A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 11, Bisley and Longtree Hundreds. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1976.
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MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES.
In 1086 Hugh d'Avranches, earl of Chester, held the large manor of Bisley, extended at 8 hides. It evidently included the whole of Bisley and Stroud with the exception of Througham, which the earl also held, and possibly also of Tunley, which may have been the ½ hide which the earl was disputing with the lord of Edgeworth, Roger de Lacy. The tenant of Bisley manor under Hugh was named as Robert, (fn. 1) possibly his cousin Robert of Tilleul. (fn. 2) The overlordship of the manor descended to successive earls of Chester, (fn. 3) and Earl Ranulph de Gernon created an intermediate overlordship c. 1135 when he ordered his vavasours of Bisley to do service to Miles of Gloucester. The rights of Miles's family evidently lapsed or were challenged, for c. 1170 Ranulph's son Hugh of Cyveiliog granted the fee of Bisley to Humphrey de Bohun, Miles's son-in-law and ancestor of the earls of Hereford, to hold from him by the service of 3 knights out of the 5 owed from the fee. Excepted from the grant was a fee held from the earl by Hugh de Lacy, and from Hugh de Lacy by Philip de Belmeis. (fn. 4) Three fees at Bisley were ascribed to John de Scocia, earl of Chester, in 1236, (fn. 5) after whose death in 1237 the overlordship passed with the earldom to the Crown, from which the earls of Hereford held in 1303. (fn. 6)
In 1303 a total of 2¾ knights' fees in Bisley and Stroud were held from the earl of Hereford, including parts of Bisley manor in the possession respectively of Joan Corbet, Tibbald de Verdun, and Richard of Bisley, and the manors of Bidfield, Over Lypiatt (including Tunley), and Paganhill. (fn. 7) In 1374 those manors, with the omission of Bidfield and the inclusion of Nether Lypiatt, were assessed with Winstone at a total of 3¾ fees among the fees of the late Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, (fn. 8) and were assigned in 1384 to his daughter Mary and her husband Henry of Lancaster. (fn. 9) In 1717, however, the Staffords, heirs of Humphrey's other daughter Eleanor, claimed Bisley, Bidfield, and the Stroud manors as members of their honor of Hereford. (fn. 10) Througham manor was also included in the de Bohuns' overlordship but was no longer listed among their fees after it was acquired by Cirencester Abbey in the mid 13th century. (fn. 11)
Other rights as overlords in Bisley manor, apparently representing the fee excepted from the earl of Chester's grant of c.1170, belonged to the Mortimers of Wigmore. (fn. 12) Hugh Mortimer (d. 1180 or 1181) married Maud, widow of Philip de Belmeis, and Hugh's son Roger (d. 1213 or 1214) received rents in Bisley by gift of his 'brothers' Philip de Belmeis, son of the elder Philip, and Ranulph. (fn. 13) The younger Philip may have been the Philip of Bisley who made a journey to Jerusalem before 1193. (fn. 14) In 1225 Roger Mortimer's son Hugh (d. 1227) was disputing property in Bisley, (fn. 15) and in 1236 Hugh's brother Ralph was recorded as holding 2 fees in Bisley and Longborough. (fn. 16) Ralph died in 1246 and was succeeded by his son Roger (d. 1282), whose son Edmund owned the advowson of the first portion of Bisley rectory in 1290 (fn. 17) and at his death in 1304 he had a knight's fee called Stokes End and Bisley held from him by William of Rodborough. (fn. 18) The fee was recorded among those held from the Mortimers as of their honor of Wigmore until 1426, (fn. 19) but the location of Stokes End has not been established. The Mortimers, in the person of Edmund's son Roger, became seized in fee of a part of Bisley manor in 1327.
By 1274 the part of the manor of BISLEY held from the de Bohuns was evidently divided among the same three owners as Bisley hundred, half being held by Peter Corbet in right of his wife Joan, a quarter by Tibbald de Verdun (or le Botiler) in right of his wife Margery, and the remaining quarter by Richard of Bisley (or le Eyer), (fn. 20) for in 1303 Joan Corbet held ½ fee at Bisley, and Tibbald and Richard ¼ fees. (fn. 21) The ½ fee was held by Joan, the widow of Henry de Bohun, in 1316, (fn. 22) and in 1346 by Richard de Denton. (fn. 23) It has not been found recorded later and may have been added to the estate of the earls of March.
