A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 10, Westbury and Whitstone Hundreds. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1972.
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In 1086 there were 4 servi and 2 ploughs on the demesne of Stonehouse manor. There was also a vineyard of c. 1 a.; (fn. 1) in the 16th century a close on the demesne was called the Vineyards, (fn. 2) and c. 1730 an area on the north of the manor-house was known as the Wine Court. (fn. 3) In 1299 the demesne comprised 246 a. of arable, 10 a. of meadow, and 8 a. of pasture. (fn. 4) In 1567 it included 68 a. in pasture closes, 29 a. of meadow including a several meadow of 10 a. called the Borneham south-west of the manor-house, and 119 a. of arable, in five closes including the Great Berryfield (38 a.) east of the church. Most of this land lay in closes lying around the manor-house and park and extending to Oldend Lane on the north and west; additional demesne arable lying scattered in the early 18th century was not included in the 16th century survey, and was probably leased at the time to a member of the Fowler family. (fn. 5) In 1678 and 1682 swarms of bees which had arrived in the manor were presented as belonging to the lord. (fn. 6)
The tenants in 1086 were 21 villani and 9 bordars with 20 ploughs. (fn. 7) In 1299 there were 8 free tenants, 42 customary tenants — about a third of whom held ½ yardlands, a third fardels, and a third mondaylands — and 3 cottagers. The half-yardlanders owed 10 bedrips and 126 works: from October to July they did 2 days work a week and ploughed ½ a. every second week, and in August and September they worked 5 days a week. The majority of those who held fardels did 6 bedrips and 120 works, working 5 days every second week from October to July and 2½ days each week in August and September. A few holders of fardels did only 6 works and paid 3s. rent, presumably for works commuted, and the holders of mondaylands did 6 works and paid 1s. rent. (fn. 8) In 1497 there were at least 7 free tenants on the manor, (fn. 9) and in 1510 the rent of customary tenants amounted to £21 10s. (fn. 10) In 1542 a mill, leased for three lives, had to provide a horseman to serve in war under the Earl of Arundel, lord of the manor, when required. (fn. 11)
In 1567 there were 15 free tenants and 24 copyholders holding for up to three lives. The copyholds ranged from one of c. 60 a. described as 3 messuages and 3 yardlands, to ten of under 10 a. (fn. 12)
In the late 17th century 11 tenants of the manor were described as copyholders, but some of them had leases; six owed cash heriots and-one paid a heriot in kind. One estate still owed a labour-service of two days' work at harvest. There were also four leaseholders for terms of years and lives, one of whom owed a heriot. Apart from the 43 a. held by the Beard family of Oldend, (fn. 13) the copyholds and leaseholds in the late 17th century each comprised no more than a house and one or two acres. (fn. 14) The Selwyn estate at the time had 10 tenants at Stonehouse holding for lives. One of the holdings was the Bridgend cloth-mill, and two others were estates of 44 a. and 18 a. (fn. 15)
Four fields were mentioned in the late 14th century; Halles field, Hyetts field, Ellemore field, and Ebley field. A holding of 5 a. lay then in 6 different furlongs, and each selion contained c. 1/6a. (fn. 16) In 1567 the open fields of the parish were: Hyetts field, later Haywards field, (fn. 17) south of Hayward's End; Great Doverow field, a large field on the north of Doverow wood; Little Doverow field, south of the wood; Foxmoor field, north of Ebley; Clayfield, or Claycroft, and Eastington field on the western boundary of the parish; the Riding field, west of the main street of Stonehouse and north of Oldend Lane; (fn. 18) and Randwick Ridge in the northeast of the parish. (fn. 19) Kingley field north-east of Ebley was mentioned in 1615, and Pidgemore field, near-by, in 1616. (fn. 20)
