A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 10, Westbury and Whitstone Hundreds. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1972.
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MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES.
In 1066 Westbury was the centre of a large but scattered Crown estate which owed one night's farm; before 1086 outlying parts, totalling 25 hides, in Kyre and Clifton on Teme (Worcs.), Edvin Loach (Herefs.), and Newent and 'Chingestune', were removed, leaving 30 hides at Westbury. (fn. 1) Henry II granted the manor of WESTBURY to Roger de Mynors to hold by the service of a sore goshawk or 20s. annual rent. Roger was succeeded by his son William, and William's son Henry de Mynors (fn. 2) was licensed to make a park next to his house at Westbury in 1200. (fn. 3) Henry was dead by 1217; a portion of the manor was retained in dower by his widow Agnes and a partition was made of the remainder between his daughters, Isabel who married Geoffrey de Longchamp, Elizabeth who married William de Gamage, and Basile who married Pain of Burghill. Agnes's share, which she held with Roger of Leybourne, presumably her husband, in 1235, was partitioned at her death c. 1260 among the three daughters or their heirs and assigns. (fn. 4)
Isabel granted her share of the manor in 1235 to Henry of Bath (fn. 5) who was repairing and extending his house at Westbury in 1241 and 1242. (fn. 6) By 1272 Henry's estate had passed to Nicholas of Bath who held it in 1309. (fn. 7) Nicholas of Bath died c. 1326 when his estate at Westbury was divided between his daughter Aline, the wife of Robert de Sapy, and John de Aune, son of Nicholas's daughter Elizabeth and Adam de Aune; the estate was then as later in the 14th century said to be held of the de Bohuns as of Haresfield. (fn. 8) John's share had passed by 1374 to Philip de Aune, (fn. 9) and may have been held in 1434 by William de Aune and his wife Margaret; (fn. 10) that part of the estate has not been traced further, but it is likely to have been that which was held by Sir Alexander Baynham in the late 15th century. (fn. 11) Aline and Robert de Sapy's share was usually known later as the manor of LEY; Robert, who was licensed in 1330 to inclose the estate and build a peel-house, (fn. 12) died c. 1336, (fn. 13) and his widow apparently granted the estate in 1337 to Richard Talbot, later Lord Talbot (d. 1356). (fn. 14) It passed to Richard's son Gilbert (d. 1387), (fn. 15) and to Gilbert's son Richard (d. 1396). Richard's widow Ankaret, who married Thomas Neville, Lord Furnivale, held the estate (then and later said to be held of the Abbot of Gloucester) until her death in 1413 (fn. 16) when it passed to her son Gilbert (d. 1418). Gilbert's heir was his daughter Ankaret (fn. 17) who died in 1421; the estate passed to her uncle John Talbot who was created Earl of Shrewsbury in 1442 and died in 1453. (fn. 18) John's son John who succeeded died in 1460, (fn. 19) and his son John in 1473 (fn. 20) when the estate passed to the Crown which made grants to assignees to hold during the minority of George, son of the last John, in 1475 and 1478. (fn. 21) George, Earl of Shrewsbury, died in 1538 and the estate presumably passed to his son Francis (d. 1560), whose son George held it at his death in 1590. (fn. 22) Ley manor passed to George's son Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury (d. 1616), (fn. 23) whose daughter and coheir Elizabeth and her husband Henry Grey, Earl of Kent, held it in 1632. (fn. 24) Henry died in 1639 and Elizabeth retained the manor in 1640 (fn. 25) and presumably until her death in 1651. The estate was held in 1672 by Anthony Grey, Earl of Kent (d. 1702). (fn. 26) Anthony was succeeded by his son Henry, created Duke of Kent in 1710, whose estate in 1717 comprised c. 360 a. mainly lying around the house called Old Ley Court in the north-east part of the parish. Henry sold the manor and c. 300 a. in 1725 to Sir Edmund Probyn and John Hopkins, Sir Edmund's nephew and heir apparent; 50 a. of that, lying south-east of Old Ley Court, they sold in 1727 to William Saunders. (fn. 27) Sir Edmund died in 1742 and John Hopkins, who changed his name to Probyn, held the manor until his death in 1773. (fn. 28) John was succeeded by his son Edmund Probyn (d. 1819), (fn. 29) whose son the Revd. John Probyn had an estate of 472 a. in 1839. It included, in addition to the manor estate, lands centred on Ley Mill Farm and Leyfold Farm (fn. 30) which had earlier belonged to the Young family; Richard Young owned 206 a. at his death in 1635, (fn. 31) and John Young, apparently his son, held the estate in 1655; (fn. 32) it had passed to Richard Young by 1683 (fn. 33) and the family still owned it c. 1708. (fn. 34) The Revd. John Probyn died in 1843 and his estate passed to his son John (d. 1863), and to John's son Edmund. (fn. 35) Ley Mill and Leyfold farms were put up for sale with the Probyn's Huntley manor estate in 1883, (fn. 36) and the former was owned by Wilmot Inglis Jones in 1902; (fn. 37) both farms were later acquired by the MacIvers of Blaisdon Hall and were sold with that estate in the early 1930s. (fn. 38) In 1969 Ley Mill and Leyfold farms with a total of 376 a. belonged to Mr. T. H. Sedgebeer. (fn. 39) Old Ley Court, which had apparently been sold by the Probyns before 1883, (fn. 40) was owned with 56 a. by Mr. D. H. Smart in 1969. (fn. 41) The house was rebuilt in brick c. 1800 but retains some 17th-century timber-framing in a rear wall.
