A History of the County of Essex: Volume 4, Ongar Hundred. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1956.
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The manor of ONGAR alias LITTLE ONGAR, later known as ASHHALL alias NASH HALL was held in 1066 by Leuric as a manor and 3 virgates. In 1086 it was held by Roger of John son of Waleran. (fn. 1) There is no direct reference to the manor in the 12th century, but in 1212 it was held by William de Monceux of the king in chief 'de Mareschaucie', and it was added that it had been 'de baronia Gileberti de Tani'. (fn. 2) This marshalship consisted of looking after the prostitutes at the king's court, dismembering condemned malefactors, and measuring the king's 'gallons' and 'bushels'. (fn. 3) In 1166 this strange office had been held by William Fitz Audelin, who had received it in marriage with Juliane, daughter of Robert Doisnel. (fn. 4) This Robert may have been a descendant of the Domesday tenant Roger. (fn. 5) Gilbert de Tany, of whose barony the manor had been held, was the successor of the Domesday overlord John son of Waleran. (fn. 6) The tenure of the manor of Ongar was probably converted from knight service to grand serjeanty early in the 12th century. This would have had the effect of dissolving the mesne lordship.
Juliane wife of William Fitz Audelin died in or before 1199, without sons. Her heirs were William de Warblington and Enguerrand de Monceux, possibly the sons of two of her daughters. (fn. 7) In 1204 William de Warblington paid a fine to the king for having Ongar, but in the following year there was a partition of Juliane's land as the result of which Ongar came to Waleran de Monceux, who was probably brother and successor of Enguerrand. (fn. 8) Waleran was succeeded by his son William de Monceux, the tenant of 1212. The marshalship ultimately passed to William de Warblington and his heirs and it is not surprising that there was confusion over the tenure by which Ongar was held. In 1375 the manor was said to be held of the Earl of Stafford in socage and by suit at the hundred court. (fn. 9)
In 1220 William de Monceux owed a palfrey for having an annual fair at his town of 'Old Ongar'. (fn. 10) He died in 1243. (fn. 11) There is a curious absence of references to this manor for the rest of the 13th century, and when it reappears again it is under the new name of Ashhall. In 1332 John de Fiennes and his wife Maud made a conveyance of Ashhall. (fn. 12) Maud was sister and heir of John de Monceux, great-greatgrandson of William de Monceux. (fn. 13) From this it is clear that the descent of the manor was the same as that of Herstmonceux (Sussex) and Compton Monceux (in King's Sombourne, Hants). (fn. 14) Nash Hall continued to descend with Herstmonceux until 1600, when it was conveyed to Thomas Mildmay by Samson Leonard and Margaret Lady Dacre his wife. (fn. 15) Thomas, who was also lord of the manor of Barnes in Springfield, was later knighted and died in 1612. (fn. 16) He was succeeded at Nash Hall by one of his younger sons, Walter Mildmay. (fn. 17)
Walter Mildmay held courts as lord of the manor from 1613 to 1654. (fn. 18) By 1661 he had been succeeded by his eldest son Ambrose who held court in that year and later up to 1681. (fn. 19) Ambrose probably died without children soon after 1681, for in 1696 and 1698 the manor was the subject of conveyances by Walter Wallinger, Anthony Wallinger, and Judith Wallinger, spinster. (fn. 20) Walter and Judith were the children of Benjamin Wallinger, who had married Judith, daughter of Walter Mildmay. (fn. 21) Anthony was possibly their brother; they were probably making a division of the manors as heirs of their uncle Ambrose.
Anthony Wallinger was lord of the manor in 1714, (fn. 22) but by 1728 it had passed to Peter Champion. (fn. 23) Peter or a namesake was lord in 1757 and about 1770. (fn. 24) By 1780 Anthony Champion was lord. (fn. 25) He continued to hold it until about 1800-1. (fn. 26) Henry Partridge was lord in 1803. (fn. 27) About 1813-14 Nash Hall was acquired by the Revd. J. Bramston Stane, and thus became part of the Forest Hall estate (see below). (fn. 28) In 1849 the Nash Hall section of the estate consisted of 204 acres occupied by James Palmer. (fn. 29) In 1862 Nash Hall farm contained 195 acres and was occupied by Mrs. Palmer on an eight-year lease at an annual rental of £300. (fn. 30) In 1919 the farm was 268 acres. (fn. 31)
The present farm-house is timber-framed and plastered. It shows no obvious signs of antiquity, and if it formed part of the medieval manor house it was probably largely reconstructed in the 18th century.