The part of the manor held by Richard of Bisley in 1303 may have represented that described as ⅓ fee which Hawise, widow of Thomas of Bisley, quitclaimed to Nicholas of St. Bridget in 1241 in return for 30s. rent in Bisley. (fn. 24) Richard of Bisley was in possession of a share in the advowson of Bisley church and evidently also of a part of the manor by 1274. (fn. 25) By 1316 his part of the manor had passed to his son Hugh le Eyer, (fn. 26) who was probably the Hugh of Bisley who held the estate in 1346 and 1351. (fn. 27) In 1361 it was evidently held by the earl of Hereford during the minority of Hugh, son of John of Bisley. (fn. 28) Hugh of Bisley had come of age by 1374 (fn. 29) and retained the estate until at least 1415 when he made his will leaving goods at Bisley to his wife. (fn. 30) In 1380 Hugh was appointed escheator in Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, and the March of Wales adjoining and held the office until 1384 or 1385. (fn. 31) His estate was evidently that described as the manor of Bisley which John Stonehouse of Stonehouse held in 1422; (fn. 32) it was united with the larger portion of Bisley manor in 1434 when John granted it, together with the share in the advowson of the second portion of the church, to the duke of York in exchange for the manor of Over Siddington. (fn. 33)
The part of the manor held by Tibbald de Verdun passed on his death in 1309 to his son Tibbald (fn. 34) (d. 1316) who granted it for 5 years to the elder Hugh Despenser in 1313. (fn. 35) Hugh later secured a further term or a grant in fee, for Bisley was one of the manors which in 1322, on the reversal of his exile, he complained had been seized by Roger Mortimer, Roger Mortimer of Chirk, the earl of Hereford, and others among his enemies. (fn. 36) After Hugh's execution and forfeiture the estate was granted in 1327 to Roger Mortimer, who in that or the following year granted it for life to Gerard de Alspathe. (fn. 37) In 1337, following Gerard's death, John de Alspathe had a grant of the estate for life from the Crown (fn. 38) and in 1340 had a grant in fee. (fn. 39) John's brother Edmund held it in 1350 when he had licence to grant it to John de Clinton. (fn. 40) The Alspathes did not, however, enjoy unchallenged tenure, for after Gerard's death Elizabeth, widow of Roger Mortimer's son Edmund, gained temporary possession of the estate on behalf of her son Roger. The younger Roger was restored to his grandfather's estates and title of earl of March in 1354 (fn. 41) but had apparently gained possession of Bisley by the beginning of the previous year. (fn. 42) In 1357 Roger and his mother had a grant of the estate from the Crown together with all the issues since the death of Gerard de Alspathe. (fn. 43)
Roger Mortimer, earl of March, died in 1360, having granted Bisley to the bishop of Winchester and others, and those feoffees had a further grant from the Crown to hold for 8 years during the minority of Roger's son Edmund. (fn. 44) Edmund, still several years under age, had a grant of his own wardship in 1367, (fn. 45) and held the estate until his death in 1381. (fn. 46) His son Roger, a minor, succeeded in 1394 and died in 1398. His widow Eleanor was granted the estate as dower in 1399 (fn. 47) and, with her second husband Edward Cherleton, held it until her death in 1405 (fn. 48) when it passed to her son Edmund, earl of March (d. 1425). (fn. 49) Edmund was succeeded by his nephew Richard, duke of York, (fn. 50) who united the two portions of the manor in 1434. Richard's wife Cecily was granted the manor of Bisley for her life after her husband's forfeiture in 1459 (fn. 51) and she held it until her death in 1495; the reversionary right, which passed to the Crown by the accession of her son as Edward IV, was granted in 1492 to Elizabeth, wife of Henry VII. (fn. 52)
In 1 09 the manor was granted to Catherine of Aragon as part of her jointure on her marriage to Henry VIII (fn. 53) and it was settled in turn on each of the king's wives. (fn. 54) On the death of Catherine Parr in 1548 it reverted to the Crown which granted it in 1550 to Sir Walter Mildmay (fn. 55) who granted it back to the Crown the following year. Edward VI granted it in 1551 to his sister Elizabeth (fn. 56) who apparently retained it until her accession; it remained with the Crown until 1619 when James I granted it, for a feefarm rent of £53 16s. 6¾d., to George Villiers, marquess (later duke) of Buckingham. (fn. 57) Buckingham, who alienated the demesne lands and most, if not all, of the customary land, (fn. 58) sold the manor before his death in 1628 to Thomas Master, master of the Temple. (fn. 59) On Thomas's death soon afterwards his heir was another Thomas Master during whose minority the manor was held by Walter Master. The younger Thomas had come of age by 1636 (fn. 60) and was presumably the Thomas Master of Longhope who sold the manor in 1678 to the younger Sir Robert Atkyns. (fn. 61) Atkyns sold it in 1708 to Thomas Stephens (fn. 62) and it thereafter descended with the Lypiatt Park estate, whose owners also acquired a number of farms in the north part of Bisley parish; the manorial rights of Bisley apparently lapsed at the break-up of the estate in 1919. (fn. 63)
In the 16th century two manor-houses, Over Court and Higons Court standing near the church, belonged to the manor estate and presumably represented the chief houses of the estates of the earls of March and the Bisley family respectively. OVER COURT, evidently the 'upper farm' held by John Borwey in 1536, (fn. 64) was leased, with the demesne lands belonging to it, to John Snow from 1555 (fn. 65) and to his son John from 1582. (fn. 66) In 1593 it was leased for lives to Thomas Tayloe, clothier, his wife Alice, and his son Thomas, and they bought out a reversionary lease granted to Hugh George in the following year. (fn. 67) Thomas died in 1600 (fn. 68) and by 1608 Over Court was held by Alice's second husband Richard Webley. (fn. 69) In 1621 Thomas Tayloe, clothier, presumably the son of Thomas and Alice, bought the freehold of the estate from the marquess of Buckingham, and on his death in 1666 it passed to his son Thomas Tayloe, clothier (d. 1685). In 1695 Robert Tayloe, clothier, nephew of the younger Thomas, held the reversion of Over Court after the death of Thomas's widow Anne, and he sold it that year to his cousin Thomas. The last Thomas was dead by 1721, having devised the estate to Samuel Tayloe, clothier, of Hyde, Minchinhampton, although his heir was the same Robert from whom he had acquired the reversionary right; in that year Samuel was joined by Robert in the sale of the estate to Daniel Watkins of London (d. 1736). Daniel's estate later became the subject of a Chancery suit between his widow Sarah and his daughter Mary and, put up for sale by court order, it was purchased in 1764 on behalf of Mary, to whom Sarah released her claim in return for an annuity in 1766. The estate, comprising Over Court and c. 120 a., was settled on Mary's marriage to Henry Peckitt, a London apothecary. (fn. 70) She died in 1793 and he in 1808, and the estate passed to Daniel Watkins, grandson of Mary's brother Thomas. Daniel's heir on his death in 1838 was his son Daniel but the estate was sold off in 1840, (fn. 71) the house and part of it being acquired by Thomas Watkins, half-brother of the younger Daniel, who sold it in 1852. Subsequently the house passed through many owners (fn. 72) and in 1972 belonged to Mr. J. D. Cowen.
