A History of the County of Durham: Volume 3. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1928.
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Eggascliff (1085); Eggescliva (1163); Egglesclive, Ecclesclive (1197); Eggescliv (1213); Eggelesclive (c. 1220); Ecclesclyve (1294); Egglisclyf (xv cent.); Egglysclyfe or Heckesclyfe (1580).
The parish of Egglescliffe, or Eaglescliffe as the railway station is named, lies along the northern bank of the Tees, with Yorkshire to the south and east, Stockton and Long Newton to the north and Middleton St. George to the west. It comprises three townships—Egglescliffe in the north-east, Aislaby in the centre and Newsham in the west. The land in general is a tableland rising boldly from the Tees, with lower land by the river side; the general height is from 50 ft. above sea level in the east to 120 ft. in the west, with a few depressions down which becks run to join the river. In some places the steep banks have been planted with trees on both sides of the river.
The agricultural land is thus employed: arable 2,094 acres, permanent grass 2,443, woods and plantations 57. (fn. 1) The soil is loamy; wheat and oats are grown, also beans and turnips. There are chemical works at Urlay Nook, established in 1831; minor industries are brick works, vinegar works and a tannery. There was formerly a paper-mill; it was built in 1832. The manorial horse-mill stood near the tannery, and the water-mill was to the west, next to an old house called the Scat-house. There was formerly a considerable weaving industry in Egglescliffe, of blankets and huckaback. Gardening is extensively carried on, and the place used to be famous for strawberries. (fn. 2)
Egglescliffe proper contains the village of that name at the southern end on the high ground which overlooks the river and the Yorkshire town of Yarm; at the northern end is the modern village of Eaglescliffe Junction. The rectory was rebuilt in 1843. The old rectory was a three-storied house with dormer windows; the top story is said to have contained a recess hidden by sliding panels in which Dr. Basire was concealed from the parliamentary soldiers. Carter Moor lies to the west of the latter village, and Urlay Nook on the western border. Nelly Burdon's Beck (fn. 3) separates Egglescliffe from Aislaby. The village of Aislaby is about a mile south-west of the parish church, on high ground overlooking the river. In a similar position are Aislaby Grange and Portknowle in the south-west corner; Aislaby Moor is near the western border, and another grange stands in the north. In Newsham also there are two houses called Grange, one in the south and the other in the north; Newsham Hall and Trafford Hill are more central, the former being to the east on high land above a bend of the river, and the latter a little distance from it, overlooking an expanse of lower ground to the south-west. The areas of the three townships are—Egglescliffe 1,550 acres, Aislaby 1,835 and Newsham 1,461, in all 4,846 acres, including 56 acres of tidal water and 11 of foreshore. (fn. 4) The Tees is tidal up to this point. The bridge over the Tees between Egglescliffe and Yarm is mentioned by Leland: 'Yareham bridge of stone, three miles above Stockton, made as I heard by Bishop Skirlaw.' (fn. 5) The northern arch was widened about 1785 to accommodate the traffic. Then in 1805 an iron bridge of a single span was thrown across the Tees, but it broke down on 12 January 1806 owing to faulty supports. (fn. 6) Afterwards the old bridge, somewhat widened, was restored to use. On Follin Hill between Trafford Hill and the river are two parallel lines of intrenchments, which cover the adjoining fords.
The principal road is that leading north by Yarm bridge to Stockton. It is noteworthy that the old village does not stand upon this road, but is built around a large green or open space to the eastward, with the church on the west side; in the centre there were formerly a cross (fn. 7) and the stocks. A large mound called the Devil's Hill stands to the east of the village. Jubilee Assembly Rooms were built in 1897 and are now used as a working men's club. From the main road there is a branch westward, following the river in the main, by Aislaby and Newsham to Middleton, and another branch going through Urlay Nook to Long Newton, with a branch to Darlington. The Northallerton and Stockton section of the North-Eastern railway goes north through Egglescliffe on the western side of the main road, having crossed the Tees by a viaduct of forty-three arches, built in 1849. There are stations at the village, called Yarm, and at Eaglescliffe lately called Preston Junction, which stands at the junction with the same company's Darlington and Stockton branch—the original railway opened in 1825. Before the Northallerton line was made there was a short branch joining the Darlington line with Egglescliffe (fn. 8) at the bridge bank, 'whence there used to be a great trade in coal to packmen, who carried it in bags on donkeys, mules and horses into Cleveland. As many as a hundred animals would be waiting their turn for loads at one time.' (fn. 9)
There is little to say of the early history of Egglescliffe. Though a piece of land with which the manor was thought to descend was called Castle Holme, (fn. 10) there is no record of the building of any castle here, but it has been suggested that the Devil's Hill was a fortified mound. Four men from Aislaby joined the Northern Rising of 1569, and one of them was executed (fn. 11); perhaps this was Peter Kirke of Egglescliffe, who was indicted for taking part in it. (fn. 12) James Young alias Dingley, a seminary priest under arrest, made his submission and promise of conformity in 1592; he was the son of Thomas Young and a native of Egglescliffe, educated at Durham and over the seas. (fn. 13) At an inquiry made in 1593 it was stated that there was a decay of tillage in Aislaby owing to a partition between the freeholders and the tenants; thus there were fewer men for the defence of the border. (fn. 14)
On 29 September 1640 Sir Thomas Colepepper wrote to Viscount Conway, 'I find here a hill of great advantage close before the bridge where Sir William Pennyman had begun a small work. I have begun a greater work, where I intend to make two batteries and dispose two pieces; the other two pieces I have planted on the bridge whence I can take them to answer any alarm on the river.' (fn. 15)
The Protestation of 1641 was signed in this parish, (fn. 16) but the rector, Isaac Basire, D.D., was a zealous Royalist and the local gentry appear to have taken the same side. From a letter of Colonel John Hilton to the rector dated 14 February 1642–3, it appears that part of the Yarm bridge had been altered so as to make a drawbridge (fn. 17); probably the arch nearest Egglescliffe had been broken for the purpose, according to a tradition mentioned by Surtees. A soldier, 'slain here at the Yarm skirmish,' was buried 1 February 1643–4. (fn. 18) The Mercurius Rusticanus of that date says: 'Lieut.-Genl. King and Lieut.-Genl. Goring coming from Newcastle with a great convoy of much arms and ammunition and being faced at Yarm with 400 foot, three troops of horses and two pieces of ordnance of the rebels, fell upon them, slew many, took the rest of the foot and most of the horses prisoners with their ordnance and baggage.' (fn. 19) By the Treaty of Ripon (art. viii.) the river Tees was made the boundary between the armies 'except always the castle of Stockton and the village of Eggscliffe.' In September 1681 there was a serious riot. William Bowes of Streatlam, by his agents, gathered a number of men, 'at beat of the drum,' from the country around, in order to destroy a dam in Egglescliffe which was injurious to him. In all about sixty assembled, armed with pistols and other weapons. Arrived near the place, Mr. Chaytor and Mr. Killinghall called for ale and drank Esquire Bowes' health and gave 6s. to be spent in drink. Then shouting and whooping 'A Bowes! a Bowes!' to the beating of the drum, they went to the dam and pulled down as much of it as they could. (fn. 20) About a year later the fishgarth above the ford at Newsham was condemned as a public nuisance and was taken away. (fn. 21) More recently the formation of the railways has caused a new village to grow up around the junction, partly in Egglescliffe and partly in Preston-upon-Tees.