The manor of ONGAR PARK alias BATELLS was originally part of that of Stanford Rivers (q.v.), and was known late in the 13th century as the manor of Stanford Park. In the 14th century and later it lay on the boundary of the parishes of High Ongar and Stanford Rivers. Before this, although part of the manor of Stanford Rivers, it may have been wholly in the parish of High Ongar (see below, Church, c. 1280).
Humphrey de Walden, to whom the manor was granted in 1300, died in 1331, seised of 'the park of Stanford, held of the king as parcel of the manor of Stanford Rivers'. The manor was then said to consist of 270 acres of arable, worth 5d. an acre, land at farm worth 2s. (?) 8d., and pasture worth 60s. beyond the fees of Thomas Tracy, Thomas de Caune, and John de Rychyng (?). (fn. 32) John de Cantebrigg was granted custody of Humphrey's heir Andrew, son of Roger de Walden. (fn. 33) In 1336 a royal licence was granted to Andrew de Walden to enfeoff trustees with a messuage, a carucate of land, and 800 acres of wood in Stanford Rivers, Ongar, and (North) Weald, held of the king in chief. (fn. 34) The purpose of this conveyance was to settle the property on Andrew, with remainder to Humphrey and Thomas de Walden his brothers.
Andrew de Walden died in 1352 and his estate was then held in dower by his widow Joan. (fn. 35) She died in 1361. (fn. 36) Thomas de Walden, son and heir of Andrew, was still a minor, and in 1362 the king granted custody of Ongar Park to John de Bampton in return for an annual payment of 10 marks. (fn. 37)
Thomas de Walden made proof of age in 1367. (fn. 38) In 1367 and 1368 he settled Ongar Park upon himself and his wife Margaret. (fn. 39) In 1404 Thomas and Margaret settled the reversion of the manor after their deaths upon Thomas Bataille, son of Thomas de Walden's sister Alice, and Eleanor his wife, daughter of Thomas Oudeby. (fn. 40) In 1412 Thomas de Walden's manor of 'Park Hall' was valued for taxation purposes at £12 a year. (fn. 41) He died in 1420. The manor was then said to contain 200 acres of land worth 4d. an acre and 800 acres of wood worth 3d. an acre, held of the king in chief. It was held after Thomas's death by his widow Margaret. (fn. 42) In 1422 it was settled upon Thomas Dryffeld, goldsmith of London and Margaret his wife. (fn. 43) Probably Margaret de Walden had married Thomas Dryffeld.
By 1434 the manor had come to Thomas Bataille, by virtue of the settlement of 1404. (fn. 44) It was from his family that the manor derived its alternative name of Batells or Batailles. Thomas was succeeded on his death in 1439 by his son John. (fn. 45) A third part of the manor was retained in dower by Isabel, wife of Thomas Bataille. She was alive in 1447 and was then the wife of Robert Thornhill. (fn. 46) In 1454 John Bataille temporarily forfeited two-thirds of the manor. He had pledged the property as surety for the good behaviour of Robert Poynings, who had been 'carver and swordbearer' to Jack Cade and had subsequently been bound over to keep the peace, but had failed to do so. (fn. 47) Now the king seized Bataille's part of the manor and delivered it to John Leventhorpe and Richard de la Felde to be kept for fifteen years 'if the premises shall remain so long in the king's hand' at an annual farm of 20 marks. (fn. 48) In 1473 Bataille received the royal licence once more freely to hold the manor. (fn. 49) Presumably he had by this time become seised of the third of it formerly held in dower by Isabel. He died in 1474, leaving John Bataille his son and heir. (fn. 50)
Richard Bataille, perhaps son of the last named John Bataille, died in 1540. (fn. 51) Under a settlement made in 1518 the manor passed to Richard's niece Joan (Ferne) and her husband William Shelton. (fn. 52)
William Shelton was dead by 1553, when a conveyance of the manor was made by his widow and their son Humfrey Shelton. (fn. 53) In or about 1590 Ongar Park was being leased by Humfrey Shelton to Edmond Felton. (fn. 54) Humfrey died in 1605 and was succeeded by his son William Shelton. (fn. 55) In 1615 William Shelton conveyed the manor to William Copley, (fn. 56) but after Shelton's death in 1620-1 there was a dispute over this transaction, between Copley and Robert Napper, Shelton's executor. (fn. 57) An agreement was eventually reached providing for the payment by Copley to Napper of £4,300, for which Copley gave as security a bond for £6,000 and a lease of Ongar Park for 99 years.
