A History of the County of Durham: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1928.
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The history of ALDIN GRANGE (Aldingrige, Aldingrig xi–xiv cent., Aldyngrigge, Aldyngrange xvi cent., Aldingrange xvii cent.) is closely connected with that of the neighbouring vill of Broom. It was in the hands of the Bishops of Durham until the second half of the 12th century, when Hugh de Pudsey granted 6 score acres of waste on the west bank of the River Browney, and the wood which stretched to the cultivated land of Aldin Grange, to his kinsman Henry de Pudsey. (fn. 1) Henry gave this land to the canons of Baxter Wood (fn. 2) as the endowment of his foundation there, and to this he added the vill of Aldin Grange, (fn. 3) which he had obtained under a mortgage from Bertram de Hetton in 1187. (fn. 4) On the suppression of the Baxter Wood house these lands passed to the Priory of Finchale. (fn. 5) Somewhat later the manor of Aldin Grange, 'with the service of Broom and Relley,' was quitclaimed by the Priory to Bertram de Hetton in exchange. (fn. 6) There may, however, have been a later conveyance, for in the 15th century the manor was held by the Priory of Durham, (fn. 7) which paid a 'fee rent' for it to Finchale. (fn. 8) The manor, with Aumenerhalgh and Bear Park Moor, was let at farm in 1438–9, (fn. 9) but in 1446 all these were in the hands of the Bursar. (fn. 10) The priory lands here were granted by the Crown to Durham Cathedral in 1541, (fn. 11) and probably formed with Relley and Amner Barns part of the endowment of the 9th stall. (fn. 12)
Aldin Grange has long been the subject of leases. According to Surtees it was held in 1609 (fn. 13) by Sampson Lever, and followed the descent of their property at Scout's House, in the parish of Brancepeth, until 1716, when it was sold by the sons of Robert Lever to the family of Bedford. (fn. 14) John Bedford, M.D., lived here until his death in 1776, and on the death of his son, Hilkiah Bedford, in 1779, Aldin Grange passed with Old Burn Hall (q.v.) to Alice, wife of John Hall. (fn. 15) She sold it in 1781 to Thomas Gibbon, whose granddaughter conveyed it before 1824 (fn. 16) to Mr. Francis Taylor, the tenant in 1840.
According to Surtees AYKLEY HEADS originally formed part of Crookhall, and was granted as a quarter of that manor by Thomas Bellingham to Richard Harrison in 1651. (fn. 17) Harrison was acting as trustee for Clement Reade, of Butter Crambe, Yorks, and he devised it to Richard Reade, his son. (fn. 18) Clement, son of Richard Reade, conveyed it to George Dixon in 1706, Dixon being trustee for Ralph Bainbridge. (fn. 19) By his will of February 1724–5, Ralph devised the estate to his widow, and she sold it to Thomas Westgarth in 1729. (fn. 20) Later in the 18th century it came into the possession of George Dixon, who was succeeded by John Dixon, his son and heir. (fn. 21) John died without issue, and Aykley Heads was inherited by Francis, son of his sister Tabitha, by her husband Christopher Johnson. (fn. 22) Francis, who was living at Aykley Heads in 1804, (fn. 23) died in 1838, his heir being his son, Mr. Francis Dixon Johnson. (fn. 24) Mr. Johnson was called to the Bar in 1833; he survived his eldest son, and on his death in 1893 Aykley Heads passed to his second son, Cuthbert Greenwood Dixon Johnson. He died six years later, his heir being his son, Capt. Cuthbert Francis Dixon Johnson, the present owner.
At the southern end of South Street lies the ground known as THE BELLASIS (Belasis xiii cent., Bellasis, Bellasyse xv cent., Bellaces xvi cent.). It takes its name from German de Bellasis, the 13th-century tenant, whose daughters Agnes and Sybil granted it to the Prior and Convent of Durham. (fn. 25) An orchard in Bellasis, formerly held by Isabel Payntour, was held by Sir William Bowes of the Prior in 1430, (fn. 26) and land here remained in the hands of the Bowes family until the 16th century. (fn. 27) In the early 19th century the land was in the possession of Dr. Cooke, professor of anatomy at the University of Durham, but he sold his interest in 1842 to the governors of the grammar school, (fn. 28) which now stands on part of the site.
Much obscurity has gathered round the early history of BROOM (The Brome, Broum xiv cent.), which in 1362 was divided into Over Broom, held of the Priory, and Nether Broom, held of the Bishop but rendering rent to the Prior. (fn. 29)
Constance del Broom was holding a messuage and 30 acres of land here of the Bishop at her death about 1336, (fn. 30) when she was succeeded by Thomas her son. Thomas was a party to various recognizances (fn. 31) and is last mentioned in 1348. (fn. 32) It seems possible that this land was that inherited by Margaret wife of Alan de Marton and her sister Emma who married Richard de Aldwood, the manor of Broomhall being divided between them in February 1357–8. (fn. 33) At this date a rent of 5 marks yearly from the manor was payable to Richard and Emma de Aldwood, and in 1375 a similar sum was still being paid by Thomas de Hexham. (fn. 34) Thomas was succeeded by his son Hugh, then a minor, (fn. 35) but no further history of this holding is known unless it be identified with the land obtained by the Prior and Convent. (fn. 36)
'Thomas Batemanson, gentleman, a man godlie, good to the mentenance of the poore and aspecial a verie honest man a monge his nighbors, beinge of the aige of lxxx yeares,' died in 1615. (fn. 39) By his will he left his leases from the Dean and Chapter to Christopher his son and heir. (fn. 40) Both Christopher and Eleanor his wife were Roman Catholics and both chose Broomhall as their abode. (fn. 41) Christopher died in 1625 (fn. 42) after having by will divided his leases between his nephew Nicholas, son of Nicholas Briggs, and Edward and Thomas, the sons of William Hall of Newcastle. (fn. 43)
Certain lands in Broom were held by Richard de Hoton, whose name is found in 1334. (fn. 44) In 1339 Richard, son of William de Hoton, acknowledged that he owed £20 to Richard de Whytepowys, who received a similar recognizance for a like amount from Richard, son of John de Aldwood. (fn. 45) The significance of these transactions is not clear, but in 1345 Richard de Hoton 'of Aton,' was dealing with the manor of Broom as in his own hands, (fn. 46) though it had formerly been held of him by Richard de Whytepowys, (fn. 47) the Bishop's forester in Weardale.
In 1345 Richard de Hoton conveyed his manor of Broom to Richard FitzHugh chaplain, who in the following year enfeoffed Richard de Hoton and Cecily his wife and their issue. (fn. 48) Alice, daughter and heir of Richard de Hoton, married Richard Dawtry as his second wife and had by him a son John Dawtry the younger. (fn. 49) In 1431 this John Dawtry delivered various evidences relating to the manor of Broom to his nephew John Dawtry, the son of John Dawtry the eldest son of Richard by his first wife. (fn. 50) This transfer seems to have been made at the sale of the manor to Richard Cowhird, possibly a trustee. (fn. 51)
John Forcer died in possession of the manor in 1432 (fn. 52) and Broom followed the descent of Kelloe (q.v.) until 1577, (fn. 53) when John Forcer of Harbour House conveyed all his lands here to Mark Greenwell, with whose possessions in Ushawe Broom possibly descended.