Over Court, which in 1608 was described as a large and beautiful house of 10 bays with outbuildings and a dovecot, (fn. 73) is basically a medieval house of traditional hall and cross-wing plan; part of the original hall roof survives. Subsequently an upper floor was inserted into the hall and in the 17th century a new higher wing, incorporating a parlour, was added on the north-west. In the early 18th century the angle between the two ranges was partly filled by a stair and further rooms. In the 19th century additons were made to the service end and in the 20th there were some internal alterations. An 18th-century gazebo is built into the garden wall overlooking the churchyard.
HIGONS COURT, later called JAYNES COURT, was evidently the 'lower farm' which Henry Broughton held in 1536, (fn. 74) and he was granted new leases of Higons Court, together with the demesne lands belonging and 12 customary tenements, in 1552 and 1567. (fn. 75) In 1590 the estate was leased to Richard Hopton, and included in the lease was a farm called Mortimers, (fn. 76) the name recalling the earls of March, which had been leased to the Smart family from 1552. (fn. 77) In 1621 the marquess of Buckingham sold Higons Court, with Mortimers and 72 a. of land, to Richard Dean of Minchinhampton, and Richard's son Clutterbuck Dean and his daughter Elizabeth, who married Richard Kent, sold the estate in 1648 to Walter Hancox of Daneway. (fn. 78) Walter devised it by will dated 1670 to his nephew Thomas Jayne of Frampton Mansell. (fn. 79) The same or another Thomas Jayne owned Higons Court in 1731 (fn. 80) and it passed with his Frampton Mansell estate to Thomas Tyndall Jayne, (fn. 81) who sold Jaynes Court, as it came to be called, in 1787 to William Yarnton Mills. Mills sold it in 1811 to Capt. John Hamstead, R.N. (d. 1813), and it was acquired by Sir Paul Baghott who sold the house in 1813 to Joseph Grazebrook of Farhill, Painswick. Grazebrook settled Jaynes Court in 1814 on the marriage of his daughter Hester to Edward Mansfield, vicar of Bisley (d. 1826), and Hester remained owner until 1861. Subsequently the house passed through a number of owners (fn. 82) and in 1972 belonged to Mr. D. F. Rutherston. Jaynes Court, described in 1608 as a house of 6 bays with outbuildings including a detached kitchen, (fn. 83) was rebuilt in the early 18th century, and a service wing was added on the west in the early 19th. An octagonal building in the grounds houses a cock-pit.
In 1066 a hide, representing the later manor of THROUGHAM, was held by Levenod by the service of making journeys on the king's behalf. In 1086 it was held with Bisley manor by the earl of Chester. (fn. 84) In or before 1188 Robert Achard quitclaimed a 'reasonable part' of a capital messuage and hide of land at Througham to Hardwin of Througham who in return quitclaimed to Robert the service from one yardland there. Hardwin was proceeding against Robert for the observance of the agreement c. 1200. (fn. 85) Hardwin's son, Richard of Througham, (fn. 86) succeeded him, and Robert's right passed to Peter Achard, and in 1230 they agreed that Richard should perform the service to the overlord for three quarters of the fee of Througham while Peter answered for the remaining quarter. (fn. 87) Richard's estate had passed by 1251 to Reynold of Througham, (fn. 88) who granted it to Cirencester Abbey in 1261, reserving a life interest for himself and his wife in the manor-house and part of the demesne lands. (fn. 89) Peter's right passed to John Achard of Rodborough and apparently comprised only the 12d. chief rent from a tenement which John and the tenant released to Cirencester Abbey in 1259. (fn. 90) The abbey had already acquired other lands in the area: Peter of Edgworth gave it 2½ yardlands at Cliveshale and Tunley c. 1240 along with the Westwood estate, and c. 1250 it acquired ½ yardland at Cliveshale from William son of Henry. (fn. 91) Other grants to the abbey by freeholders in Througham and Cliveshale (fn. 92) perhaps date from after its acquisition of Througham manor, which became the administrative centre of the abbey's scattered lands at Througham, Cliveshale, Westwood, Tunley, Frampton Mansell, Cranham, and Stroudend in Painswick. (fn. 93)
Retained by the abbey until the Dissolution, Througham manor was granted by the Crown in 1544 to Thomas Stroud, Walter Earl, and James Paget, (fn. 94) who sold it in the same year to William Compton of Chalford, clothier (d. 1546). William's son Walter Compton (fn. 95) of Avening sold the manor in 1552 to William Stumpe of Malmesbury (Wilts.), whose son James sold it that year to Matthew King of Malmesbury. (fn. 96) King sold it in 1565 to John Stumpe (fn. 97) who sold it in 1568 to Richard Smart, (fn. 98) whose family had been lessees of the site of the manor and demesne lands since 1512. (fn. 99) Richard Smart was named as one of the lords of Througham in 1608 (fn. 100) and died in 1621, having settled lands in Througham on his son John. (fn. 101) Another Richard Smart of Througham died c. 1647 leaving his son Thomas, a minor. (fn. 102) Thomas Smart had two houses at Througham in 1672 with a total of 8 hearths, (fn. 103) and was possibly the Thomas who died in 1725. (fn. 104) Another Thomas Smart (d. 1746) owned the manor in 1731, and it passed to his son Thomas (d. 1752), and then to another son Richard (d. 1776); Thomas and his two sons lived at Greys, (fn. 105) the house which stood in the valley of the Holy brook below Througham Slad. By the early 1780s the manor had passed to the widow of Marmaduke Berdoe, (fn. 106) and one of Marmaduke's sisters married John Edwards (fn. 107) who sold the manor with a large estate in 1795 to Sir Robert Harvey, Bt., of Langley (Bucks.). (fn. 108) In 1842 Upper Througham Farm, Greys, and an estate of 433 a. belonged to Charles Harvey, (fn. 109) passing by 1883 to G. Harvey. By 1885 the estate had been bought by J. E. Dorington (fn. 110) and it remained part of the Lypiatt Park estate until the break-up of that estate in 1919. (fn. 111) In 1926 Upper Througham Farm was owned by J. E. Bubb. (fn. 112) In 1971 with an estate of 350 a. it was bought by Mr. R. Courtauld. The house, which presumably occupies the site of the ancient manor-house of Througham, is a tall 17th-century building which was internally refitted in the 18th century when the roof was reconstructed and a range of outbuildings added on the east; it was restored in the 1920s (fn. 113) and was undergoing further restoration in 1972.
