture was also represented by the village brass band which flourished from the 1860s, (fn. 78) and the Working Men's Chrysanthemum Club, founded in the 1890s. (fn. 79) The vicar and wealthier inhabitants opened a reading room in 1882. Found too small by 1895, (fn. 80) it was superseded by a redbrick village hall, in a free Tudor style, built in 1908. (fn. 81) That was enlarged in the late 1970s, (fn. 82) when the village had numerous social clubs. (fn. 83) A War Memorial cross, carved by Eric Gill with figures of three saints, was erected in 1921 (fn. 84) on a surviving fragment of green, where Church Lane joins the high street. At that site, called Cross Hill, had once stood the village cross, put up by John Stokton (d. c. 1475); its base, rediscovered in 1921, is preserved in the church. (fn. 85) The 'mawmet', impersonating Richard II in Scotland during Henry IV's reign, (fn. 86) was alleged to be one Thomas Ward of Trumpington, whose land there was confiscated by 1408. (fn. 87) Jean Alys Barker, created a life peeress in 1980, took the title of Baroness Trumpington. (fn. 88)
About 991 Ealdorman Beorhtnoth gave to the monks of Ely a manor at TRUMPINGTON, which finally came to them after his widow Aelfflaed's death c. 1006. (fn. 89) In 1066 4½ hides, the largest estate there, were held of the abbot of Ely by the thegn Tochi. Seized after the Conquest by Frederick de Warenne, that manor had come by 1086 to his brother William (d. 1088). (fn. 90) By 1162, however, the manor was held as two fees of Alexander Fitz Gerold (d. 1178), husband of Alice, heiress of Skipton barony. In 1212 the tenant in chief was William de Forz, count of Aumale (d. 1241), great-grandson of Alice by her first marriage. The honor of Skipton escheated to the Crown in 1269. (fn. 91) Under the lords of Skipton a mesne lordship at Trumpington belonged after 1200 to the Quincy earls of Winchester. (fn. 92) When their estates were divided after the death of Earl Roger in 1264, (fn. 93) lordship over those Trumpington fees was assigned in 1277 to his third daughter Ellen, widow of Alan la Zouche (d. 1270). (fn. 94) It descended from Ellen's grandson Alan la Zouche, overlord when he died in 1314, (fn. 95) to his daughter Maud, wife of Robert Holland (killed 1328), who possessed the manor as guardian from 1314 to 1322. (fn. 96) Their grandson, Robert, Lord Holland, was overlord at his death in 1373. (fn. 97) That lordship has not been traced later. In 1456 and 1494 the manor was said to be held of William Vaux, (fn. 98) in 1521 of Barking abbey (Essex), (fn. 99) and in 1593 and 1630, as one fee, of the Crown as of the honor of Aumale. (fn. 100)
In 1086 the manor was held in demesne by William de Cailly, (fn. 101) and in 1166 by Ralph de Cailly (d. after 1179). (fn. 102) Ralph's son Simon, lord between 1199 and 1218, (fn. 103) was succeeded by 1225 by his son John, (fn. 104) who bought the reversion of 42 a. in 1253. (fn. 105) He died before 1259, (fn. 106) leaving a son Simon, of age by 1265. (fn. 107) Simon de Cailly, lord in 1279, (fn. 108) was succeeded between 1286 and 1302 by his son John (fn. 109) (d. 1314). John's son John, then aged six, (fn. 110) probably died under age after 1325. (fn. 111) Probably by 1315 (fn. 112) his father's widow Joan married John Barrington of Essex, who held the manor with her in 1346, dying soon after. His son and namesake still had land there in 1347. In 1342 the Cailly heirs, perhaps the child John's sisters, were Margaret, wife of John Ware of Melbourn, (d. after 1349), and Agnes, wife of John Stanes. (fn. 113) Stanes in 1357 and Sir Edmund Hethersett of Suffolk in 1364 each occupied the estate as sole lord. (fn. 114) Hethersett sold it in 1372, subject to the dower rights of Thomas Stanes's widow Joan, to Sir Edmund de la Pole of Suffolk. (fn. 115)
Sir Edmund held DE LA POLES manor until his death, in 1419. His son and heir Sir Walter (fn. 116) (d. 1434) left as heir his daughter Margaret's son, Sir Edmund Ingoldisthorpe, then a minor (d. s.p.m. 1456). De la Poles, however, was held for life, first by Sir Walter's widow Margaret (fn. 117) until after 1466, (fn. 118) then by Sir Edmund's widow Joan, with reversion to his daughter Isabel (d. 1476), (fn. 119) who married John Neville, marquess of Montagu. When Joan died in 1494 her jointure lands were divided between Isabel's daughters by Neville. The Trumpington manor passed to Elizabeth, Lady Scrope, then wife of Sir Henry Wentworth (d. 1499). (fn. 120) She died childless in 1517, having in 1513 settled it for life upon her sister Lucy's daughter Lucy Browne, then betrothed to the child John Cutts of Childerley. John died aged 21 in 1528, leaving a son John, aged two (fn. 121) (d. 1555). His widow Lucy retained the manor, marrying successively in 1528 Sir Thomas Clifford and c. 1545 Thomas Southwell, (fn. 122) until she died in 1557. Her grandson and heir Sir John Cutts, of age in 1566, (fn. 123) sold De la Poles in 1574 to John Chaplyn, a Trumpington yeoman. (fn. 124)
On Chaplyn's death in 1602 it descended to his son Thomas, (fn. 125) who in 1610 granted, as chief lord of the vill, the wayleave to make the New River leading to Hobson's conduit in Cambridge. (fn. 126) Thomas sold the manor in 1615 to his nephew John Baron (fn. 127) (d. 1630) from whom it passed to his widow Catherine (d. 1649) and then in the male line to his son Richard (fn. 128) (d. c. 1659), grandson John (fn. 129) (d. probably 1708), (fn. 130) and great-grandson John (d. 1751). (fn. 131) Anna Maria, probably the last John's daughter and heir, married Thomas Clamtree of Colchester (Essex). (fn. 132) About 1785 (fn. 133) they sold the manor to Jeremy Pemberton, and it thenceforth passed with the Pembertons' Trumpington estate. (fn. 134)
The manor house, sited in a 4–a. close in 1279, (fn. 135) included c. 1400 a tiled hall and kitchen, and a solar and adjoining chamber, rebuilt c. 1390 (fn. 136) An oratory there was licensed in 1376. (fn. 137) The Barons' house had 8 or 9 hearths in the 1660s. (fn. 138) The groves and fishponds surrounding it in the 1740s (fn. 139) were presumably incorporated in the Pembertons' park. The house was possibly that, just south of Trumpington Hall, still styled a manor house in 1800, though then occupied by a farmer. (fn. 140)
Ralph de Cailly (fl. 1166) gave 22 a. to the Hospitallers' preceptory of Shingay, and 15 a. to the nuns of St. Radegund, Cambridge. (fn. 141) The latter holding, augmented by other gifts (fn. 142) to 32 a. by the 1370s, (fn. 143) passed in 1496 to Jesus College, Cambridge. (fn. 144) At inclosure the college was allotted 20 a. at the far north-eastern corner of the parish. (fn. 145) The land was sold, partly to Trinity College, Cambridge, between 1896 and the 1970s. (fn. 146) About 1230 John de Cailly confirmed to Bushmead priory (Beds.) gifts including ½ yardland from his kinswoman Cecily, himself adding a villein and his land. (fn. 147) The 35 a. held by the priory in 1279 (fn. 148) were sold after its dissolution, with 13 a. owned by 1291 by Barnwell priory, (fn. 149) by the Crown in 1553. (fn. 150) That property belonged by the 1570s to Dr. John Hatcher (fn. 151) (d. 1587), whose grandson Sir John Hatcher (fn. 152) sold over 120 a. at Trumpington c. 1612 to William Pychard, lord of TRUMPINGTON manor. (fn. 153)
That manor was derived from 2 hides held until 1066 by Northman under Earl Tostig, and by 1086 by Robert Fafiton in chief. (fn. 154) By 1200 its overlordship had passed, like that of Robert's Grantchester lands, to the Mortimers of Wigmore. (fn. 155) Their tenancy in chief was occasionally recorded until 1300. (fn. 156) A mesne lordship under them belonged, perhaps by the 1190s, (fn. 157) certainly by 1242, (fn. 158) to the Quincys. After Earl Roger died in 1264 lordship over one knight's fee at Trumpington came to his daughter Margaret, widow of William de Ferrers, earl of Derby. (fn. 159) Through her younger son Sir William Ferrers of Groby (d. 1298) it descended to the lords Ferrers of Groby and their successors the Greys, eventually marquesses of Dorset. (fn. 160) Their mesne lordship was regularly recorded until after 1500. (fn. 161) From 1547 the manor was supposedly held of the Crown in chief as ¼ fee. (fn. 162)
Reginald, probably son of a Henry, of Trumpington, lord of the manor before 1200, (fn. 163) was succeeded between 1202 and 1206 by his son William. (fn. 164) William's Cambridgeshire lands, sequestrated for rebellion, were restored in 1217. His son Everard of Trumpington had inherited them by 1219 (fn. 165) and held them until after 1242. (fn. 166) He was often in the Quincys' service. (fn. 167) The manor descended to his son Roger by 1260, (fn. 168) and was plundered by the Montfortians in 1264. (fn. 169) Roger of Trumpington, a crusader in 1270, was knighted by 1280. (fn. 170) At his death in 1289 he held in demesne 300 a. which passed to his son Giles, newly of age (fn. 171) and knighted by 1303. (fn. 172) When he died shortly after 1327, (fn. 173) his heir was his son Roger's son Giles (b. c. 1312). (fn. 174) Sir Giles's second wife Isabel still occupied the manor house for life in 1340. (fn. 175) The younger Giles was dead by 1345, when the manor was held by his brother Roger, (fn. 176) knighted by 1347, (fn. 177) (d. 1368). Sir Roger's son and heir Roger Trumpington, (fn. 178) who removed the family seat to Bedfordshire, (fn. 179) died in 1378, leaving an infant son Roger, (fn. 180) of age c. 1400 and knighted by 1406. (fn. 181) He died in 1415 when his son Walter was five. Sir Roger's widow Margaret retained a life interest in the manor, (fn. 182) marrying secondly Sir Thomas Stawell (d. 1438), (fn. 183) until her death in 1453, whereupon Sir Walter Trumpington succeeded to it. (fn. 184) In 1457 he settled it on Maud, widow of John Enderby of Stratton (Beds.). Maud's son Richard was to marry Sir Walter's daughter Eleanor, his heir at his death in 1479. (fn. 185) Sir Richard Enderby died in 1487. (fn. 186) Eleanor next married Sir Edmund Lucy. At her death in 1510 she held Trumpington for life by grant of her son John Enderby (d. 1508). His heir, his daughter Eleanor (b. c. 1500), then Lucy's ward, (fn. 187) married after 1515 (fn. 188) Francis Pigot. In 1545 they sold Trumpington to Edward Pychard or Pitcher. (fn. 189)