In the late 16th century it was said that the whole of Stonehouse Ham, the common meadow which lay between the two branches of the river and extended from Bridgend to beyond Ryeford, (fn. 21) had previously been arable and was marked by cultivation ridges, (fn. 22) a statement that appears to be borne out by the name Corneham Mill given in the early 16th century to the Sandfords' mill on the north of the Ham. (fn. 23) Stonehouse Ham, also known as the Broadham, covered 100 a. in the late 16th century. It was shared with the neighbouring parishes of King's Stanley which had 16 a. and Leonard's Stanley which had 4 a.; on several occasions from the late 15th to the early 17th century rights of common in the Ham after the hay harvest were disputed between the men of Stonehouse and King's Stanley. In 1631 27 inhabitants of Stonehouse had parcels of meadow in the Ham, ranging in size from 8 a. owned by the lord of the manor to ½ a. (fn. 24) There was also a common meadow called the Ebridge lying by the river south of the church. (fn. 25) There was apparently a common sheep pasture in the manor in 1495, (fn. 26) but later references to common all relate to rights in the open fields and common meadows. A stint of 14 cattle and 2 horses to the yardland in 1533 apparently applied to common in the open fields, (fn. 27) and the disputes with King's Stanley stressed the importance of the common of pasture provided by Stonehouse Ham. In 1616 a stint of 2 cattle and 4 sheep in the Ham, and 2 sheep in the corn-fields, was agreed. (fn. 28)
The parish was inclosed piecemeal between the 15th and 19th centuries. In 1496 several men were presented for inclosing their arable, and two men were appointed by the court to supervise inclosures. (fn. 29) Inclosure of the Ebridge meadow was probably taking place in 1614 when lands were exchanged there, (fn. 30) and other common meadow was inclosed in 1627. (fn. 31) The whole of the Ebridge was apparently inclosed in 1717, (fn. 32) and Stonehouse Ham was completely inclosed by the late 18th century. (fn. 33) Between 1616 and 1668 many inclosures in the open fields were ordered by the manor court, including parts of Great Doverow field in 1615 and 1621, part of Hyetts field in 1623, a piece of the Riding field c. 1630, and part of Little Doverow field in 1661. (fn. 34) Parts of Claycroft were inclosed by the early 17th century, (fn. 35) and further inclosure took place in Hyetts field c. 1770. (fn. 36) By 1804 most of the parish was inclosed. The considerable number of fields called Tynings recorded at the time evidently represented land taken out of the open fields: there were four in Great Doverow field ranging from 5 a. to 9 a. Parts of Great Doverow field, Foxmoor field, the Riding field, and Claycroft and other parts of the parish remained uninclosed. Foxmoor field included 13 parcels of land, all but four of which were under 1 a. The size of ridges remained small: 7 lands in the Riding field amounted to c. 1½ a., and 8 lands in Great Doverow field to c. ½ a. Some holdings of uninclosed land were still widely scattered and one amounting to 5 a. had been lost. The inclosed fields were mostly small: one farm had 83 a. of pasture lying in over 20 fields, and 33 a. of arable in 7 fields of between 2 a. and 8 a. (fn. 37) In 1844 c. 50 a. in Kingley and Pidgemore fields were inclosed by Act of Parliament. (fn. 38)
In the early 18th century, when some tenants were apparently following a three-course and others a four-course rotation, barley, wheat, and beans were the chief crops grown. (fn. 39) About 1775, when the parish was said to consist mainly of pasture, grain, cheese, and cider were being produced. (fn. 40) In the early 19th century there was a large number of orchards in the south of the parish. In 1804 there were 334 a. of arable out of a total of 1,520 a. Most of the farms had about a third of their acreage in arable, but one of 74 a. had no arable; the manor farm with 202 a. was the largest farm and only two others were over 100 a. (fn. 41) In 1839 the largest farms, which were all predominantly pasture, were the manor farm, Westrip farm with 126 a., (fn. 42) and another farm of 116 a., and 106 a. in the parish belonged to Horsemarling farm in Moreton Valence; four farms, including Humphries End farm, Oldend farm, and 76 a. belonging to the Plough Inn at Stonehouse, (fn. 43) had between 40 a. and 90 a., and there were five or six small pasture farms of c. 20 a. (fn. 44)
In 1879 the farms in the parish included the manor farm, Plough farm, Oldend farm, Westrip farm, and one each at Ebley and Cainscross, (fn. 45) and the eight farms mentioned in 1906 included Bridgend farm and four at Westrip. (fn. 46) The farms probably remained predominantly pasture; a dairyman was mentioned at Stonehouse in the later 19th century and hay and straw dealers at Cainscross and Ebley, (fn. 47) and the Stonehouse fairs were largely given over to cattle-dealing. (fn. 48) In 1901 about one eighth of the reduced area of Stonehouse parish was arable. (fn. 49) Cider continued to be produced: there was a cidermerchant in Ebley village between 1889 and 1939, (fn. 50) and a firm at Westrip made cider commercially until the early 1960s. (fn. 51)