A prophecy attributed to 'Mother Shipton' declares that 'when Egglescliffe sinks and Yarm swims Aislaby will be the market town;' it is not in the early editions of her sayings.
A field path to Darlington is called Darnton Trod. 'To take Darnton Trod' is a saying which means to slip away quietly. (fn. 22)
According to a 14th-century inquisition, the manor of EGGLESCLIFFE was held of the bishop by the service of half a knight's fee and suit of court at Sadberge. (fn. 23) Little is known of its early history. The sheriff of Northumberland rendered account of 4 marks from Egglescliffe (Eggescliva) in 1163 and again in 1165. (fn. 24) The place seems to have been held by a family using the local surname. Thomas de Egglescliffe paid 6 marks tallage in 1176 and is again mentioned in 1184–5. (fn. 25) Half a carucate of land and a capital messuage were inherited by Walter the clerk of Egglescliffe before 1236, when he subenfeoffed Geoffrey son of Robert de Aislaby of his capital messuage and 2 oxgangs of land. (fn. 26) No further descent of this holding can be traced, however, and the manor seems at this date to have been held by the successors of Alan de Egglescliffe. Alan de Egglescliffe is mentioned in the Durham Liber Vitae, (fn. 27) and about 1160 he gave 2 oxgangs of land in Neasham to the priory there. (fn. 28) His daughter Eve married Ralf de Gunnerton, (fn. 29) tenant of Gunnerton, Northumberland, part of the Balliol fee. (fn. 30) Peter son of Ralf de Gunnerton at some time between 1210 and 1222 granted all his land in Egglescliffe and 'Lurlehou' (? Urlay) to his kinsman William Brito. (fn. 31) William was tenant of Hurworth, Trafford and Bindon in Durham as well as of others in 'Crancemoor,' Thornaby and Scrayingham in Yorkshire. (fn. 32) He was living in 1218, (fn. 33) but died before 1236, (fn. 34) when his daughter and heir Pleasance brought the manor of Egglescliffe in marriage to Thomas de Aislaby, (fn. 35) lord of the adjacent Aislaby. (fn. 36) It remained with his descendants (fn. 37) until 1556, when William Astley sold it to James Garnett. (fn. 38)
The purchaser is said in the recorded pedigree to have come from Blasterfield in Westmorland. (fn. 39) His brother William became rector of the parish in 1561. (fn. 40) James Garnett died in 1564, holding the manor, with two closes called Castleholme and Holehouse, and a fishery in the Tees. His heir was his son Lawrence, three years of age. (fn. 41) Lawrence Garnett died in March 1605–6, holding the same estate and leaving a son Anthony, aged sixteen. (fn. 42) Anthony died in 1631, having by his will made provision for his wife and his children, John, William, Mary, and Elizabeth. John, the elder son, was fifteen years of age at his father's death. (fn. 43) On the outbreak of the Civil War he took the king's side, and was appointed captain of horse in the regiment of Col. Heron. (fn. 44) His estates were sequestered in 1644. In compounding two years later, he stated that he had been an officer in arms for the king at Scarborough, and when the castle surrendered in 1645 he returned to Durham, but, though conforming to the ordinances of Parliament, had not been able to compound because of a wound. He had taken the Covenant and the Negative Oath. The manor of Egglescliffe was worth £90 a year. His fine was £142, and the estate was discharged in 1650. (fn. 45) A water-mill, windmill and horse-mill belonged to it. (fn. 46) He recorded a pedigree in 1666, when his only child, Alice, was twelve years old. (fn. 47) She died in 1669, and a year later John Garnett and his wife Anne sold the manor of Egglescliffe to Dr. Thomas Wood, (fn. 48) who was Bishop of Lichfield from 1671 till his death in 1692. In 1690 he devised this manor to his nephew Henry Webb, who was to take the name of Wood, and charged his estate with £20 a year for the prisoners for debt at Durham gaol. (fn. 49)
Henry Wood and Anne his wife made a conveyance of the manor in 1695 to George Taylor. (fn. 50) It seems to have been purchased not long afterwards by the Elstob family. Richard Elstob was called lord of Egglescliffe in 1717, (fn. 51) and in 1726 Edward Elstob, in selling the Mill Hill here to Peter Consett, discharged it from the £20 rent-charge mentioned above. (fn. 52) Twenty-four years later John Elstob, Alice Elstob and Anne Hope, who were said to hold the interest of Henry Wood in the estate, sold the land retained by Edward Elstob to Anthony Hall. (fn. 53) Anthony Hall settled it in 1763 on the marriage of his son Anthony, whose son, another Anthony, succeeded him. (fn. 54) The heir of the last-mentioned Anthony was his son Frank, who in 1812 succeeded to the estates of his cousin Sir Frank Standish, bart., of Duxbury and took the name of Standish. (fn. 55) Frank Hall Standish was a principal landowner about 1820 and died in 1841. (fn. 56) His kinsman William Standish Standish succeeded him and died in 1856. (fn. 57) The family estate in Egglescliffe was sold in 1849, a large part being bought by Thomas Meynell of Yarm, who already had land here and part of the manor. (fn. 58) Thomas Meynell died in 1863 and is now represented by his nephew Mr. Edgar Meynell, (fn. 59) who holds manorial rights at the present day.