The manor of BURN HALL (Great Brume, Great Burne; Burn xiv cent.) was held of the Nevills, lords of Brancepeth by service of ¼ knight's fee. (fn. 54)
Its earliest known tenants were members of the family of Brackenbury. At the end of the 13th century Robert de Neville released suit at the court of the manor of Brancepeth to Isabella de Brakenbury for a moiety of the vill of Little Burne as Nicholas de Ture formerly held it. Isabella seems to have married Peter de Neville and a like release was granted to them for a moiety of Little Burne by Ralph son of Robert de Neville. (fn. 55) Maud, widow of William de Brackenbury, claimed dower in the manors of Great Burn, Shipley and Crook, against Robert de Brackenbury. Robert declared that William de Brackenbury had conveyed the tenements to him, and in warranty he called Peter, son and heir of William. (fn. 56) Maud failed to establish her claim and Robert held this manor until his death in or about 1369, when it descended to Gilbert his son and heir. (fn. 57) Gilbert was succeeded by Alice his daughter, but she died unmarried in 1379 (fn. 58) soon after her father, her heir being her sister Maud, born some time after November 1379. (fn. 59) Maud grew up and married Sir John Claxton, Kt., but the marriage was unhappy and they seem to have separated in 1410, when arrangements were made for Maud's maintenance. (fn. 60) Maud survived her husband and died in January 1422–3, leaving a son John Claxton, a young man of 22. (fn. 61) Before 1448 John had been succeeded by his son William Claxton. (fn. 62) He was twice married; (fn. 63) William his eldest son and successor died childless in 1481, his heir being his sister Beatrice, who had married Richard Featherstonehalgh. (fn. 64) The manor of Great Burn and other lands were claimed, however, by Richard Claxton, stepbrother of William, (fn. 65) and the succession seems to have been disputed vehemently. (fn. 66) Richard and Beatrice Feather stonehalgh, 'in some hope of loyalty and justice,' conveyed these lands in March 1487–8 to trustees, among the chief of whom were Ralph Earl of Westmorland and the powerful Sir John Conyers, kt., as well as William Claxton of Brancepeth. (fn. 67) Beatrice died before February 1500–1 when Richard obtained a retrospective pardon to them both for intrusion on the manor of Great Burn and an episcopal mandate securing them from molestation. (fn. 68) Later Richard seems to have taken Holy Orders, (fn. 69) but before doing so he conveyed his life interest in the manor to Eleanor wife of Robert Layburn (fn. 70) in return for a yearly rent of £10. (fn. 71) Eleanor died in 1507, leaving an infant daughter Joan but 35 weeks old; (fn. 72) Robert Layburn continued in possession by the courtesy of England. In 1511 the elder branch of the family of Brackenbury, as represented by Ralph and Anthony Brackenbury, made a determined effort to get possession of the manor and actually obtained a judgment in their favour. (fn. 73)
In spite of this action the Brackenburys could not make good their claim. Anthony Brackenbury and others entered into recognizances to keep the peace towards Robert Claxton of Framwellgate in 1512, (fn. 74) and in 1518 Robert acknowledged a debt of £100 to Anthony giving as security the manor of Burn with all lands, etc., 'which were in the possession of William Claxton of Burn.' (fn. 75) Robert was succeeded by William his son, who died in 1540, leaving a son William, a minor, whose wardship was claimed two years later by Ralph Earl of Westmorland. (fn. 76) The younger William Claxton died in December 1560 when Robert his son was a boy of 13. (fn. 77) Robert made a settlement of the manor on himself, Eleanor his wife and their children in 1569. (fn. 78) He seems, however, to have got into great financial difficulties and sold Burnhall to George Lawson of Little Usworth, who bought Strother house and Strotherfield in Bowden parish from him in 1574. (fn. 79) Lawson seems to have behaved with the greatest consideration towards the Claxtons, (fn. 80) providing in his will that Robert should recover the property on the payment of £2,000 within a twelvemonth of the testator's death, (fn. 81) but Robert was unable to fulfil this condition. (fn. 82) Thomas Lawson, son and heir of George, conveyed the manor to James Lisle, (fn. 83) and together they and Dorothy wife of James made a further conveyance to Sir Ralph Lawson in 1592. (fn. 84) Sir Ralph sold it before 1617 (fn. 85) to Henry Manfield of Amerden, Bucks; (fn. 86) an interest in it also belonged to Dorothy FitzWilliam, widow, and Henry son and heir of John Barker of Hurst, Berks. (fn. 87)
All these persons joined in conveying the manor in 1621 to Christopher Peacock of Richmond, mercer, and to Simon his son and heir. (fn. 88) Simon died in his father's life-time, (fn. 89) but Simon his son inherited the manor, (fn. 90) which formed the marriage settlement of Simon his son in 1683. (fn. 91) The younger Simon Peacock was living at Burnhall in 1689 (fn. 92) and died in January 1707–8. (fn. 93) Simon his son sold Old Burnhall or the eastern portion of the estate to Posthumous Smith, LL.D., and his father-in-law Sir George Wheler in 1715, (fn. 94) while two years later New Burnhall was purchased by George Smith, his nephew. (fn. 95)
George Smith was a non-juror (fn. 96) and titular bishop of Durham; he was, moreover, a distinguished scholar and edited an edition of Bede that held the field for many years. He died in 1756, (fn. 97) having survived his eldest son John, that 'young phisition' mentioned in one of the local diaries. (fn. 98) George Smith, son of John, was living at (New) Burnhall in 1787, but before 1813 (fn. 99) he sold it to Bryan John Salvin, younger son of William Salvin of Croxdale. (fn. 100) Mr. Salvin died in 1842 and Burn Hall then passed to his nephew, Marmaduke Charles Salvin. (fn. 101) In 1885 the property was inherited by his eldest son, Mr. Bryan John Francis Salvin, on whose death in 1902 it came to his brother and heir, Mr. Marmaduke Henry Salvin. Mr. M. H. Salvin died in 1924, and in 1926 Burn Hall was sold to St. Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions, which has established a boys' school there.
Posthumous Smith, registrar of the Dean and Chapter, (fn. 102) was succeeded at OLD BURN HALL by John his son. John died without issue in 1744, (fn. 103) his co-heirs being his sisters Grace, Mary and Elizabeth. Elizabeth, the second daughter, married Dr. John Bedford and died in childbirth in 1750, (fn. 104) leaving a son and heir Hilkiah Bedford. (fn. 105) Hilkiah Bedford, while thus inheriting a third of Burnhall from his mother, also obtained one-sixth from his aunt Grace Middleton in 1771. (fn. 106) Mary, the third sister, married Braema Wheler and in the same year received one-sixth of the manor from her sister Grace. (fn. 107) By her will dated in that year Mary devised this sixth to her husband's kinsman Charles Granville Wheler, her own third descending to Hilkiah Bedford. Hilkiah died unmarried in 1779, (fn. 108) his heir being his sister Alice, wife of John Hall, who purchased the share of Charles Granville Wheler in 1801. Five years later she sold the property to William Thomas Salvin, (fn. 109) and it has since followed the descent of his manor of Croxdale (q.v.).
Very little is known of the early history of BUTTERBY (Beautrove xiii—xv cent., Beautreby, Butterbey xvi cent.), but it appears to have been originally among the lands of the Priory of Durham. (fn. 110)
Its earliest known lords were members of the family of Andri. Roger de Andri held 2 knights' fees of the Bishop of Durham in 1166 (fn. 111) and in 1189 paid a mark for having a mill pond on the demesne land of the neighbouring vill of Sunderland Bridge. (fn. 112) He was probably the predecessor of the Sir Roger de Andri, kt., who with Walter his brother gave evidence in the action brought by Bishop Richard le Poor against the Prior and Convent in 1228. (fn. 113) It is also probable that it was this Sir Roger who built at Butterby a chapel for which he obtained the privileges of a chantry. (fn. 114) Walter de Andri was holding the family fee shortly after 1228, (fn. 115) but no further connexion of the family with this place has been found.