Pychard, whose family had been recorded there since 1400, (fn. 190) and who already owned 85 a., besides holding the rectory lease, in 1542, (fn. 191) died in 1547 leaving the manor for life to his second wife Eleanor. His son Thomas, then aged 12, (fn. 192) died in 1577. He too left it for life to his wife Frances, his son William being only ten. (fn. 193) William died in 1614. His elder son William (d. under age 1615) was succeeded by his brother Thomas, then aged 14. (fn. 194) At his death in 1655 Thomas devised his lands to his wife Mary during the minority of his son Thomas. (fn. 195) By 1657 she had married James Whitelocke, a Cromwellian knight (d. 1701). (fn. 196) Pychard's son apparently died young. In 1676 the heirs male Thomas and John Pitcher sold the reversion to Sir Francis Pemberton, serjeant-at-law, a chief justice 1681–3, who died in 1697. (fn. 197) His son Francis obtained possession only on Lady Whitelocke's death in 1715 (fn. 198) and died in 1762. (fn. 199) His Trumpington estate was inherited by his third son, the Revd. Jeremy Pemberton (d. 1800), whose heir was his second son Francis William's son Francis Charles James. (fn. 200) F. C. J. Pemberton (d. 1849) had as heir a daughter Frances Maria Sophia (d. 1899). She married successively Capt. W. H. Campbell (d. 1847), father of her daughter and heir Patricia Frances Sophia (d. 1927), and in 1855 her cousin H. W. Hodges (d. 1900). Patricia married Canon T. P. Hudson (d. 1921), by whom she had her heir Violet Patricia Sophia (d. 1972), who married W. W. Wingate (d. 1943). Each successive heiress's husband took the name and arms of Pemberton for himself and his issue. Violet Pemberton was succeeded by her son Francis William Wingate Pemberton, knighted in 1976. (fn. 201) In 1980 he still owned over 1,000 a. of the ancient parish. (fn. 202)
The Trumpingtons' manor house, recorded from the 1280s, (fn. 203) probably occupied the site of the present Trumpington Hall to the west of the village. The existing house, (fn. 204) of reddish-grey brick, may be in part a recasing of an H-plan house of c. 1600: a cross wing of that period, containing some early 17th-century panelling, survives inside the north end. Part of a carved wooden fireplace, bearing the Pychard arms, is preserved at the Hall, and panelling of that period also survives, reset, in the 'justice room' in the south wing. The house had 16 hearths in the 1660s. (fn. 205) Francis Pemberton reconstructed it between 1715 and the 1730s. (fn. 206) As then rebuilt, with the space between the rear wings filled in, the Hall had a seven-bay, two-storey east front with segmentheaded windows and two projecting 2-bay wings to left and right. A balustraded staircase and fireplaces and panelling of the early 18th century survive inside. The mostly small rooms in the east side of the central block were perhaps constructed inside the hall wing of the earlier house. To the north-east stands an 8-bay range of early 18th-century stables. Left vacant for a time after 1800 the Hall was remodelled in the late 1820s. It received a third storey with a low-pitched, slated roof. The east front was given a pilastered doorway in stucco and three new windows to the south of it. A large library was added on the north-west in 1905, and a projecting block, including new kitchens with a loggia, on the garden front in the 1920s. In 1947 the house was partly converted into flats. The extensive park around the Hall was created by adding to the 6-a. garden of 1800 c. 40 a. of pasture closes to the west and over 20 a. at and east of Dagling End. An avenue of trees already led from a lodge on the main street across Camping Close to the 18th-century gatepiers of the forecourt. (fn. 207) West of the house the park contains old fishponds. (fn. 208)
By 1086 2¾ hides held in 1066 by King Edward's thegn Horulf had come to Picot the sheriff, of whom they were held by Hervey. (fn. 209) From Picot's successor Pain Peverel lordship over that manor, later CROUCHMANS or HUNTINGDONS, (fn. 210) passed to his eventual coheir Asceline, wife of Geoffrey de Waterville (d. 1162), (fn. 211) and her descendants. Asceline's grandson Hugh de Dive was posthumously named as lord over one knight's fee in 1242, (fn. 212) and Hugh's son-in-law Richard Mucegros likewise in 1279. Sir Baldwin St. George was then mesne lord of that fee under him, (fn. 213) as were Baldwin's son and grandson, both Williams, in 1302 and 1346, (fn. 214) and their descendant Thomas St. George (d. 1540) in 1499. (fn. 215) From the 1540s Huntingdons was usually said to be held of the lords of De la Poles and Trumpington manors. (fn. 216) The Chaplyns and Barons included its name in their conveyances, (fn. 217) and claimed leet jurisdiction and exercised wardship over it. (fn. 218)
Henry of Trumpington, who sold 33 a. in 1228, (fn. 219) held the Peverel fee in 1235 and died after 1242. (fn. 220) His successor Walter of Trumpington was dead by 1264. (fn. 221) Walter's son John held the manor in 1279. In 1272 he had settled 100 a. on his marriage to Mabel, daughter of Sir Ralph de Beaufu of Rutland. (fn. 222) By 1290 John had resigned the manor to their son William, (fn. 223) who by 1302 was known as Beaufu. (fn. 224) William died between 1316 and 1327, when the manor was probably leased from his widow Sarah by William Crouchman, (fn. 225) who bought it from Beaufu's son Roger in 1336. (fn. 226) Crouchman had also by 1320 (fn. 227) succeeded his ancestor and namesake in over 80 a. there, acquired in 1275, which the elder William Crouchman had mostly held in 1279 of Trumpington manor. (fn. 228) Sir William Crouchman, knighted c. 1336, (fn. 229) probably died in 1349, the namesake who died in 1351 being presumably his son and heir. That William had two sons, (fn. 230) John, who died under age in 1367, leaving a son William (d. young), (fn. 231) and William, who was John's heir when he died, also under age, in 1371. That William's heirs were his two daughters. Mary, then aged five, had been married to the London grocer John Winslow by 1375 when her sister Elizabeth's husband Ralph Huntingdon released the Trumpington manor to Winslow, (fn. 232) who probably survived until 1406. (fn. 233) Mary thereafter married Thomas Holgill. She was dead by 1420. (fn. 234) Her son William Winslow, said to be of age in 1409, died c. 1419 and William's daughter and heir Joan in 1426 under age. The heir was Elizabeth's grandson Walter Huntingdon of Sawston, (fn. 235) who held the manor in 1428. (fn. 236) He died in 1448, when his son Thomas was seven. (fn. 237) Thomas died in 1498, leaving as heirs two daughters. His Trumpington property passed to Margaret, wife of John Parys of Linton (d. 1517). John's son Philip (fn. 238) sold it in 1540 to William Bowyer, alderman of London. (fn. 239)
Sir William Bowyer died as mayor of London in 1544. He devised Huntingdons in tail to his eldest illegitimate son John Bowyer alias Turner. (fn. 240) In 1561 John mortgaged it to William Barne of Milton (d. 1562), who devised 'Bowyers' manor, unless redeemed, to his younger son Robert, a minor. (fn. 241) From Robert Barne it passed to Thomas Gardiner, a London goldsmith. (fn. 242) In 1571 he forfeited it to the Crown for his peculation as teller of the Exchequer, and the queen granted it to Thomas Handford and others. (fn. 243) In 1595, however, William Bowyer, probably a younger brother of John Bowyer, sold it to Henry Fleetwood, (fn. 244) who in 1598 resold it to Edmund Bacchus or Backhouse. (fn. 245) Bacchus died in 1609, and his son and heir Bartholomew (fn. 246) in 1627. Wardship of the latter's son John, just under age, was claimed by John Baron. (fn. 247) In 1637 John Bacchus sold Huntingdons to James Thompson. (fn. 248)
Thompson's father Anthony, a Cambridge tailor, had attempted to buy De la Poles in 1615, (fn. 249) and before his death c. 1620 held the beneficial rectory lease. (fn. 250) James retained the rectory lease until c. 1666, (fn. 251) and at his death in 1670 left his manor for life to his widow Sarah (d. 1677) and thereafter to his eldest son Anthony (fn. 252) (d. 1721). (fn. 253) In 1708 Anthony gave up the land to his son James upon his marriage. (fn. 254) James died in 1722. (fn. 255) His two sons both died without issue, Porter Thompson in 1741, James in 1743. (fn. 256) The latter devised the estate for life to a clerical crony, John Dowsing. The will was contested by the heir at law, Anthony Thompson's daughter Mary, and her husband, Dr. Christopher Anstey of Brinkley; (fn. 257) they bought out Dowsing's claims in 1748. (fn. 258) Dr. Anstey died in 1751. (fn. 259) His son and heir Christopher, author of the humorous New Bath Guide, retired to Bath c. 1770 and died there in 1805. (fn. 260) Christopher's son and heir, Christopher, died in 1827, whereupon the estate passed to his brother John's son Christopher John, (fn. 261) who in 1838 sold it to the Cambridge banker Ebenezer Foster (fn. 262) (d. 1851). Foster's Anstey Hall estate passed successively to his younger son Charles Finch Foster (d. s.p. 1866), his elder son George Ebenezer (d. 1870), and the latter's sons, Ebenezer Bird Foster (d. s.p. 1908) and Charles Finch Foster. (fn. 263) Charles's son George Ralph Cunliffe Foster owned it, living at Anstey Hall, from 1912 to his death in 1936. His heir, P. G. C. Foster, (fn. 264) sold the land to his tenant, Mr. Parsons, who in 1950 resold it to the Ministry of Agriculture for the Plant Breeding Research Institute (fn. 265).