The portion of Westbury manor which passed to Henry de Mynors's daughter Elizabeth and her husband William de Gamage was granted by Elizabeth to her son Matthew de Gamage, who held it in 1260; Matthew granted it before 1287 to his brother Nicholas. (fn. 42) Nicholas de Gamage died in 1349 holding a messuage, presumably on the site of Gamage Court, and lands in Lower Ley, said to be held of Edward de Penebrugge; the estate was then divided among Nicholas's three daughters, Margery who married John Billing, Joan who married Hugh Arthur, and Elizabeth. Elizabeth granted her share c. 1351 to Thomas de Wauton, and Margery and Joan and their husbands retained their shares in 1358; (fn. 43) none of the estates has been traced further, but one may have been represented by the Greyndour estate at Lower Ley. (fn. 44)
The third portion of Henry de Mynors's estate, later called the manor of WESTBURY or BURGHILL, was held by his daughter Basile of Burghill in 1255. (fn. 45) Her son Henry of Burghill held the estate, which included a house, at his death c. 1271 when he was succeeded by his brother Roger. (fn. 46) In 1301 Roger of Burghill granted the estate to his son Roger (d. 1303), (fn. 47) and it was held by Julia wife of the second Roger during the minority of his son Roger. (fn. 48) In 1334 Roger of Burghill settled the estate on himself and his wife Sibyl with reversion to William of Eyllesford, (fn. 49) and by 1359 it was held by John of Eyllesford. (fn. 50) John of Eyllesford died in 1396 (fn. 51) and his widow Isabel, who married Richard de la Mare, held the estate until her death in 1421. After Isabel's death it passed to John Milburne (fn. 52) who died in 1436 leaving an infant son Simon; (fn. 53) the manor was held after his death by his wife Elizabeth. (fn. 54) Simon Milburne was seized of the estate at his death in 1522 when his heirs were the families of his 10 daughters. (fn. 55) Burghill manor was later acquired by William Stanford on whose death before 1579 it passed to his grandson William, (fn. 56) and Sir Robert Stanford, son of the second William, owned it at his death in 1607. It passed to Sir Robert's son Edward, and Edward's son William Stanford (fn. 57) sold the site of the manor with 112 a. of land in 1636 to James Sandford (d. 1638). James Sandford was succeeded by his daughter Edith who married John Mitchell. (fn. 58) In 1661 James Mitchell of Harescombe, probably the son of John and Edith, owned the estate and in 1682 he settled it on the marriage of his son James. On the death of the younger James Mitchell before 1711 the estate was divided between his daughters Mary who married George Small, Elizabeth who married Jacob Elton, and Bridget who married Samuel Clutterbuck. Elizabeth and Jacob sold their share to Mary and George in 1711, and on George's death c. 1736 his two-thirds share passed to his cousin John Small; John was succeeded by his brother Richard who sold it in 1749 to Maynard Colchester of Westbury Court, who bought the remaining third from William Clutterbuck, son of Bridget and Samuel, in 1755. (fn. 59) The site of Burghill manor appears to have been at Court Farm at the north end of Westbury village: the house bears the initials of John and Edith Mitchell and the date 1648 and it was owned by the Colchesters in 1785. (fn. 60) Court Farm remained part of the Westbury Court estate until sold by Maynard Colchester-Wemyss in the early 20th century, (fn. 61) and in 1969 the house and c. 130 a. belonged to Mr. R. T. Worlock. (fn. 62) A block of two stories and attics built of the local Lias stone and retaining one original mullioned window with a dripmould is probably contemporary with the date it bears, and there is a large early-19thcentury brick extension with sash windows on the east.