Before 1381 the manor had passed into the hands of the family of Lumley of Lumley Castle (fn. 116) (q.v.), with which it descended until 1566, when John, Lord Lumley, sold it to Christopher Chaytor. (fn. 117) The new owner was the son of John Chaytor, a Newcastle merchant, (fn. 118) and filled various responsible posts under the Crown and Bishopric, being Registrar in 1577 and 1581. (fn. 119)
He married Elizabeth Clervaux, and in view of their eldest son's inheritance of the Clervaux estate in Croft, Yorkshire, (fn. 120) he settled Butterby on Thomas, their younger son, in or about 1589. (fn. 121) Christopher Chaytor, 'one of hyr maiestes Justeces of Peace of thage of lxxxvij years' died in 1592, (fn. 122) and Thomas held the property until his death in 1618. (fn. 123) Henry Chaytor his son and heir died in 1629 (fn. 124) while still a minor and was succeeded by his brother Nicholas, (fn. 125) on whom his cousin Henry Chaytor settled Croft and the family lands in Yorkshire. (fn. 126) Nicholas himself made a settlement of Butterby in 1630 (fn. 127) and died in February 1665–6, (fn. 128) leaving as his heir a son William. (fn. 129) William was created a baronet in 1671, (fn. 130) but he got into serious financial difficulties before 1695, when he obtained an Act of Parliament enabling him to sell his lands in Yorkshire and Durham for the payment of his debts and for providing for his younger children. (fn. 131) Under this Act, Butterby was sold in or about 1697 (fn. 132) to Thomas and Humphrey Doubleday as joint purchasers. Thomas made his home at Jarrow, (fn. 133) but Humphrey settled at Butterby, and here his children were born. (fn. 134) Martin, eldest surviving son of Humphrey, died unmarried (fn. 135) and by his will proved in 1775 devised Butterby and his other lands to his mother. (fn. 136) She directed that the manor should be sold after her death, and before 1787 it had been bought by — Ward of Sedgefield. (fn. 137)
Before 1834 Butterby was bought by Mr. William Thomas Salvin of Croxdale (fn. 138) and from that date it has followed the descent of the chief Salvin estate.
Gilbert de Aikes granted his land of Sydegate to Aimery son of Aimery the Archdeacon of Durham at some date before 1217. (fn. 139) Richard and Aimery, sons of Aimery de Sydgate, seem to have conveyed a carucate of land here to Marmaduke son of Geoffrey later in the same century, (fn. 140) but nothing more is known of the history of the holding until the 14th century. A settlement of the manor was made by Peter del Croke and Alice his wife; (fn. 141) Peter seems to have died before 1343, when Alice del Croke and Richard her son entered into recognizances for debts due to the Bishop and to Roger de Blakiston, (fn. 142) whom Richard had wronged in some way. (fn. 143) Richard was living in September 1346, (fn. 144) but died within the next three years leaving daughters and co-heirs. (fn. 145) One moiety of the manor of Sydgate was granted to Gilbert de Elwick by William de Kirkby and Isabel his wife, all right therein being quitclaimed by Alice, daughter and one of the heirs of Richard. (fn. 146) Agnes, another daughter, married William de Coxhoe, (fn. 147) and it seems probable that Joan, wife of the valiant squire John de Copeland, was yet a fourth daughter.
William de Kirkby conveyed one moiety of the manor to Sir Thomas Gray, kt., and in 1360 Gray enfeoffed John de Copeland. (fn. 148) Copeland had received a handsome royal pension and other rewards for his service in capturing the King of Scots at the Battle of Neville's Cross and was apparently in the royal service, being afterwards constable of Roxburgh Castle. (fn. 149) Possibly in view of his recent appointment as Keeper of Berwick (fn. 150) and of the fact that he and his wife were childless (fn. 151) John de Copeland in 1360 conveyed this moiety of the manor of Sydgate to William de Coxhoe in return for a rent charge. (fn. 152)
William de Coxhoe was succeeded by John his son, who in 1372 granted his moiety of the manor to Alan de Billingham and Agnes his wife. (fn. 153) Alan was living in January 1390–1, (fn. 154) but he died before 1397. (fn. 155) William de Billingham his son (fn. 156) is mentioned in 1401–2 (fn. 157) and in December 1416, (fn. 158) but was dead by November 1417 when Agnes his widow made fine for certain lands at the Bishop's halmote. (fn. 159) Thomas Billingham of Durham, his successor, was an esquire of the Bishop and was described in 1425 (fn. 160) as of Crook Hall. He quarrelled so violently with William Rakwood that in January 1428–9 (fn. 161) Robert Jakson of Sunderland and other friends became bail for his keeping the peace. (fn. 162) No mention of Thomas's name has been found after 1442 (fn. 163) and in February 1449–50 Richard Billingham is described as of Crook Hall. (fn. 164) Richard, who had free warren here, (fn. 165) seems to have died shortly before February 1463–4, (fn. 166) while Cuthbert his son and heir was still a minor and in the custody of the Prior of Durham. (fn. 167) Cuthbert must have attained his majority by 1484, (fn. 168) and in March 1508–9 he and Ellen his wife obtained letters of confraternity from Durham Priory, (fn. 169) while at the same time he made preparations for a pilgrimage beyond the seas in company with Robert Lumley, the hermit.
John Billingham was owner of Crook Hall in 1556, (fn. 170) though the house was occupied by Eleanor his mother and by her second husband Edward Tedforth. (fn. 171) On his death, John Billingham entered (fn. 172) and died in possession shortly before January 1577–8. (fn. 173) Ralph Billingham, his son and heir, (fn. 174) married Elizabeth Forcer in 1582 (fn. 175) and died in 1597, leaving a son and heir Francis, a boy of 12. (fn. 176) Francis obtained livery of his father's lands in 1607 (fn. 177) and in February 1613–14 he settled them on himself for life with remainder to Cuthbert Billingham his eldest son, and contingent remainder to his second son John. (fn. 178) Francis died in 1615 (fn. 179) and Cuthbert attained his majority in 1630, obtaining livery in the following year. (fn. 180) Cuthbert quarrelled with his mother, (fn. 181) with his only sister (fn. 182) and with the citizens of Durham, who complained that he had 'violently cutt downe the pipes' of the conduit from Framwell meadow and 'stopped the course of the said water and cleene taken it away.' (fn. 183)
Thomas Billingham was lord of the manor in 1655, (fn. 184) but the property was already mortgaged and in 1667 he was compelled to sell it to Christopher Mickleton, (fn. 185) an attorney of Clifford's Inn. Christopher seems to have settled Crook Hall on James, his eldest son by his first wife, and on Frances his wife in 1668, (fn. 186) but James 'very much disoblidged his said father' after his marriage, and when Christopher died in August 1669 (fn. 187) he left all his unsettled property to his children by his second marriage. (fn. 188) James Mickleton, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and the compiler of the well-known topographical collections, died in 1718 (fn. 189) and Crook Hall descended, through Michael his son, to his son John Mickle ton. (fn. 190) John Mickleton in his will dated 1720 directed that Crook Hall should be sold for the payment of debts. (fn. 191) The manor was bought by the Hoppers of Shincliffe and in February 1736–7, (fn. 192) and again in 1748, it was the subject of conveyances in favour of Henry Hopper, the entail being cut in the later year. (fn. 193) Elizabeth widow of Henry Hopper died in 1793 when the manor descended to her husband's nephew Robert Hopper, William's son, who died in 1835. (fn. 194) Crook Hall was usually let to tenants, of whom the most distinguished was the Rev. James Raine, the antiquary, (fn. 195) who was living here in 1857 when the owner was the Rev. Robert Hopper. (fn. 196) The estate was afterwards bought by the late Arthur Pattison, Alderman of Durham.