MILLS AND THE CLOTH INDUSTRY
From the 16th to the early 20th century the manufacture of woollen cloth was the main source of employment for the inhabitants of Stonehouse. The earliest mention found of a fulling-mill in the parish was in 1469, three were working there by 1517, four in the late 16th century, and seven in the 18th century; the history of the nine separate mills that have been found recorded is traced below. Weavers were recorded in the parish from 1540. (fn. 52) In 1608 29 people employed in the cloth trade were enumerated as against 17 employed in other trades and 10 in agriculture: they included 6 clothiers, 12 weavers, 7 fullers, and 4 dyers. (fn. 53) During the 18th century over 20 clothiers were recorded at Stonehouse, (fn. 54) and 10 weavers of broad cloth there took parish apprentices between 1724 and 1785. (fn. 55) Among those employed at the mills, shearmen were mentioned in 1709 (fn. 56) and 1788, (fn. 57) and a wool-scribbler in 1772. (fn. 58) A dyer lived at Westrip in 1767. (fn. 59)
In the first half of the 19th century the rebuilding and reorganization of some of the cloth-mills of the parish and the adaptation of the remainder to other purposes reflected the change to a factory system in the industry. In 1833 it was said that the bulk of the weaving in the area was carried on in factories, (fn. 60) and in 1839 only one mill, the Oil Mill which apparently ceased cloth production soon afterwards, still depended entirely on outdoor weavers. (fn. 61) The distress among the weavers, that was attendant on the changes, was said to have been considerable, but in 1839 their condition was found to be better than in neighbouring parishes, with constant employment at good wages obtainable at the mills. The remaining outdoor weavers, whose average earnings were higher than in most of the other clothing parishes, were then mainly master-weavers usually with two looms. (fn. 62) Two weaving-shops in Stonehouse village and one adjoining the Spa Inn at Oldend were mentioned in 1840; (fn. 63) there are said to have still been several, some of them attached to farm buildings, in the parish c. 1870. (fn. 64) Cloth production in the parish during the later 19th century was carried on by three firms, at Ebley Mill, Stonehouse Upper and Lower Mills, and Bond's Mill, (fn. 65) and the industry continued to give employment to a large proportion of the inhabitants until the early 20th century. Between 1827 and 1861 41 cloth-workers were admitted to membership of a Stonehouse dissenting chapel. (fn. 66) Those employed in dependent trades of the industry in the 19th and early 20th centuries included shear-manufacturers at Ebley and Cainscross mentioned in 1820, (fn. 67) firms of millwrights at Ebley until 1931 and at Stonehouse between 1879 and 1894, a wool-broker at Stonehouse in 1863, a firm of teasel-merchants at Ebley until 1894, and a mill-furnisher at Ebley between 1914 and 1919. (fn. 68) A firm of wool-merchants and -sorters was established at Stonehouse from c. 1920 to 1930. (fn. 69)
There was a mill at Ebley, near the later Ebley Mill, in 1393. (fn. 70) In 1403 a moiety of it passed to John Deerhurst, (fn. 71) and in 1426 Thomas Deerhurst and Lawrence Maldon each held a moiety. (fn. 72) Perhaps at that time it already comprised a corn-mill and a fulling-mill on the same site for in 1469 John Deerhurst of Hardwicke held a corn-mill called Deerhurst's Mill and a fulling-mill called Maldon's Mill. Maldon's Mill was leased by John Deerhurst to a fuller, Thomas Kynne, (fn. 73) and Robert Kynne owned it in 1491. (fn. 74) After 1511 Maldon's Mill was leased from the Kynnes and later the Cookes to the Bennett family of clothiers, (fn. 75) who from 1505 also leased the corn-mill, Deerhurst's Mill, from the Deerhursts and later the Barrows. (fn. 76) John Bennett held the mills in the early 16th century, (fn. 77) and his son William after 1536. (fn. 78) He or a later William was working the fulling-mill in 1578, (fn. 79) and his son Thomas in 1580. (fn. 80) Thomas, who built Ebley Court in 1587, (fn. 81) died c. 1598, (fn. 82) and his son Leonard in 1621, when the mill comprised three fulling-stocks and a corn-mill. (fn. 83) In 1621 the Bennetts' mill, usually known as Ebley Mill, (fn. 84) passed by marriage to the Selwyn family. (fn. 85) From the late 17th century the Selwyns leased it to the Turner family of clothiers: John Turner held it in 1681, (fn. 86) Thomas Turner between 1710 and 1721, (fn. 87) and another Thomas in 1779 and until 1788 when he became bankrupt. (fn. 88) A new corn-mill was built at the mill in the early 18th century. (fn. 89)