The manor house, which occupied a 3-a. close in 1279, (fn. 266) probably stood like its successors slightly south-east of the church. It was rebuilt by Edmund Bacchus (d. 1609) (fn. 267) and had 10 hearths in the 1660s. (fn. 268) The hall, parlour, and great chamber mentioned in 1609 (fn. 269) were perhaps the hall and great and little parlours, recorded with a study, kitchen and other offices, and upstairs c. 8 chambers, in 1675. (fn. 270) The Bacchuses' house, probably preserved as the core of the later Anstey Hall, (fn. 271) had apparently a central range, and two wings to the south, both with highpitched roofs. Corner turrets for porch and staircase occupied the angles of the south courtyard. Towards the south side an avenue of ashtrees ran from a western gateway. Anthony Thompson reconstructed the house c. 1685, (fn. 272) recasing it in red brick. The elaborate new north front of nine bays has heavy quoins, a cornice, and window frames of stone. Steps in the centre lead up to a pedimented doorway between two closely set giant attached Ionic columns. They support a pediment, containing a cartouche with the Thompson arms, and a raised attic. The hipped roof has six dormers. Inside much late 17thcentury panelling and fireplaces survived in the 1950s. Earlier beams and panelling in one room perhaps survived from the Bacchuses' time. By 1695 Anthony Thompson had laid out a large new garden to the south. (fn. 273) Its brick walls partly survived in 1980. The Ansteys did not live there after the 1770s, but regularly let the Hall with 85 a., from the 1790s to c. 1805 to Nathaniel Wedd, (fn. 274) between 1814 and 1836 to John Hemington of Denny Abbey. (fn. 275) The Fosters resided from the 1840s. In the 1860s they built to the east a large range of redbrick stabling, and beside the road a small house with ornate Ruskinian Gothic details. (fn. 276) Later the Hall itself was extended eastward by three bays to a design matching that of 1685. In 1909 a large one-storey room was inserted in the south courtyard, and the interior was rearranged to make a new hall and library. Requisitioned from 1941, the Hall was sold by P. G. C. Foster to the government. (fn. 277) and its partly derelict interior was converted to offices. Slightly to the west, beyond the church, Anstey Hall Farm is a timber framed house of half-H-plan, basically 17thcentury, with later western extensions. Its farm buildings included two barns and a dovecot of c. 1700. (fn. 278)
Another 23/8 hide held by Horulf in 1066 belonged in 1086 to Eustace, count of Boulogne. (fn. 279) That fee was recorded as held of the honor of Boulogne until the mid 14th entury. (fn. 280) From Arnulf of Ardres, tenant under Eustace in 1086 (fn. 281) (d. c. 1137), the manor descended, after his sons Arnulf and Baldwin had died without issue by 1147, through his daughter Adeline by the 1170s to her daughter Christine, wife of Baldwin, count of Guisnes. (fn. 282) In 1200 Count Baldwin gave his rights there by exchange to William Marshal, earl of Pembroke (d. 1219). (fn. 283) The two manors, each held for ¼ knight's fee, into which the Boulogne fee was divided by the 1230s, (fn. 284) were by 1279, despite a contrary arrangement in 1249, held of William de Valence, a Marshal coheir. (fn. 285) His rights at Trumpington probably passed until c. 1450 with Grendons manor in Great Shelford. (fn. 286) Following a royal grant of 1486 one manor, ARNOLDS, was held of the Crown as 1/40 fee. (fn. 287) The other, TINCOTES, was supposed by the 1520s to be held of De la Poles. (fn. 288)
By 1232 Arnolds was held by Alan of Hyde, (fn. 289) perhaps by gift of Earl William Marshal (d. 1231) whose steward he had been. (fn. 290) Alan died c. 1240. (fn. 291) Probably by 1260 (fn. 292) that manor belonged to John Arnold, tenant in 1279. (fn. 293) In 1284 and 1294 he settled on himself and his wife Agnes for life, c. 90 a. there, (fn. 294) partly held in 1291 under Sir Hugh de Brok. (fn. 295) That John was perhaps still tenant in 1302, (fn. 296) but it was presumably a namesake who in 1327 settled 100 a. on himself and his wife Agnes, sole tenant in 1346. (fn. 297) The next recorded owner, Joan, widow of John Hosterle, died in 1393, holding 50 a. of De la Poles, 50 a. of Crouchmans, and other land of Tincotes. Her then heir, John, son of her daughter Margaret by the London alderman Sir Adam Fraunceys (d. 1417), died c. 1396, and his younger brother and heir Nicholas soon after. The heirs were their sisters Agnes and Elizabeth. Arnolds went to Agnes, (fn. 298) who married by 1395 a London grocer, Sir William Staundon, mayor 1392–3 (fn. 299) (d. 1410), (fn. 300) and c. 1411 Sir William Porter, (fn. 301) lord in 1428, (fn. 302) (d. 1436). (fn. 303) Upon Agnes's death in 1461 Elizabeth's son Sir Thomas Charlton, (fn. 304) Speaker 1453–4 (fn. 305) (d. 1465), inherited Arnolds. He settled it in 1462 in trust for his son Richard, (fn. 306) of age in 1470, knighted by 1476, (fn. 307) and killed at Bosworth in 1485 on Richard III's side. Following his attainder (fn. 308) Henry VII granted Arnolds, styled a third of Trumpington manor, to his supporter Sir John Fortescue in tail male. (fn. 309)
After Sir John's death in 1500 it descended successively to his son John (fn. 310) (d. 1517), to John's son Henry, (fn. 311) of age in 1538, (d. 1576), to Henry's son Francis (fn. 312) (d. 1588), to Francis's son Edmund (fn. 313) (d. 1596), and to Edmund's son John, then aged 11½. (fn. 314) In 1613 Arnolds was occupied by one George Fisher. (fn. 315) It was sold, perhaps by the Fortescues, to Thomas Lock. (fn. 316) In 1636 Lock's widow Anne and son James sold it to Dr. Thomas Eden, (fn. 317) master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, from 1626. He died in 1645, (fn. 318) having devised his lands to his brother Philip's son Thomas, (fn. 319) still owner c. 1660. (fn. 320) By 1680 the manor had been acquired by Sir Francis Pemberton, (fn. 321) in whose family it descended thereafter. (fn. 322) The site of the manor house is unknown.
The other ¼ fee held of the honor of Boulogne, later Tincotes, was acquired from Richard de la Bere by Stephen de Evreux (d. 1228) of Herefordshire, another servant of the earls Marshal. (fn. 323) Stephen's widow Isabel possessed it in 1233, (fn. 324) his son William, newly of age, by 1235. (fn. 325) William fell at Evesham in 1265. (fn. 326) Between 1267 and 1275 his widow Maud granted that manor to Stephen of Hauxton for an annuity. Stephen's widow Avice was tenant in 1279. (fn. 327) From their son Herbert of Hauxton, tenant in 1302, (fn. 328) it passed to another Avice, probably his daughter. She married Hugh of Tickencote, lord in 1327, and held it as a widow in 1346. (fn. 329) In 1349 she settled the reversion after her death on William of Soham and his wife Agnes, perhaps her daughter. (fn. 330) By 1369 Tincotes had probably passed from Thomas Morys of Cambridge to his son John. (fn. 331) Nicholas Morys had much land at Trumpington in 1412. (fn. 332) John Morys of Trumpington (fl. 1430–50) (fn. 333) was succeeded by his son John, of Glapthorn (Northants.), (fn. 334) who in 1490 released Tincotes to feoffees for Edmund Denny (fn. 335) (d. 1520), a baron of the Exchequer from 1513. (fn. 336) Denny's elder son and heir Thomas (fn. 337) died c. 1527, leaving a son John, (fn. 338) who apparently died under age c. 1544. (fn. 339) In 1543 John's uncle Anthony Denny arranged to grant Tincotes, by parliamentary exchange, to his 'brother' Robert Dacres (d. 1543). Robert's son George, of age in 1554, held Tincotes from 1544, nominally of the Crown as 1/20 fee. (fn. 340) George died in 1580, having devised Tincotes in tail male to his second son Arthur, after whose death without issue in 1587 it passed to George's younger sons Walter and Robert. (fn. 341) In 1606 the Dacres brothers sold it to William Pychard (d. 1614), (fn. 342) whose son Thomas settled it in 1652. (fn. 343) In 1667 another Thomas Pychard sold the reversion to Anthony Thompson, (fn. 344) whose family eventually took possession in 1715. (fn. 345) In 1800 the site of the manor house was said to have been a 7-a. close, just south of the Grantchester road near the river. (fn. 346)
Half a hide held in 1066 by a sokeman under Earl Waltheof, and in 1086 by Godlamb of the earl's widow Judith, (fn. 347) has not been traced later. An estate said c. 1340 to be held of the earldom of Norfolk as ½ fee (fn. 348) was held in the 1250s by William de Bussey, a steward of William de Valence, in prison c. 1260. (fn. 349) In 1264 Bussey's daughter and heir Alice released a windmill and 73 a. to the rector, Alan of Rokeland. (fn. 350) The estate was not recorded in 1279.