The other large estate at Througham, based on LOWER THROUGHAM FARM, was owned for many years by the Turner family. In 1540 William Turner held 2 messuages and 3 yardlands on lease from Througham manor. (fn. 114) John Turner, who was named with Richard Smart as lord of Througham in 1608, (fn. 115) died in 1609 and was succeeded in various houses and lands at Througham by his son Thomas. (fn. 116) Thomas was succeeded at his death in 1625 by his brother Edward, (fn. 117) who was assessed on 5 hearths at Througham in 1672 (fn. 118) and died in 1691. Edward Turner of Througham died c. 1727 devising tenements there to his nephew John Turner, (fn. 119) presumably the same John who had an estate at Througham in 1731 (fn. 120) which had passed by 1750 to William Turner. (fn. 121) In 1842 another William Turner owned Lower Througham Farm, the house near by called the Manor House, and 346 a. (fn. 122) The estate had passed by 1859 to Samuel Warren Turner, M.D., of Tiverton and Charles Turner of Burrington (Som.). (fn. 123) By 1883 it had been bought by J. E. Dorington and it remained part of the Lypiatt Park estate until 1919. (fn. 124) In 1926 the Lower Througham Farm estate belonged to W. B. Driver (fn. 125) who sold the house and 84 a. in 1929 to Michael Sadleir, (fn. 126) author and publisher. (fn. 127) About 1950 the estate, which was subsequently enlarged to 300 a., was bought by Mr. W. E. Dinsdale; he sold 250 a. c. 1965 to Mrs. P. Koechlin-Smythe of Sudgrove House, Miserden, retaining the house, then called Througham Court, and remainder of the estate in 1972. (fn. 128) The house is a 17th-century building of unusual plan to which a parlour was added on the south-west and a possible service room to the east, both additions probably made within the 17th century. On the exterior are early stone waterchutes. Further service quarters or outbuildings on the north were restored as part of the house under the direction of Norman Jewson in 1932. (fn. 129)
The manor of BIDFIELD, in the detached northern portion of the parish, had emerged as a separate unit by 1270, (fn. 130) and may have been held by William of Bidfield who was recorded in 1239. (fn. 131) In 1287 Richard of Bidfield conveyed two-thirds of a messuage and plough-land at Bidfield and the reversion of the remaining third, which was held in dower by Agnes, wife of William of Paris, to Richard le Maschun of Wishanger. (fn. 132) In 1303 Bidfield manor was held as ¼ fee by Roderick son of Griffin. (fn. 133) Roderick had been succeeded by his son Thomas by 1346, (fn. 134) and the manor later passed to Thomas's son Owen, whose defection to the king's enemies in France led to the forfeiture of the manor in 1370. (fn. 135) In that year the Crown granted custody of Bidfield for 20 years to John of Wotton (fn. 136) but in 1373 a grant was made to Mary, wife of William Hervy, to hold while it remained in forfeiture. (fn. 137) Nevertheless the grant of custody to John of Wotton was confirmed in 1377 (fn. 138) and later in that year William Hervy complained that John had forcibly entered and robbed his houses at Bidfield. The following year, however, John's grant was revoked and Mary's confirmed. (fn. 139) The manor was again confirmed to Mary in 1412 and the reversion granted to her kinswoman Maud Honte, (fn. 140) who was presumably the Maud who later held the manor for life with her husband Richard Boteler. By 1461 the manor had reverted to the Crown (fn. 141) and it was then held for life successively by three royal servants, John Baker from 1465, Thomas Gilbert from 1472, and William Pye from 1477. (fn. 142) Various keepers held the manor for terms of years after 1485. (fn. 143)
In 1523 it was leased for 30 years to Sir William Kingston (d. 1540), (fn. 144) who devised his lease to his wife Mary with reversion to his son Sir Anthony Kingston (d. 1556). Mary devised it, however, at her death c. 1548 to Sir Henry Jerningham, the son of her first husband, (fn. 145) although in 1548 Sir Anthony secured a 21-year lease in reversion after the expiration of his father's lease. (fn. 146) As with other property of the Kingstons, there was later some confusion over the tenure of Bidfield between Sir Anthony's illegitimate issue and the Jerninghams. Sir Henry Jerningham may have held the manor until the end of Sir William's term by devise from Mary and then held Sir Anthony's term by right of his wife Frances, who was Sir Anthony's niece and legal heir. In 1567 Sir Henry acquired the freehold, in reversion after the expiration of Sir Anthony's term, from Arthur Grey, Lord Grey, to whom it had been granted by the Crown earlier the same year, (fn. 147) and he was said to be seised of Bidfield at his death in 1572 and to have settled it on his son Henry. (fn. 148) In 1565, however, Sir Anthony Kingston's illegitimate son Edmund had licence to grant the manor of Bidfield to his brother-in-law Edward Barnard, (fn. 149) and Edward devised the manor at his death in 1570 to Edmund's son Anthony Kingston. Both Anthony (d. 1591) and his son William (d. 1614) were said to be seised of the manor at their deaths. (fn. 150)
By 1687 Bidfield manor had been acquired by John Jeffreys of London who devised it to his nephew John Jeffreys. (fn. 151) John Jeffreys, son of the nephew, owned Bidfield in 1726 (fn. 152) and was presumably the John Jeffreys of West Sheen (Surr.) who sold Bidfield in 1753 to Robert Ball. (fn. 153) The estate, which in 1842 comprised Bidfield Farm and 388 a., then descended with the Ebworth Park estate in Painswick. (fn. 154) The house at Bidfield Farm is an early18th-century building, considerably enlarged in the late 18th or early 19th century by the addition of a south range.