William Copley died in 1623. (fn. 58) Shortly before his death he had settled the manor on trustees for the repayment of his debts. It was probably these trustees who sold Ongar Park to Sir Richard Minshull, who held it in 1641. (fn. 59) He was a zealous royalist in the Civil War and after the fall of Oxford compounded for his estates in Bucks., Essex, and elsewhere. (fn. 60) He died in 1667 and was succeeded by his son Richard. (fn. 61) In 1700 the manor was conveyed to trustees by Richard Minshull in order that it should be sold to pay his debts and to provide for his only child Mary. (fn. 62) In 1705 Ongar Park was sold to Sir Thomas Webster, 1st Bt. (d. 1751) of Copped Hall, Epping. (fn. 63)
In 1738 Webster sold the manor to Aaron Franks of London, who held it in trust for Henry Franks, son of his brother Isaac (d. 1736). (fn. 64) Henry, who was a lunatic, died childless in 1796, and Ongar Park then passed under the terms of his father's will to Jacob Henry Franks, son of Henry's sister Phylah (d. 1764) by her husband Napthali Franks (d. 1796). (fn. 65) In 1805 Jacob H. Franks sold the manor to Capel Cure of Blake Hall in Bobbingworth. (fn. 66) It subsequently descended along with Blake Hall (q.v.). An undated plan of the manor 'belonging to Mr. Franks' shows all field boundaries and farm buildings. The total extent of the estate was then 1,327 acres. (fn. 67) It included six farms, of which the largest was 300 acres. Ongar Park Wood was 280 acres and was the only substantial part of the estate kept in hand. The manor extended into the parish of Stanford Rivers. In 1849 the part of it in High Ongar alone consisted of some 700 acres, including Cold Harbour, Wardens, and Newhouse farms. (fn. 68) There was in addition about 1,000 acres in Stanford Rivers by that time. (fn. 69) Ongar Park farm was put up for sale in 1919. It then comprised 637 acres of which 392 acres were in High Ongar. It was then let to James and T. C. Kerr at an annual rent of £600. (fn. 70)
The timber-framed east wing of Ongar Park Hall is probably of medieval origin. Timbers in a partition between two bedrooms represent part of a roof truss which may have divided the open hall into two bays. The ridge purlin is still in position at the level of the bedroom ceiling, but the rest of the construction has been destroyed by the insertion of a later chimney. The south wing, also timber-framed, was built or reconstructed in the 18th century. Later additions were made in the 19th century.
The manor of ASHLYNS lay partly in High Ongar and partly in Bobbingworth and North Weald. (fn. 71) It derived its name from Richard Ascelyn who made conveyances of land in and near High Ongar in 1320, 1324, and 1327. (fn. 72)
The estate is first described as a manor in 1475, when it was among the possessions left by Walter Wrytell, at his death. (fn. 73) His son and heir John Wrytell died in 1485 leaving an infant son, also named John. (fn. 74) Katherine widow of Walter Wrytell evidently held the manor in dower until her death in 1493. (fn. 75) John son of John Wrytell died in 1507. He was survived by his wife Audrey, daughter of John Shaa. (fn. 76) His daughter and heir Juliane was dead by 25 November 1509, when the heirs to Ashlyns and other manors were declared to be the daughters of Walter Wrytell: Eleanor, wife of James Walsingham and Gresilda wife of Edward Waldegrave. (fn. 77)
Ashlyns was allotted to Eleanor and she and her husband made a conveyance of the manor in 1551. (fn. 78) James Walsingham died in 1540. (fn. 79) There is no indication whether or not he then retained an interest in the manor. Ashlyns did not remain long in the Walsingham family: in 1584 it was among the possessions of William Ayloffe, who died in that year. (fn. 80) He was the grandson of William Ayloffe of Great Braxted (d. 1517) who had married Audrey, daughter of Sir John Shaa, Lord Mayor of London. (fn. 81) This Audrey was probably the widow of John Wrytell (d. 1507) and it is likely that her second husband bought Ashlyns from the Walsinghams. (fn. 82)
William Ayloffe was succeeded in 1584 by his son William, then 23. (fn. 83) In 1610 Sir William Ayloffe conveyed Ashlyns to Richard Hale. (fn. 84) In 1651 Robert Hale, probably son or grandson of Richard, conveyed the manor to Henry Hunter. (fn. 85) Hunter transferred it in 1672 to Baldwin Hamey, F.R.C.P., who settled it in the same year on the Royal College of Physicians. (fn. 86) Hamey provided that the revenues from the manor should be used to pay stipends of £40 to a physician of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, £30 to a physician of St. Thomas's Hospital, and £10 to a physician of Christ Church Hospital for poor children, and also for the provision of certain amenities within the college itself. The pensioners were to be chosen in each case by the governors of the hospitals from two candidates nominated by the college. (fn. 87) For 250 years Ashlyns remained the property of the college. In 1849 it consisted of 325 acres in High Ongar. (fn. 88) In 1922 the college sold it to Matthew Torrance. (fn. 89)
A moated site north-east of the present farm-house indicates the position of the original manor house of Ashlyns. The present house, described by Morant as a 'mean farm-house or cottage', (fn. 90) appears to date from the late 17th or early 18th century with later additions. Some of the timbers in the farm buildings appear to be older than the house.