In the Middle Ages at least half the farmland belonged to the four or five manorial demesnes. In 1086 those comprised 6½ of the 13½ ploughlands, two on the Cailly manor, 1½ each on the Boulogne and Fafiton fees, and one on Picot's. They were fully equipped with ploughteams, as were the 19 villani occupying c. 7 other ploughlands. There were also 14 smallholding bordars and cottars. Perhaps because the village lay on a main road its total yield had been reduced from £24 in 1066 to £17 when the Norman lords took over, and had hardly risen by 1086. (fn. 351)
In the late 13th century (fn. 352) the demesnes, despite 72 a. having been granted from one manor in free alms, covered over half the 1,400 a. of arable. Simon de Cailly had 156 a., (fn. 353) and Roger of Trumpington 280 a., besides 24 a. held of the Caillys. (fn. 354) The Peverel fee included 100 a., to which were added after 1336 the Crouchmans' 80 a. of freehold. Of the two Boulogne fees Arnolds had 95–100 a., (fn. 355) probably besides 50 a. held in 1279 of other manors, and Tincotes later 120 a. (fn. 356) Those manors also included 85 a. of meadow. The remaining land was mostly held freely: on the Cailly manor the successors of the 9 villani of 1086 had all retained or recovered their freedom, the 4 villein smallholders of 1279 being presumably heirs to the 4 bordars of 1086. Of c. 480 a. of freehold (fn. 357) outside the manorial and church estates c. 315 a. belonged in 1279 to eight substantial freeholders with 30 a. or more each : one Roger de Cauz, upon whom a kinsman settled 27 a. in 1279, acquired 100 a. more between 1293 and 1303. (fn. 358) Seven others with c. 14 a. each had 100 a. in all in 1279, when another 25 small freeholders, owning 10 a. or less, but mostly only their messuages and crofts, had 65 a. altogether.
The 150 a. held in villeinage was also mostly divided among smallholders. There were only three villein half-yardlanders ; 37 others, mostly with 5 a. or less, shared 107 a. On one manor 11 out of 14 villeins had 2 a. or less each, and there were 16 cottagers. The villeins owed little labour to their lords. On Arnolds all were already paying only rent in 1279. On the other four manors no weekwork was due. Apart from making malt, hoeing and carting manure for a day or two, and on Tincotes ploughing 3½ a., the main services were in harvest, haymaking, threshing, and two or three harvest boons, each bringing up to three men to reap. On the Cailly and Boulogne fees villeins also owed heriots, merchet, and leyrwite.
In the late 14th century (fn. 359) the men holding seven 7½-a. quarter-yardlands on De la Poles manor (not recorded in 1279), were still hoeing and malting barley, a service occasionally commuted for maltsilver. In harvest they each brought seven men to one day's boon work, enough to reap 20–22 a. Occasionally, as in 1373 and 1411, up to 24 villagers brought their own ploughs to plough for one day, simply in return for a meal. The cost of the harvesters' dinner, however, was disallowed in 1373 as not customary. The tenants also proved reluctant to do their services. About 1390 two threw up their holdings, and from 1410 all those 7½-a. tenements were finally let out at rents of 11s. each for life terms. In the early 16th century several were still held as copyhold of De la Poles, (fn. 360) but its courts were later concerned mostly with freeholds. (fn. 361) At inclosure the only copyhold left, besides ten cottages, was 14 a. held of Arnolds and 6 a. of Trumpington manor. (fn. 362)
The lords of De la Poles still cultivated their demesne until the early 15th century. (fn. 363) Only c. 20 a. of arable was let out yearly, in small parcels, to sow with barley, until the 1410s. The permanent staff working the manor farm included a salaried bailiff, four ploughmen, occasionally reduced for economy as in the 1380s to three, a carter, a shepherd, and occasionally a pigman. For harvesting the lord relied mainly on hired labourers doing task-work. The pay of the staff steadily increased, a ploughman's yearly wages rising from 5s. in 1364 to 10s. by the 1380s and 13s. 4d. in the 1410s. The quality of their liveries in corn, 5 qr. each yearly, also improved as wheat replaced maslin: by the 1410s they absorbed nearly a third of the wheat crop. The cost of harvesting also doubled from £4–£5 in the 1380s to £8–£9 in the 1410s. So before 1390 the lord's real income from the manor came mainly from freehold assize rents, c. 7 marks, and leasing out demesne arable and meadow, for up to £3 yearly. On farming he made sometimes a small profit of £1–£5, sometimes a net loss in cash; a surplus in kind delivered to his household was rare. After 1400 the De la Poles by taking in customary and wardship land expanded the area sown annually from c. 100–110 a. to 170– 180 a. Despite higher costs, in the 1410s their farming brought in yearly a net profit averaging £20, nearly equal to the sum spent to produce it, mainly from sales of barley. The Chaplyns similarly offered much barley for sale at Cambridge in the 1580s. (fn. 364)
The arable (fn. 365) was divided by the 14th century, and probably by the mid 13th, into three main sections. North of the village the field toward Cambridge, c. 1580 called High fen field and by 1615 (fn. 366) Cambridge field, probably covering c. 380 a., lay west of the Cambridge road. At its north end was the White moor, so named by 1200, some land near which was kept as leys c. 1600. To the west along the river was a line of meadows stretching from High fen, recorded c. 1390, in the north, to Willow mead, mentioned in 1225, and Grantchester meadow, recorded in 1364, near the village. In the south-west the field towards Hauxton, after 1600 styled Hauxton, Church, or Hauxton Mill (fn. 367) field, covered up to 350 a. north of the road to Hauxton Mill and c. 60 a. across that road bordering Great Shelford. By its south-western extremity near the mill lay commons called by 1225 the Broad and Little moors. In the 1380s those two arable fields were each a single unit in the triennial rotation then in force. The third block comprised the remaining arable to the east. The long, narrow Moor field ran parallel to the Cambridge road as far as the Moorway leading to Great Shelford. Southcroft, c. 130 a., south-west of that road, belonged to the same rotation in the 1380s. East of Moor field the Moor, a pasture partly intercommonable with Great Shelford, occupied by 1279 (fn. 368) the low ground along Hobson's brook. The higher land beyond comprised further arable, c. 180 a. in 1794, and was divided by the 13th century into the Great and Little Kinetun, (fn. 369) later Kneighton, near the Hills Road, and Foulden Hill to the south-west. In the 1790s the parish was supposed to contain c. 1,400 a. of arable, 200 a. of meadow, and 100 a. of closes. The actual area involved in each rotation was, however, probably c. 350–360 a. (fn. 370) By 1800, also, parts of the fields, including c. 33 a. of the Ansteys' estate, were kept permanently fenced in. (fn. 371)
Barley was the main crop from the 13th century. Of 70 qr. of corn plundered from one demesne in 1264 over 50 qr. were barley. (fn. 372) In the late 14th century the De la Poles demesne usually grew c. 35–40 a. of wheat and maslin, or before 1370 rye, but 60 a. of barley and dredge. In the 1410s the cropping included on average 40 a. of wheat and 4–5 a. of rye, but c. 115–130 a. of barley: 10–12 a. of pulses were sown on the fallow. (fn. 373) Yeomen and manorial lessees raised similar crops later. One man bequeathed 43 qr. of barley in 1525. (fn. 374) Richard Selby, farmer of De la Poles, left 130 qr. of it in 1548, besides rye for the poor. (fn. 375) Saffron was grown by the 1530s (fn. 376) in fenced-off plots in the fields. About 1535 men were forbidden to take in headlands into such temporary inclosures. (fn. 377) In the winter of 1670 the crops harvested on Huntingdons manor farm included two mows of rye, but over three of barley, besides 40 qr. already malted. (fn. 378) The traditional rotation was still in use just before inclosure. In 1801 the winter sowing included 269 a. of wheat and 76 a. of rye, the spring one 279 a. of barley and 77 a. of oats. The 87 a. of peas and 70 a. of turnips then growing were probably on the fallow. (fn. 379) Clover and trefoil were also then being grown. (fn. 380) The Moor was then said to lie in three shifts with the three fields. (fn. 381) One manor had a small vineyard in 1289, (fn. 382) and another an orchard of Warden pears in the 1410s. (fn. 383)
The extensive grassland long permitted many sheep to be kept: in 1086 there were c. 165 on three manors. (fn. 384) Later the three larger manors each claimed sheep walk and foldage for 400: the Boulogne fee's fold was equally divided between Arnolds and Tincotes, each having one for 200 sheep. (fn. 385) In 1292 William Crouchman was violently at odds with the Caillys and other villagers over his establishing a fold of his own. (fn. 386) The manorial entitlements were not always fully used. In the 1380s De la Poles had a flock of only 40–50, and when in the 1410s its shepherd was by contract pasturing 300, he perhaps took in other men's animals. (fn. 387) Richard Selby left 50 sheep in 1548. (fn. 388) In 1558 Richard Baron, lessee of Arnolds, however, kept 200, including 120 ewes with lambs. (fn. 389)
By then the commons were perhaps beginning to be overcharged. About 1550 villagers were forbidden to take in strangers' sheep, and the size of flocks was limited to 300. (fn. 390) In 1587 two searchers were appointed to count the sheep. (fn. 391) From the 1590s there were complaints that, despite the bylaws, the flocks of three manors were feeding on the straw field before the set day, (fn. 392) and John Chaplyn and William Pychard were in dispute over their right to license pasturage for cows on the common moor. (fn. 393) In the mid 17th century the Kilbornes, the last large independent freeholders, were often accused of keeping too many sheep and seeking to set up an unauthorized fold. (fn. 394) In 1700 and 1709 the manorial lords and farmers, perhaps following earlier practice, agreed to keep their full entitlement of sheep only from 1 August to 1 November, reducing it by a fifth thereafter, and from 1709 by 3/10 during the winter. (fn. 395) In the 1790s 1,200 sheep were kept: in 1794 most had rot. (fn. 396) At inclosure the Pembertons' largest farm carried 280 West Country sheep. (fn. 397) F. C. J. Pemberton, however, claimed four sheepwalks for 1,000 sheep altogether, and the Ansteys two for 720. (fn. 398)
