BHO

Analysis of hearth tax assessments

Pages 268-272

A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 8. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1982.

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ANALYSIS OF CAMBRIDGESHIRE HEARTH TAX ASSESSMENTS, ARMINGFORD AND THRIPLOW HUNDREDS, 1662, 1666, 1674

Introductory Note

The following analyses have been prepared from the Cambridgeshire Hearth Tax Assessments preserved in the Public Record Office for 1662 Michaelmas [E 179/84/436], 1666 Lady Day [E 179/244/22], and 1674 Lady Day [E 179/244/23]. The Assessments have been full described, and the nature of the tax and value of its records have been briefly discussed, in V.C.H. Cambs. iii. 500 and iv. 272. The 1662 lists were prepared by petty constables in June and early July 1662 and were designed to be simply lists of taxpayers, although during the next eighteen months many persons in the lists secured exemption. The 1666 lists were made out in the summer of 1666, after collection had taken place, by the officers of George Wilmot, the sub-farmer, and are drawn up under the headings of 'Paid' and 'Unpaid'; many of the persons with one or two hearths included under the latter heading may have been entitled to exemption, but the lists do not indicate them since they were included as taxpayers in default. The lists for 1674 were made out by the sub-collectors of Edward Miller, the receiver, with the assistance of parish officials, during the spring and summer of 1674, after collection had been made. They are divided into taxpayers and those legally exempt by certificate. Among the taxpayers the owners of empty or recently destroyed houses or hearths and the occupiers of houses recently built or with new hearths in them are distinguished. The exempt may include paupers, even though they did not need to be certified. The exemption certificates themselves survive incompletely and are heavily damaged [E 179/326/10].

The three documents have been analysed on the same principle. Against each place is given, in separate columns, the total of entries recording persons as occupiers of from one to ten hearths and a further column give the occupiers of houses with 11 or more hearths: final columns give the total number of entries and hearths in each place. For 1662 only one line is needed for each place. For 1666 three lines are needed: for those recorded as 'Paid'; for the 'Unpaid'; and for the combined total of the two categories. For 1674 up to four lines may be needed: for the taxpayers; for those among the taxpayers who owned empty houses, etc.; for the exempt; and for the combined total of those categories. For eight of the twenty-three places in the two hundreds no exempt are recorded. That may be due to three reasons. There may have been no exempt to certify; the certified from neighbouring places may have been included in a single certificate; the certificate may have reached the clerk of the peace too late for enrolment. Among the 1674 certificates which survive there are none for places which are without exempt in the roll. Certificates also survive which were made out in 1672, or early in 1673, apparently for the three collections from Lady Day 1672 to Lady Day 1673 [E 179/84/440]. They include certificates, or lists for two places on a single certificate, for three places which are without exempt in 1674. There are none for the other five places (Croydon, East Hatley, Foxton, Thriplow, Stapleford); that suggests that those places may have had none needing certification, though all may have had paupers who did not need certificates. It has therefore been thought useful to give the number of persons in the certificates of 1672 as footnotes to each hundred in the table for 1674. The number is in some cases less than the number of names originally entered on the certificate because in a few certificates some names were cancelled before, or when, the justices of the peace countersigned them. In general, attention is also drawn in footnotes to a few special entries, chiefly of almshouses or town houses; and to differences, through faulty addition, between the total number of hearths in the recorded entries and the total given in the documents.

In conclusion, a word may be said about the relative comprehensiveness of the assessments. It may be understood that in all lists a person may occur more than once when as a landlord he or she is entered for the hearths in a tenant's house; but in general the number of entries represents households. There is very little difference between the totals of entries for 1666 and 1674. Each is within six or fewer of the other with one exception, Melbourn, where that for 1674 is greater by 14. In Armingford hundred the 1674 lists give the highest number of entries for 6 places; the 1666 lists give the highest number for 4 places; the 1662 lists give the highest number for 2 places; in the remaining place the numbers in 1662 and 1674 are equal. In Thriplow hundred the 1674 lists give the highest number of entries for 5 places, the 1666 lists for 3 places, a 1662 list for one place, and in one place the 1674 and 1662 lists have the same highest number. In the hundreds as a whole the 1674 lists have slightly the highest number of entries for both Armingford and Thriplow hundreds. Since the 1662 lists were intended to include only taxpayers their number of entries is naturally the lowest of the three assessments for most places and, in total, for both hundreds. But since far more details of the 1662 assessments survive for the country as a whole than from any other date, those lists are the most useful for comparative studies of England and Wales generally.