The manor of CHIVERS HALL alias PASSFIELD CHIVERS was held in 1338 by Ralph son of William de Pebmersh and Cecily his wife. (fn. 91) In 1475 it was held by Sir Robert Chamberlain and Elizabeth his wife. (fn. 92) Elizabeth was the descendant and heir of Ralph de Pebmersh. (fn. 93) In 1482 she and Sir Robert conveyed Chivers Hall to Sir Thomas Stalbroke, Kt., who died holding it in 1484. (fn. 94) In 1498 the manor was conveyed to William Pawne owner of Withers Pawne by William Luke and Alice his wife, widow of Sir Thomas Stalbroke. (fn. 95) The precise significance of this conveyance is not clear, but it is likely that it was a family arrangement: the Pawne and Stalbroke families were related by marriage. (fn. 96)
A William Pawne was lord of the manor in 1565. (fn. 97) He died in 1570 and was succeeded by his son of the same name. (fn. 98) This last William Pawne died in 1578. (fn. 99) His heir was Bridget, wife of William Chatterton and daughter of Roger Basing by his wife Anne, sister of the William Pawne who had died in 1570. Bridget and William Chatterton immediately sold the manor to John Penruddock. (fn. 100) The property was said to consist of 40 messuages, 6 cottages, 10 tofts, 2 dovehouses, 40 gardens, 40 orchards, 400 acres of land, 120 acres of meadow, 300 acres of pasture, 60 acres of wood, 100 acres of furze, and 60s. rent in High Ongar, Blackmore, and Writtle. (fn. 101) These figures probably included Withers Pawne (see below).
John Penruddock was still alive in 1595, when he sold Withers Pawne. In 1608 a conveyance of Passfield Chivers was made by Joyce Clarke, widow, and William Bingham and his wife Elizabeth. (fn. 102) In 1617 the manor was settled for life upon Joyce Clarke by William Austin who in January 1627 married Anne Bingham 'of the parish of St. Saviour's, Surrey, widow'. (fn. 103) From this it seems likely that Joyce Clarke was the mother of Elizabeth or William Bingham and that she was holding the manor in dower. (fn. 104) In November 1627 the manor was settled in tail upon William son of the above William Austin. (fn. 105) William Austin the father died in 1634. (fn. 106) In 1650 William Austin the son sold Passfield Chivers to Sir John Thorowgood. (fn. 107) The manor was then described as 2 messuages, 2 barns, a dovehouse, 2 gardens, 2 orchards, 100 acres of land, 20 acres of meadow, 60 acres of pasture, and 12 acres of wood in High Ongar and Norton Mandeville. (fn. 108) Thorowgood sold the manor in 1675 to Dr. William Stane of London, and in 1688 a conveyance of the manor was made by William Stane and his father Richard. (fn. 109) From that time its descent was the same as that of the manor of Forest Hall (see below). In 1849 Chivers Hall farm comprised 173 acres and was occupied by Thomas Stokes. (fn. 110) In 1862 it contained 170 acres and was occupied by Mrs. Stokes on a fourteen-year lease at an annual rent of £250. (fn. 111) By 1919 it had increased to 189 acres. (fn. 112) At the break-up of the Forest Hall estate in that year the farm was bought by the tenant, W. Montgomerie, who later sold it to Mr. H. L. Bird the present (1953) owner. The tenant of Chivers Hall is now Mr. J. Clarke. The farm comprises 180 acres. (fn. 113)
The farm-house is timber-framed and is a lofty rectangular structure with a narrow two-story porch wing in the centre of the south-west front. In general it appears to be of late 17th or early 18th century date, but an oak mullioned window of about 1600 on the upper floor suggests that parts may be more ancient. The house was altered and restored about fifteen years ago when the present staircase was inserted. There is a kitchen wing of red brick at the north-east corner of the house.