The sheep were regularly excluded from the stubble until 15 September, to let the cattle graze it first. (fn. 399) On De la Poles in the late 14th century, besides the draught horses and oxen few milking cattle were kept, which were usually farmed out by the year. (fn. 400) Cattle also were stinted from the late 16th century. (fn. 401) In 1552 the number of bullocks under three years old in the common herd was limited to 60, of which three men could keep 13 each, two 7, and four 2. (fn. 402) Byherds were formally prohibited in 1641, as was feeding cattle on balks in the sown fields after 25 March, and mowing balks. (fn. 403) Poor villagers were, however, each permitted to cut 2 sackfuls (8 bushels) of hay on the balks between 10 May and Midsummer. (fn. 404) In the 1790s men were still forbidden to keep more stock in summer than they could afford to feed in winter. (fn. 405) By then most animals belonged to the larger farms. In 1670 Huntingdons manor farm had carried, besides 120 sheep, 16 oxen, 7 milking cows, and a bull. (fn. 406) The stints for the 62 bullocks all belonged to the manors in 1701 : the Whitelockes had 24, the other four 10– 14 each. (fn. 407) Of 75–80 cattle kept in the 1770s, including 16 for milk, nearly 60 were on the five largest farms. (fn. 408) Turkeys were also kept on the common in the 1790s. (fn. 409)
From the 16th century the agricultural population was increasingly polarized between a few substantial farmers, occupying the leased demesnes, and numerous labourers. In 1524 8 men, including several lessees, taxed on £8 to £20, had £110 of the £150 of goods assessed, the rest being shared among 10 taxed on £2–£6, while 32 labourers paid only on their wages. (fn. 410) Richard Baron, whose father William had been lessee of Arnolds from 1539, left that lease to his son William in 1558, when he bequeathed £420 among his family. (fn. 411) The arable was increasingly concentrated into the demesne farms. About 1580, when one, part of De la Poles, had 120 a., with 16 a. of meadow, over three quarters of the adjoining arable strips belonged to manors or ex-ecclesiastical estates, and there were apparently only three other substantial landholders. (fn. 412) In 1615 De la Poles comprised two farms, respectively of 195 a. and 28 a., and 90 a. and 10 a., of arable and meadow. The latter was then mortgaged to John Baron, (fn. 413) who had recently bought one of two 50–a. freeholds still independent in 1580. (fn. 414) The other belonged to the Kilbornes, recorded there from the 1520s. (fn. 415) Likewise, William Pychard had before his death in 1614 added to his manorial land over 250 a., including the Hatchers' 120 a. and Stokton farm, 100 a., (fn. 416) owned until 1599 by the Clarkes. (fn. 417) The Kilborne farm remained independent until the 1660s, (fn. 418) but was probably acquired by Sir Francis Pemberton by 1680. (fn. 419) In the 1660s while nine or ten gentry and farmers had houses with five hearths or more, another 46 houses, belonging probably to labourers, had only one or two hearths. (fn. 420)
In 1720 there were probably only five large farmers, including John Hailes, lessee of the later Anstey Hall estate until the late 1750s; (fn. 421) and at inclosure there were still only five farmsteads from which tillage could be undertaken. (fn. 422) By the late 18th century (fn. 423) the parish was almost all owned by the Pembertons and Ansteys. In 1800 the Pembertons claimed, besides their rectory lease, 81 a. of old inclosures, 1,185 a. of arable, and c. 130 a. of several grass. By the 1780s their estate was divided into four farms, one of 380 a., two of c. 368 a., one of 265 a., which remained in the same three families until the 1810s. The Ansteys had in 1800 c. 70 a. of grass and c. 330 a. of arable, of which 57 a. and 268 a. were leased to the Humphreys family from the 1770s to 1815. (fn. 424) F. C. J. Pemberton procured an inclosure Act in 1801, (fn. 425) with the reluctant acquiescence of Trinity College, (fn. 426) and of the Ansteys, whose claims to an allotment for manorial rights were overruled. (fn. 427) The land was divided after the 1802 harvest, (fn. 428) but the award was delayed until 1809. (fn. 429) The area involved included 2,062 a. of open fields and wastes, and 152 a. of old inclosures, of which Pemberton had 94 a. and the Ansteys 26 a. About 106 a. were shared by the vicar and parish and some Cambridge colleges. Pemberton was allotted 1,163 a. in his own right and 268 a. more as rectorial lessee. The Ansteys' share came to 378 a. The next largest lay owners, the Harradines, the village blacksmiths since the 1760s, had only 15a., and other smallholders shared 18½ a., of which two thirds was solely for common rights. (fn. 430)
The parish continued to be divided into a few large farms from the inclosure to the 1930s. (fn. 431) Anstey Hall farm, c. 390 a. after 1815, (fn. 432) was occupied from the 1840s to the 1870s by the Tollers and then, until the 1920s, by the Parsonses. Of the Pembertons' 1,509 a. most was divided c. 1803 into four farms of 317 a., 245 a., 224 a., and 213 a., besides Great Tithe farm, 246 a., created from the Trinity College land north of the Long road. For the latter, whose first tenant was the college's inclosure commissioner, (fn. 433) no farmhouse was built, but only a farmstead c. 1805, with brick from a kiln specially erected nearby. (fn. 434) The Pembertons ceased to lease it from the college in the 1860s. (fn. 435) The other Pemberton farms comprised from the 1840s Blackland, later River, farm, 307 a., in the far north; Manor farm, 291 a., around the village; Church farm, 350–400 a., also called Maris farm after the family, three generations of which farmed it from the 1770s to the 1860s; and Clay farm, 400 a. to the east c. 1850, 213 a. in 1901, sometimes combined with Church farm. In the 1920s there were six large holdings of over 100 a., and eight smaller ones, half of under 20 a. (fn. 436)
About 1802 there were said to be 120 cattle and 1,600 sheep; (fn. 437) one farmer was keeping Leicestershire sheep, another West Country ones by 1807, when the rents were said to have improved by 40 per cent. (fn. 438) A threshing machine was in use in 1808 on Anstey Hall farm, (fn. 439) where over 300 sheep and 22 milking cattle were kept in 1815. (fn. 440) In 1820 one farmer was awarded a prize for having the best cultivated farm in the county. (fn. 441) The four-course rotation was in regular use by the 1830s, although much of the moorland in the east was still grassland for sheep: (fn. 442) in 1834 there were c. 1,600 a. of arable and 438 a. of grass. (fn. 443) The area under grass, reduced to 336 a. by 1866, rose again to c. 400 a. from the 1880s. In the late 19th century nearly 1,100 sheep were kept, in 1905 c. 360, and almost 500 as late as the 1920s. About 1900 c. 230–260 cattle, a third of them for milk, were kept. The area under cereals fell from 876 a., mostly wheat and barley, in 1866 to c. 750 a. in 1885, but recovered later as more oats were grown. Almost 200 a. of cabbages were grown in 1866, nearly 100 a. still in 1885 and 1905. Sugar beet and mustard were also grown from the 1920s. (fn. 444)
In the early 1830s there were 80–90 adult labourers, and 30 or more under 20, nearly all in employment. (fn. 445) The number of adult labourers rose to over 100 by 1851, but was reduced by emigration to c. 80, besides 35–40 boys, in 1861 when the four largest farms were employing 98 men and 34 boys. (fn. 446) The number regularly working on the farms had fallen to 46 by 1871, when 50 men, 30 of them born in the parish, were engaged in coprolite digging. (fn. 447) They went back to the farms for the harvest. The digging, which had begun by 1863, occupied 130 men on the Pemberton estate in 1872, (fn. 448) but was declining in the late 1870s. (fn. 449) The labourers' women did much laundry work, presumably at Cambridge: 42 were engaged in it in 1851, c. 63 in the 1860s. (fn. 450) Besides the parish charity land, let in half-rood allotments by the 1830s, (fn. 451) the vicar let 15 a. of his glebe by the 1870s and the Pembertons 11 a. by 1900 for the 7/8 of the population belonging to the labouring class. (fn. 452) There were still 58 farm labourers in 1925. (fn. 453)
Trumpington was perhaps too near Cambridge to retain many specialist craftsmen in modern times. A tailor had, however, been recorded in 1279. (fn. 454) One customary tenant c. 1390 was a ploughwright. (fn. 455) A weaver owned his house and land there in 1649. (fn. 456) A cordwainer was recorded in 1712, and two bricklayers in 1764. (fn. 457) In 1794 the inhabitants included a blacksmith, a carpenter, a mason, two wheelwrights, three tailors, and four shoemakers. (fn. 458) In the early 19th century there were, besides c. 85 families maintained by farming, 15–20, and by 1831 30, supported by trades and crafts. (fn. 459) In the mid 19th century there were usually 3 or 4 tailors, 4 to 6 shoemakers, 1 or 2 wheelwrights, sawyers, and coopers, 2 or 3 blacksmiths, up to 8 carpenters, and in 1851 even a cabinet maker. (fn. 460) The village smithy was still in use in the 1930s, when the last blacksmith had been working there for 50 years. (fn. 461) Most other crafts disappeared after the 1870s, although one bricklayer started a small builder's business which survived into the 1930s, as did one wheelwright's workshop. From the mid 19th century to the 1930s the village had one or two each of butchers, bakers, grocers, and other shops, and from the 1920s a garage. (fn. 462) By the 1970s there was little local economic activity, save for the few engaged in farming. Even the village had become largely a dormitory suburb of Cambridge. Sir Francis Pemberton then built for Bidwells, a Cambridge firm of surveyors and auctioneers, in which he was a principal partner, (fn. 463) an extensive range of offices near the former Church Farm.