1662 Michaelmas

Totals of entries, with hearths Totals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 over 10 Entries Hearths
Armingford Hundred
Abington by Shingay 5 6 3 1 1 1 17 45
Bassingbourn 43 24 13 6 5 4 2 97 219
Croydon 8 6 4 2 2 of 14 22 68
East Hatley 1 5 2 1 9 29
Kneesworth 9 1 4 1 1 1 of 12 17 48
Litlington 2 8 10 8 1 29 85
Melbourn 40 28 13 8 1 1 of 12 91 187
Meldreth 24 16 4 3 1 3 1 1 of 11 53 122
Guilden Morden 21 19 9 2 1 1 2 55 125
Steeple Morden 22 5 5 1 2 1 of 20 36 84
Tadlow 9 6 2 2 1 3 23 58
Wendy cum Shingay 7 (fn. 1) 4 4 1 1 1 of 22 18 65
Whaddon 9 8 2 2 1 1 1 of 22 24 74
Total 200 136 73 37 11 14 1 5 3 3 8 (with 127) 491 1,209
Thriplow Hundred
Fowlmere (fn. 2) 21 6 5 3 1 1 1 1 39 90
Foxton 18 20 6 4 2 2 1 53 124
Harston 24 16 4 4 2 1 51 103
Hauxton 10 11 4 3 28 56
Newton 1 6 5 3 1 1 1 18 62
Great Shelford 13 17 4 3 5 1 1 1 45 119
Little Shelford (fn. 3) 7 14 4 3 1 1 1 1 of 25 1 of 11 33 113
Stapleford 4 7 4 4 2 1 22 63
Thriplow 20 9 2 5 1 1 2 1 of 13 41 102
Trumpington 28 13 5 3 3 2 1 1 of 16 1 of 12 57 145
Total 146 119 43 35 17 6 9 2 3 2 5 (with 77) 387 977 (fn. 4)

1666 Lady Day

Totals of entries, with hearths Totals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 over 10 Entries Hearths
Armingford Hundred
Abington, paid 10 7 1 1 1 1 21 46
unpaid 1 1 2 5
total 10 8 2 1 1 1 23 51
Bassingbourn, paid 79 20 10 4 6 2 1 122 215
unpaid 7 3 2 2 14 27
total 86 23 12 6 6 2 1 136 242
Croydon, paid 11 4 1 2 1 19 36
East Hatley, paid 3 5 1 1 of 13 10 30
unpaid 1 1 2
total 3 6 1 1 11 32
Kneesworth, paid 6 3 3 1 1 14 40
unpaid 1 1 2 5
total 6 4 4 1 1 16 45
Litlington, paid 22 13 8 3 1 1 48 96
unpaid 1 1 1 (fn. 5) 3 10
total 22 14 9 3 2 1 51 106
Melbourn, paid 57 28 10 2 2 1 1 of 12 101 179
unpaid 3 4 (fn. 6) 2 1 10 21
total 60 32 12 3 2 1 1 111 200
Meldreth, paid 26 14 4 1 2 2 1 1 of 11 51 111
unpaid 13 5 1 1 20 30
total 39 19 5 2 2 2 1 1 71 141
Guilden Morden, paid 40 21 3 2 3 1 70 123
unpaid 6 3 1 10 15
total 46 24 4 2 3 1 80 138
Steeple Morden, paid 38 10 3 3 1 1 1 of 14 57 108
unpaid 2 1 1 1 5 11
total 40 11 4 4 1 1 1 62 119
Tadlow, paid 8 6 2 1 2 19 40
unpaid 5 (fn. 7) 2 1 8 12 (fn. 7)
total 13 8 3 1 2 27 52
Wendy cum Shingay, paid 8 3 2 1 1 1 1 of 20 17 60
Whaddon, paid 19 11 1 1 1 1 of 19 34 75
unpaid 3 1 4 6
total 22 11 2 1 1 1 38 81
Total, paid 327 145 48 22 17 7 2 4 2 3 6 (with 89) 583 1,159
unpaid 39 22 12 5 1 79 144
combined 366 167 60 27 18 7 2 4 2 3 6 662 1,302
Thriplow Hundred
Fowlmere, paid 21 7 4 3 2 1 1 39 86
unpaid 3 3 1 1 8 16
total 24 10 5 4 2 1 1 47 102
Foxton, paid 20 18 4 3 1 1 1 of 12 48 105
unpaid 1 1 2 7
total 20 18 5 4 1 1 1 50 112
Harston, paid 30 14 5 2 1 1 53 95
unpaid 2 2 1 5 9
total 32 16 6 2 1 1 58 104
Hauxton, paid 12 5 4 2 1 24 48
unpaid 1 1 1 3 6
total 13 6 5 2 1 27 54
Newton, paid 8 8 3 2 1 1 1 24 63
unpaid 2 1 1 4 7
total 10 9 4 2 1 1 1 28 70
Great Shelford, paid 32 19 8 2 2 3 1 1 68 147
unpaid 4 4 1 9 15
total 36 23 9 2 2 3 1 1 77 162
Little Shelford, paid 14 9 4 2 1 1 of 20 1 of 11 32 90
unpaid 3 2 2 1 (fn. 8) 8 17
total 17 11 6 3 1 2 (with 31) 40 107
Stapleford, paid 10 9 3 2 2 1 27 62
unpaid 1 1 (fn. 9) 2 12
total 10 9 3 3 2 1 1 29 74
Thriplow, paid 23 10 3 1 2 1 40 85
unpaid 1 1 1 3 6
total 24 11 1 3 1 2 1 43 91
Trumpington, paid 40 6 6 (fn. 10) 4 2 1 1 1 1 of 16 1 of 11 63 147
unpaid 1 (fn. 11) 1 4
total 40 6 6 5 2 1 1 1 2 (with 27) 64 151
Total, paid 210 105 41 25 8 9 8 2 1 4 5 (with 70) 418 928
unpaid 16 14 9 5 1 45 99
combined 226 119 50 30 8 9 8 3 1 4 5 463 1,027