An estate called the manor of WESTBURY which is likely to have been the part of the manor held by the de Aunes in the late 14th century, was held in 1489 by Sir Alexander Baynham (fn. 63) (d. 1524). (fn. 64) It passed to successive sons John (d. 1528), (fn. 65) William (d. 1568), and Robert (d. 1572). (fn. 66) Robert Baynham was succeeded by his brother Joseph (d. 1613), (fn. 67) whose son Alexander sold the manor in 1625 to John Dutton, (fn. 68) who sold it in 1628 to Nicholas Roberts (fn. 69) of Stanton Harcourt (Oxon.). Nicholas was succeeded at his death in 1637 by his son Caesar Roberts, (fn. 70) who died in 1641 when the manor passed to his uncle Giles Roberts. (fn. 71) Giles sold it in 1641 to his nephew Richard Colchester, one of the Six Clerks of Chancery, (fn. 72) who died in 1643; in 1644 Richard's estates were sequestrated because of his support of the royalist cause, but the order was revoked the next year. Richard's widow Elizabeth held Westbury manor until c. 1650 during the minority of his son Duncombe Colchester, who was knighted in 1674 and died in 1694. (fn. 73) Sir Duncombe was succeeded by his son Maynard, a philanthropist and a founder of the S.P.C.K. and S.P.G. (fn. 74) Maynard Colchester died in 1715 and his estates passed to his nephew Maynard (d. 1756), (fn. 75) and to Maynard, son of the second Maynard, who owned c. 765 a. in the parish in 1785 including the manor-house called Westbury Court, Court farm at Westbury, the Stantway Court, Rodley Farm, and Hayden estates, Baglaw farm, and Ley Park. (fn. 76) Maynard Colchester was succeeded at his death in 1787 by his brother John (d. 1801), whose wife Elizabeth held the estates for a few years during the minority of her son Maynard, (fn. 77) who died in 1860. Maynard Willoughby Wemyss, great-nephew of the last Maynard, succeeded to the estates and took the name Wemyss-Colchester, later changed to Colchester-Wemyss. Maynard Colchester-Wemyss, who was chairman of the Gloucestershire County Council from 1908 to 1918, died in 1930 and was succeeded by his son Sir Maynard Francis Colchester-Wemyss. (fn. 78) Sir Francis sold the Westbury estate in 1944 to his brother Col. J. M. Colchester-Wemyss (d. 1946), whose widow, Stella, retained Westbury Court and part of the estate until 1960. (fn. 79)
The manor-house of Henry de Mynors mentioned in 1200 apparently stood on the site of the later Westbury Court. (fn. 80) Westbury Court was presumably the Baynhams' house at Westbury mentioned in the early 16th century, (fn. 81) and the one in which Nicholas Roberts was living at his death in 1637. (fn. 82) The Colchesters took up residence at Westbury when they acquired the estate. (fn. 83) Their house had 11 hearths in 1672 (fn. 84) and 23 rooms were enumerated in 1715; (fn. 85) it stood close to the south side of the main road, northeast of the churchyard, and was an L-shaped stone building of two stories and attics with gables and some oriel windows. (fn. 86) It was rebuilt between 1743 and 1746 to the designs of Michael Sidnell of Bristol; the new house was a four-story building of brick and Bath stone (fn. 87) surmounted by a pediment bearing the Colchester arms. (fn. 88) Soon after its completion, however, the Colchesters took up residence at the Wilderness, their house in Abenhall, and apparently occupied the Westbury house only between c. 1780 and c. 1805 when it was demolished. (fn. 89) The family then had no home at Westbury until 1895 when a new house was built by Maynard Colchester-Wemyss on a site to the south of that of its predecessor; (fn. 90) the new house was occupied by the family until 1960 and was demolished before 1964. (fn. 91)
Between 1696 and 1706 Maynard Colchester laid out a water-garden on the east and south of Westbury Court, consisting of flower-beds, shrubs, and trees arranged in formal patterns around two parallel canals fed by the Westbury brook. The main garden ornament was a brick and stone pavilion standing at the south end of the western canal, comprising an open ground floor with columns supporting a pedimented upper story with tall windows; there is a classical statue on an islet at the T-shaped end of the eastern canal. A brick wall along the north side of the garden contains two sets of rusticated gateposts, with respectively urn and pineapple finials. (fn. 92) A gazebo of brick with stone dressings and a tall arched entrance flanked by Corinthian pilasters was built at the east end of the wall c. 1743. (fn. 93) In 1964 when the garden was acquired by the Gloucestershire County Council (fn. 94) it was in a state of neglect, and the southern pavilion had to be demolished because of its unsafe condition. An old people's home was built on the western side of the garden in 1967-8, but the remainder was given in 1967 to the National Trust which by 1969 had begun to restore the garden and to rebuild the pavilion to the original design. (fn. 95)
A ¼ knight's fee at Westbury, later said like Isabel de Mynors's estate to be held from the de Bohuns, was held in 1303 by Simon de Sollers and Peter Helion. (fn. 96) Simon's share had passed by 1346 to his son Simon, (fn. 97) and in 1374 Walter Sollers with Gilbert Talbot and Philip de Aune, the partners in Isabel's estate, held a knight's fee from the de Bohuns. (fn. 98) The estate of the Sollers family may have been represented by the manor of SELLARS (or Cellars) in Westbury which belonged to Llanthony Priory at the Dissolution. (fn. 99) Sellars manor was owned with Westbury manor by Joseph Baynham at his death in 1613 (fn. 100) and continued to be mentioned later among the Colchesters' property. The site of the manor, later described as Cellar's Mount, (fn. 101) was apparently the rectangular area marked as 'the manor' on a map of the Colchesters' estate in 1785. (fn. 102) It lay on the main road opposite the churchyard and close to the Westbury brook; there had presumably once been a moated dwelling on the site.