The HAZLE HOUSE estate in Bidfield, which had presumably been held by the Richard atte Hasele recorded there in 1327, (fn. 155) was conveyed in 1601 by Thomas Sturmy and others of his family to Edmund Kingston who died in 1623; in that year his son William conveyed the estate to another son Edmund, (fn. 156) who sold it in 1625 to Henry Payton. (fn. 157) Payton sold the estate in 1635 to Edward Rich, apparently the same man as Sir Edward Rich who was the owner in 1672 and died c. 1679. (fn. 158) The mortgagee Edward Booth took possession of the estate in 1679 and his son William and William's widow Easter, who married Ralph Butler, successively engaged in litigation with Sir Edward's trustees and his son Edward. In 1695 a court order enjoined Edward Rich to settle the mortgage debts and the mortgagees to reconvey the estate to him. (fn. 159) Edward conveyed the estate in 1698 to Thomas Master of Cirencester, (fn. 160) and it later passed to William Mills (d. 1724). Another William Mills owned the estate in 1730 and was living at Hazle House in 1733 and until his death in 1776. (fn. 161) Later it passed to the Revd. Giles Mills of Miserden, who at his death c. 1785 left it to trustees who, after paying annuities to his daughters and son Thomas, were to use the remainder of the profits for the maintenance and education of Thomas's children. On Thomas's death the estate was to pass to his son William, who had succeeded to it by 1807. (fn. 162) William Mills owned Hazle House and 197 a. in 1842, (fn. 163) and in the 1860s the estate was owned by William Laurence. (fn. 164) In 1972 the house and a small acreage belonged to Mrs. A. P. Barrington.
Hazle House was said to have been pulled down by Sir Edward Rich's mortgagees before 1695 (fn. 165) but a small 17th-century block survives as the rear part of the house. That was greatly enlarged by the addition of a longer three-storey block with a symmetrical facade crowned by stone lions and eagles; the addition apparently dates from 1730 when William Mills leased the house to Thomas Millard, reserving right of access for workmen to carry out rebuilding work. (fn. 166) Later in the 18th century some internal refitting was carried out, including the insertion of a new staircase dated 1778. (fn. 167)
The position of Tunley tithing, lying south of Edgeworth and divided from the rest of Bisley by the Holy brook, suggests that it may represent the ½ hide which was in dispute between the earl of Chester and Roger de Lacy, lord of Edgeworth, in 1086. (fn. 168) In the 14th century Tunley was regarded as part of the fee of Over Lypiatt which was held by the Maunsells from Bisley manor, (fn. 169) and the main estate, known as the manor of TUNLEY, or more usually DANEWAY, was a free tenancy of Over Lypiatt manor in the 16th century. (fn. 170) The tenant in fee of Daneway manor in 1338 was Henry Clifford (fn. 171) who with his wife Maud had licence for an oratory there in 1340. (fn. 172) The manor, described as a messuage and a plough-land, was held by John Clifford of Daneway at his death in 1397. (fn. 173) John's estates were taken by the Crown's escheator, but the escheat was claimed by Richard Whittington and Hugh of Bisley, evidently in right of their respective manors of Over Lypiatt and Bisley, and in 1398 and 1401 the Crown gave Richard and Hugh leave to hold the estates until the issue was decided. (fn. 174) Daneway evidently later passed with John Clifford's estate at Frampton on Severn to his daughter Alice, the wife of William Teste, and their heirs. (fn. 175) Giles Teste held the manor in 1527 (fn. 176) and it passed on his death in 1542 to his nephew Francis Codrington (fn. 177) (d. 1557). Francis was succeeded by his son Giles (fn. 178) who died in 1580, having settled Daneway on his son Francis (d. 1581) and Francis's wife Mary. Richard Codrington, brother of the younger Francis, may have later held the manor (fn. 179) but by 1603 it was held by Francis's daughter Margaret and her husband Edward Bromwich (fn. 180) (d. 1624). Their son Isaac Bromwich sold the manor in 1647 to William Hancox, (fn. 181) whose family had held it as lessees since 1532. (fn. 182)
William Hancox, who served as a captain in the parliamentary forces in the Civil War and was high constable of Bisley hundred, died in 1673 (fn. 183) and was succeeded by his son William (d. 1707). The younger William, who remained a bachelor, devised Daneway manor to Nathaniel Hancox, a great-nephew of William Hancox (d. 1673), who successfully countered the claim by his cousin Walter. (fn. 184) From Nathaniel (d. 1729) Daneway manor passed successively to his brother Walter (d. 1743), to Thomas (d. 1792), son of another of Nathaniel's brothers, to Thomas's son Nathaniel (d. 1829), and to the younger Nathaniel's son Thomas Walter (d. 1860). (fn. 185) T. W. Hancox's heirs were his sisters Mary Anne, widow of John Hancox of Tunley Farm, and Rebecca who was married to Samuel Bidmead. Mary Anne contracted to sell her moiety of the manor to the Bidmeads in 1861 but died the following year when the sale was completed by her son Henry William Hancox and her other heirs. (fn. 186) The whole estate, comprising Daneway House, King's House, and 366 a., was put up for sale by Samuel Bidmead in 1867, (fn. 187) and by 1879 it had been acquired by William Dangerfield of Chalford, (fn. 188) who put it up for sale in 1884. (fn. 189) Daneway was apparently bought then by William Chapman and later bought from him by Charles William Smith. (fn. 190) Before 1903 it was bought by Earl Bathurst and it remained part of the Bathurst estate in 1972. Daneway House was used as a cabinet-works and showroom by Ernest Gimson and his group of craftsmen from c. 1900 until soon after Gimson's death in 1919. (fn. 191) Subsequently it was tenanted by Sir Emery Walker, the craft printer (d. 1933), and later by the architect Oliver Hill (d. 1968). (fn. 192)