Among those who were said to hold part of the manor in the early 19th century was John Waldy, (fn. 60) whose estate here was inherited by his third son Thomas William. (fn. 61) The Rev. ArthurG. Waldy, son of Thomas William Waldy, died in 1915 and was succeeded by Mr. John Waldy, grandson of Thomas, who now holds the property.
In 1631 Ralph Eure, John Pemberton, Mary Garnett, and John Garnett, then lord of the manor, sold to Ralph Allanson 70 acres of meadow and 70 of pasture in Egglescliffe and Aislaby with a fishery in the Tees which was an appurtenance of the manor of Egglescliffe. (fn. 62) Allanson, who already had land in Aislaby, sold two messuages and 250 acres in the two vills in 1636 to Laurence Sayer and John Errington. (fn. 63) The ancestors of Laurence Sayer had held for more than two centuries a meadow called 'Elvetingre,' inherited from the Seton family. (fn. 64) He forfeited his lands here from which he had granted an annuity to Margery Pinkney, during the Civil War, and they were sold by the Treason Trustees to Gilbert Crouch and Martin Lister. (fn. 65) In 1670 Gilbert Crouch and Lawrence Sayer conveyed lands here and at Newsham and Aislaby to Ralph Ashton. (fn. 66) It seems to have been inherited before 1695 by Cicely, wife of William Atkinson, for in that year she and her husband conveyed a messuage and lands here to John Mayes of the Friarage, Yarm, whose mother was a daughter of Lawrence Sayer. (fn. 67) Mayes as a 'Papist' in 1717 registered his freehold estate in Egglescliffe as of the yearly value of £216 13s. (fn. 68) He had a son John, who died in 1772, and a daughter Cecily who had died childless two years previously; but after the son's death the estates, in accordance with the father's will (dated 1742), went, for some reason unknown, to a Jesuit, Thomas Meynell, who was not a relative. Thomas Meynell made them over to his brother Edward, son of Roger Meynell of Kilvington, and they have descended to Mr. Edgar Meynell. (fn. 69)
There is also a rectorial manor. From the 'Parish Book' it appears that the rector held a court in 1726. 'Manorial rents' are still paid to the rector, but the fines on succession or alienation have ceased, although one such fine was paid as late as 1845. (fn. 70)
An acre in Egglescliffe called the 'Lamp Light,' belonging to the church here, was among lands granted to Christopher Chaytor in 1563. (fn. 71) In 1604 Henry Lindley and John Starkey, the Crown patentees, sold to his son Thomas Chaytor, of Butterby, lands in Egglescliffe said to have belonged to St. John of Beverley. (fn. 72) Sir Edmund Chaytor still has a house here. A rent of 4d. was due to the Hospitallers from land at Egglescliffe. (fn. 73)
The freeholders in 1684 were Peter Consett, John Hall, James Kitching, Thomas Nicholson, John Tomlinson, John Trotter, and Francis Whitfield. (fn. 76) In 1823 the landed proprietors included Thomas Meynell and John Russell Rowntree. (fn. 77)
The lands in Egglescliffe and Urlay granted by Peter de Gunnerton to William Brito seem to have passed to John Gylet, whose heir in 1279 was William son of Robert de Birdshall. (fn. 78) Stephen Gylet in that year sued William de Birdshall and John Gylet's widow for 10 oxgangs and 112 acres in Egglescliffe and Urlay. (fn. 79) In 1442 it was found that John Killinghall of Middleton St. George (q.v.) had held two messuages, two cottages, and 12 oxgangs in Egglescliffe jointly with Beatrice his wife, of the lord of the manor of Egglescliffe. (fn. 80) This estate, reduced later to 8 oxgangs, descended in his family (fn. 81) and was sold by Francis Killinghall in 1569 to Ralph Tailboys. (fn. 82) It afterwards passed to the Wrenns. Anthony Wrenn died in possession in 1595, (fn. 83) and his son Sir Charles sold it in 1615 to Thomas Alderson. (fn. 84) In 1637–8 Reginald Alderson sold this land at Urlay Nook to William Lee of Pinchinthorp, Yorks. In 1665 it passed to John Skelton, and in 1716 to William Carter of Morton. At a later date it belonged to the Waldy family and is now divided up. (fn. 85)
AISLABY (Aslackebi, Eslakebi, xii cent.; Aselakeby, xiii cent.) was held by a local family by the service of keeping a fourth part of the gaol of Sadberge and rendering 60s. a year. (fn. 86) Robert de Aislaby was a witness to a charter of 1218 (fn. 87) and Thomas de Aislaby was living in the time of Henry III. (fn. 88) The latter was probably the Thomas who with Pleasance his wife, daughter of William le Breton, gave to Finchale Priory a fishery in the Tyne. (fn. 89) He had a son Thomas who about 1260 quitclaimed to the monks of Byland land in Thormanby, given by his mother Pleasance. (fn. 90) The younger Thomas was among the bishop's knights who were not present at the Battle of Lewes. (fn. 91) William son of Thomas had succeeded by 1298. (fn. 92) In 1313 he granted a messuage and 3 oxgangs of land in the township for a chaplain to celebrate in the chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr within the 