Peter Helion's share of the ¼ knight's fee recorded in 1303 (fn. 103) was evidently represented by 30s. rent in Westbury manor held by Walter Helion at his death c. 1342. Walter also held from the lords of the various divisions of Westbury manor an estate which was later known as the manor of LEY, and from the 16th century as the manor of NETHERLEY; Walter's heirs were Rose, the wife of John Raleigh, her sister Eva, and John, son of a third sister, Maud Helion. (fn. 104) John was perhaps the John Coof who held the estate in 1358 when it was taken by the Crown because of his lunacy; (fn. 105) he died c. 1362 and the estate was assigned soon afterwards to his cousin and heir Thomas Raleigh. (fn. 106) William son of Thomas Raleigh held the estate at his death in 1419 when his heir was his sister Joan, the wife of Gerard Braybrook. (fn. 107) George Raleigh held the estate at his death in 1546, having devised it for life to his brother Leonard; Simon Raleigh, perhaps George's son, (fn. 108) held it in 1579. (fn. 109) It was apparently that estate which was acquired in 1607 by William Lysons, (fn. 110) and a William Lysons held it in 1662, (fn. 111) perhaps the man who was described as a clothier of Westbury in 1672; (fn. 112) William Lysons of Ley died in 1693. (fn. 113) In 1697 the estate was acquired from William Lysons by Daniel Lysons of the Hempsted branch of the family (d. 1736), (fn. 114) from whom it presumably passed to his son Daniel (d. 1773), and to Daniel son of the second Daniel (d. 1800). The Revd. Samuel Lysons, brother and heir of the last Daniel, held the estate at his death in 1804, (fn. 115) and in 1828 his son the Revd. Daniel Lysons sold the estate to Richard Legge of Ninnage Lodge, Westbury. In 1864 Charles Asgill Legge of Ninnage Lodge settled the estate, which comprised Lower Ley farm (123 a.), on his daughter Caroline, the wife of Tom Goold of Newnham. Tom died in 1879 and Caroline in the next year, and in 1889 Caroline's mortagagees sold Lower Ley Farm to Frederick Harvey. (fn. 116) In 1908 the Gloucestershire County Council bought the estate from Harvey or his successors for use as small-holdings, and the council owned it, with a number of other estates in the parish acquired later, in 1969. (fn. 117) Lower Ley Farm is a timber-framed building of the late 16th or 17th century comprising a main block and an east cross-wing with a jettied gable-end; there is internal evidence of a remodelling which involved raising the roof of the main block. A timberframed barn has a roof incorporating upper crucks.
Another estate later known as the manor of NETHERLEY was held by Robert Greyndour at his death in 1443; it was then described as a house and a plough-land in Ley. (fn. 118) It passed to Robert's daughter Elizabeth who married firstly Reynold West, Lord la Warre, and secondly John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester, and died in 1452; (fn. 119) John Tiptoft held the estate until his death in 1470 when it reverted to Elizabeth's heir Alice, the wife of Thomas Baynham. (fn. 120) Sir George Baynham of Clearwell, the grandson of Thomas and Alice, was described as of Westbury in 1540 (fn. 121) and at his death in 1546 devised Netherley manor for life to his wife Cecily with reversion to his son Christopher. The manor apparently passed to Christopher's brother Richard, (fn. 122) and Thomas Baynham, a third brother, held it at his death in 1611 when it apparently passed to Thomas's daughter and coheir Joan and her husband John Vaughan (d. 1620). (fn. 123) The estate then presumably passed to Baynham Vaughan son of John and Joan (d. 1650), and Baynham's son John Vaughan of Ruardean held it in 1681; (fn. 124) it may have been represented by the house called Baglaw with a small estate at Lower Ley which John Vaughan sold in 1692 to Thomas Chinn and Cornelius Draper, and which they sold in 1694 to Maynard Colchester. (fn. 125)
Another estate at Lower Ley, described as the principal estate there, was owned c. 1803 and in 1823 by Anthony Ellis of Gloucester, (fn. 126) who was succeeded by his cousin James ('Jemmy') Wood, the Gloucester banker (d. 1836). In 1839 the estate, which comprised c. 390 a. including Ley Court, Union farm, and Green farm, was held by Wood's executors and devisees, one of whom, John Surman Surman of Swindon, was the owner in 1844. (fn. 127) He was succeeded after 1871 by Major John Surman of Tredington. (fn. 128) Ley Court, evidently the chief house of the estate, was rebuilt in the mid 19th century as a square two-story brick building in the Tudor style.