Daneway House is one of the most ancient houses of the locality, owing its preservation partly to the conservative tastes of the Hancox family noted in the late 18th century. (fn. 193) It has a medieval hall range which retains smoke-blackened timbers in the roof and some original doorways and windows. In the late 17th century a tall five-storey block was added at the south-east corner; the rooms have contemporary plaster ceilings. In the 18th century a doublegabled extension was made to the west end of the south front. (fn. 194) The house was restored by Ernest Barnsley at the beginning of the 20th century. (fn. 195)
Another estate in Tunley tithing, based on HILLHOUSE FARM, was held from Over Lypiatt manor by knight service in 1515 when Thomas Brown died seised of a third of the estate. (fn. 196) In 1609 the lord of Over Lypiatt sold the freehold of the Hillhouse estate to Walter Master (fn. 197) who retained it in 1636. (fn. 198) The estate was tenanted in 1609 by members of the Hancox family, (fn. 199) and John Hancox of Hillhouse, who was perhaps also only a tenant, died c. 1665. (fn. 200) By 1676 the estate belonged to Nathaniel Ridler (fn. 201) and it descended with Edgeworth manor (being assigned as part of Barbara Ridler's share in 1751) (fn. 202) until 1833 when the trustees of the Revd. Edward Greville sold it to Richard Hancox, miller of Sapperton. Richard (d. 1843) was succeeded by his son William Walter Hancox, and by 1855 the estate, comprising Hillhouse Farm, Frith Farm, and 224 a., was in possession of the mortgagees; in that year they sold Frith Farm with 72 a. to Edmund Hopkinson of Edgeworth. (fn. 203) In 1972 Hillhouse Farm and 110 a. were owned by Capt. L. E. D. Walthall, R.N. (fn. 204) The house was rebuilt in more than one stage in the early 19th century, the whole or part of the work being to the designs of Thomas Baker. (fn. 205)
An estate at CHALFORD, which was sometimes accorded the status of a manor, evidently originated in Ralph Mortimer's grant of lands and a mill at Chalford to William son of Hugh of Chalford at some date between 1227 and 1246; (fn. 206) the estate continued to be held from the manor of Bisley. (fn. 207) In the later 13th or early 14th century William of Chalford made a grant for lives of a house at Chalford, which had passed by 1355 to William son of William of Chalford. (fn. 208) William of Chalford owned a mill and lands there in 1361 when he made a family settlement of them. (fn. 209) It was perhaps the same William of Chalford who granted the estate to Walter Tristram in 1395, reserving the use of part of the house and lands to himself and his wife, (fn. 210) and in 1403 William, who was regarded as lord of Chalford, joined with Walter in a grant of the estate, with which descended lands in Cowcombe, Minchinhampton, to John Frampton. (fn. 211) In 1441 Frampton granted the estate to Thomas Mill of Harescombe, who made a lease of it in 1455. (fn. 212)
After Thomas Mill's death c. 1460 there were a number of claimants to the Chalford estate. His son William was attainted of treason in 1461 and Chalford, which was said to comprise a messuage, mills, and 260 a. land, was thought to be part of his estates and was forfeited and granted in 1465 to Thomas Herbert. Herbert's right passed to his son Thomas on whose death it reverted to the Crown which made a grant to Richard Beauchamp in 1474. In that year, however, Reynold Mill, another son of Thomas Mill, laid claim to the estate, under a settlement made by his father. (fn. 213) Another claim was made in 1461 by Robert Oliffe, who had married Agnes the daughter of John Frampton; Robert claimed by virtue of a settlement made by John in 1424, and Robert's son William Oliffe secured a release of the estate from a trustee of the settlement in 1462. (fn. 214) In 1469 William Oliffe granted the Chalford estate to John Moody who was apparently in possession in 1472 when he made a lease of the estate (fn. 215) and in 1486 John and his son Edmund were disputing the estate with Edmund Mill, son of Reynold. Edmund Moody relinquished his claim in 1488 to Edmund Mill (fn. 216) who had also secured in 1486 a quitclaim from Thomas Mill, son of William Mill, (fn. 217) and apparently later held the estate unchallenged. Edmund died in 1514 and the estate was retained by his widow Anne who married Lionel Norris. The reversionary right belonged to Edmund's brother, Gawain Mill, who sold it in 1520 to Richard Fox, bishop of Winchester. (fn. 218) The bishop was in possession of the Chalford estate by 1523 and he granted it in that year to his foundation, Corpus Christi College, Oxford. (fn. 219) The college's estate in the parish was extended at 67 a. in 1608. (fn. 220) It sold most of its land, including the Company's Arms inn, in 1872. (fn. 221)
The inn, which stands near the ancient ford, is apparently on the site of William of Chalford's house mentioned in the earlier 13th century (fn. 222) and the Chalford Place which belonged to the estate in 1524. (fn. 223) It was the Company's Arms inn by 1820 and until the 1960s, (fn. 224) taking its name from the East India Company, for which most of the local clothiers manufactured in the early 19th century. (fn. 225) It is a substantial 17th-century house which in the mid 18th century was heightened, enlarged towards the west, and given a decorative south front. Further additions made in the 19th century had been mostly demolished by 1972 when the house stood empty and derelict.