'manor' of the said William for the souls of himself, Agnes his wife and others. (fn. 93) William de Aislaby, son of Henry, was a witness. John son of Sir William de Aislaby appears to have been in possession by 1335, (fn. 94) and was described as lord of Aislaby or lord of Egglescliffe. (fn. 95) In 1343 he settled his 'manors' of Egglescliffe and Aislaby, with remainders to his son William and grandson John (son of William). This grandson was to marry Alice daughter of Henry de Aislaby. (fn. 96) John the grandson made a settlement in 1356 and died without issue; John the grandfather in 1358–9 made a further settlement on another grandson Thomas (son of William) and Agnes his wife. (fn. 97) This marriage also proving fruitless, the manors descended after the death of the above-named Alice, in or about 1400, to a third grandson named Walter (son of William). His daughter Agnes succeeded him in 1410, she being nine years of age. (fn. 98)
Agnes the heiress of Aislaby was in or before 1420 married to Hugh Astley, and with her husband was pardoned for entering into her father's lands without licence. (fn. 99) She afterwards (by 1436) married John Hawley, making a settlement of the manors of Aislaby and Egglescliffe. (fn. 100) She was the widow of John Newport at her death about 1450, when the two manors were taken into the bishop's hands and granted (1450) to Henry and Robert Preston. (fn. 101) It then appeared that a settlement had lately been made by which the manor of Egglescliffe was to be held by John Newport for life with remainders to William Astley son of Agnes and his issue, her daughters Agnes Hawley and Margaret Newport, and to the heirs of Agnes their mother. Aislaby was to go at once to William Astley with remainders to Agnes and Margaret. (fn. 102) William Astley, 'esquire,' died in 1502, and seisin was given to Thomas his son and heir. (fn. 103) He had held lands in Aislaby in conjunction with Margaret his wife, (fn. 104) and on her death (1506) the lands in the manors and vills of Egglescliffe and Aislaby, with a fishery in the Tees, descended to Thomas Astley, then aged fifty. (fn. 105) Thomas died in January 1524–5, and was succeeded in the two manors by his son William, aged forty (fn. 106); William at his death (1552) left a son and heir of the same name. (fn. 107) The heir soon afterwards sold his estates, and in 1557 Robert Hindmarsh (Hindmers) acquired Aislaby from him. (fn. 108) Robert died about a year afterwards, his heir being a brother, Reynold Hindmarsh, clerk, aged fifty. (fn. 109) On the death of Reynold Hindmarsh, who was rector of Langar (Notts.) (fn. 110) in 1575, the manor of Aislaby passed to his nephew John son of James Hindmarsh, (fn. 111) who in 1578 did homage for it and took the oath of supremacy. (fn. 112) The younger John died in 1589, (fn. 113) when his sisters and representatives Helen Fetherstonhalgh, Agnes Mayre, widow, Robert Mayre, Eleanor Todd and her son Michael Todd sold to Michael Pemberton, son of Helen Fetherstonhalgh, the manor and two farms. (fn. 114) Michael Pemberton, who recorded a pedigree in 1615, died in January 1624–5, holding, in addition to the manor of Aislaby, certain lands there and a burgage in North Auckland. (fn. 115) His son John, thirty-four years of age, had livery of the manor on 11 February 1625–6. (fn. 116) He died in 1644, leaving as heir his son Michael, who was a major in Colonel Conyers' regiment, as well as two younger sons who were captains in the king's service, one of them losing his life in the war. (fn. 117) The estates as a whole appear to have escaped sequestration, but Michael's share, perhaps before his father's death, was seized. (fn. 118) He died about 1652, and his eldest son Michael was in possession in 1666, when he recorded a pedigree at the visitation. (fn. 119) The manor was purchased of the Pembertons before 1685 by Edward Trotter (fn. 120) of Park House near Guisborough, Yorks, who settled it in that year on himself for life with remainder to his son John Trotter of Skelton Castle. In 1696 Edward and John Trotter sold it to William Ward of Guisborough, under whose will of 1718 it passed to his son John. (fn. 121) John Ward was declared bankrupt in 1730 and the manor was conveyed by the assignees in bankruptcy in 1749 to Ralph Ward. Under his will of 1759 Ralph bequeathed the property to his sister Hannah Jackson, who was succeeded in or about 1772 by her son George. (fn. 122) Four years later George sold the manor to Robert Raikes Fulthorpe, by whose mortgagees it was sold in 1802 to Rowland Webster. Rowland mortgaged it in 1807 to John Russell Rowntree of Stockton. He died in 1809 and was succeeded by Rowland Webster his son. (fn. 123) Rowland and his brother William became bankrupt in 1821, and in 1825 their trustees sold the manor of Aislaby to John Russell Rowntree, of whom it was purchased in 1830 by John Earl of Eldon, (fn. 124) whose descendants still hold the greater portion of the manor.