The large manor of RODLEY, which included seven tithings in the south part of the parish, (fn. 129) was presumably included in the Crown's estate at Westbury in 1086; the Crown held it in 1177 (fn. 130) and in 1241 when it was farmed by Ralph of Rodley. (fn. 131) In 1259 Henry III granted the manor to Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and Eleanor his wife to hold until he provided them with other lands; (fn. 132) they still held it in 1261, (fn. 133) but it reverted to the king on or before Simon's death. In 1266 the king granted the manor to his son Edmund Crouchback, who was created Earl of Lancaster in the following year. (fn. 134) Edmund granted it provisionally in 1270 to Gilbert Talbot and his heirs; (fn. 135) Gilbert held it at his death c. 1274 when it passed to his son Richard, (fn. 136) but by 1282 the manor had reverted to Edmund who granted it provisionally to William de Grandison and his heirs. (fn. 137) In 1292 Edmund settled the manor on his son Henry of Lancaster who succeeded at Edmund's death in 1296. (fn. 138) In 1317 Henry granted Rodley manor for life to Thomas Blount, who held it in 1324, (fn. 139) and in 1332 Henry granted it for life to John Blount. (fn. 140) On John Blount's death in 1358 the manor reverted to Henry's son and heir Henry, Duke of Lancaster, (fn. 141) who died seised of it in 1361 leaving as his heirs his two daughters Maud and Blanche. (fn. 142) Rodley manor was assigned to Maud, (fn. 143) and after her death in 1362 it passed to Blanche and her husband John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. (fn. 144) After John's death in 1399 the manor passed to his son who became Henry IV in that year. (fn. 145) The Crown retained the manor of Rodley until 1625 when it granted it to Robert Cary, later Earl of Monmouth, and Sir Henry Cary his son and heir; they sold the manor in 1632 to John Berrow of Quedgeley and five others (fn. 146) who sold it in 1634 to Thomas Young of Stantway. (fn. 147) Thomas Young held the manor in 1640 (fn. 148) and apparently sold it in 1648 to Thomas Pury, who held it in 1658. (fn. 149) Thomas Pury sold the manor c. 1690 to Sir John Guise of Elmore, Bt. (d. 1695), and it passed to successive sons, Sir John (d. 1732), Sir John (d. 1769), and Sir William (d. 1783). (fn. 150) In 1807 the manor was held by Sir William's sister Jane and her husband Shute Barrington, Bishop of Durham, but by the next year it had passed to Sir Berkeley William Guise, Bt. (d. 1834), son of Sir William's heir. (fn. 151) From Sir Berkeley the manor, which consisted by the mid 19th century only of a few small copyholds (fn. 152) and after c. 1920 only of the manorial rights, (fn. 153) passed to his brother Sir John Wright Guise (d. 1865), and to successive sons Sir William Vernon Guise (d. 1887), Sir William Francis Guise (d. 1920), and Sir Anselm Guise (fl. 1969). (fn. 154)
There was no capital messuage on Rodley manor in 1274 (fn. 155) but one had been built by 1358; (fn. 156) it was evidently on the site of BURY COURT which was recorded in 1423. (fn. 157) In 1591 the house and 93 a. were held on lease by William Morwent and another, (fn. 158) and in 1614 it was leased with all the demesne lands of the manor to William Morwent and John Taylor; (fn. 159) it was included in the sale of the manor in 1625, (fn. 160) but was separated from the manor soon afterwards. Roger Taylor held Bury Court in 1647, William Taylor in 1654, (fn. 161) and another Roger Taylor apparently owned the freehold in 1658. (fn. 162) Roger Taylor of Bury Court died c. 1686, (fn. 163) and a successor of the same name owned Bury Court and a considerable estate in 1723; he died in 1727 and in 1737 his widow Mary held the estate with her son Roger. Roger held the estate in 1779 (fn. 164) but was dead by 1792 when it was owned by his daughter Anne and her husband William Cadle of Poultonshill, who settled the estate on their son Richard who was then occupying the house. In 1797, however, Anne, then a widow, sold the estate to John Hartland, (fn. 165) and he or another John Hartland owned Bury Court and c. 245 a. in 1839. (fn. 166) John Hartland died in 1866, and was succeeded by his son William (d. 1872). In 1878 the Bury Court estate was put up for sale by trustees for the Hartland family, and it was apparently bought then by Robert Butler. (fn. 167) Robert Butler occupied Bury Court in 1894; by 1910 the estate had passed to his nephew William Butler, and by 1935 was occupied by James Butler; (fn. 168) in 1968 Mr. W. J. Butler owned and farmed the estate, then c. 160 a. (fn. 169) In 1591 the house on the Bury Court estate was described as a reasonable farmhouse with a hall, parlour, other mean rooms, and outbuildinos. (fn. 170) The present house is a timberframed building of the late 16th or early 17th century faced in later brickwork and stone. It is thought to have once been larger, and foundations have been discovered on the south and west. (fn. 171) The base of a massive curved timber in a partition behind the entrance passage suggests that part of a medieval cruck-framed building was incorporated in the house.
An estate based on COURT FARM (formerly Rodley Farm), standing west of Bury Court, perhaps resulted from a division of the demesne lands of Rodley manor. The estate was owned by 1785 by Maynard Colchester; (fn. 172) it was retained by the Colchesters until 1879 when they sold Court Farm and 206 a. to Martin Wintle of Bristol from whom the Gloucestershire County Council bought the estate in 1919. (fn. 173) Court Farm is an L-shaped building of stone and brick, parts of which were originally timber-framed. Alterations and extensions took place in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, while the roof and the symmetrical front of the principal range may be of still later date. The rear wing shows internal evidence of framing and contains two ceiling beams with carved stops and brackets.