In 1800 Ebley Mill, which then stood on the north side of the Stroudwater Canal, (fn. 90) was acquired by Stephen Clissold (fn. 91) who built a large new mill south of the canal c. 1820. The new mill was not used, however, until c. 1825 when it was bought by Robson & Severs who abandoned the old mill and destroyed its mill-stream, and made a large reservoir by the new mill. (fn. 92) Before 1839 the mill was leased to John Figgins Marling, (fn. 93) and in 1840 it was bought by his brothers Thomas and Samuel Stephens Marling. (fn. 94) In 1839 there were 71 handlooms at the mill, although only 42 were working, employing 72 workers, including 30 children; (fn. 95) power was provided by five water-wheels. (fn. 96) In 1870 the mill was said to employ c. 800 workers. (fn. 97) In 1967 Ebley Mill was owned by Marling & Evans Ltd., and housed the carding and spinning processes for the firm's factory at Stanley Mill. (fn. 98) The main part of the mill comprises a long stone block of four stories and attics with grouped segmentalheaded windows, (fn. 99) apparently the building of c. 1820, and adjoining it on the north-east a tower and a square five-story block with larger windows, designed by G. F. Bodley and built c. 1862. (fn. 100) Another building to the west of similar type and date as the older part of the main block was sold c. 1908, and in the 1940s was used by a hosiery yarn spinner. (fn. 101) A third block of similar type was demolished in 1965. (fn. 102)
The two mills in Stonehouse manor mentioned in 1086 (fn. 103) were probably the mill to the east of Bridgend, later known as Stonehouse Upper Mill, which had been granted away from the manor in 1085, (fn. 104) and the mill to the west of Bridgend, later known as Stonehouse Lower Mill, which remained in the possession of the lords of the manor until the 17th century. The manor mill included a fullingmill with two stocks in 1496 when it was granted to William Bence on condition that he built there two new mill-heads, a river-gate, and a rack. (fn. 105) After 1507 the mill was held by Robert Collier, (fn. 106) and by 1533 it had passed to the clothier Richard Fowler (fn. 107) who took a further lease of the mill, then known as New Mill, and ½ yardland in 1542. (fn. 108) Richard died in 1560, (fn. 109) and his son William, who had bought Stonehouse manor jointly with William Sandford in 1558, (fn. 110) received the mill at the partition of the manor in 1567. It then comprised three fulling stocks and a corn-mill. (fn. 111) Neither William Fowler's son Daniel nor his grandson Stephen (fn. 112) appears to have been a clothier, and the manor mill was being worked by John Jessor in 1647 and 1655. (fn. 113) Members of the Fowler family, however, were clothiers at Stonehouse until the late 18th century: Stephen's brother Nathaniel was mentioned as a clothier in 1622 (fn. 114) and 1655, (fn. 115) and Stephen Fowler, a clothier and probably Nathaniel's son, died at Stonehouse in 1717; (fn. 116) a later Nathaniel Fowler, who was at one time in partnership with one of the Nash family of Bridgend, died at his house in Stonehouse in 1781, (fn. 117) The manor mill had been sold away from the manor by 1697 when it was owned by the Lye family who sold it in 1701 to the clothier John Arundel. (fn. 118) He was recorded as working it between 1710 and 1736, (fn. 119) and the mill was known as Arundel's Mill in 1755. (fn. 120) In 1764 John Arundel's son William sold it to William Hill (fn. 121) who died in 1784 having acquired a considerable fortune in the clothing trade. (fn. 122) The mill passed to Edward Hill who owned and worked it until at least 1805. (fn. 123) Lower Mill was rebuilt c. 1810 as a large building of five stories which included weaving shops. In 1812 it was occupied by Thomas and Richard Cooper, and before 1819 by the firm of Cooper and Wathen. (fn. 124) Its later history is given below.