The earliest known lord of CROXDALE (Crokysdale xvi cent.) was the Robert de Whalton who in 1362 was made steward of Barnard Castle. (fn. 197) Ten years later Robert had licence to grant the manor of Croxdale to trustees who should regrant it to himself and his wife Joan and their issue, a further conveyance of the manor being made in 1383. (fn. 198) Croxdale came at a later date into the possession of Joan, wife of William de Risby, and in March 1393–4 they had licence to grant the manor to trustees, (fn. 199) who in 1395–6 had regranted it to Joan, then a widow. (fn. 200) On her death in or about 1402 Joan held the manor of the bishop by the service of rendering suit at the three principal courts of Durham; (fn. 201) she left a daughter and heir Agnes. (fn. 202) Agnes married Gerard, son of Gerard Salvin of Harswell, one of the most important squires of the East Riding, and he in her right had livery of the manor in 1402; (fn. 203) Agnes married secondly John Mauleverer, and she died in March 1449–50 seised of Croxdale Manor. Her heir was her grandson Gerard, son of Gerard Salvin. (fn. 204) At his death in March 1473–4 he was succeeded by his son Gerard, (fn. 205) a young man of 21, and probably that Gerard Salvin who in 1498 had enfeoffed his son Gerard and the latter's wife of his land. (fn. 206) A Gerard Salvin 'the elder' in 1533 settled the manor of Croxdale on himself for life with remainder of one half to his wife Joan for life and of the other half to Gerard Salvin his son and heir. This son is the Gerard who died in 1563, when Gerard his son and heir was forty-three years of age. (fn. 207) The latter died in February 1570–1 and left a son and heir Gerard; (fn. 208) Gerard was 'a gentleman of greate welthe and verie much frended in the … countrye by reason of his allyance there,' his wife being Joan daughter of Richard Conyers of Norton Conyers, an important North Riding gentleman, while his eldest son was married to Ann daughter of Humphrey Blakiston of Blakiston. (fn. 209) He died in 1587, (fn. 210) and his son and heir Gerard died in 1602. (fn. 211) This last Gerard was succeeded by his son Gerard, a boy of 12, who had livery in 1612 of his father's lands. (fn. 212) His brother Ralph, at his entry to the English College in Rome in 1620, gave the following account of himself: (fn. 213)
I was not born at my father's house called Croxdale … but in a less noted place called Chillox, because (as I have been informed) the plague was raging near my father's house; after the pestilence had subsided, I was carried home, and there brought up both in the Catholic faith and in such learning as is usual to boys of my class. I made my humanity course of studies at Durham, in the greatest peace and liberty of conscience for three years, until being frequently insulted [by two schoolfellows] with the opprobrious name of Papist, a violent quarrel arose between us, in which I knocked one of them down, and on that account I was expelled. [He then went to St. Omers and Rome, desiring to embrace the ecclesiastical state and returned as a priest to England.] I have two brothers, of whom one, who is my senior and enjoys the paternal inheritance, nearly five years ago married the daughter of Mr. Robert Hodgson, a gentleman of family, he professes, defends, and cherishes the Catholic faith … I have three sisters, one married, the others unmarried, all of whom, except the married one, together with my younger brother, were Catholically and politely brought up in the house of my mother called Butterwick. The majority of my friends, uncles, and paternal aunts are Catholics.
The Salvins were both Roman Catholic Recusants and Royalists and Gerard, eldest son of the lord of Croxdale by his first wife, while serving the King as lieutenant-colonel in Sir John Tempest's regiment of foot, was slain at Northallerton in 1644. Bryan, the eldest son of the second wife, having also died in his father's lifetime, the heir was Bryan's son Gerard, still a child at his grandfather's death in 1663–4. (fn. 214)
Gerard son of Bryan Salvin registered his estate as a 'Papist' in 1717, (fn. 215) but before this date he had settled the family lands at Wolviston on Bryan his son and heir. (fn. 216) Gerard died in February 1722–3; (fn. 217) Bryan, who had similarly registered his life estate of £400, (fn. 218) died in 1751, when he was succeeded by William his son. (fn. 219) William made conveyances of the manor in 1752 and in 1758 (fn. 220) and died in 1800 having survived Gerard his eldest son. (fn. 221) His son and heir William Thomas married Anna Maria daughter of John Webbe Weston and died in 1842. His son Mr. Gerard Salvin inherited the Weston family seat of Sutton Place near Guildford and died in 1870, when Croxdale passed to his son Mr. Henry Thomas Thornton Salvin. He at his death in 1897 was succeeded by his son Mr. Gerard Thornton Salvin, on whose death in 1921 his brother Lieut.-Col. H. C. J. Salvin became lord of the manor.
The known history of DRYBURN (Driburgh houses, Driburnhouse xiv cent.) begins in January 1352–3, when the free land next Durham with the messuages called Dryburn houses was granted by the bishop to Isabel daughter of Robert de Leicester. (fn. 222) Before 1383 it came into the hands of John de Bamborough, who then held it by rent and foreign service. (fn. 223) It seems possible that John died without leaving an heir, for some five years later 'the whole tenement called Driburn hous,' lately of John de Bamborough, was granted to Peter Dryng, (fn. 224) and from this time the tenure appears to have been leasehold. Peter Dryng died in 1404 without issue male (fn. 225) and in 1411 the holding was granted to William Chancellor. (fn. 226) It afterwards passed into the hands of William Bolat, and in 1448 it was granted by the lord to Robert Foster and John and William his sons for a term of years. (fn. 227) In the following year the Fosters surrendered their lease to Geoffrey Bukley, chaplain, (fn. 228) who was perhaps acting as trustee for Thomas Claxton of Durham, as he obtained a lease for 9 years in 1453. (fn. 229) In 1470 the tenement was held by William Plumer (fn. 230) and in 1491 the bishop granted it for 21 years to John Raket of Durham. (fn. 231)
Though nothing definite is known concerning the history of Dryburn until 1571, it must have been inherited by Alice and Elizabeth daughters of Christina Rawlings on her death in 1563, (fn. 232) for in 1571 (fn. 233) Alice and her husband Robert Farrow (fn. 234) settled one half of 100 acres of land and other tenements in 'Drawden' (fn. 235) on Robert their son and heir. Robert Farrow and Matthew Fareles, representative of Elizabeth's interest, (fn. 236) sold the whole messuage to Richard Hutchinson of Durham, tanner, before 1596 when he received pardon for having completed the transaction without licence. (fn. 237) Richard, who also had two burgages in Framwellgate, (fn. 238) died in or about 1604, and was succeeded by Christopher his son. (fn. 239)
In 1607 Christopher Hutchinson and Elizabeth his wife conveyed Dryburn, in the parish of St. Margaret, to Oswald Baker and Mary his wife, and that Mary married as her second husband William Smith, (fn. 240) with whom she conveyed Dryburn to Nicholas Hutchinson in 1612. (fn. 241) In 1621 Nicholas settled his lands in Bitchburn on Hugh Hutchinson his eldest son and in the following year he demised his Plawsworth lands to his second son Nicholas, while Dryburn fell to the lot of his third son Cuthbert Hutchinson. (fn. 242) Cuthbert Hutchinson died in 1647 (fn. 243) and was succeeded by his son of the same name, (fn. 244) who in 1701 sold Dryburn to his kinsman John Hutchinson. (fn. 245) John died two years later, (fn. 246) his heir being his son John Hutchinson, Mayor of Durham in 1714, the year before his death. His son and successor created some scandal by his reconciliation with the Church of Rome, though as the local diarist expressed it 'little was got or lost by changing sides.' (fn. 247) In 1749 he died and was 'buried in Crosgate church about 12 a clock at night' without any bearers or ceremony performed at the grave. (fn. 248) His son the fourth John Hutchinson was in possession of this property in 1760, but it afterwards came into the hands of the family of Wharton. (fn. 249) In 1840 it was the property of Sarah widow of the Rev. Robert Wharton, Chancellor of Lincoln Cathedral and Archdeacon of Stow. (fn. 250) Her son William Lloyd Wharton (fn. 251) succeeded to the property (fn. 252) and lived here until his death in 1871. (fn. 253) His son and successor the Rt. Hon. John Lloyd Wharton, P.C., represented Durham in Parliament 1871–4 and was M.P. for Ripon 1886–96. He died in 1912, when the property descended to his only child Mary Dorothea, widow of Colonel Charles Waring Darwin, the present owner.