BAYS COURT at Bollow was recorded by that name in 1423 when it also belonged to Rodley manor. (fn. 174) In 1560 it was on lease to Richard Hunt (fn. 175) and in 1582 it was leased with 28 a. to John Bayse and his son Thomas; (fn. 176) Thomas Bayse was the tenant in 1614 (fn. 177) and it was sold with the manor in 1625. (fn. 178) It was probably owned by John Bayse of Bollow who was a freeholder of the manor by purchase in 1658, (fn. 179) and by James Bayse of Bollow who was a freeholder in 1691; (fn. 180) he or another James Bayse was succeeded in the Bays Court estate before 1737 by his daughters, Elizabeth who married Daniel Lea and Mary who married James Sandford. (fn. 181) In 1839 Benjamin Mayo, whose family had been settled at Gatwick Farm from 1712, (fn. 182) owned Bays Court and 136 a. (fn. 183) Benjamin died in 1844 (fn. 184) and the estate passed to Benjamin Harrison Mayo who rebuilt the house in 1847 as a square brick building of two stories and attics with Tudor-style windows. (fn. 185) Benjamin Harrison Mayo retained the estate in 1871, (fn. 186) and it passed before 1879 to Benjamin Pleydell Mayo and c. 1895 to John Harrison Mayo (d. 1936). (fn. 187) In 1939 Bays Court was occupied by Mrs. Laura Mayo, (fn. 188) and in 1944 the Mayo family sold it to a Mr. Grindle whose son Mr. R. D. Grindle owned and farmed the estate, reduced to 77 a., in 1968. (fn. 189)
A house and one plough-land at Stantway was held from Rodley manor by Ralph of Abenhall at his death c. 1301; he was succeeded by his son John (fn. 190) from whom the estate presumably passed to his brother Ralph, and Reynold of Abenhall, Ralph's son, held it at his death c. 1341. (fn. 191) The estate of the Abenhall family was apparently that called the manor of STANTWAY which Philip Hoke granted to trustees before 1412 for the endowment of a chantry in Littledean church. (fn. 192) In 1550, after the dissolution of the chantry, the manor was granted by the Crown to John Butler and Hugh Partridge, (fn. 193) who granted it a few months later to one of the Wintle family whose son Henry Wintle held the estate, comprising Stantway Court and 80 a., in 1591. (fn. 194) In 1614 William Wintle sold the estate to Alexander Baynham, the owner of the Westbury Court estate, who sold it in 1621 to Thomas Young of Chaxhill. Thomas sold the estate in 1634 to John Osborne from whom it was bought in 1647 by William Aylburton of Elton. In 1683 a division of the house was made between Samuel and Joseph Aylburton, and in 1690 Joseph sold his moiety of the house and part of the land to Sir Duncombe Colchester of Westbury Court. (fn. 195) The rest of the house and estate was owned in 1709 by Mary, daughter of Samuel Aylburton, and in 1742 was sold by Mitchell Aylburton to Maynard Colchester; (fn. 196) the re-united estate then descended in the Colchester family, (fn. 197) until sold c. 1944. (fn. 198) In 1968 Mr. R. J. Liddington owned the house and 119 a. (fn. 199) The house, which apparently dates from a complete rebuilding in the late 18th or early 19th century, is of two stories with attics and is built in the local Lias stone.
The manor of WALMORE, described as a farm of 200 a. of assarts with meadows and pastures, was granted to Flaxley Abbey by Henry II. (fn. 200) The abbey's property in the parish was supplemented by a number of later grants, notably 53 a. in Elton given by Hugh Charke in 1255, (fn. 201) land in Northwood given by John Joce in 1364, (fn. 202) and a messuage, a plough-land, and c. 130 a. in Ley, Boseley, and Rodley given by John Sabyn, chaplain, and Thomas Snodhull (who were perhaps acting as intermediaries) in 1387. (fn. 203) After the Dissolution Walmore manor with appurtenances in Chaxhill, Cleeve, Walmore, Northwood, Adsett, Elton, Boseley, and Denny was granted with the abbey's other possessions to Sir William Kingston, (fn. 204) who died in 1540, and it was then confirmed to his son Sir Anthony Kingston. (fn. 205) Sir Anthony granted it in the same year to Sir Brian Tuke, (fn. 206) and in 1546 his son Charles Tuke granted the manor to Christopher Estoft and John Abingdon. (fn. 207) They later granted it to members of the Taverner family from whom it passed to Richard Andrews, who sold it in 1553 to Edward Wilmot. (fn. 208) Edward died in 1558 having settled the manor on his son Alexander; (fn. 209) in 1566 Christine Bury and Thomas Wilmot, apparently Edward's widow and son, were dealing with lands in Westbury, (fn. 210) and in 1569 members of the Wilmot and Kemp families were licensed to grant Walmore manor to Anthony Kemp. (fn. 211) Anthony Kemp was lord of Walmore manor in 1607, (fn. 212) and freehold lands in Rodley manor, which were probably appurtenant to Walmore manor, were held by Sir Garret Kemp from Anthony Kemp in 1614. (fn. 213) Sir Garret Kemp owned Walmore manor in 1663, (fn. 214) and by 1694 it had passed to his grandson Anthony Kemp