Henry de Aislaby, whose daughter Alice married John son of William de Aislaby 1343, appears to have died in 1344, his widow Ismania receiving dower on undertaking not to marry without the bishop's licence. (fn. 125) A valuation of Henry's lands in Aislaby was made in 1350. (fn. 126) Possibly a cousin was the John son of William son of Henry de Aislaby, who occurs in 1342–4, (fn. 127) and died in or about 1363, holding two messuages and 4 oxgangs of land, parcel of the manor of Aislaby. (fn. 128) John had acquired the 4 oxgangs from his namesake John lord of Aislaby in 1354 without the bishop's licence. His heir was a son John, aged ten years. (fn. 129)
The heirs of John Aislaby in 1432 were his daughters Elizabeth, aged thirteen, and Alice, aged ten (fn. 130); they probably inherited 4 oxgangs of land in the township, though it is not recorded in the inquisition. The wardship of the elder daughter was granted to Christopher Boynton, (fn. 131) and she was married to Robert Danby by 1437, her sister having been married to William Highfield, (fn. 132) who died in 1453 holding lands in Stockton in right of his wife. (fn. 133) William Highfield, son of William and Alice, then twelve years old, was given to the wardship of his uncle Robert Danby, chief justice (fn. 134); proof of age was taken in 1460. (fn. 135) In 1497 it was found that William Highfield had died in 1488, holding a moiety of the vill of Aislaby by knight's service and lands in Norton and Stockton; his heir was his son Thomas, aged twenty-four (fn. 136) at his father's death. In 1500, however, after the death of Thomas, the tenement was called a third part of the moiety of the vill, held jointly with his wife. (fn. 137) William, the son and heir, in 1521 left a daughter Agnes, one year old, to succeed to the same estate. (fn. 138) Her wardship was given to Robert and George Brandling in 1522, (fn. 139) and they no doubt married her to a kinsman. In 1542 a third part of a moiety of the manor of Aislaby was settled on Anne wife of Robert Brandling for life with remainder in succession to Matthew Baxter and Agnes his wife and their issue, to John Highfield and Richard Highfield and their issue, and final remainder to the heirs of Agnes. (fn. 140) It was probably released by the holders of the reversion to the Brandling family. In 1567 Sir Robert Brandling died seised of it, leaving a nephew and heir William. (fn. 141) William Brandling died in 1575, holding a third part of the vill of Aislaby of the Bishop of Durham, and other estates. His heir was a son Robert, aged nine months. (fn. 142) Robert son and heir of Robert Brandling had in 1597–8 livery of the lands of his late father in Norton, Aislaby, and Stockton. (fn. 143) The estate was sold by Robert in 1611 to Thomas Punshon, (fn. 144) who died in 1615, leaving a son and heir Thomas. (fn. 145) Thomas sold certain closes to Anthony Fewler of Hartburn in 1615 and a further 180 acres in 1618. (fn. 146) Thomas son and heir of Anthony Fewler died in 1673 leaving daughters and co-heirs, of whom Margaret married Ralph Holmes in 1677. (fn. 147)
Margery wife of Edward Thompson and her husband conveyed land here and in other places to Thomas Blakiston in 1535. (fn. 148) The Blakistons held land (1559) in Aislaby and a fishery in the Tees of Robert Conyers (fn. 149); the property was sold in 1606 to Humphrey Rippon, (fn. 150) who died in possession in 1617, leaving a son Thomas. (fn. 151) In 1622 Thomas Rippon and Alice his wife conveyed lands here to Henry Bowes the elder. (fn. 152)
Guisborough Priory had land in the township, given by Guy de Bovencourt about the end of the 12th century to the abbey of Eu, (fn. 153) and transferred to Guisborough in 1262. (fn. 154) The land was worth £5 a year about 1540. (fn. 155) After the Dissolution it was sold by the Crown in 1544 to Henry Storey of Cleveland and Anne his wife, (fn. 156) and to Thomas Lord Wharton. (fn. 157) Anne Storey died in 1590 seised of a messuage and 8 oxgangs here, which she and her husband had granted for fifty years after their deaths to their son Christopher Storey. (fn. 158) The reversionary right passed to their grandson and heir John son of Henry Storey. In 1617 John Storey, Anne his wife and Christopher Storey conveyed land here to Michael Pemberton the elder, and in 1624 Anne and Christopher Storey and Mary his wife conveyed other property here. (fn. 159)
The freeholders in Aislaby in 1684 were Michael Pemberton, Edward Trotter, Laurence Sayer, Thomas Bellingham, William Fothergill and Edward Watson. (fn. 160) In 1740 the chief landowners were Raikes and Ward. (fn. 161)
NEWSHAM (Neusum, Neuson, xiv cent.) was included in the lordship of Gainford, and a large part of it was held in demesne by the Balliols (fn. 162) and their successors. (fn. 163) The manor is mentioned in the 16th and 17th-century grants of Barnard Castle. (fn. 164) In 1316 a grant of £50 a year from Long Newton and Newsham on Tees was made to Elizabeth de Umfravill Countess of Angus, the lands being in the king's hands, as pertaining to Barnard Castle, by reason of the minority of the heir of Guy de Beauchamp Earl of Warwick. (fn. 165) From ministers' accounts of this time it appears that in 1317 thirteen oxgangs of land held in demesne rendered £9 2s., the demesne meadows 26s., and four free tenants 38s. 8d.; the seven tenants of 12 oxgangs and 12 acres of land in bondage paid £7 15s., and cottars paid 24s. The fishgarth rendered a salmon in Lent, which had been sold for 12d., and 3s. came from ale-brewing. (fn. 166) Six years later, when much destruction of the crops had been wrought by the Scots, the free tenants named were the Abbot of Rievaulx for a messuage and two ploughlands (13s. 8d.), and Robert de Westwick for a messuage and 2 oxgangs of land (16s.); 9 acres in Dinsdale, which used to pay 9s., were then unoccupied and fallow (frisca) for lack of tenants. (fn. 167) The same estates of Long Newton and Newsham on Tees were granted for life in 1339 by Thomas Earl of Warwick to Sir Robert de Herle. (fn. 168) After the Warwick estates had escheated to the Crown a lease of the farm of Newsham in the lordship of Long Newton was granted to Edmund Oglethorp (on surrender of a former lease) in 1532. (fn. 169)
Soon afterwards the second large estate in Newsham came into the possession of the Crown. This was the land which Rievaulx Abbey had acquired from various donors in the 12th and 14th centuries. The fishery of Newsham, apparently with some land, was granted to the abbey by Bernard son of Bernard de Balliol. (fn. 170) His grandson Hugh made a grant of 10 acres with common of pasture. (fn. 171) Guy de Bovencourt, a sub-tenant of the Balliols, granted 8 oxgangs here to Rievaulx. (fn. 172) Finally, about 1315, Henry le Scrope, who presumably also held under the Balliols, exchanged a messuage, 8 tofts and 14 oxgangs in Newsham for lands in East Bolton and Bellerby (Yorks), which belonged to the abbey. (fn. 173) In 1316 a rent of 30s. was due to the lord of Barnard Castle from the tenements of the Abbot of Rievaulx. (fn. 174) At the Dissolution they had an annual value of £20 13s. 4d. (fn. 176)