In 1086 the Cailly manor included a water mill, (fn. 464) held of it by 1225 by Everard of Trumpington. (fn. 465) It remained in his family for several generations, (fn. 466) and is commonly supposed to be the mill mentioned in Chaucer's Reeve's Tale. (fn. 467) One miller was killed c. 1375, (fn. 468) and another, probably its lessee, was being sued by Sir Walter Trumpington c. 1467. (fn. 469) It was not recorded later. Its probable site, slightly southwest of the village, was marked by the Old Mill Holt beside the river, recorded from the 1630s. (fn. 470) A windmill belonged to the Bussey estate in the 1260s. (fn. 471) In 1831 a tower windmill was built at the west end of the Long Road. From 1841 it belonged to the Moores, who worked it until it closed c. 1900. The boiler for a steam mill added before 1880 blew up in 1882. (fn. 472) By 1930 only the stump was left. (fn. 473) That too had gone by the 1960s, when the site was a telephone exchange.
About 1950 Anstey Hall farm was acquired by the government as the headquarters of the Plant Breeding Research Institute. The area used for its trial croppings was gradually expanded until from 1972 they occupied the whole 410 a. available. The Institute's first buildings near the main road south of the village went up c. 1950. From the late 1960s a range of laboratories, and glasshouses covering by 1980 2½ a., were built further west. In 1980 the Institute employed 280 people. (fn. 474)
In the late 13th century the lords of De la Poles, Trumpington, and Crouchmans manors claimed to have view of frankpledge, subject to the consent or presence of the sheriff's bailiff. The Trumpingtons also held the assize of bread and of ale by the bailiff's view; their court leet only dealt with those men whose amercements they were entitled to take. On the Boulogne fee a gallows and tumbrel were claimed for Tincotes manor. (fn. 475) In 1291 John Arnold still owed suit to William de Valence's leet. The men of that fee had to guard captured thieves, and suffer amercement if they escaped, independently of the rest of the vill, with which however they shared in paying tallage and amercements at the eyre. (fn. 476) In the late 14th century manorial courts were held for De la Poles at most once a year, and after 1400 not always annually. (fn. 477) Its court leet, however, was confirmed by the Crown in 1466. (fn. 478)
In the 16th century it was often treated as the paramount manor. About 1530 its lords received common fines from Huntingdons manor, and claimed suit from the lords of that manor, Trumpington, and Tincotes. (fn. 479) In 1590 John Chaplyn and William Pychard went to law over their opposing claims to view of frankpledge over the whole village: Chaplyn won by Pychard's default. (fn. 480) Court rolls survive for De la Poles, with gaps, longish after 1620, for 1525–52 and 1577–1704. (fn. 481) In the 16th and early 17th centuries that court still frequently named constables and aletasters, and occasionally a hayward. After 1660 its public business, including the making of agricultural regulations, last confirmed by the court in 1704, and appointing parish officers, and from 1667 the common herdman, was taken over by the vestry, (fn. 482) mentioned as the churchwardens and chief men of the vill in 1558. (fn. 483) Courts baron were still held for Trumpington manor in 1607. (fn. 484) The Pembertons held courts, mostly to register copyhold title, for Arnolds manor, for which court books survive for 1764–1939. (fn. 485) In 1791 it re-enacted the farming bylaws for the last time. (fn. 486)
The vestry comprised from the 1660s the resident owners of manors and their principal lessees, six or eight men in all. (fn. 487) In 1667 it ordered the ablebodied poor to gather stones for roadmaking, at 2d. a load, on pain of losing their share of the weekly collection. A town house, (fn. 488) perhaps the three-hearth almshouse recorded in 1664, (fn. 489) was occupied by three women in 1728. (fn. 490) The parish made occasional payments for apprenticeships. (fn. 491) The cost of poor relief, under £10 c. 1685, rose to over £20 by the mid 1690s, and by the 1740s averaged £35–45 yearly. In 1736 the vestry resolved to cut the weekly payment to four widows to 2s. each and pay no more rents for the poor. By the mid 1760s such expenditure was usually over £100 a year, of which half went on the weekly pay, mostly in winter, for widows and other women. In the mid 1770s 7 to 10 workless labourers were thrown on the rates in winter; the parish employed some in ditching in 1779.
From 1780, when over £200 a year were being spent, the parish used the house owned by Whitelocke's charity as a workhouse, at first buying materials to put the inmates to work. The numbers inside fell from 10 in 1783, when 8 widows and 4 children were still relieved outside, to 8 by 1787 and c. 2–4 in the early 1790s. In 1799, when expenditure was c. £350, the workhouse had c. 17 inmates, besides the 16 women on out-relief; but the number of inmates fell again to 12 by 1804, 5 in 1806, and one in 1810. Until after 1810 the overseers spent over £400 a year, of which £240–280 went by then on out-relief, only c. £50 to those in the workhouse. In the late 1810s the parish again maintained 5–7 unemployed men. Thereafter, until the 1830s, poor relief still cost usually over £400 yearly, only occasionally, as in 1820 and 1823–4, dipping to c. £350. (fn. 492) About 1830 the labourers were apportioned among the farmers in proportion to the size of their holdings. Large families received parish assistance but although a few old men were supported by highway work no wages were made up out of the poor rate. (fn. 493) In the 1830s the number of unemployed men chargeable to the parish usually doubled to c. 12 in winter. The former workhouse then contained 2 old women and 5 children, but only one man. (fn. 494)
Trumpington belonged to the Chesterton poor law union from 1836, (fn. 495) and to the Chesterton R.D. from the 1890s until its incorporation into the city of Cambridge in 1934. (fn. 496) The parish council established in 1894 (fn. 497) soon provided a new recreation ground and allotments. (fn. 498) It sponsored street lighting in 1896 and a parish library in 1898. (fn. 499)
The church, established by 1200, probably belonged originally to the Caillys, who retained the advowson of the rectory into the early 14th century. (fn. 500) The rectors did not, however, enjoy all the tithes of the parish. Perhaps by gift of William de Warenne the Caillys' original overlord, (fn. 501) the Cluniac priory of Lewes (Suss.) claimed in 1229 the tithes of John de Cailly's demesne and of 72½ a. held of him. Eventually in 1262 the priory agreed to accept instead a £3 pension, (fn. 502) paid until the Dissolution. (fn. 503) A 2-mark tithe portion due to Barnwell priory in 1254 (fn. 504) resulted from a grant c. 1092 by its founder, Picot, of two thirds of his knights' demesne tithes. (fn. 505) Probably c. 1215 William of Trumpington (d. 1218) admitted that his grandfather had given two thirds of his demesne tithes to the almonry of St. Albans abbey (Herts.), where William had just helped a kinsman and namesake to become abbot (1214–35). The abbey later accepted a 5-mark pension instead. (fn. 506)
The benefice was nevertheless wealthy. Its glebe was reckoned as 50 a. in 1279, (fn. 507) c. 45 a. later, (fn. 508) and in the 13th century it was usually taxed at 30 marks, though in 1276 at 50. (fn. 509) It was therefore often held by prominent clerics, (fn. 510) including c. 1225 the royal minister Peter des Rivaux (d. 1258), (fn. 511) c. 1260 Mr. Alan of Rokeland, official to the bishop of Ely, (fn. 512) and in the 1280s by Mr. Nicholas of Hegham, a canon of Lincoln and dean there 1280–8. (fn. 513) Such dignitaries were normally absentees and the cure was served by vicars: one was recorded with his parson before 1218. (fn. 514) In 1254 the vicar received a third of the taxed income, (fn. 515) but in 1291 only a fifth of the £25 then taxed. (fn. 516) Vicars were chosen by the rectors, but by the 1330s were being regularly instituted by the bishop. The penultimate rector appointed a kinsman as vicar, later resigning in favour of his own son. (fn. 517) In 1342 Bishop Simon Montacute bought the rectory advowson from the Cailly coheirs, (fn. 518) for the purpose, effected in 1344, of appropriating the church to the nuns of Haliwell priory (Mdx.). The advowson of the vicarage was assigned to them, and, after the last rector resigned in 1346, (fn. 519) they regularly presented vicars until the Dissolution. (fn. 520) In 1536 the priory granted a turn to the bishop of London. (fn. 521) Henry VIII gave the impropriate rectory and the advowson to Trinity College, Cambridge, at its foundation in 1546, (fn. 522) and both still remained with it in the 1970s. (fn. 523)
The vicar was long poorly endowed, being assigned in 1344 only 5 marks a year. (fn. 524) Apart from the small tithes, his glebe comprised, until inclosure, only his house and 4 a. of meadow. (fn. 525) One vicar petitioned the Pope for an augmentation in 1400. (fn. 526) In 1535 the vicarage, worth only £5 6s. 8d., was the poorest in Barton deanery. (fn. 527) Naturally, it could not retain incumbents. There were seven between 1551 and 1567, (fn. 528) and no fewer than fourteen between 1580 and 1600. They were mostly fellows of Trinity, for whom Trumpington was the first, rapidly quitted, living in their clerical career. (fn. 529) The average tenure from 1600 to the 1640s remained barely three years. (fn. 530) In 1650 the vicarage was still worth only £10. (fn. 531) The divine Herbert Thorndike, however, who had been granted the rectory lease in 1667, after James Thompson lost it, devised it at his death in 1672 to trustees, who were to let the vicar take its profits, provided that he resided on his cure. (fn. 532) The practice thereafter was for the trustees, who answered to the college for a £28 rent, besides wheat and malt, which the vicar paid for them, to lease the rectory to the vicar. He in turn sublet to the farmer who actually collected the tithes. The vicar's income from that source rose from £70 net in the 1670s to c. £180 gross by 1720, when the farmers were compounding for the great tithes at 3s. 6d. an acre, and £354 gross by 1794. (fn. 533) In 1794 the trustees sold their lease to the Revd. Jeremy Pemberton, (fn. 534) and bought stock yielding in the 19th century £85–95 a year. (fn. 535) At inclosure the tithes were commuted for land. Trinity College was allotted 45 a. for the rectory glebe and 301 a. for tithe, which remained with the Pembertons until the 1860s. The vicar received 3 a. for glebe and c. 81 a. south of the village for tithes: 33 a. and 5 a. respectively of those allotments were at once sold to cover inclosure expenses. (fn. 536) By 1830 the vicarage was worth £241 a year, (fn. 537) and in the 1870s and 1880s, following a £200 bequest from the vicar John Hailstone (d. 1847), c. £265; about half arose from the 72-a. glebe farm. (fn. 538) The 67 a. south of the Bedford-Cambridge railway were sold in 1912, and most of the rest in 1926. (fn. 539)
The house reserved for the vicar in 1344 (fn. 540) perhaps already then stood on the western part of a close of 2–3 a. just east of the church, occupied by the parsonage and its tithe barn. The vicarage house had 5 or 6 hearths c. 1670. Following Thorndike's benefaction the vicars sometimes occupied the rectory house instead. When they let it, they reserved rooms there, including the best parlour, and the flower garden for their use during visits. The Thompsons, while lessees, had virtually incorporated the rectory close with those of their adjacent manor house and there were sharp disputes, which the vicar finally lost in 1713, over the half-forgotten boundaries, and rights of access to the tithe barn. (fn. 541) About 1733 John Barnwell, vicar 1732–46, pulled down the old vicarage and rebuilt the rectory for his residence. (fn. 542) That house, plainly built of dark-red brick, faces the east end of the church. Originally square with a five-bay front, it was enlarged southwards in the 20th century, when it retained inside some 18th-century woodwork, including the staircase. (fn. 543) At inclosure Trinity College formally ceded the whole adjoining close to the living, (fn. 544) to which the house still belonged in 1980.