1674 Lady Day

Totals of entries, with hearths Totals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 over 10 Entries Hearths
Armingford Hundred (fn. 12)
Abington, charged 9 7 3 1 1 1 22 51
exempt 2 1 3 4
total 11 8 3 1 1 1 25 55
Bassingbourn, charged 44 21 11 6 5 3 2 1 93 208 (fn. 13)
newly built 1 1 3
exempt (fn. 14) 40 40 40
total 84 21 12 6 5 3 2 1 134 251
Croydon cum Clopton, charged 9 6 3 3 1 22 50
East Hatley, charged 6 2 1 of 13 9 33
Kneesworth, charged 7 (fn. 14) 1 5 1 1 1 of 13 16 51
Litlington, charged 17 13 12 5 1 48 104
exempt 9 9 9
total 26 13 12 5 1 57 113
Melbourn, charged 43 26 14 5 3 1 1 1 of 12 94 198 (fn. 15)
empty 1 1 2
exempt 30 30 30
total 73 27 14 5 3 1 1 1 125 230
Meldreth, charged 12 18 6 1 3 3 1 1 of 12 45 123
exempt 26 1 27 28
total 38 19 6 1 3 3 1 1 72 151
Guilden Morden, charged 30 29 8 1 2 1 1 72 143
newly built 1 (fn. 16) 1 (fn. 16)
empty 1 1 3
exempt 11 11 11
total 41 (fn. 16) 29 9 1 2 1 1 84 158
Steeple Morden, charged 30 13 6 4 1 2 1 of 11 57 121
empty 1 1 1
exempt 7 7 7
total 38 13 6 4 1 2 1 65 129
Tadlow, charged 5 4 1 5 1 16 41
exempt 6 6 6
total 11 4 1 5 1 22 47
Wendy cum Shingay, charged 1 3 4 1 1 2 1 1 of 25 13 71
Whaddon, charged 8 13 2 3 1 1 1 of 19 29 88
exempt 8 8 8
total 16 13 2 3 1 1 1 37 96
Total, charged 215 160 75 38 16 9 6 6 2 3 7 (with 105) 537 1,289
empty 1 1 1 3 6
newly built 1 (fn. 16) 1 1 (fn. 16) 4
exempt 139 2 141 143
combined 355 (fn. 16) 163 77 38 16 9 6 6 2 3 7 682 (fn. 16) 1,442
Thriplow Hundred (fn. 17)
Fowlmere, charged 17 9 7 1 2 1 2 39 95
empty 1 1 4
exempt 10 10 10
total 27 9 7 2 2 1 2 50 109
Foxton, charged 20 17 7 5 1 2 1 of 12 53 127 (fn. 18)
Harston, charged 23 17 6 4 2 1 53 110
Hauxton, charged 4 8 4 3 2 21 54
exempt 5 5 5
total 9 8 4 3 2 26 59
Newton, charged 3 7 2 4 1 1 1 19 60
exempt 8 8 8
total 11 7 2 4 1 1 1 27 68
Great Shelford, charged 16 26 7 4 3 4 1 1 62 161 (fn. 19)
empty 1 2 3 5
exempt 18 18 18
total 35 28 7 4 3 4 1 1 83 184
Little Shelford, charged 6 13 4 2 1 1 1 of 25 1 of 11 29 101 (fn. 20)
empty 1 1 4
exempt 7 7 7
total 13 13 4 3 1 1 2 (with 36) 37 112
Stapleford, charged 11 8 6 3 3 1 32 79
Thriplow, charged 22 11 2 4 2 1 2 1 45 105 (fn. 21)
Trumpington, charged 27 10 8 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 of 16 58 160
empty 1 1 1
exempt 6 6 6
total 34 10 8 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 65 167
Total, charged 149 126 53 32 17 13 8 3 3 3 4 (with 64) 411 1,052
empty 2 2 2 6 14
exempt 54 54 54
combined 205 128 53 34 17 13 8 3 3 3 4 471 1,120