A grant of the fishery in the Tees at Newsham was made in 1611 to John Eldred and others, (fn. 177) who were 'fishing grantees,' and may never have come into possession. No grant of the lands of the lords of Barnard Castle or of Rievaulx Abbey has been found. Before 1611, however, most of Newsham belonged to Francis Hall, (fn. 178) who died in that year. He was succeeded by his son Christopher Hall of Newsham, who took the Royalist side in the Civil War, and was reckoned a 'delinquent' by the Parliament because he left his dwelling and went to Oxford. He surrendered upon the Oxford articles. His estate was valued at £230 a year, and in 1648 a fine of two years' value was accepted. (fn. 179) His son Lodowick, who recorded a pedigree in 1666, (fn. 180) sold Newsham in 1662 to Robert Blakiston of Old Elvet. (fn. 181) His great-grandson the Rev. Robert Blakiston was living in 1738. About a century later the estate was owned by William Skinner, (fn. 182) who was followed by William Skinner Marshall. It was advertised for sale in 1855 and is now divided among various owners. (fn. 183)
TRAFFORD HILL (Treford, xii cent.; Strafforth, xvii cent.) was held with Coatham Mundeville (q.v.) for one knight's fee in the 12th century by the family of Amundevill. (fn. 184) William de Amundevill and Emma his wife granted 1 acre of land here to Rievaulx Abbey in free alms. (fn. 185) Before 1236 the tenancy in demesne had come into the hands of Pleasance, daughter and heir of William le Breton, who in February of the following year came to an agreement with the overlord, Ralph de Amundevill, whereby he took her homage for the manor of Trafford. (fn. 186) Trafford did not follow the descent of lands Pleasance held in Egglescliffe, though the reason for this divergence is not clear. Pleadings in 1279 show that Godfrey Breton held land here in the time of Bishop Richard le Poor (1228–37) that descended to Walter his son, probably that Walter le Breton who was steward to Alexander de Balliol in the time of the Barons' war. (fn. 187) Walter le Breton enfeoffed John Gillet, whose son John took the habit of the friars preachers, and may possibly be identified with the John de Egglescliffe who figures so largely in the assize rolls of 1236. John left no issue, and his lands passed to Hugh his brother, who was also childless; his brother and heir Walter had a son Robert, and his son William, son of Robert de Birdshall, successfully fought various claimants to the lands in 1279. (fn. 188) Whether or no these various persons had any claim on Trafford is uncertain, nor is their connexion established with the William Gra who was in possession in 1336, when he was said to have held the 'manor' of Trafford of the bishop by rendering a pair of white gloves on St. Mary Magdalen's Day. His heir was a son Thomas, aged twenty-two. (fn. 189) Thomas occurs again in 1336–7 and 1343–4, (fn. 190) and Thomas son of Thomas Gra of Trafford in 1352–5. (fn. 191) In 1349 Sir Thomas Ughtred paid a fine for having entered the manor of Trafford without licence. (fn. 192) His interest is unknown. In March 1354–5 Thomas Gra of Trafford also paid a fine for licence for the acquisition of part of the manor of Trafford at the instance of John Moubray in spite of the reversion of John de Cotherskelfe, chaplain, and of Thomas son of Thomas de Gra. (fn. 193) Before 1378 the manor was acquired by Sir Richard Tempest and Isabel his wife, daughter and heir of John Gra, lord of Studley, Yorks, upon whom it was then settled. (fn. 194) Isabel died in August 1421, holding the manor according to the settlement of 1378; the heir was a son William, aged thirty. The tenure was recorded as the fourth part of a knight's fee, and a pair of gloves or 2d. (fn. 195) and suit at the court of Coatham Mundevill. (fn. 196) Sir William, who obtained the manor of Washington with his wife, (fn. 197) had livery of the manor of Trafford in 1421. (fn. 198) He died on 8 June 1441, holding this manor. The estate included the site of the manorhouse, 400 acres of arable land, 60 acres of meadow, a fishery in the Tees, and 120 acres of pasture. (fn. 199) His son William, then twenty-three years old, (fn. 200) had seisin, but died in January 1443–4, leaving a son John, aged two years. (fn. 201) Eleanor widow of Sir William held the manor of Trafford in dower till her death in January 1451–2. (fn. 202) The infant heir had died, and his heirs were found to be John Norton, aged twenty-six, son of her daughter Isabel wife of Richard Norton, and Denise, aged thirty-six, another daughter, wife of William Mallory. (fn. 203) The heirs received the manors (fn. 204) and lands and in 1451 made a partition, (fn. 205) by which Trafford was given to the Mallorys of Studley in Yorkshire. (fn. 206)
William Mallory, who had held his lands in right of his wife, died in or before 1475, holding the manor of Trafford, with a fishery in the Tees, as well as other estates in Durham; the heir was his grandson William, of full age. (fn. 207) This William died in 1498, holding the same estate, leaving a son and heir John, aged twenty-four. (fn. 208) John, who married Margaret, daughter of Edmund Thwaites, (fn. 209) had seisin of his father's lands in 1499 (fn. 210); he became a knight, and died 23 March 1527–8, leaving a son William, thirty years of age. (fn. 211) In 1528 William had livery of the Durham lands. (fn. 212) He held the manor about twenty years, and died in 1547, when his son Christopher, aged twenty-five, was found to be his heir. (fn. 213) He died shortly afterwards holding 'Straffordfeld'; his posthumous son John became his heir. (fn. 214) Sir John Mallory of Studley in Yorkshire, Dame Anne his wife, and William his son and heir, in 1605 granted 'the manor and lordship of Strafforthe alias Trafforth Feilds or Trafford Hill' to William and John Wentworth, younger sons of William Wentworth of Wentworth Woodhouse, (fn. 215) and the conveyance seems to have been completed in 1613–14. (fn. 216)
The Wentworths did not retain the manor long, for it was sold to John Witham of Cliffe in 1622. (fn. 217) Soon afterwards it appears to have been sequestered for his recusancy, (fn. 218) and this was certainly the case under the Commonwealth. (fn. 219) In the latter part of the 18th century it was owned by Robert Raikes Fulthorp, (fn. 220) and about 1830 by Robert Campion, who sold it in 1840. (fn. 221) The executors of the late Alexander Park of Hutton Rudly held it early in the 20th century, and it now belongs to Mr. W. Clark.