In 1279 a clerk held 7 a. in free alms for providing three lights in the church. (fn. 545) About 1290 the lords of three manors gave 1½ a. to the rector, (fn. 546) and c. 1295 John Arnold sought a licence to give 20 a. to maintain a chaplain saying masses in the church for Arnold's family. (fn. 547) About 1300 the church was adequately equipped with books and vestments, including a cope and missal given by Nicholas, late rector, (fn. 548) perhaps Dean Hegham. There was a chaplain c. 1378, (fn. 549) when the vicar was alleged to have failed to minister the sacrament duly to his parishioners. (fn. 550) Another chaplain, recorded in 1399, was a hermit, who kept a chapel of St. Anne and helped maintain the Cambridge road. (fn. 551) Robert Glandfield, vicar 1512–38, prospered enough to buy some freehold and a copyhold half-yardland. (fn. 552) There was then a guild of the Holy Rood, founded by 1504 and ruled by an alderman. It probably used the Holy Rood chapel in the church, where Edward Pychard wished to be buried in 1547, and often received bequests in barley and cash for obits and church repairs. The Crown sold 3 a. of obit land in 1553 and the guildhall in 1570. (fn. 553)
From the 1560s the village's religious life probably suffered from the neglect of its transient incumbents. In 1561, when the vicar usually lived in college, the villagers mostly omitted to send their households for religious instruction. (fn. 554) Another non-resident vicar was failing in 1579 to catechize the young or teach their elders, and did not wear the surplice. (fn. 555) The parish was often left to unlicensed curates, and from the 1590s repeated absenteeism from church, irreverence during services, and doing farmwork on holy days were frequently presented. (fn. 556) In 1650, however, the vicar was praised for honesty and diligence. (fn. 557)
Following Thorndike's benefaction the vicars mostly held the living longer, often until death. There were only twelve between 1674 and 1817. (fn. 558) One, however, resigned in 1732 when Porter Thompson demanded that he reside. (fn. 559) Edmund Bathurst, 1695–1719, also held Bottisham from 1708, and John Barnwell, 1732–46, already held Haslingfield. (fn. 560) For the next forty years, however, the vicars were not pluralists, and by the 1770s were normally resident, as was Thomas Heckford, 1779– 1817, even though he also held Melbourn. Like his successors until the 1850s he provided two Sunday services, besides communion thrice yearly. In 1786 68 out of 83 families in the village were said to be churchpeople, but of the 89 families c. 1794 only 42 regularly came to church, another 23, besides the dissenters, being frequently absent. By 1807 there were c. 20 communicants, (fn. 561) as in the 1820s, when the vicar, the geologist John Hailstone, preached regularly every Sunday morning. He also constantly visited the poor in their houses c. 1836, when there were nearly 30 communicants, and the church was well attended. (fn. 562)
John Grote, 1847–66, a Professor of Moral Philosophy, held the living with a Trinity fellowship. (fn. 563) In 1851 he claimed an average attendance of 150, besides 53 Sunday-school children. (fn. 564) By 1873, when the church had 210 sittings, two thirds free, three services were held every Sunday, all with sermons, and two on some holy days; a third of the 60 communicants attended regularly the communions then held weekly, (fn. 565) but by 1885 only twice a month. In that year, when the weekly services were matins and evensong, there were 400 churchgoers, but an almost equal number neglected all worship. There were only 26 communicants in 1897, but a choir of 22 had been established. (fn. 566) There were five vicars between 1866 and 1891. Thereafter the incumbents, still Trinity men until the 1950s, though not after 1880 ex-fellows, served their increasingly populous parish for twelve years or more each. (fn. 567)
The church was until the 16th century dedicated solely to ST. NICHOLAS. (fn. 568) ST. MARY, to whom it contained an altar from 1300, (fn. 569) was by 1745 prefixed in the dedication to St. Nicholas, (fn. 570) whom scribal error probably transformed to St. Michael by 1763. (fn. 571) St. Nicholas's name was restored c. 1930. (fn. 572) The tall and spacious church consists of a chancel, aisled and clerestoried nave with north and south chapels, and west tower, with attached modern vestry. (fn. 573) It is built mostly of ashlar. External clunch which had decayed after the plaster was stripped off c. 1850 was replaced with Bath stone in 1876. (fn. 574) By the mid 13th century the church had a nave about as long as the present one. From that period survive the lowest courses of the tower, the aisle west walls, which have traces of blocked lancets, and the bases of two nave arcade responds. Rebuilding of the earlier fabric began in the late 13th century with the chancel whose north wall retains two 2-light windows and a blocked doorway, once leading to a demolished sacristy. The chancel south windows are similar: the eastern one, slightly the earlier, is over sedilia. There is also a trefoil-headed late 13th-century double piscina. The five-light east window with its geometrical tracery was perhaps inserted after 1300. The plain chancel arch dies simply into the walls with no responds.
The nave was rebuilt in the early 14th century in five bays, with tall, finely moulded arches. The two sides are nearly matching, except that the clerestory windows are quatrefoil on the north side, ogeeheaded on the south. In the three-light aisle windows the tracery, mostly restored outside, becomes gradually more flowing towards the west. From the eastern bays of the aisles two arches open each side into two chapels, also matching. They were probably complete c. 1330, when into the eastern arch to the north chapel was inserted the canopied monument of the Trumpingtons. Under the richly cusped and curved arch supporting an embattled parapet stands the tomb chest, with foiled, ogee-tipped arcading, on which, in a Purbeck marble slab, rests the well known and often rubbed (fn. 575) Trumpington brass. It was formerly ascribed to Sir Roger (d. 1289) but more recently it has been suggested that Sir Giles (d. c. 1330) devoted the brass, perhaps designed for himself, to his son Roger (d. v.p. 1326). A similar, plainer tomb canopy in the chancel external south wall, restored c. 1850, perhaps belonged to another of that family. (fn. 576) The three-storey west tower, buttressed and embattled, was rebuilt, using the earlier base, in the mid 14th century. John Gardener left money to repair the steeple and buttress in 1504. (fn. 577)
The octagonal font, with quatrefoil panels and head corbels, partly recut, is late 15th-century. Of the 15th-century rood screen only the base, repainted c. 1857, survived by the 19th century. The arcaded heads in two bays each side are elaborately carved with flowers and leaves, the upper rail with vine scrolls. (fn. 578) The chancel roof has 15th-century ribs and bosses, some with human heads, re-used when it was reconstructed in 1822, and repainted in 1966. (fn. 579) Much medieval armorial glass remained in the 1630s. (fn. 580) Surviving fragments include 14th-century figures of St. Peter and St. Paul.