The manor of WITHERS PAWNE alias WETHERSPANE alias CHIVERS PAWNE alias CHIVERS HALL appears to have been the original estate of the Pawne family, which later acquired the neighbouring manor of Chivers Hall (see above). The manor house is now known as The Rookery. A William Pawne held the manor in 1494 (fn. 114) and it descended to his namesake who died in 1578. (fn. 115) By his will dated April 1578 William Pawne left Chivers Pawne to William Chatterton, who had married his sister's daughter Bridget. (fn. 116) Withers Pawne evidently passed with Chivers Hall to John Penruddock but in 1595 was separated from the main manor and sold to Gregory Yonge, grocer of London. (fn. 117) Yonge held a manor court in 1596. (fn. 118) He died in or shortly before 1610. (fn. 119) The manor passed to the Holman family, to which he was probably related through the marriage of his daughter Jane. (fn. 120) In 1618 a conveyance of Withers Pawne was made by Elizabeth Holman, widow. (fn. 121) She had probably been the wife of Alexander (d. 1617) son of George Holman. (fn. 122) Sir John Holman, 1st Bt. (cr. 1663), held Withers Pawne in 1679. (fn. 123) He had probably inherited it from his father Philip Holman (d. 1669) who was no doubt a collateral descendant of Alexander Holman, who had died childless. (fn. 124) Sir John died shortly before May 1700. (fn. 125) In the same year Withers Pawne was conveyed by Anastasia Holman, widow, to William Baker. (fn. 126) William Baker held a court in the manor in 1718. (fn. 127) He was succeeded by his son Bramston Baker. (fn. 128) In 1849 Chivers Pawne farm was owned and occupied by William Baker and comprised 134 acres. (fn. 129) The farm was purchased in 1926 by the London Co-operative Society Ltd. It now comprises 98½ acres freehold, with an additional 19½ acres rented. Mixed arable and dairy farming is carried on there. (fn. 130)
The Rookery farm-house is a timber-framed building probably dating from the 16th century. It was originally built on a half H-shaped plan. (fn. 131) About 20 years ago it was thoroughly reconditioned: part of the northeast wing and also an 18th-century addition between the two wings were demolished. At each end of the house is an original red-brick external chimney with two diagonal shafts.
The manor of FOREST HALL (formerly FOLIOTS HALL) originated as a tenement of ½ hide in Norton held in 1066 by a woman named 'Godid'. After the Conquest it was given by her to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. (fn. 132) It continued to be known as the manor of Norton until the 13th century. In 1181 it was farmed for St. Paul's by Odo de Dammartin, a member of the family which held the neighbouring manor of Norton, later Norton Mandeville. (fn. 133) It was then stated that the manor satisfied the royal demand for hidage in the time of Henry I and William the Dean by paying for 40 acres and by giving to the bailiff of the hundred 12d. and 12d. for wardpenny. There were 100 acres of arable land, 5 acres of meadow, and 12 acres of wood. There was 1 plough in demesne and the manor rendered to St. Paul's 40s. in the octave of Easter and 60s. at the Exaltation of the Cross. (fn. 134)
Another inquisition into the lands of St. Paul's was held in 1222. (fn. 135) John de Dammartin was now the farmer. The hidage of the manor was the same as in 1181. The manor was free from suit of county, but followed the hundred of Ongar; at the suit of which 12d. were paid from the demesne to the reeve of the hundred and 12d. from the tenants. There were now 102 acres of arable, 6 acres of meadow, and 12 acres of poor (gracilis) woodland. The arable could be tilled with one plough team of eight beasts. Seven marks had been spent on fertilizing the land with marl and the erection of new buildings. The names and services of six tenants were given.
In the middle of the 13th century the manor was held, under St. Paul's, by Richard Foliot, Archdeacon of Middlesex. John son of Ernald de Mandeville (see Norton Mandeville) granted 60 acres of land in the parish of 'Great Norton' to Foliot for the use of St. Paul's in free alms. (fn. 136) In 1258 John de Mandeville granted to St. Paul's 76 acres of land and 1 acre of meadow in Norton in pure and perpetual alms. (fn. 137) Perhaps this last grant included all or some of that to Foliot.