Footnotes

  • 1. Two of these entries were for hearths in mills.
  • 2. The number of hearths for one entry recovered from the 1662 copy in the 1664 Michaelmas assessment.
  • 3. Six details of hearths similarly recovered.
  • 4. In the roll the total of hearths for Thriplow hundred is given wrongly as 980.
  • 5. The entry of 5 hearths was in almshouses.
  • 6. One unpaid entry of 2 hearths was in almshouses.
  • 7. The last of Tadlow's unpaid entries reads: Wid. Gadd Viner 12. The total of unpaid hearths below this is '12' and this figure is repeated in the usual summary giving the total of paid and unpaid hearths. In 1662 and in the 1662 revision of 1664, widow Gadd appears as occupier of 1 hearth. It has therefore been assumed that she (and her landlord) were also charged for 1 in 1666; that this was accidentally turned into '12' by putting the '2' of the total of unpaid hearths beside it, and that this should have been cancelled when the clerk realised his mistake and entered the total below. The auditor corrected the total from 12 to 23, which is arithmetically correct; but of course he had no means of discovering that widow Gadd's charge should have been 1 instead of 12.
  • 8. The entry of 4 hearths was in the almshouses.
  • 9. The entry of 8 hearths was in the almshouses.
  • 10. One paid entry of 3 hearths was in the almshouses.
  • 11. The entry of 4 hearths was in the almshouses.
  • 12. The numbers of persons in the 1673 Lady Day certificates for Armingford hundred were: Bassingbourn 38, with Kneesworth 2; Litlington 10; Melbourn with Abington 22; Meldreth 27 (28 hearths); Guilden Morden 12; Steeple Morden 3; Tadlow 7; Wendy cum Shingay 5; Whaddon 3. There are other names cancelled in the Bassingbourn and Melbourn certificates. No 1674 certificates survive.
  • 13. Wrongly given as 205 in the roll.
  • 14. The Bassingbourn exempt included those of Kneesworth: both persons listed as from Kneesworth in the 1672 certificate occur at the end of the 1674 list.
  • 15. Wrongly given as 202 in the roll.
  • 16. This newly built hearth was in an existing house; it has accordingly been disregarded in totalling the entries.
  • 17. The numbers of persons in the 1673 Lady Day certificates for Thriplow hundred were: Fowlmere 12; Harston 5; Hauxton 5; Newton 8; Great Shelford 17; Little Shelford 6; Trumpington 6. There are other names cancelled in the Great Shelford certificate. No 1674 certificates survive.
  • 18. Wrongly given as 125 in the roll.
  • 19. Wrongly given as 164 in the roll.
  • 20. Wrongly given as 103 in the roll.
  • 21. Wrongly given as 107 in the roll.