Probably under Edward VI the chancel windows, still unrepaired in the 1560s, were broken, and the altar was demolished: its site was still not levelled in 1561. (fn. 581) The Pychards took the north chapel from the 1570s as their burial place, inserting tablets into the Trumpington tomb chest. (fn. 582) The south chapel, perhaps belonging to De la Poles manor, was similarly used by John Baron (d. 1630) and his successors. (fn. 583) A new communion table was installed in the early 17th century. James Thompson apparently ignored William Dowsing's order to level the chancel steps. (fn. 584) The chancel pavement, in need of repair in the later 17th century, (fn. 585) was probably restored in black and white marble by the Thompsons, when they made their family vault underneath. The Pembertons had established theirs by 1745 in the north chapel, where they had their pews. They eventually placed there a marble cartouche, carved with drapery, cherubs, and skulls, to Chief Justice Pemberton (d. 1697), brought from Highgate (London). Other classical tablets include those of 1681 to Thomas Allen (d. 1692) and of 1765 to George Riste (d. 1761), both benefactors to the parish. In 1677 Allen, a kinsman of the Barons, gave a bell and obtained an early 17th-century pulpit, still in place in 1980, from Emmanuel College, Cambridge. (fn. 586) About 1790 the Pembertons gave the south chapel for a vestry and helped provide new pews. (fn. 587) Between 1849 and 1854 William Butterfield carefully restored the church, especially the chancel. He designed new pews and benches, and also a new nave roof, installed in 1876, when expensive repairs were undertaken. (fn. 588)
There was one chalice c. 1278 (fn. 589) and in 1552; (fn. 590) the latter had sold by 1564. (fn. 591) The existing plate includes a silver cup and paten given by Dr. Herbert Thorndike in 1672. (fn. 592) There were three bells in 1552, (fn. 593) five from 1677. The oldest of c. 1450, with a Latin inscription to the Trinity, survived in 1980. Of the other four, one was recast c. 1690, one in 1723, one in 1749. (fn. 594) The four post-medieval ones were recast as part of a peal of eight in 1957. (fn. 595) Two more were given in 1976. (fn. 596)
In the churchyard is a monument to the blind Liberal politician Henry Fawcett (1833–84). (fn. 597) The churchyard was enlarged in 1872, but closed in 1893, when the vicar sold 4 a. of his glebe in the angle between the Harston and Shelford roads for a new graveyard. (fn. 598) The registers (fn. 599) begin only in 1672. The bishops' transcripts, running from 1599, have a gap for 1643–61. (fn. 600)
In 1669 a conventicle, at which a Royston man taught in a barn, was attended by almost 500 people, especially women. A Baptist meeting was licensed in 1672. (fn. 601) There were four or five nonconformists in 1676, (fn. 602) and nine Independents in 1728. (fn. 603) From the 1780s there were many dissenters. The 24 nonconformist families recorded in 1794 included, besides a third of the labourers and three of the four village cobblers, Nathaniel Wedd of Anstey Hall. (fn. 604) Three houses were registered for their worship between 1790 and 1815, (fn. 605) three more between 1814 and 1830. (fn. 606) About 1800, too, many nominal churchpeople frequented Methodist teachers. (fn. 607) In 1825, however, there were said to be only two or three openly nonconformist families. (fn. 608) In 1836 the Wesleyan Methodists opened for worship a cottage able to hold 40, the alleged number of the congregation in 1851, when it was often crowded. (fn. 609) The Wesleyan chapel was attended by up to 100 people in the 1870s; in 1873 it provided four services every Sunday. It closed c. 1910. (fn. 610) In 1822 the St. Andrew Street Baptist church at Cambridge established a chapel in Trumpington as an outstation. It had 100 sittings, and the supply preacher claimed in 1851 an average congregation of 70–80. (fn. 611) The Cambridge Baptists also supported the mission hall opened in 1896 at Alpha Terrace. Following reorganization it had become by 1906 the Trumpington Free Church. Its chapel, a plain greybrick building in round-arched style with a schoolroom behind, was built there in 1899. It was still open in 1980, and though still formally undenominational retained some links with the Cambridge Baptists. (fn. 612)
William Austin, by will of 1679, left the income from 14 a. at Bottisham, for which 21½ a. were allotted at its inclosure in 1808 and sold in 1946, to have four poor boys at a time taught free of charge until they could easily read the Bible to be given them on completing their studies. (fn. 613) The gift took effect in 1708, whereupon the owners of the two main manors recommended 11 children to be taught by a school dame. (fn. 614) From the 1730s to the 1830s the school children also received £3 from the parish charities in clothing at Christmas. The Bottisham land yielded £6 in 1728, (fn. 615) £18 by 1825, (fn. 616) £28 in 1863. (fn. 617) By the 1780s, when c. 25 children, out of 80 in the parish, were being taught, (fn. 618) the Pembertons managed the endowment and appointed the schoolmaster. James Cuming, named in 1783, was still in office in 1837, when his son Charles did the actual teaching. (fn. 619) By 1791 James Cuming also kept a boarding school for c. 10 pupils, mostly from outside the parish. (fn. 620) There were 22 fee-paying boys by 1818, (fn. 621) 32 by 1833, besides the 4 poor boys, and, since 1786, 4 girls taught free on the foundation. (fn. 622) In the early 1790s the then vicar, Thomas Heckford, also kept a grammar school for 20 boarders, who paid 20 guineas a year; (fn. 623) Cuming's fees in the 1830s were only 2 guineas. (fn. 624) For the poorer villagers there were also four dame schools by 1818, with 40 pupils in all. A man was then holding evening classes for 40 thrice a week. (fn. 625) In 1814 there was also a Sunday school, shared with Grantchester, with 100 pupils. (fn. 626) The separate boys' and girls' Sunday schools run by the vicar in the 1830s and supported by subscription had then 30 pupils each. (fn. 627) One was perhaps related to the girls' National school supported by Mrs. Foster in 1851. (fn. 628)
In 1842 the parish and Trinity College purchased a site on the north side of Church Street for a National school. (fn. 629) It was built by 1843, and had two classrooms to hold 100 pupils. An adjoining cottage was used for the master's house, (fn. 630) until a new one, designed by Butterfield, was built in 1857. (fn. 631) An infants' schoolroom was added in 1868. (fn. 632) Besides the old endowment, the vicar John Hailstone (d. 1847) gave another £500, yielding £26 in 1873. Schoolpence were also taken from the 1840s, and the vicar met occasional deficits. (fn. 633)
The pupils included 64 boys and 46 girls in 1846. (fn. 634) Actual attendance averaged 76 c. 1850 (fn. 635) and c. 105 c. 1870, (fn. 636) when the pupils numbered 30 each of older boys and girls and 65 infants. (fn. 637) The then master, G. E. Hutt, served until 1907, his successor until 1943. (fn. 638) From the 1880s to c. 1900 attendance varied between 125 and 135, (fn. 639) rising over 140 in the early 1900s, (fn. 640) but falling back to the earlier level between 1914 and the 1920s. (fn. 641) From the 1870s to the 1890s there was also an evening school with up to 40 pupils. (fn. 642) In 1903 the church school was enlarged to take 143 older children and 84 infants. (fn. 643) From 1934, when it came under the city education authority, the older children were sent to St. George's school in Cambridge. Attendance fell to 72 in 1938 and only 30 by 1950, when the old church school was closed. In 1949 the Henry Fawcett council school, to hold 500, had been opened on an extensive site at the east end of Alpha Terrace. The old building, used for a time for a Sunday school, (fn. 644) was sold for a church hall c. 1965. (fn. 645)
In 1876 Cavendish College was established in the north-eastern corner of the parish. It was to accommodate c. 170 non-collegiate students, preparing inexpensively for the Cambridge B.A. Financial difficulties forced its closure in 1891. The redbrick buildings, designed by John Giles in Tudor Gothic, erected piecemeal between 1876 and 1888, were taken over in 1894 by Homerton College, moved from London, which acquired c. 25 a. around them. That college, then under Congregationalist control, was for the residential training of school teachers, from 1896 until 1980 exclusively women. It had c. 200 students from 1903 to c. 1960, c. 700 in the 1970s. In 1976 it was formally incorporated into Cambridge University. The buildings were substantially enlarged between 1903 and 1914, and from 1956. (fn. 646)
St. Faith's school, established c. 1892 by R. S. Goodchild at his newly built house on the Cambridge road, (fn. 647) had expanded by 1980 to occupy several of the large Victorian houses east of that road. From 1960 the Perse Boys' school was established on land, used for its playing fields since 1905, (fn. 648) north of the east end of the Long Road. Its boys' preparatory school was at the west end of that road by 1955. (fn. 649) Between them the council erected by 1950, south of the road, school buildings, used first by a girls' grammar school, then by a sixth form college. (fn. 650)
Charities for the Poor.
Bequests for permanent stocks, not traced later, for poor relief were made by John Chaplyn, £5 in 1602, William Pychard, £5 in 1614, and Alice Kilborne, £3 in 1615. (fn. 651) In 1681 (fn. 652) Thomas Allen gave for apprenticing poor boys the 9-a. Camping Close: the immediate thousand-year lease of it for £3 a year for that purpose passed later from his kinsmen the Barons to the Pembertons. In the 19th century the income was accumulated until £10, £15 or £20 was available to apprentice one or two boys. Rent charges for coals and bread for the poor were received from William Austin (£1 for coal by will of 1679), Austin Pecke (£3 10s., by deed, n.d.), and George Riste, alderman of Cambridge (£10 under his will of 1761). Lady Whitelocke's son George by will of 1724 left the reversion of his Trumpington house to provide 34 poor households with 4 bushels of coal each, and coats for eight boys and six widowed people: the income was £12. At inclosure 2 a. allotted for its common rights were added to the 1½ a. allotted for those of the town house. (fn. 653) Whitelocke's house and malting, reconstructed in 1819 to let as 20 cottages to poor people, and the land let as allotments brought in c. £45 a year in the 1830s. The houses, mostly uninhabitable by 1870, were then rebuilt in brick as 13 cottages. Building costs and maintenance absorbed the whole income from 1819 to the 1860s, most of it thereafter; the balance, not distributed, had accumulated to £200 by 1900. The other charities, whose income came to £14 in the 1830s, up to £18 later, were virtually amalgamated, the money being mostly given until after 1900 in coal, a little, 10s. in 1837, in bread and clothing. The farmer Lilley Edleston, by will proved 1882, left the income from £50 for coal for the poor: distribution began in 1893. In the 1910s the charities supported a parish coal fund of £20 a year. A Scheme of 1922 combined all those endowments as the Trumpington Parochial Charities. The income, c. £21 15s. from the smaller ones, £70 from Whitelocke's, was, save for the £3 for apprenticeships, to be for the general benefit of the poor throughout the whole ancient parish. The rent charges were redeemed in 1924 and 1965, and the old allotments sold for building land about 1930 and 1960. In the 1950s the upkeep of the 13 cottages, occupied by old people, still absorbed 2/3 of the £230 income from them. They were sold in 1963 to the city council, which demolished them, building old people's flats, still called Whitelocke's on the site. Thereafter the charities had, from investments valued by 1975 at over £10,000, an income that increased from £450 in the early 1960s to over £1,050 by 1976. In the 1950s only £20–£40 had been given yearly in coal and groceries. By 1961 £125 went to the old, sick, and needy in coal and shopping vouchers. In 1976 the charities gave c. £1,150 in such vouchers to 230 people, and another £300 to various institutions for the benefit of the poor.
Outside the Parochial Charities was £100 given by Mrs. P. F. S. Pemberton by will proved 1928 and invested to yield £5 a year for the sick and needy.