Stonehouse Upper Mill, known as Corneham Mill in the 16th century (fn. 125) and Sandford's in the 18th, (fn. 126) was granted by William of Eu in 1085 to Gloucester Abbey; (fn. 127) the abbey's mill-stream running westwards from Ryeford was mentioned c. 1340. (fn. 128) Richard Mill was the miller between 1507 (fn. 129) and 1517 when Corneham Mill, comprising a fullingmill and a corn-mill, was leased by the abbey to Henry Betts. (fn. 130) From 1525 the mill was leased to John Sandford; (fn. 131) he purchased the freehold in 1544 from Gloucester Corporation, which had acquired the mill with other possessions of Gloucester Abbey in 1542. (fn. 132) John Sandford became one of the most prosperous Gloucestershire clothiers of his time; he exported cloth to Germany and had an agency at Frankfurt-on-Main. In 1549 he bought Leonard Stanley Priory. Later he moved to Gloucester, (fn. 133) and in 1554 granted Corneham Mill to his son William, (fn. 134) who bought Stonehouse manor jointly with William Fowler in 1558. The mill then descended with the Sandford's estate at Stonehouse, (fn. 135) and the family probably continued to work the mill as clothiers (fn. 136) until its sale by William Sandford in 1731. The mill then comprised three stocks and a corn-mill. (fn. 137) By 1765 the mill was being worked by Ambrose Reddall (fn. 138) who still occupied it in 1776. (fn. 139) Afterwards it was worked by Messrs. Eycott, perhaps of the family that later owned Bond's Mill, and then by Nathaniel Watts who went bankrupt in 1798 when the mill was assigned to his creditors William Tanner and John Brown. (fn. 140) It was probably the mill being worked in 1804 by John Brown and Sons. (fn. 141)
By 1839 both Stonehouse Upper Mill and Stonehouse Lower Mill had been acquired by the firm of R. S. Davies which had 18 handlooms at work in them. (fn. 142) The mills apparently ceased cloth production when sold by the firm in 1904. (fn. 143) At the sale waterwheels were advertised with both mills as an additional source of power to steam. (fn. 144) The main block of Upper Mill, built of brick with three stories and attics and a central tower apparently dates from a rebuilding of 1875. (fn. 145) Adjoining the mill on the east, presumably on the site of the old house of the Sandfords, (fn. 146) is a stone house of c. 1800, which had a classical portico. Formerly known as the Rookery, the house was occupied by R. S. Davies in the mid 19th century (fn. 147) but in the later 19th century was apparently used as offices, (fn. 148) which purpose it served in 1967. The buildings of Lower Mill were once far more extensive than the two brick-built blocks of the earlier 19th century which survive; (fn. 149) in 1812 they included a mansion with 15 rooms. (fn. 150)
Another fulling-mill at Bridgend, called Nashes Mill in the 18th century (fn. 151) and later Bridgend Mill, was owned by Humphrey Osborne in 1567; (fn. 152) it stood south-east of the road near the bridge. (fn. 153) Osborne leased it to William Nicholson a clothier in 1579, (fn. 154) and in 1588 sold it to Jasper Selwyn. (fn. 155) During the 17th and 18th centuries the mill was worked by the Nash clothing family: it was probably the mill of Giles Nash mentioned in 1637, (fn. 156) and a Giles Nash was leasing it from the Selwyns c. 1680. (fn. 157) The second Giles died in 1699, Giles son of John Nash in 1719, and another Giles Nash in 1729. (fn. 158) A later Giles Nash (d. 1767), who was said to have made a fortune in the clothing trade, gained