The origin of the name of OLD DURHAM (Vetus Dunelm xiii cent., Olduresme xv cent., Aldurham xvi cent., Owd Durm xviii cent.) is unknown, but that there was a settlement here at an early date seems probable, as traces have been found of a neighbouring ford across the Wear. In the 14th century Old Durham was part of the glebe of St. Nicholas, Durham. (fn. 254) Bishop Robert Neville impropriated the rectory to the Hospital of Kepier (fn. 255) and in 1479 (fn. 256) Ralph Booth, master of the hospital, leased Old Durham for 99 years to Richard his brother. (fn. 257)
The Hospital of St. Giles was dissolved in January 1545–6 (fn. 258) and Old Durham followed the descent of its site (fn. 259) until the latter was sold in 1629 to Ralph Cole. Old Durham remained in the hands of the Heath family and in January 1629–30 was settled on John son of Thomas Heath and Margaret his wife for their lives with remainder to John Heath of Gray's Inn. (fn. 260) John Heath the elder was still, however, in possession and in February 1630–1 he made a settlement of this manor on himself for life. (fn. 261) He died in January 1639–40 and John Heath his nephew succeeded him. (fn. 262) Elizabeth, John's only child, (fn. 263) married John, son of Sir Thomas Tempest of The Isle, in 1642 when a settlement of the manor was executed. (fn. 264) Old Durham does not appear among the estates for which John Heath compounded as a delinquent in 1647, (fn. 265) nor yet among those of his son-in-law when he compounded for his delinquency in the second war in 1649; (fn. 266) both men were among the most notorious delinquents in the county. (fn. 267) John Heath, who died in March 1664–5, was living at Old Durham in 1652. (fn. 268) His son-in-law John Tempest was one of the representatives of the county in Parliament in 1675–8. (fn. 269) He died in 1697; William Tempest his son and successor, member of Parliament for the City of Durham in 1678, 1680 and 1689, died in March 1699– 1700. (fn. 270) John, son of William Tempest, maintained the political tradition of the family and was M.P. for the county in 1705. (fn. 271) He married Jane daughter of Richard Wharton of Durham and died in January 1737–8. (fn. 272) John Tempest, his son and successor, deserted Old Durham for Sherburn and subsequently Wynyard, while his son John Tempest, who succeeded him in 1776, made his home at Brancepeth Castle. John Wharton Tempest, John Tempest's only child, predeceased him in 1793 and Old Durham descended on John's death in 1794 to his nephew Sir Henry Vane Tempest. (fn. 273) He died in 1813 leaving an only child Frances Anne Emily. In 1819 she married, as his second wife, Charles William, third Marquess of Londonderry, (fn. 274) who developed the coal at Old Durham and constructed Seaham Harbour. Lady Londonderry died in 1865 (fn. 275) and was succeeded by her son George Henry Robert Charles William, who became the fifth Marquess on the death of his half-brother in 1872. (fn. 276) He died in 1884 and was succeeded by his son Charles Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry, (fn. 277) who died in 1915, when the manor passed to his eldest son Charles Stewart Vane TempestStewart, 7th Marquess, who sold it to Mr. William Hopps.
Certain lands here were held of the Master of Kepier Hospital by Ralph son of William Claxton of Old Park, being settled on him and Elizabeth his wife in 1535. (fn. 278) A messuage and 4 acres of the same fee were in the hands of Sir Thomas Danby and in 1599 descended to his kinsman Christopher son of Christopher Danby, of Farnley. (fn. 279) Christopher Danby sold the property to John Hedworth in 1609; (fn. 280) Hedworth conveyed it to George Martin in 1612 and ten years later litigation ensued between Martin and Danby. (fn. 281) In 1622 the premises were in the occupation of John Heath, but no further history of them has been found. (fn. 282)
According to the tradition of Durham Priory, Bishop William of St. Calais gave to the Priory all the land between the Browney and the Wear lying south of the brook known as the Milburn. The north-eastern corner of this tract was occupied by the Prior's borough of Crossgate, the 'Old Borough' of the charters. (fn. 283) The land lying within the loop of the Wear east of the Cathedral was ELVET (Elvete xi cent.).
Elvet, with its wood, church and chapels of Croxdale and Wyton Gilbert, was confirmed to the Priory by Richard I in February 1194–5; (fn. 284) at the same time confirmation was also obtained of the Prior's 'new borough' in ELVETHALL (Elvetehale xi cent.) or Elvethalghe as it is termed in a 15th cent. document. (fn. 285) The mention of the church in connexion with the first holding makes evident its identity with what is now called New Elvet, the 'newborough' of the charter being part of the Old Elvet of the present day. (fn. 286) The burghal area was not large (fn. 287) and the greater part of the district lay within the Prior's manorial jurisdiction and formed his manors of Old and New Elvet, both together forming his Barony of Elvet. (fn. 288)
The manor or grange of Elvet called ElvetHall (fn. 289) stood on the site of the present Hallgarth. (fn. 290) The manor was attached to the office of the Hostillar (fn. 291) and until the dissolution of the Priory, and by the arrangement of March 1554–5, it was divided between the prebends of the first and second stalls. (fn. 292) In accordance with an arrangement usually followed by the Chapter the manor was the subject of numerous leases, these generally being to a son or other relative of the prebendary in possession. (fn. 293)
Before St. Godric built his hermitage here early in the 12th century FINCHALE (Finchale xii cent., Fynchall, Fynkaloo, Fynchallaye xvi cent., Fencalley xvii cent.) was part of the Bishop's hunting field. The development of the hermitage into a cell of Durham Priory and its absorption of the endowments of the Austin Canonry of Baxterwood have been traced elsewhere. (fn. 294) Durham Priory made its surrender to the Crown in 1540, (fn. 295) and in the following March the manor of Finchale, with its demesne lands and water mill, was leased to Avery Burnett, a member of the Royal Household. (fn. 296) In May it, like other lands of the Priory, was assigned to the Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral Church, (fn. 297) and by Queen Mary it was made the corpus of the 7th stall in March 1554–5. (fn. 298) Except for the time when it was in the hands of the Parliamentary trustees (fn. 299) and their assigns it has remained in the possession of the Dean and Chapter to the present day.