of Slindon (Sussex). (fn. 215) Anthony's son Anthony had succeeded to the manor, which included Grange Court and a large estate, by 1717, and retained it in 1731. (fn. 216) Barbara, daughter of Anthony Kemp, married James Radclyffe, Earl of Newburgh, (fn. 217) who held Walmore manor c. 1775, (fn. 218) and was succeeded at his death in 1786 by his son Anthony (d. 1814). (fn. 219) The estate, which in 1839 comprised c. 760 a. all of which had apparently belonged to Flaxley Abbey and paid no tithes, passed to Anthony's widow Anne, Countess of Newburgh, who apparently retained it until her death in 1861. (fn. 220) In 1863 it was owned by Col. Charles Leslie (fn. 221) who had married the heiress of the Earls of Newburgh. Col. Leslie died in 1870 and his trustees held the manor in 1885. (fn. 222) By 1906 Grange Court and at least part of the estate had been acquired by the Colchester-Wemyss family; it was sold in 1918 to Mr. Arthur Hoddell, whose widow owned the house and 263 a. in 1968. (fn. 223) Grange Court presumably occupies the site of Walmore grange mentioned in the mid 13th century. (fn. 224) The house was occupied by Daniel Baynham, one of the family that held Westbury manor, at his death in 1620, (fn. 225) and from the late 17th to the late 18th century it was leased to members of the Constaunce family. (fn. 226) It is a substantial house consisting of a central block and gabled crosswings faced in plaster or brick. The west wing is timber-framed and may represent the solar wing of a late medieval house; close-studding and shaped door-heads are visible internally. The two-storied central block, which is also timber-framed, was probably built in the 17th century to replace an earlier hall, the west wing being re-roofed at the same time. The east wing is a comparatively modern brick structure, perhaps of the early 19th century, built to match the west wing.
In 1518 William Hughes and his wife Anne, one of the daughters and heirs of William Hartland, were dealing with a moiety of the manor of BOSELEY. (fn. 227) In 1529 Hugh Griffiths levied a fine of his reversionary right in a moiety of the manor, held for life by Alice Hughes, widow, formerly the wife of William Hartland, to John Arnold, (fn. 228) and in 1539 Arnold acquired the reversionary right in the same moiety claimed by Walter Hughes and Margaret his wife. (fn. 229) John Arnold died seised of the manor in 1545 having settled it on his wife Isabel, who survived him, and on a younger son Richard. (fn. 230) On Richard's death in 1587 the manor reverted to Joyce Lucy, the heir of his elder brother Sir Nicholas Arnold, (fn. 231) and Joyce and her husband Sir William Cooke of Highnam held the manor, comprising 518 a., in 1607; they also owned 123 a., the former possessions of Fulcher's Chantry (fn. 232) which had been granted to Sir Nicholas Arnold in 1563. (fn. 233) The estate then descended with the manor of Highnam until at least 1769 when John Guise, owner of one moiety, bought the other moiety from William Jones. (fn. 234) The estate was later acquired by Sir Thomas Crawley-Boevey, Bt. of Flaxley (d. 1818), (fn. 235) and in 1839 his son Sir Thomas owned c. 390 a. including Boseley Court and Grove Farm. (fn. 236) Sir Thomas died in 1847 and the estate passed to successive sons Sir Martin (d. 1862), Sir Thomas (d. 1912), and Sir Francis (d. 1928). (fn. 237) The estate was sold c. 1930 by Sir Francis's son Sir Launcelot Crawley-Boevey; the Boseley Court farm was bought by a Mr. Ebborn but sold soon afterwards to the Phelps family who owned and farmed it in 1969. (fn. 238) Boseley Court, formerly called Boseley Farm, (fn. 239) apparently occupies the site of the manorhouse of Boseley manor mentioned in 1607. (fn. 240) The present house dates from the late 17th century, perhaps from 1699, a date which appears on a cast-iron fire-back; it is a rectangular brick building of two stories and dormered attics. There is some evidence that the construction took place in two ioned and transomed windows were replaced by sashes in the 18th century.
Robert Muschet had land near Walmore in the late 12th century. (fn. 241) It may be identifiable with the messuage and 53 a. in Walmore and Northwood held by Richard of Poulton, who died c. 1307, in right of his wife Agnes Muschet, by the service of providing the king with three barbed arrows when he came to hunt in the Forest of Dean. Richard was succeeded in the estate by his younger son Walter, but in 1318 the claim of Walter's widow Agnes was being challenged by John of Poulton, the son of Richard's eldest son Richard; (fn. 242) the dispute was apparently resolved in favour of Agnes, (fn. 243) who was assessed for tax at Northwood in 1327. (fn. 244) Before 1388 the estate was granted by Margery, daughter and heir of Robert of Poulton, to Ralph Oldland. (fn. 245) The estate may have been that called Poultonshill mentioned below.