The manor remained in the possession of St. Paul's throughout the Middle Ages, and was known sometimes as Norton and sometimes as Norton Foliot. In 1535, under the name of Folyathall it was valued at £6 13s. 4d. (fn. 138) In 1544 St. Paul's exchanged the manor for other lands with the king, who in the same year sold Folyathall and a wood called Folyatswood to William Rigges for £1,127. (fn. 139) Rigges immediately transferred the property to Sir Richard Rich, later 1st Baron Rich. (fn. 140)
In 1562 Lord Rich conveyed Foliots Hall to Richard Stane of Shelley, yeoman, and Richard his son. (fn. 141) Richard Stane the elder died in 1601 and was succeeded by Richard the younger, then aged 40. (fn. 142) Foliots Hall had been settled upon the latter in 1589, on his marriage to Ann Rabett. (fn. 143) He died in 1614, leaving a son and heir John. (fn. 144) A Richard Stane held Forest Hall in 1687. (fn. 145) He died in 1714 and the manor passed to his son William. (fn. 146) In 1725 a settlement of the manor was made by William Stane and Alice his wife, William Stane the younger and Richard Stane. (fn. 147) By 1774 Forest Hall had passed to John Westbrook who in 1770 had married Mary Alice daughter of William Stane. (fn. 148) Forest Hall farm, surveyed in 1774, contained 277 acres. (fn. 149) Mrs. Westbrook died in 1801, having devised the estate to the Revd. John Bramston, son of Thomas Berney Bramston of Skreens in Roxwell. (fn. 150) As a result of this legacy John Bramston assumed the additional surname of Stane. Forest Hall gave its name to an estate in High Ongar and neighbouring parishes which included the manors of Nash Hall, Chivers Hall, Newarks Norton, Herons in Fyfield (q.v.), Norton Mandeville (q.v.), and Rockells in Willingale Doe. A map of the estate drawn about 1840-50 shows all these except Rockells, which was acquired later. At that time the total area of the estate was about 1,000 acres, of which about 750 acres were freehold. (fn. 151)
The Revd. J. B. Stane died in 1857 and was succeeded by J. Bramston Stane his son. (fn. 152) In 1862 J. B. Stane bought an estate at Sherfield upon Loddon, Hants, where he built himself a house. (fn. 153) In the same year the Forest Hall estate was put up for sale. It then consisted of 2,228 acres of which 271 acres were leasehold. Some 750 acres were in hand and there were eight farms let to tenant farmers on leases varying from 8 to 12 years. The total rent roll (including estimates for the lands in hand) was £3,521. (fn. 154) The estate was purchased over the next four years by J. L. Newall. The conveyances included the purchase of the freehold of Norton Hall farm and manor (see Norton Mandeville) which had been the leasehold part of the estate. (fn. 155) During the next 30 years Newall made substantial additions to the estate. He lived at Forest Hall until his death about 1900. His son, J. W. Newall, leased the hall from about 1902 to H. M. McCorquodale. (fn. 156) In 1919 the whole estate was put up for sale and broken up. At that time it consisted of 3,831 acres in the parishes of High and Chipping Ongar, Norton Mandeville, Fyfield, Shelley, Willingale Spain, and Willingale Doe. (fn. 157) In addition to the manors named above, it included Paslow Hall (see below) and Fyfield Hall, which belonged to the estate, but without the manorial rights formerly appurtenant to them. There were altogether seventeen farms in the estate, ranging in size from Paslow Hall (619 acres) to Welchman's (64 acres, in Fyfield). Forest Hall house, together with Little Forest Hall and Newarks Hall, were bought about 1924 by H. M. McCorquodale, who lived at the Hall until his death in 1943. (fn. 158) His executors sold the property to the Air Ministry, which resold the house and some 80 acres adjoining to the Essex County Council. (fn. 159)
An 'elegant family mansion of brick' was built by Richard Stane about 1700. (fn. 160) The present mansion, about 300 yds. farther south, replaced it about 1845. It was built by the Revd. J. B. Stane and is a large square three-story house of gault brick with stone and stucco dressings. The front has seven windows to each of the upper floors and a central pediment. The Tuscan portico has three bays. There are extensive service quarters and out-buildings. The house has been empty since 1943. (fn. 161)
Forest Hall is one of the largest mansions in this part of Essex. In the late 19th century, during the ownership of J. L. Newall, it employed some 50 indoor and outdoor servants, and had its own gasworks and sawmill. (fn. 162)
FRITH HALL alias OLD FRITH alias OLD THRIFTS gave its name to William del Frit (temp. Henry III) who was probably the tenant. It may originally have been associated with Chivers Hall (see above). (fn. 163) In 1414 a conveyance was made by Thomas Roche, vintner, and William Leverpole, goldsmith, both of London, to John Cosoun, Arundel Herald and Agnes his wife of 1 messuage, 150 acres of land in Norton Mandeville and High Ongar called Frythall. (fn. 164)
Henry Parker (d. 1541) left to his son Roger the manor of Frith Hall in the same parishes. (fn. 165) Roger Parker conveyed it in 1555 to Richard Sampforth. (fn. 166) In 1631 John Sandford, no doubt a relative of Sampforth, conveyed the manor to Robert and John Sorrell. (fn. 167) In 1660 a conveyance of Frith Hall was made between Thomas Sorrell of the one part and Robert Sorrell and Anne his wife of the other. (fn. 168) They were probably members of the Sorrell family of Writtle. (fn. 169) The Sandfords may have remained on the estate as tenants: in 1671 a Sandford occupied a house with eight hearths in High Ongar, and an Edward Sandford occupied a house (probably Readings) in Norton Mandeville (q.v.). (fn. 170)