a wide reputation as a dyer in scarlet; (fn. 159) scarlet-dyeing at Bridgend was mentioned in 1773, (fn. 160) and 'Nash's scarlets' became famous. (fn. 161) The Nashes lived in a house near the mill; it was described as an old house in 1773, (fn. 162) and was presumably the Nash Court mentioned in 1838. (fn. 163) In 1773 the house and mill were apparently owned by a Mr. Elliot, (fn. 164) and in 1804 the clothier John Dimock (d. 1808) was leasing the mill from the Elliot family. (fn. 165) Dimock's grandson John Dimock (fn. 166) and a Mr. Hitch were working it in 1819. (fn. 167) Later it was occupied by Sir Paul Baghott who went bankrupt in 1837, (fn. 168) and in 1840 Aaron Evans was leasing the mill from George Elliot. (fn. 169) In the later 19th century it apparently functioned only as a large dyeworks. (fn. 170) The dyeworks there were owned with Upper and Lower Mills by the Davies family, but from 1856 or earlier until they closed c. 1900 they were worked by the firm of Joseph Gainer. (fn. 171)
Bond's Mill, the lowest mill in the parish, was first mentioned in 1714. (fn. 172) In 1724 it was sold to four clothiers by John Ball, lord of Stonehouse manor, (fn. 173) whose family may have worked the mill for some time earlier; his father, also John Ball, was a cloth factor of Blackwell Hall; (fn. 174) a Samuel Ball, clothier, of Stonehouse, died c. 1654 (fn. 175) and John Ball a clothier, perhaps Samuel's son, in 1668. (fn. 176) By 1750 Bond's Mill was being worked by Richard Pitt, who purchased it soon afterwards, (fn. 177) and Mrs. Pitt, a widow, put the mill up for sale in 1774. (fn. 178) In 1787 when it comprised four pairs of fulling-stocks it was being worked by Messrs. Eycott; (fn. 179) Henry Eycott was leasing it to William Wood in 1832, (fn. 180) and Frederick Eycott to William Wise in 1840. (fn. 181) A power-loom was installed at the mill in 1837. (fn. 182) Bond's Mill was occupied by Charles Warner in 1863, (fn. 183) but by 1870 it had been acquired by the Eastington firm of Charles Hooper, which apparently rebuilt it in 1887 (fn. 184) and continued to produce cloth there until 1934. (fn. 185)
In 1721 William Adderley, a mercer of Stroud, acquired land at Ebley and built a new mill, (fn. 186) later known as the Oil Mill. In 1723 it was being used to produce rape and linseed oil, (fn. 187) and in 1725 John Adderley was making oil there. (fn. 188) When put up for sale in 1727 it was said to be adaptable as a fullingmill, (fn. 189) and it was perhaps in use as such by 1751 when it was owned by the Rimmington family. (fn. 190) In 1764 the Oil Mill, described as a fulling-mill of four stocks and two gig-mills, belonged to Mr. Rimmington of Woodchester, (fn. 191) and it was apparently the mill at which the partnership of Thomas Pettat of Stanley Park, John Rimmington, and Richard Flight were making cloth when they went bankrupt in 1786; the owner was then Samuel Rimmington. (fn. 192) The Oil Mill was acquired in 1791 or 1792 by James Lewis, (fn. 193) who worked it until his death in 1826; his sons continued the business until at least 1840. (fn. 194) In 1833 the mill gave employment to c. 200 people, including the outdoor weavers. (fn. 195) It had ceased to be a cloth-mill in 1856 when it was probably the corn-mill worked by William Hall. (fn. 196) In 1885 it was driven by both water-power and steam, (fn. 197) and when sold in 1892 it had two steamengines, eight pairs of stones, and two water-wheels. (fn. 198) The Oil Mill remained a corn-mill in 1967.