The Surtees family had land in Trafford, including a parcel called County Flat. (fn. 222) Part was repurchased by Thomas, son of Thomas Gra. (fn. 223) Richard de Scolacle and Alice his wife in 1386–7 acknowledged that land called County Flat, part of the manor of Trafford, was held of the bishop, and not of Isabel Tempest as of her manor there. (fn. 224) The Killinghalls also for a long time had an estate in Trafford. (fn. 225)
The church of ST. MARY THE VIRGIN (fn. 226) stands on an ancient site and consists of a chancel 28 ft. 6 in. by 15 ft. 6 in. with north vestry and organ chamber, nave 46 ft. by 20 ft., chapel forming a south aisle, 26 ft. 8 in. by 8 ft. 6 in., south porch and west tower 10 ft. 9 in. square, all these measurements being internal.
The fragment of a pre-Conquest stone carved on two sides was found in 1908 built into the buttress on the north side of the chancel and is now in the porch. The oldest parts of the existing fabric, however, are the south doorway, the jambs of the chancel arch and portions of the north wall of the nave, which are all that remains of a 12th-century church, consisting of an aisleless nave, apparently of the same dimensions as still exist, and a chancel. Some work appears to have been done in the 13th century, two fragments having been found in 1908, one with the dog-tooth and the other with a nail-head ornament, and the bowl of the piscina in the chancel is of this period. The building then seems to have remained unaltered till the 15th century when the Aislaby chapel on the south side of the nave, later known as Hindmers' or Pemberton's porch, was added. The 11th-century chancel, which was the same width as the nave, was entirely rebuilt at the same time or shortly after, the tower erected, and the nave considerably altered, all the windows now being of 15th-century date. In 1633 the chancel was reported to be in good repair, but the south chapel, 'called Hindmers' porch,' was in great decay. (fn. 227) The chapel was then apparently restored and other repairs done to the building. In the latter part of the 17th century under Cosin's episcopate the chancel roof was renewed and new fittings, including chancel screen and stalls and seating to the nave, were inserted. A slated roof replaced the old leaded one over the nave between 1811 and 1814, and a flat plaster ceiling was erected at the same time. The interior was restored in 1864, when the ceiling was taken down and the walls plastered. The vestry and organ chamber were added in 1908. The tower was repaired and electric light ins alled in 1926.
The church throughout is built of rubble masonry, and the roof of the chancel, which is covered with blue slates, (fn. 228) is lower than that of the nave. The walls of the nave finish with embattled parapets, and the roof is covered with blue slates, but the south aisle or chapel is under a lean-to leaded roof behind a straight parapet.
The chancel has a five-light pointed east window with perpendicular tracery, and two windows of three cinquefoiled lights on the south side with four-centred labelled heads. A single window of similar type originally existed on the north side near the west end, but was reset in the north wall of the organ chamber in 1908. The 17th-century oak roof is in three bays with two end and two middle curved principals and moulded purlins. The principals are carried down the walls and rest on carved oak corbels. At the east end of the south wall in the usual position is an ogee-headed piscina, with a broken 13th-century bowl, having a base of a shaft on each side. Adjoining is a triple sedile with four-centred arches and attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The recesses are only 7 in. in depth and originally had apparently movable seats of wood. Immediately west of the sedile is a four-centred priest's doorway. The floor is flagged and the west end of the north wall is open to the organ chamber. The pointed chancel arch is of two chamfered orders with hood mould towards the nave springing from the older square responds and chamfered imposts.
The nave has two windows on the north side similar to those in the chancel, the easternmost being old, the other a restoration. There is also a window of two cinquefoiled lights on the south side between the tower and the porch and a built-up doorway in the north wall. The nave roof is modern, plastered between the principals. The chapel is open to the nave towards the east end by an arcade of two pointed arches of two chamfered orders springing from an octagonal pier with moulded capital and dying into the wall at each end. The east wall of the chapel is in the same line as that of the nave, and there are two windows of two cinquefoiled lights with four-centred heads on the south side. The end walls are blank, the porch being built up against the west wall. Between the windows is a recess with flat four-centred chamfered arch, containing a recumbent stone effigy of late 13th- or early 14th-century date, probably commemorating Sir William de Aislaby, who established a chantry at his manor-house in 1313, or Thomas Aislaby, who fought at the battle of Lewes. The figure is that of a man in chain mail and long surcoat. The head rests on two cushions and the feet on a lion. The right hand grasps the hilt of the sword and the left holds the scabbard. Over the left arm is a shield with the arms of Aislaby suspended from the right shoulder by a belt, and a winged monster is represented biting the bottom of the shield. Another effigy, very similar in type, but much worn and weathered, is preserved in the porch. The arms on the shield are obliterated, but the figure probably represents a member of the same family.
The south doorway has a late pointed arch introduced below the 12th-century semicircular opening. The original arch is composed of fifteen plain voussoirs springing from angle shafts with large carved capitals and chamfered imposts running back to the wall on each side. The shaft on the west side is octagonal in section, the other circular, and the capitals are 15 in. deep with volutes at the angles and a face below. The porch is 8 ft. 6 in. square internally and of late date with a very low plain outer arch, above which is a wooden sundial dated 1779 with the motto, 'Memento mori,' and the names of the churchwardens. It was renovated in 1881.