By 1687 the manor was acquired by Dr. Anthony Walker, Rector of Fyfield, who by his will of that year left Old Frith as part of the endowment of the charity which he founded for the education of the children of Fyfield (q.v.). (fn. 171) The charity became effective on Walker's death in 1692. (fn. 172) In 1835 Old Thrifts Farm consisted of 56 acres, occupied by Thomas Stokes as tenant of the charity trustees at a rent of £45 a year. (fn. 173) Stokes was still tenant in 1849. (fn. 174) In 1926 the farm was let by the trustees for £60 a year. (fn. 175) Now (1953) it is let by them to the London Co-operative Society and forms part of Paslow Hall farm. (fn. 176)
A weather-boarded barn is now the only building on the property.
The manor of NEW ARKS NORTON appears to have been granted about 1068 by Ingelric 'the priest' to the college of St. Martin-le-Grand, London. (fn. 177) It does not appear among the possessions of the college as recorded in Domesday Book, possibly because of the confusion that existed between the descent of Ingelric's personal property and that of the estates with which he had endowed St. Martin's. When the prebends of St. Martin's were constituted in 1158 the ninth prebend was endowed with land in Norton and Shelley and was known as that of Norton Newarks. (fn. 178) According to the late 15th-century statutes of the college this prebend was charged with the support of the vicar sub-deacon. (fn. 179) King Stephen granted the canons of St. Martin free warren on their lands of Norton. (fn. 180) In 1257 Henry III gave them licence to enclose the wood in the prebend of Norton. (fn. 181) In 1487 courts were being held in the manor of Newarks Norton by William Stillington. (fn. 182) He was no doubt a relative of Robert Stillington, Dean of St. Martin's 1458-85.
In 1503 the properties of St. Martin's were given to Westminster Abbey. (fn. 183) In 1542, when the college was finally suppressed, the gift of Newarks was confirmed to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. (fn. 184) In the following year, however, the manor was granted by the king to Sir John Williams and Anthony Stringer, who immediately conveyed it to Sir Richard Rich, later 1st Baron Rich. (fn. 185)
In 1562 Lord Rich conveyed Newarks Norton to John Waylett of Berners Roding, yeoman. (fn. 186) Waylett died in 1566. (fn. 187) His heir was his son John, but in 1569 the freedom of the manor was granted by the Crown to William, son of John Waylett. (fn. 188) A John Waylett was lord of the manor in 1591-1612. (fn. 189) He died in 1612 and was succeeded by his son, another John, who held courts in the manor in 1613, 1618, and 1626. (fn. 190)
By 1649 the manor had passed to Richard Stane, lord of the manor of Forest Hall (see above). (fn. 191) It was thus merged in the Forest Hall estate and subsequently had the same descent. In 1849 Newarks farm consisted of 303 acres and was occupied by the owner. (fn. 192) It was still in hand in 1862 but was then farmed along with Forest Hall farm, the combined farm containing 464 acres. (fn. 193)
During the Second World War Newarks became part of the large airfield built in this area, and the farmhouse was demolished. In 1919 the house was described as being of early-16th-century date with a cross-wing at the east end. A porch on the south side had an original moulded door-frame. To judge by a photograph taken at this time it may originally have been a house with an open hall. (fn. 194)
The manor of PASLOW HALL alias PASFIELD was given to Waltham Abbey by Earl Harold. The gift was confirmed in 1062 by Edward the Confessor in a charter setting out the bounds of Pasfield. (fn. 195) In 1086 Pasfield was held by the abbey as a manor and as 2 hides less 30 acres and included woodland sufficient for 700 swine. (fn. 196) The bounds of the manor as given in the charter of 1062 suggest that Pasfield then included a considerable area in the east and south of the parish, extending as far as the Stondon Massey boundary in the south-east and as far as the Roding in the west. (fn. 197)
Pasfield remained in the possession of Waltham Abbey until the Dissolution. In 1199-1200 the abbot received royal permission to take into cultivation 8 acres of land from his pastures at Pasfield. (fn. 198) Shortly before this, in 1189, Richard I had granted the abbey 60 acres of assarts. (fn. 199) In 1292 the abbot had licence to sell wood from his forest at Pasfield to the value of £10. (fn. 200)
At the dissolution of the abbey in 1540 the abbot had a grant for life issuing out of a number of manors formerly belonging to the abbey, including Paslow. (fn. 201) In 1542 the manor of Paslow Hall was granted by the king to George Harper, who immediately conveyed it to Sir Richard Rich, later 1st Baron Rich. (fn. 202) The manor remained in the possession of Rich and his heirs until the death of Charles Rich, 4th Earl of Warwick of that creation, in 1673. At the division of the earl's estates Paslow Hall fell to the share of Robert, Earl of Manchester (d. 1683), the son of Anne, daughter of Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick.