The Cadle family, recorded in the parish from 1195, (fn. 246) were prominent as yeoman farmers in the 18th and 19th centuries. Joseph Cadle owned the house called Brimstones at his death in 1692, (fn. 247) and another Joseph Cadle who died in 1745 also occupied the near-by LONGCROFT estate. (fn. 248) Joseph Cadle who died in 1774 left estates including Longcroft to his brother John (fn. 249) who was succeeded before 1788 by his son Joseph. (fn. 250) Joseph Cadle acquired other lands in the parish and at his death c. 1833 his estates were divided between his sons Joseph, who in 1839 owned Longcroft and 192 a., and Cornelius, who owned Morwents and Brook farms with 183 a. (fn. 251) Both sons apparently retained the estates in 1851. (fn. 252) In 1856 and until 1880 when the Longcroft estate was put up for sale it was occupied by Thomas Cadle. (fn. 253) It was later acquired by the MacIver family of Blaisdon and sold with their estate in the early 1930s. (fn. 254) In 1968 Longcroft was owned by Bournside Farms Ltd. (fn. 255) The house comprises a single 17th-century timberframed range of two stories and attics, faced in rough-cast.
Another branch of the Cadle family were settled at POULTONSHILL by the early 18th century. Joseph Cadle lived there in 1715 (fn. 256) and Richard Cadle in 1729; (fn. 257) Richard or a successor of the same name died in 1738. (fn. 258) In 1762 the Poultonshill estate was apparently owned by William Cadle of Blaisdon, (fn. 259) and it was occupied by William Cadle at his death in 1792. (fn. 260) In 1839 the house and 99 a. belonged to Thomas Tovey. (fn. 261) Poultonshill was sold with the MacIver estate in the early 1930s, (fn. 262) and in 1968 the house and 103 a. belonged to Mr. E. A. Osment. (fn. 263) It is a square two-story brick house of c. 1700, with stone gateposts with ball finials.
The Wintles, a numerous family of farmers and landowners, were settled in the parish by 1426. (fn. 264) The house called COWLEY'S ELM at Rodley was occupied by Thomas Wintle in 1546, (fn. 265) and in 1614 John Wintle of Cowley's Elm was among 10 members of the family holding lands from Rodley manor. (fn. 266) Thomas Wintle occupied Cowley's Elm in 1676, (fn. 267) and another Thomas Wintle in 1780. (fn. 268) In 1839 Cowley's Elm and c. 127 a. were owned by John Collins and leased to William Wintle, (fn. 269) and in 1846 William Wintle bought the estate from Henry Collins. William died in 1852 leaving the estate to his son William who bought the small adjoining estate known as the Vine Tree (fn. 270) (which another branch of the Wintle family had occupied since at least 1591) (fn. 271) from his brother John in 1862. William died in 1903 and his executors conveyed his estates in the next year to Frederick Collins, who sold them in 1911 to the Gloucestershire County Council, the owners in 1969. (fn. 272) Members of the Wintle family occupied an estate called the Hill in 1546 and 1701; (fn. 273) it may have been Hill farm at Rodley which in 1780 was owned by Benjamin Hyett, (fn. 274) who apparently sold it to Thomas Wintle in 1802. (fn. 275) John Wintle owned Hill Farm and 77 a. in 1839 when other members of the family owned Yew Tree farm, also at Rodley, and Rock farm at Stantway. (fn. 276)
An estate of 85 a. based on CHAXHILL HOUSE was owned by Benjamin Hyett in 1780. (fn. 277) He sold it in 1809 to Thomas Elliot, and Elliot sold it in 1817 to Joseph Bennett (fn. 278) whose family was in possession of an adjoining estate at Chaxhill by 1789. (fn. 279) In 1839 Joseph Bennett's estates comprised c. 190 a. (fn. 280) By 1863 they had passed to Joseph Richard Bennett who retained them until c. 1910. (fn. 281) In 1918 his trustees put the estate up for sale; it was split up, the house and c. 80 a. being bought by J. W. Bennet who sold it in 1924. (fn. 282) That part of the estate passed through various ownerships until c. 1951 when it was bought by Mr. L. J. Hyslop who added to it a former part of Walmore Common and in 1969 owned the house with a farm of 215 a. (fn. 283) Chaxhill House is an early 19th-century threestory brick house with a stuccoed front; it has a cornice and parapet and a porch with pediment, pilasters, and fan-light.
A freehold estate based on a house called HAYDENS PLACE, later Elton Farm, was held from Rodley manor by Nicholas Hayden in 1504. It later passed to Margaret, widow of John Coke, who was succeeded at her death in 1551 by her son William Bailey. William Bailey held the estate, containing 60 a., in 1591 with another 45 a. acquired in 1572 and 1580, (fn. 284) and before 1614 sold his lands to Joseph Fowle. (fn. 285) In 1639 the estate belonged to William Capel of Gloucester who sold it to Richard Swanley. (fn. 286) In 1759 it was owned by Thomas Pettat of King's Stanley who settled it on the marriage of his son Thomas; in 1797 the commissioners of the bankruptcy of the younger Thomas sold the estate to William Bullock of Blaisdon. (fn. 287) Samuel Bullock owned Elton Farm and 114 a. in 1839 (fn. 288) and the farm still belonged to the Bullock family in 1969. (fn. 289)