About 1200 Maud of Avenis quitclaimed to Robert Achard her right in lands called Rookwood and 'Dene', in which Maud and her sister Mabel, Robert's wife, had apparently inherited moieties. The sisters had recently disputed the estate with Kingswood Abbey, (fn. 226) which held an estate called Rookwood in Bisley in 1243, exchanging it in that year with John of Edge for land near Uley. (fn. 227) The abbey still had other unspecified lands in Bisley, attached to their manor of Culkerton, at the Dissolution. (fn. 228) The Rookwood estate of the abbey, and the dwelling of Henry atte Rookwood who was recorded in 1354, (fn. 229) were presumably at or near the house called ROOKWOOD'S FARM on the east boundary of the parish. In 1647 two houses called Rookwood were sold by William Master of Bisley to Samuel Sheppard of Bisley, and Philip Sheppard of Minchinhampton sold them with 17 a. of land in 1675 to John Butler, clothier, who settled the estate on the marriage of his son John in 1679. Another John Butler, who was the son of John Butler of Chalford, clothier, and the grandson of John Butler of Rookwood's, clothier, owned the estate in 1769, and in 1783 conveyed it to his son James in return for an annuity. James was dead by 1793 when his trustees sold Rookwood's to William Tyler, clothier (d. 1842), whose trustees sold the estate, comprising the house and 71 a., to Edmund Hopkinson of Edgeworth in 1843. (fn. 230) Hopkinson sold it in 1845 to Anthony Austin, but it returned to the Edgeworth manor estate in 1873 when Austin sold it to Henry Sperling. (fn. 231) Rookwood's farm remained part of the Edgeworth estate until at least 1921. (fn. 232) Later it was the home of R. D. Perkins, M.P. for Stroud 1931–45. (fn. 233) In 1972 the house, from which the land had been divorced, was owned by Mr. M. Milburn-Foster. (fn. 234) It is a substantial farm-house of the earlier 17th century which was much restored and enlarged in the early 20th century.
A house and estate in Oakridge called FRAMPTON PLACE were recorded from 1550 when Thomas Gardner of Harescombe settled them on the marriage of his son John. (fn. 235) John Gardner sold Frampton Place c. 1600 to William Twissell (fn. 236) who owned the house with an estate of 131 a. and the near-by Twissell's Mill in 1608. (fn. 237) A later owner was possibly Thomas Twissell of Chalford, clothier (d. 1656), and his son Thomas, although he was described as of Oakridge Farm at his death in 1734, (fn. 238) was perhaps the Thomas Twissell who owned Frampton Place in 1731. (fn. 239) By 1736 Thomas had been succeeded by his son John Twissell who by will proved 1760 devised the estate to his kinsman Matthias Baker (fn. 240) (d. 1794); (fn. 241) it passed to Matthias's son John (d. 1829), (fn. 242) and was owned in 1842 with an estate of 313 a. by John's son Thomas Baker of Watercombe House (d. 1850). (fn. 243) It subsequently passed to William Baker of Hattons, Frampton Mansell, (d. 1876). (fn. 244) William's estate passed to Charles Driver of Lilly Horn House who was succeeded before 1897 by Matthias Baker Driver and William Baker Driver. (fn. 245) In the 1930s Frampton Place belonged to H. A. Parsons (fn. 246) and in 1972 the house and c. 50 a. belonged to Brig. D. Fabin. (fn. 247) The oldest part of the house dates from the late 16th or early 17th century and was later extended at both ends, reroofed, and internally refitted.
CALFWAY FARM, north of Bisley village, was a copyhold estate of 58 a. called Reades in 1608 when it was held from Bisley manor by Thomas Ward, clerk, in right of his wife Anne. (fn. 248) In 1621 Ward, who was rector of Edgeworth, bought the freehold and in 1632 he granted the estate in reversion to his nephew Francis Raleigh in return for a messuage in Edgeworth. In 1639 Francis sold the estate to Samuel Allen of Daventry (Northants.), from whom it was bought in 1647 by Walter Sewell of Stroud, dyer, who settled it on himself, his wife Elizabeth, and son Robert in 1659. In 1671 Walter and Robert, both described as clothiers of Nether Lypiatt, mortgaged the estate (fn. 249) and Robert died, apparently in possession of the estate, c. 1686. (fn. 250) In 1689 Calfway Farm was held by Richard Denton (fn. 251) but by 1698 it belonged to Robert Sewell, a baker, who later moved to Nympsfield but apparently retained the estate until 1745 or later. (fn. 252) In 1770 it belonged to John Sewell (fn. 253) and by 1819 it was part of the Lypiatt Park estate. (fn. 254) In 1842 Calfway Farm and 79 a. belonged to Job Coles; (fn. 255) by 1885 it was once more part of the Lypiatt Park estate. (fn. 256) The house dates from the 17th century.