In 1676 a conveyance of the manor was made to the Earl of Manchester by Mary, dowager Countess of Warwick, as her late husband's executor. (fn. 203) In 1684 Charles, 4th Earl of Manchester, settled Paslow for life on his mother Anne, Countess of Manchester. (fn. 204) She died in 1698 but in 1697 the earl sold Paslow with her consent to Sir Josiah Child, 1st Bt. (d. 1699), the merchant and financier. (fn. 205) In the same year Child settled the manor upon his 3rd son Richard. (fn. 206) Richard Child succeeded as 3rd baronet in 1704, (fn. 207) and was created Viscount Castlemaine (1718) and Earl Tylney of Castlemaine (1731). (fn. 208) He was also owner of Wanstead, and Paslow Hall descended with Wanstead until after the marriage of Catherine Long to William Wellesley Pole (1812). (fn. 209) A map of Pasfield Hall in 1741 shows that it then consisted of 692 acres in the centre of the parish. (fn. 210) In 1786 Sir James Tylney Long, Bt., mortgaged the manors of Paslow Hal land Fyfield for £5,000. The mortgage was cleared in 1793. (fn. 211)
Unlike Wanstead, Paslow Hall was not sold by William Pole-Tylney-Long-Wellesley. He remained lord of the manor until 1850 or later, by which time he had become Earl of Mornington. (fn. 212) In 1849 Paslow Hall consisted of 705 acres and was occupied by Andrew Ling and John Brown. (fn. 213) Lord Mornington died in 1857 but by 1855 the lordship of Paslow Hall had passed to his son, later 5th Earl of Mornington. (fn. 214) After the death of the 5th earl in 1863 the manor was held for some years by trustees. (fn. 215) By 1899 it had become the possession of Alfred C. Bristow, (fn. 216) who in 1906 still held the manorial rights. (fn. 217) Paslow Hall Farm was separated from the manor in 1866-7 and sold to J. L. Newall, thus becoming part of the Forest Hall estate (see above). (fn. 218) On the break up of the estate in 1919 the farm was bought by the Stratford Cooperative Society. (fn. 219) Paslow Hall Farm is now (1953) owned by the London Co-operative Society, in which the Stratford society is merged. Its area is 687 acres. This includes 56 acres rented from Dr. Walker's Trust (see Frith Hall, above) and 8 acres rented from W. and C. French. The society has a number of other farms in the district, which are managed from Paslow Hall farm: Rookery Farm (see Withers Pawne, above); Nine Ashes Farm, purchased in 1940 and consisting of 108 acres; Stanford Hall farm (in Stanford Rivers, q.v.); Berners Hall farm, including Parsonage Farm, in Berners Roding, which was purchased in 1936 and contains 860 acres; Torrells Hall farm, in Willingale, including Rowes and Old Lodge Farms, purchased in 1939 and containing 417 acres; and Longbarns Farm, including Frayes (in Beauchamp Roding, q.v.). All these farms have been bought by the society since 1920. Their total area is 3,186 acres and mixed arable and dairy farming is carried on throughout the estates. (fn. 220)
Paslow Hall is a timber-framed L-Shaped building, the south front being faced with red brick. The east or back wing is of two stories and basement and may be of the 17th century or earlier. The south wing probably represents the former great hall, but it appears to have been completely reconstructed in the middle of the 18th century and faced with brickwork. At about the same time a staircase block was added in the angle between the wings. (fn. 221) The south front has sash windows somewhat irregularly spaced and a pedimented hood to the doorway.