The corn-mill built c. 1500 by John Gibbs on a piece of land inclosed out of Stonehouse Ham was apparently at Ryeford; (fn. 199) his son Richard Gibbs held it in 1539. (fn. 200) It had perhaps been adapted as a fulling-mill by 1608 when two members of the Gibbs family were clothiers. (fn. 201) By 1710 Ryeford Mill was owned by the clothier Giles Phillips, (fn. 202) who settled it on the marriage of his son Thomas in 1717; it then comprised three fulling-stocks and a gig-mill. On his death in 1757 Thomas Phillips devised it to his nephew Halliday Phillips (d. 1780). (fn. 203) In 1798 and 1804 the mill was being worked by the clothiers Nathaniel Miles and William Taylor. (fn. 204) In 1819 it was owned by Saul Lusty, who sold it to Reuben Hyde in 1828. (fn. 205) John King owned it in 1840, (fn. 206) and in 1853 it was being worked as a cornmill by the firm of Ford & King; it was then powered by two water-wheels and had six pairs of stones. (fn. 207) It remained a corn-mill until c. 1880, the building and site later being used as a saw-mill and timberyard. (fn. 208)
Another small mill was built west of the Oil Mill c. 1810; it was later called Hogg's Mill (fn. 209) and the builder was perhaps James Hogg, an Ebley clothier. (fn. 210) It was owned by Stephen Clissold c. 1837. (fn. 211) The mill was described as ruinous in 1840 when it was owned by, Ann Stephens. (fn. 212) The building was occupied as a cottage when sold in 1861, (fn. 213) and had been destroyed along with its mill-stream by 1882. (fn. 214)
A mill on the Ruscombe brook at Cainscross south of the Stroud road was regarded as in Stonehouse parish in 1840 when it was owned and occupied by William Copner. (fn. 215) It was working as a corn-mill in 1882, (fn. 216) and was apparently the mill at Cainscross worked by the firm of Butt & Skurray between 1863 and 1889. (fn. 217)
OTHER INDUSTRY AND TRADE
In 1299 a smith, carpenter, cooper, and shoemaker were tenants at Stonehouse. (fn. 218) A smith was mentioned in 1499, (fn. 219) and there were three in the parish in 1608. (fn. 220) In 1840 there were two blacksmiths' shops near the Woolpack Inn in Stonehouse village, and one at Cainscross. (fn. 221) Ebley had a blacksmith in 1856. (fn. 222) In 1879 there were three smiths at Stonehouse, (fn. 223) and in 1906 one at Cainscross, two at Ebley, and one at Stonehouse. (fn. 224) In the later 19th century there was a tinman and brazier at Cainscross, a wire-worker at Ebley, and a tinplate-worker at Stonehouse. (fn. 225) There were two carpenters in the parish in 1608, (fn. 226) and one was mentioned in 1662. (fn. 227) A wooden instrument used for thistledrawing was being made at Stonehouse in 1807. (fn. 228) In 1840 there were two carpenters at Ebley, a cooper and a wheelwright at Stonehouse village, and a wheelwright at Oldend. (fn. 229) Cainscross had two carpenters and a cabinet-maker in 1856. (fn. 230) In 1879 a joiner and a wheelwright were working at Cainscross, a carpenter at Ebley, and a wheelwright and a carpenter at Stonehouse village. (fn. 231) In 1906 there were two carpenters at Cainscross and one at Cashe's Green, a cooper at Ebley, and a wheelwright and a cabinet-maker at Stonehouse. (fn. 232) There were two shoemakers in the parish in 1608, (fn. 233) and others were mentioned in 1641, (fn. 234) 1658, (fn. 235) and 1743. (fn. 236) In 1856 three were working at Cainscross, one at Ebley, and four at Stonehouse village, (fn. 237) and in 1906 there were two at Cainscross, one at Ebley, and two at Stonehouse. (fn. 238) There was a saddler at Cainscross in 1820. (fn. 239) In 1939 blacksmiths were still working at Cainscross, Ebley, and Stonehouse, and carpenters and shoemakers at Cainscross and Stonehouse. (fn. 240)
There was a thatcher in the parish in 1491, (fn. 241) and another was mentioned in 1843. (fn. 242) There were two masons at Stonehouse in 1608, (fn. 243) and a local mason worked on the rebuilding of the church in 1854. (fn. 244) Withies for basket-making were grown in several places in the parish in 1840, (fn. 245) and there were basketmakers at Ebley until c. 1885 and Stonehouse until c. 1906. (fn. 246) There were candle-makers at Stonehouse and Cainscross in 1840, (fn. 247) and a cork-maker at Cainscross from 1885. (fn. 248) Three tailors were mentioned in the parish in 1608, (fn. 249) a mercer in 1714, (fn. 250) and a draper in 1728. (fn. 251) There were two watchmakers and a clockmaker at Stonehouse village in 1856. (fn. 252) A surgeon was living at Westrip in the mid 18th century. (fn. 253)