In 1311 HARBOURHOUSE (Harbaroes, Harbarus, Harbarowes xiv cent., Harbarhous xv cent.) was part of the waste on the bishop's fee, and as such it was then given by Bishop Richard Kellaw to Patrick his brother. (fn. 300) A settlement of the land was made in 1313 on Patrick and Cecily his wife (fn. 301) and two years later Patrick made a conveyance of 'The manor' to John de Carlisle, chaplain. (fn. 302) In 1381 it was settled with part of Kelloe by William de Kellaw, Patrick's great-nephew, (fn. 303) and it then descended with his lands in Kelloe to the family of Forcer, (fn. 304) who held it until the 18th century. The Forcers were Roman Catholic recusants and suffered accordingly. (fn. 305) Basil Forcer, the last male of his line, died in 1774, after having settled Harbourhouse on his sister Barbara for her life. (fn. 306) Mistress Barbara died unmarried at her house in Old Elvet in 1776 (fn. 307) and the property then passed under her brother's will to Thomas Waterton, with remainder to his sons in tail male. (fn. 308) Thomas Waterton was succeeded by his son Charles Waterton of Walton Hall, Yorks, and he, with the sole surviving trustee, after breaking entail in 1805, (fn. 309) sold the estate in the following year to William Donald, of Aspatria, Cumberland. (fn. 310) It was inherited by his son, George Donald, (fn. 311) who sold it shortly before 1834 to Thomas Fenwick, the Newcastle banker. (fn. 312)
Beyond a chance reference to John Othehaghouse in 1350 (fn. 313) nothing is known of the earlier mediaeval history of THE HAGG or HAG HOUSE (Hagge House, le Hagg house xvii cent.). It was apparently part of lands reckoned as in Newton, for in 1421 the Hagfield, with the Strother and Stankhead, were held by Maud, widow of William de Bowes, of the Bishop by knight service. (fn. 314) It must have descended with Newton and Streatlam (q.v.), for in 1564 Robert Bowes conveyed the capital messuage called the Hagghouse and tenements in 'Cadehouse' field, West Wastes and Stank closes to William Parkinson and Christopher Atkinson, yeomen. (fn. 315) Parkinson and Atkinson divided the property, the former retaining the northern portion of the lands on which he built 'the mansion called Hagghouse.' (fn. 316) William Parkinson died in 1605 and was succeeded by his son George, then a man of 40, (fn. 317) whose claim to bear arms was disallowed by the heralds in 1615. (fn. 318) He devised the Haghouse and various closes to Edward Parkinson, his son, in 1631, without obtaining the necessary licence, which was, however, granted in 1636. (fn. 319) Edward Parkinson died in the following year, when his property descended to George, his son. (fn. 320) George mortgaged the land in 1685 to one Shipperdson, and before 1711 Haghouse had passed into the hands of the family of Liddell of Newton (q.v.), with which it was sold to William Russell of Brancepeth Castle. (fn. 321) In 1857 it was the property of the Hon. Gustavus Frederic Hamilton Russell, of Brancepeth.
In the division of the Hagg between Parkinson and Atkinson CATER HOUSE (Caddenhouse, Caterhouse xvii cent.) fell to the share of Christopher Atkinson. In his time the messuage was known as 'The Scite house,' though two closes were called Caddenhouse field. (fn. 322) By his will dated May 1580 he left the premises to his wife Jane for life, with remainder divided between his two sons William and Christopher. (fn. 323) Christopher Atkinson the younger died in March 1596–7, leaving a son Thomas, a boy 7 years old. (fn. 324) Thomas attained full age in 1611, (fn. 325) and in 1623 he settled the estate on Catherine his wife for her life. (fn. 326) He died in 1632, leaving three daughters Elizabeth, Ann and Margaret, all under age. (fn. 327)
Ann, the second daughter, married John Richardson, and in 1651 they obtained the share of Margaret, who had married John Hall; the third of Elizabeth, wife of George Crosyer, being acquired from him in 1667. (fn. 328) In 1684 John Richardson 'maltman and tanner' died and, being under sentence of excommunication, was 'buried in his owne garden at Caterhouse, near Durham; being denyed by the Bishopp to bury him in the church.' (fn. 329) Ann died in 1690 and was also buried in the garden. (fn. 330) Their son, John Richardson, succeeded to the property, which passed on his death in 1708 to his son of the same name. (fn. 331) John Richardson survived his father eight years and Caterhouse passed from his son, who died in 1762, to a grandson John. (fn. 332) This John Richardson survived his children and died intestate in 1803. The title to Caterhouse now passed to various members of the families of Bright and Andrews, descendants of Elizabeth Hall and Anne, daughter of John and Ann Richardson. (fn. 333) The co-heirs conveyed Caterhouse to the Rev. John Fawcett, of Newton Hall. (fn. 334) Mr. Foyle Fawcett is the present owner.
HOUGHALL (Houhal, Howhale, Hocchale, Hochale xiii cent., Houghale xiv cent.) lay among the lands of the see until Bishop Ranulph Flambard gave it and lands in Herrington to William son of Ranulf as two knights' fees. It descended with Herrington (q.v.) to Robert son of Thomas de Herrington, who gave 4 oxgangs here to his sister Emma on her marriage (fn. 335) and 4 oxgangs to John his younger son. (fn. 336) The rest of the land here descended to Thomas de Herrington, son of Robert. (fn. 337) He borrowed 200 marks from the Priory of Durham in 1260 (fn. 338) and afterwards he granted to the Priory his manor of Houghall in free alms, (fn. 339) the Priory in 1291 undertaking to maintain two chaplains and two monks to pray for the wellbeing of Thomas and his ancestors. (fn. 340)
The land granted to Emma on her marriage with Alan, the Prior's brother, was given by her to Richard de Kelsey, (fn. 341) the transaction being confirmed by Thomas de Herrington. (fn. 342) This land also was acquired by the Priory, though its title was disputed by William, son of Thomas Blagrys, who, however, gave a quitclaim to it in 1342. (fn. 343) The manor was at first farmed by the Priory, but in 1464 it was leased to Richard Rakett (fn. 344) and this practice seems to have been generally followed. (fn. 345)
After the Dissolution, Houghall, like other lands of the Priory, was assigned to the Dean and Chapter. While it may be said that the assignment of lands to the various prebends under Henry VIII generally followed this plan, there are some indications that it was not done in the case of the 11th stall. (fn. 346) It is certain, however, that in March 1554–5 Houghall was definitely assigned as the corpus of the prebendary of this stall, an arrangement which has been maintained until the present day. (fn. 347)
In the 12th century NEWTON (Neutona xi cent., Newton near Durham xi–xvii cent.) was among the lands of the Bishop and seems to have been parcelled out among various retainers. Certain lands were granted to Richard the engineer, (fn. 348) Pudsey's architect in charge of the work of Norham Castle, and a man distinguished alike for piety and skill. (fn. 349) Half of his demesne was in 1183 (fn. 350) in the hands of William de Watervill, sometime (1155–75) Abbot of Peterborough, to whom the Bishop had granted it of his good will and alms apparently after his ejection from his abbey. (fn. 351) A further holding of 14 acres was in the hands of the Bishop's servant, Ralf the clerk, and was made up partly of land previously held by Robert Tic and partly of assart. (fn. 352) According to Surtees, Bishop Hugh gave the vill to Roger of Reading, (fn. 353) but nothing more of his tenure is known. One William was lord of Newton in 1311. (fn. 354)
Surtees states that in 1337 Bishop Richard de Bury confirmed the manor to Adam de Bowes of Streatlam, (fn. 355) and it is certain that in March 1354–5 Robert de Bowes made fine for the capital messuage. (fn. 356) Before 1384 Robert de Bowes seems also to have acquired the 60 acres in the Fallowfield lying between the quarry of Newton and 'Aldnewton' which Robert son of Nicholas Scriptor inherited from his father in 1335, (fn. 357) as well as other and smaller parcels totalling at least 86 acres.