The tower is of three stages with embattled parapet and angle pinnacles, and has a projecting vice in the south-east corner stopping at the second stage. There are diagonal buttresses of three stages at the north-eastern and western angles finishing below the belfry, the windows of which are pointed. The mullions have been cut away and the openings filled with wooden louvres. The pointed west window is of three cinquefoiled lights, and there is a modern single light with trefoiled head in the middle stage above. The two lower stages north and south are blank. The tower arch is of two chamfered orders dying into the wall at the springing. The opening is the full width of the tower. The vice is entered from a doorway in the south-west corner of the nave.
The font is of late 12th or early 13th-century date and consists of a plain circular stone bowl moulded on the edge, on a moulded stem and base. It stands below the tower and has a 17th-century oak pyramidal crocketed cover. (fn. 229)
The woodwork and fittings are chiefly of Cosin's time, but the pulpit, altar rails, and pewing in the chapel are about a century later. The chancel screen has five openings, and is of mixed Gothic and Renaissance detail. The lower panels and the heads of the openings are of late Gothic type, the cornice, turned balusters and carved posts being of Renaissance character. The work, if not equal to that of the same date in other parts of the county, is interesting, and the same characteristics are prevalent in the stall work and wainscot of the chancel. The sanctuary walls are panelled to a height of 6 ft. 9 in., and there are four stalls on each side to the west of the priest's doorway with canopies and cornice supported by turned balusters, and two others on each return against the screen. In the wainscot the Gothic feeling predominates as at Brancepeth and Sedgefield, but in the stalls the detail is chiefly Renaissance in character. The fronts of the seats have semicircular-headed panels, and the bench ends have poppy heads and swags of fruit and flowers. The nave is filled with good 17th-century oak pewing with open backs and doors filled with short turned balusters, and with turned knobs to the pew ends. The pulpit, which stands in the north-east corner of the nave, is of plain but good 18th-century design and has a canopy.
In the porch, in addition to the fragments and the effigy already mentioned, are a mediaeval grave slab with raised cross, and the upper part of a stone crucifix. Copies of Jewell's Apology and the Works of Charles I are preserved in the chapel.
There is a ring of eight tubular bells hung in 1897, but two old bells still hang in the tower. The oldest is of mediaeval date, probably about 1400, and bears the inscription, 'Sancta Maria Ora Pro Nobis,' some of the letters being reversed. The other is dated 1665 on the waist, but has no inscription. (fn. 230)
The plate consists of a 17th-century chalice (c. 1664) made by John Wilkinson of Newcastle; a paten made by William Ramsey of Newcastle, inscribed 'Dec. 6th 1687'; and a set of two chalices, two patens, a flagon and an almsdish provided under the will of Robert Henry Allan of Blackwell Hall, Darlington, in 1889. There is also a modern flagon of Britannia metal, Sheffield make. A chalice, paten and flagon of 1863, given by Mrs. Maltby, wife of the rector, are now in use at the church at Haverton Hill. (fn. 231)
The registers begin in 1539. There is a gap between the years 1550 and 1574.
The Bishops of Durham had the patronage of the church down to 1859, but the king presented at various times during a vacancy of the see. (fn. 232) The patronage was transferred to the Bishop of Manchester in 1859, (fn. 233) but was afterwards exchanged for an advowson in Lancashire. Col. Mackenzie was patron about 1885, and Sir Hugh Bell, bart., now has the presentation.
The appearance of Gille, clerk of Egglescliffe, among ecclesiastical witnesses to a charter in 1085 (fn. 234) indicates probably that there was then a church. The earliest distinct mention of the church is a century later, when it contributed 3 marks to an aid in 1199. (fn. 235) The value of the benefice was taxed at £40 a year in 1291, (fn. 236) but by 1318 this had been reduced to £20 15s. (fn. 237) In 1535 the annual value was £29, out of which 3s. was paid to the archdeacon; (fn. 238) the receipts included 5s. from Middleton St. George. (fn. 239)
In 1386 a chamber on the west of the rectory house near the churchyard gate was confirmed to John de Egglescliffe, chaplain, for life. (fn. 240)
The proceedings at the court of the rectorial manor are among the parish records. (fn. 241)
There was no endowed chantry at the parish church, but chapels existed at Aislaby and Newsham. William de Aislaby in 1313 gave 3 oxgangs of land in alms for a priest in St. Thomas the Martyr's chapel at Aislaby, (fn. 242) and in 1342 John de Aislaby presented to the chantry then vacant. (fn. 243) The advowson of the chapel of Newsham was among the possessions of John de Balliol in 1294, (fn. 244) and several presentations to it are recorded. (fn. 245) The advowson is mentioned in 1397. (fn. 246) In the 15th century Bishop Langley sequestered the chapel of St. James until the chaplain had paid the arrears of a pension of 3s. due to the rector of Egglescliffe. (fn. 247) The later history of these chapels is unknown, but three messuages and 3 oxgangs of land in Aislaby belonging to St. Thomas the Martyr's chapel there were leased by the Crown in 1597 to Christopher Sherwood and were sold by the Crown in 1605 to Sir Henry Lindley and John Starkey. (fn. 248) One acre of land called Lampland was given to the church of Egglescliffe for the maintenance of a lamp. (fn. 249)
The charity of William Hall, founded by deed, 1660, consists of a rent-charge of £6 yearly issuing out of land at Yarm in Yorkshire. The annuity is distributed equally among five poor widows.
Ann French, by her will proved at Durham in 1836, bequeathed £100, the income to be divided at Christmas among the poor. The legacy is represented by £109 2s. 10d. consols with the official trustees. The annual dividends, amounting to £2 14s. 4d., are distributed to the poor in sums of 5s.
For the National School see article on schools. (fn. 250)