There was a butcher at Stonehouse in 1491, (fn. 254) and another was presented in 1572 for selling meat during service time. (fn. 255) Two butchers and three bakers were mentioned in 1608. (fn. 256) There were several brewers in the parish in the late 15th century, (fn. 257) and five were mentioned in 1534. (fn. 258) There was a maltster at Stonehouse in 1747. (fn. 259) There were four malt-houses in the parish in 1840: two stood in the main street of Stonehouse village; two others, one at Ebley and one at Cainscross, (fn. 260) were still working in 1856. (fn. 261) Carpenter's brewery was established at Cainscross by 1840, when there was also a brewery at Stonehouse. (fn. 262) Another brewery at Hamwell Leaze north of Cainscross was working by 1894. (fn. 263) In 1906 a former malt-house at Apsley House in Stonehouse village was bought by a dairy company which designed new types of cheeses and hoped to promote the eating of cheese as a substitute for meat. (fn. 264)
The soil of the parish is suitable for brick-making, which was also encouraged by the opening of the canal in 1779. (fn. 265) By 1840 a piece of land near Bond's Mill and another at Haywardsend were named from brick-kilns, (fn. 266) and there was a brick-maker at Stonehouse in 1856. (fn. 267) Brick-works on the south of Doverow Hill were in production by 1870, (fn. 268) and the Stonehouse Brick and Tile Works, which also made pottery and terra-cotta, were established on the south-west of the hill in 1891, (fn. 269) and were said to be employing a large number in 1895. (fn. 270) Deposits of gravel in the south of the parish (fn. 271) were exploited from at least 1627, (fn. 272) and in 1651 gravel was being dug on a demesne close of the manor near Oldend. (fn. 273) In 1840 there were also gravel-pits on the north of Bond's Mill and west of Ebley. (fn. 274) Stone was being quarried on Doverow Hill in 1746 when it was used for building locally. (fn. 275) By 1882 there was another quarry with a lime-kiln at Westrip, (fn. 276) and there was a lime-merchant at Ebley in 1885. (fn. 277) By the early 19th century the building of the canal had encouraged several coal and timber merchants to set up near it; (fn. 278) there were saw-mills at Ebley and Stonehouse from 1856, (fn. 279) and at Ryeford from the later 19th century. (fn. 280)
From the early 20th century several light manufacturing works were established in the parish using the labour released by the decline of the cloth industry, which was, however, said to be the main employer of labour in Stonehouse village until the closure of Bond's Mill in 1934. (fn. 281) Some firms took over old cloth-mills: Lower Mill was occupied by a firm of mattress-makers in 1914, (fn. 282) and from c. 1927 one part of the mill has been a paper-factory (fn. 283) and another part an engineering works; (fn. 284) a brush-works had been established at Upper Mill by 1914; (fn. 285) and Bond's Mill was sold to Sperry Gyroscope Ltd., a precision engineering firm, in 1939. (fn. 286) By 1946 the large Hoffman engineering works had been built in Oldend Lane and there was also a preserve factory at Stonehouse. (fn. 287) In the early 1960s, by which time several other small factories were established, it was said that the last 20 years had transformed Stonehouse from a rural village to a small industrial town. (fn. 288) There was a firm of furniture-makers at Ebley and a firm making sports equipment at Cashe's Green in 1927. (fn. 289) In 1967 there was a small engineering works at Ebley, and a printing-works in part of Ebley Mill.
In 1683 Thomas Smith, lord of the manor, was granted the right to hold two fairs on Stonehouse green for three days each from 20 April and 29 September. (fn. 290) A fair-house was mentioned in 1742 (fn. 291) and was perhaps the building which stood on the main part of the green opposite Oldend Lane in 1803. (fn. 292) By 1765, as a result of the change in the calendar, the fairs were being held on 1 May and 10 October and cattle and cheese were the main items sold; (fn. 293) the profits were leased with the manor in 1781. (fn. 294) The fairs were mainly cattle-sales and pleasure-fairs during the later 19th century, and were solely pleasure-fairs from c. 1897. (fn. 295)