In 1383 Sir John Heron, kt., was returned as holding Newton by foreign service and a yearly rent of 106s. 8d., but it seems possible that he was merely acting as a trustee for the Bowes family, since Sir William de Bowes was holding the capital messuage and 200 acres of land at the same rent when he died in or about 1399. (fn. 358) The holding (fn. 359) followed the descent of Streatlam (q.v.) until 1565 when Sir George Bowes, kt., obtained licence to grant it to Anthony Middleton. (fn. 360) In 1577 Anthony Middleton granted a lease of the manor for 100 years to Thomas Middleton his younger son. (fn. 361) Anthony died in 1581, and his interest descended to George son of his eldest son, Cuthbert, a boy of 19. (fn. 362) George died unmarried in 1596, his heir being William Middleton his brother. (fn. 363) At some time between 1596 and January 1599–1600, Thomas and George Middleton sold the manor to Thomas Blakiston (fn. 364) and he afterwards conveyed it to his brother Marmaduke Blakiston, (fn. 365) prebendary of the 7th stall of Durham, (fn. 366) who was described as 'of Newton' in 1626. (fn. 367) Marmaduke conveyed the manor of Newton next Durham to his son Toby Blakiston in 1630. (fn. 368) Toby's will was proved in 1646. He left annuities from the manor to his children Toby, Margaret and Dorothy, the mansion house and lands descending to Thomas Blakiston the eldest son. (fn. 369) Thomas died intestate shortly after his father and left a son, John, (fn. 370) who on coming of age in 1665 refused to execute the provisions of his grandfather's will. (fn. 371) The consequent litigation came to an end in 1667, judgment being given against John. (fn. 372) On 19 February 1670–1 John Blakiston and Martha his wife, William Bothell, Thomas Hincks and Elizabeth his wife, and John Tempest and Elizabeth his wife, conveyed the manor to Sir Thomas Liddell, bart. of Ravensworth. (fn. 373) His son Henry made it his home from 1676–94 (fn. 374) and represented Durham in the Parliament in 1688–9 and 1695. (fn. 375) He succeeded to his father's baronetcy in 1697 and died in 1723 (fn. 376) leaving a grandson and heir, Sir Henry, created Lord Ravensworth in 1747. (fn. 377) On his death in 1784, the peerage became extinct, but the baronetcy and lands were inherited by his nephew Sir Henry George Liddell, (fn. 378) from whom they passed in 1791 to his son Thomas Henry. (fn. 379) Sir Thomas, who was M.P. for Durham in 1806–7, (fn. 380) sold Newton to William Russell, whose property it was in 1824 and 1840. (fn. 381) At a later date it was converted into a branch of the County Lunatic Asylum. In 1926 the house was pulled down.
From the fragments of evidence that remain for the early history of RELLEY (Rylley xiv cent.) it is evident that it was at one time in the hands of the family of Amundevill. Robert de Amundevill gave his vill of Relley to John de Hamilton, (fn. 382) this being possibly a feoffment, as the family retained a yearly rent of 4s. from Brunespittell until 1322. (fn. 383) Richard de Marsh granted the vill to Simon his brother and he afterwards sold it to William son of Richard; the new owner then conveyed it to John de Hamilton. (fn. 384) John conveyed his interest to Gilbert de Graystanes, a clerk and probably a trustee. (fn. 385) In 1326 William son of William Esshe of Durham gave the vill to Maud his daughter, who married Roger, son and heir of Gilbert de Colley, lord of Biddick. Roger granted it to Richard son of Gilbert de Durham in 1343, (fn. 386) and in 1359 Sir Thomas Gray kt. exchanged it with William Dalden for a moiety of the manors of Felkington and Allerden. (fn. 387) In 1365 William Dalden granted the manor of Relley to Richard de Barnard Castle, clerk, and he obtained a grant of free warren in his demesne lands here some two years later. (fn. 388) It was conveyed by him to John his brother, the rector of Gateshead, and in 1378–9 the Priory of Durham obtained licence for its acquisition. (fn. 389) The manor was assigned to the department of the cellarer for the purchase of butter and cheese, (fn. 390) and since March 1854–5 has formed part of the corpus of the ninth stall of the Cathedral church. (fn. 391)
SHINCLIFFE is mentioned among the possessions of the Prior and Convent of Durham in Henry II's confirmation charter, (fn. 392) and it also occurs in the forged charters of Bishop St. Calais. (fn. 393) It was one of the Prior's vills (fn. 394) and the tenants appeared at the assize of weights and measures held in the borough of Elvet. (fn. 395) In 1305 the Prior accused one of the Bishop's servants of carrying off a horse from the vill of Shincliffe to Durham Castle and refusing to return or pay for it. (fn. 396) The villeins of Shincliffe paid a rent of hens, (fn. 397) and rendered carrying services which are frequently mentioned in the Account Rolls of the Convent. (fn. 398) In 1355–6 three bondmen there paid 2s. instead of mowing and 8s. for autumn works, but they still made and carted the hay. (fn. 399) In 1536–7 the tenants of Shincliffe leased a meadow from the Prior for 10s. (fn. 400) The vill formed part of the endowment of Durham Cathedral in 1541, (fn. 401) and a full list of the leaseholders there is given in a rental of 1580. (fn. 402) On 7 November 1650 a farm in Shincliffe was sold by the trustees for the sale of Dean and Chapter lands to Richard Marshall, (fn. 403) but after the Restoration the whole returned to the Dean and Chapter, who are the present lords of the manor. Part of Quarrington moor was attached to the vill of Shincliffe, and it was probably grazing rights in this place which Sir Richard de Routhberry, lord of Croxdale, and Peter of Tursdale released in 1320 to the Prior of Durham. (fn. 404) In 1443–4 the Prior recovered his right of common pasture on this part of the moor by means of a suit with Sir William Elmeden, then lord of Tursdale. (fn. 405)
There were a few free tenements in Shincliffe. In the early part of the 14th century Gilbert Warde held land in Shincliffe, which descended to his son Robert and Margery his wife. (fn. 406) Robert dying childless, the land was inherited by his nephew Robert Warde, the son of Gilbert Warde's daughter Lucy, Margery holding her dower third. (fn. 407) In 1347 Robert Warde the younger granted to John de Elvet the reversion of Margery's dower-land, and 2s. rent out of his own land in Shincliffe. (fn. 408) John de Elvet died in or about 1382, when his heir was his son Gilbert, aged 23, (fn. 409) but the history of this holding cannot be traced further. Alice widow of John Aislaby in 1429 died seised of land in Shincliffe held of the Prior of Durham, John being her son and heir. (fn. 410) John left two daughters and co-heirs Elizabeth and Alice. (fn. 411)
Elizabeth married Robert Danby of Thorpe Perrow, Yorks, (fn. 412) and survived him, dying in March 1473–4. (fn. 413) Her son Sir James Danby was knighted by the Duke of Gloucester while serving in Scotland in 1482 (fn. 414) and died in 1497. (fn. 415) His son Christopher was knighted on Flodden field; (fn. 416) he died in March 1517–8, leaving a son and heir Christopher, (fn. 417) a boy of 15, married to Elizabeth daughter of Richard (Nevill) Lord Latimer. (fn. 418) The family connexion with the Nevills was further strengthened by the marriage of Thomas, son and heir of Christopher, to Mary daughter of Ralph Earl of Westmorland. (fn. 419) It was possibly this relationship that made the Government suspect him of disaffection in 1565. (fn. 420) Sir Christopher (fn. 421) died in 1571 and was succeeded by Sir Thomas Danby, (fn. 422) who had been knighted as long ago as 1547 when serving in Scotland with Edward Duke of Somerset. (fn. 423) Sir Thomas died in 1590 when Christopher Danby his grandson and heir was still a minor. (fn. 424) Christopher sold Shincliffe to John Hedworth of Durham at some date before 1612 (fn. 425) when Hedworth conveyed it to George Martin of the same city. (fn. 426) He suffered the sequestration of his lands as a Royalist in 1644, (fn. 427) two years after the marriage of Mary his daughter and heir to Henry Eden of Newcastle. (fn. 428) George Martin died in 1650 (fn. 429) and Henry son of Henry and Mary Eden had succeeded to the property by 1675. (fn. 430) His only child Jane was baptised in this year (fn. 431) and presumably inherited the Shincliffe property on her father's death in 1702, (fn. 432) though its further descent cannot be traced.