The rectory of Bisley, which was in two portions in the Middle Ages, later united in the ownership of Stoke College (Suff.), (fn. 257) formed a lucrative lay estate after the Dissolution. It included lands, extended at 293 a. in 1612, (fn. 258) and nine-tenths of the great tithes from the remainder of Bisley and Stroud parishes; (fn. 259) the rectory was said to be worth c. £300 at the beginning of the 18th century, (fn. 260) and in 1827 the tithes belonging to it were held on lease by 6 tenants at a total rental of £539. (fn. 261) In 1569 the rectory was held jointly by Walter Compton and Richard Sewell under an 80-year lease of 1537, apparently granted by Stoke College to their fathers. The Crown granted them a new 21-year lease in 1583, (fn. 262) and Walter's moiety passed to his grandson Henry Compton (d. 1593) and to Henry's widow Joan, (fn. 263) while Richard's moiety was held by William Sewell in 1597. (fn. 264) In 1605 the Crown granted the rectory estate in fee, reserving a rent of £33 10s., to William Blake and Laurence Baskerville (fn. 265) and by 1619 it was held by Whitehill (or Wheatley) Audley who was described as the lord of the manor of Bisley rectory. (fn. 266) In 1638 the rectory was conveyed by Thomas Willis to Thomas Coventry, Lord Coventry (d. 1640), (fn. 267) and it descended with the barony (later the earldom) of Coventry, being held in dower after the death of Thomas, the 2nd earl, in 1710 by his widow Anne (fn. 268) (d. 1763). It apparently reverted on Anne's death to George Coventry, the 6th earl, (fn. 269) but in 1796 it was owned by his younger brother John Bulkeley Coventry Bulkeley (fn. 270) (d. 1801). In later passed to Thomas Coventry Bulkeley, (fn. 271) and was sold, apparently in 1810, to William Yarnton Mills (d. 1821). (fn. 272)
The rectory estate passed to William's grandson Thomas Mills Goodlake of Wadley House, near Faringdon (Berks.), (fn. 273) who had an estate of 545 a. in Bisley in 1842; the old rectory lands, which were known as Coventry Lands and included Rectory farm with a tithe barn in Bisley village and Upper Hill farm at Bournes Green, comprised most of the estate, and Thomas also owned Througham Slad with a farm of 177 a. Under the award of that year Thomas's tithes were commuted for a corn-rent of £1,200. Besides Thomas and the vicar there were then 4 others who held the tithes arising from small estates that they owned: Samuel Clutterbuck was awarded a corn-rent of £4 for the tithes of a part of Chantry farm, while William Lewis, who owned the remainder of Chantry farm, Hester Mansfield, the owner of Jaynes Court, and Joseph Fisher agreed that their tithes should be merged in the freehold of their estates. (fn. 274) T. M. Goodlake died in 1877, and in 1891 his estate was put up for sale by his son Thomas Leinster Goodlake and William Henry Waddington, (fn. 275) part, including Througham Slad farm, being bought then or soon afterwards by Sir John Dorington. (fn. 276) The tithe rent-charge had been settled in 1878 on the marriage of T. M. Goodlake's daughter Olivia (d. 1916) to the Marquis de Lasteyrie (d. 1923), and in 1926 it was put up for sale by their son Comte Louis de Lasteyrie du Saillant. (fn. 277) It was bought then or soon afterwards by the Revd. W. F. Buttle. (fn. 278)
The two medieval portioners of the rectory appear to have both had houses in Bisley village, for in 1593 Henry Compton held a house called the capital messuage of the upper parsonage, (fn. 279) while in 1597 his partner William Sewell held one called the lower rectory. (fn. 280) Compton's house apparently stood on a close called the Parsonage which adjoined the vicarage house and belonged to the rectory estate in 1842; the close was then leased to the vicar Thomas Keble who is said to have demolished the house on it shortly after his institution in 1827. (fn. 281) Sewell's house may have been at Rectory Farm or alternatively at Church House (formerly Chapel House), both of which belonged to the rectory estate, in the 19th century. (fn. 282) Church House, a small building at the south-east corner of the churchyard, retained medieval windows and a doorway with an ogee hoodmould until the earlier 20th century when the doorway and some of the windows were replaced and a new wing was added on the north end; (fn. 283) the south wall retains a 15th-century window in situ and another, perhaps of the 14th century, reset above it. Rectory Farm, which stands on the east side of the main village street, is an early-18th-century house of two storeys. The large rectory tithe barn stands north-east of the house, and the buildings formerly belonging to the farm include another large barn of the 18th century. (fn. 284)
In addition to Cirencester Abbey, Kingswood Abbey, Stoke College, and Corpus Christi College a number of smaller institutions held lands in the parish. The Ansteads farm estate, which was evidently the messuage and yardland at 'Hanesty' held by Hugh of Rodborough in 1361, (fn. 285) was granted by Edmund of Rodborough to Rodborough church in 1432. The church was also endowed with Derretts farm at the same period, (fn. 286) and its estates in Bisley covered 177 a. in 1842. (fn. 287) The Bisley feoffees for charitable uses in the parish held 44 a. in 1608. (fn. 288) The chief house of their estate was Sturmyes Court (later called Pontin's Farm) at Avenis, (fn. 289) for which the feoffees claimed manorial status and the right to hold a court for their tenants; (fn. 290) they sold it in 1955. (fn. 291) By 1440 St. John's Hospital at Cirencester was in possession of land in the parish, (fn. 292) which it sold in 1865, (fn. 293) and in the 1540s lands on Cirencester Abbey's manor of Througham were held by the chantries of Alice Avening and William Nottingham at Cirencester. (fn. 294)