The family longest settled in Shincliffe was that of the Hoppers. John Hopper was a leaseholder in 1580; (fn. 433) he married Jane Bell in 1589 (fn. 434) and died in 1612. (fn. 435) The lease seems to have been renewed to Sampson Hopper, probably his son, to whom it was again renewed in 1630. (fn. 436) John son of Sampson Hopper was baptised in April 1616, (fn. 437) and Sampson himself died in 1639. (fn. 438) John Hopper of Shincliffe inherited his father's lease (fn. 439) and was appointed a sequestrator in 1644; (fn. 440) his son Robert was baptised in October 1654, (fn. 441) and he himself died in 1677. (fn. 442) Robert Hopper married Anne Hendry in 1683; (fn. 443) his son John was baptised in August 1684, (fn. 444) and married Mary Hodgson in 1709. (fn. 445) He seems to have had a son John. (fn. 446) John Hopper the elder died in 1743, (fn. 447) and was succeeded by his son John Hopper, who had a son Robert Hopper, (fn. 448) born in 1755. (fn. 449) Robert married Anne, daughter and heir of Dr. Williamson of Whickham (fn. 450) by his wife Frances, daughter of Richard Hendry of Durham and widow of John Barras. (fn. 451) On his marriage he assumed the name of Hopper Williamson, and as Robert Hopper Williamson he held the offices of Recorder of Newcastle and Temporal Chancellor of the county of Durham. (fn. 452) He died in 1835, (fn. 453) and after his death the connexion of the family with Shincliffe ceased.
In 1183 SUNDERLAND BRIDGE (Sunderland xi cent., Sunderland near Durham xiv cent., Sunderland near Croxdale xv–xvii cent.) was part of the lands of the Bishop and was let to farm for 100s. (fn. 454) At some time between this date and the Bishop's death in 1195 Hugh de Pudsey gave the vill to Meldred son of Dolfin, (fn. 455) the ancestor of the Nevills of Raby. The manor was afterwards the subject of a sub-enfeoffment, but the overlordship followed the descent of Raby (q.v.) until the attainder of the sixth Earl of Westmorland.
In the 14th century the tenancy in demesne appears to have been divided between two co-heirs, of whom one was Cassandra wife of William Daniel of Bilton (fn. 456) in York Ainsty. Another moiety was in the hands of William de Kilkenny the younger, (fn. 457) whose widow Katherine in 1382 granted all her right therein to Hugh de Westwyk, a clerk, as well as her estate in Cassandra's moiety. (fn. 458) Richard de Kilkenny the younger, son and heir of William and Katherine, also released all right in his mother's moiety (fn. 459) and a further release from Katherine was executed two years later. (fn. 460) In 1385 trustees conveyed the moiety 'late belonging to William de Kilkenny the younger to the overlord, John de Nevill' (fn. 461) lord of Raby.
It must have been again the subject of enfeoffment, for before 1420 it had come into the hands of John Hoton of Tudhoe, being held by him of Richard (Nevill) Earl of Westmorland. (fn. 462) On John's death in this year it passed to William his son and heir, (fn. 463) who was described as 'of Hunwick,' on his mother's death in 1444, when he was a man of 50. (fn. 464) He died in March 1448 (fn. 465) and the name of Ralph Hoton occurs as tenant of the family lands in 1464. (fn. 466) A John Hoton died in or about 1498, leaving two daughters and co-heirs: Ellen the eldest married John Hedworth, while Elizabeth became the wife of Richard Hansard. (fn. 467) In March 1512–3 William and Elizabeth Hansard made a settlement of their lands here on themselves for life with remainder in tail to William their son and contingent remainder to Thomas his brother. (fn. 468) William Hansard the elder died in 1520; (fn. 469) his nineteen-year-old son only survived him a few months and the reversion of the lands of the elder Elizabeth passed to his posthumous daughter of the same name. (fn. 470)
Elizabeth married Francis Ayscough and obtained livery of her lands in 1528. (fn. 471) Francis Ayscough conveyed his lands in Sunderland Bridge in 1557 to Robert Tempest and Ralph Hoton, (fn. 472) lord of a portion of the manor of Woodham (q.v.). Sunderland Bridge was held by George Hulton of Sunderland and Woodham, on his death in February 1621–2. (fn. 473) George, who was an old man and childless, in 1613 made a settlement of the land here on himself for life with remainder to his sister Mary Biggins. Mary died before her brother and George then granted all his property in Sunderland to her son Christopher Biggins. (fn. 474) The moiety came into the hands of Richard Lambert before 1622 when he and Henry Biggins, brother of Christopher, with Mary his wife sold the estate to Ralph Younge. (fn. 475) Ralph Younge died at Sunderland in January 1635–6, his heir being his sister Katharine Cunningham, (fn. 476) an aged widow, whose heir was George Cunningham her son. (fn. 477) No further history of this moiety of the manor has been found.
The moiety inherited by Ellen wife of John Hedworth was probably identical with that 'half of the manor of Sunderland' that Sir Reynold Carnaby bought in 1538 from Sir Thomas Wentworth, captain of Carlisle Castle. (fn. 478) Three years later Carnaby sold the moiety to John Swinburne of Chopwell, an elaborate settlement being made on various members of the purchaser's family. (fn. 479) This settlement does not, however, seem to have prevented the forfeiture of the land by John Swinburne for his part in the Rebellion of the Earls, (fn. 480) though John Hedworth made a conveyance of two parcels of land here to him in 1571. (fn. 481) In 1571–2 the Crown granted his lands here to George Bowes, who in January 1584–5 conveyed them to Gerard Salvin of Croxdale. (fn. 482)
Gerard Salvin devised the Sunderland Bridge property in 1587 to his younger sons Richard and Thomas Salvin in survivorship (fn. 483) and it seems possible that throughout the 17th century it was employed in a similar way. Gerard Salvin of Croxdale died in 1663; he settled the estate on his eighth son Anthony, (fn. 484) who died in 1709 (fn. 485) and was succeeded at Sunderland Bridge by James Salvin his son. (fn. 486) From him it descended in 1753 to his son Anthony, and his son LieutenantGeneral Anthony Salvin (fn. 487) sold it to William Thomas Salvin of Croxdale in the last decade of the 18th century. (fn. 488) From this time it has remained in the possession of the senior branch of the family.
The Exchequer land called WINDY-HILLS (Windy hill, Wyndy hill, Windy side, xv cent., Wynoghills, xvi cent.) was in the hands of John Bowman at the close of the 14th century. (fn. 489) It passed through the hands of Isabel his widow and in 1396 Joan daughter of John took it from the Bishop at the ancient rent of 3s. 4d. (fn. 490) The 4½ acres of land called Windy-hills and Snawdon were afterwards held by Thomas Copper but were surrendered by Agnes his widow to Hugh Boner in 1419. (fn. 491) Land here formed part of the endowment of the chantry of St. James in St. Nicholas church and rent from it was inherited in 1488 by Isabel daughter of Robert Erne. (fn. 492) Isabel died in 1535 when the reversion descended to Robert Melot, her son by her first husband, though the rent was received by her second husband Roger Smith until his death. (fn. 493) Robert Melot died in possession in 1572. (fn. 494)