A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 11, Bisley and Longtree Hundreds. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1976.
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Agriculture. In 1086 the demesne of Painswick employed one plough and 11 servi. (fn. 1) The demesne was said to contain 60 a. of arable with 4 a. of meadow and 4 a. of pasture in 1314, but in 1324 200 a. of arable, of which 80 a. were of inferior quality, 4 a. of meadow, and 8 a. of pasture were recorded. (fn. 2) That part of the demesne situated at Ham was built on during the southward development of the town along New Street in the early 15th century. In the mid 15th century demesne farming was abandoned when the lord gave up his residence at Painswick. (fn. 3) Parts of the demesne at Dudcombe, ¾ mile south-east of the town, and at Ifold had already been leased to tenants by that date (fn. 4) when the demesne also included some barren land on Huddiknoll hill. (fn. 5)
The tenants of the manor in 1086 comprised 3 radknights, 35 villani, and 16 bordars, who worked 52 ploughs, but the manor was assessed formally at only 1 hide. The value of the manor had increased from £20 in 1066 to £24 in 1086 which suggests recent conversion of woodland to fields. (fn. 6) There were 17 freeholders recorded on the manor in 1324, and the customary tenants included 17 yardlanders, 42 half-yardlanders, 18 fardellers, and 23 cottagers, (fn. 7) but by 1496 a number of the holdings had been amalgamated. (fn. 8) In 1324 the tenants owning a fardel and more owed ploughing and harrowing services to the lord and a total of 205 manual works in both summer and winter. (fn. 9) Copyhold tenure was by inheritance sibi et suis and in the mid 15th century the position of the tenants was improved in view of the death of 11 married tenants on military service for the earl of Shrewsbury. The tenants were to farm the demesne lands and were also granted the herbage and pannage for the sum of £10; wiferip and childrip, which had previously been commuted for money payments, were no longer demanded. (fn. 10) Widows did not have to pay heriots on their freebench and could remarry without forfeiting that right. (fn. 11) A custumal of the late 15th century further formalized the rights of tenants; inheritance could be through the female line but tenements could not be held jointly and ½ yardlands could not be fragmented; in the event of daughters succeeding to an estate the homage decided on its monetary value and the eldest daughter was given the right to enter the property on condition that she bought out the shares of her sisters. Mondaylands, of which there were seven in 1496, (fn. 12) carried the obligation to keep for one day and one night any prisoner taken within the manor, and tenants of 'thirteens' had to drive venison for one day and one night at the will of the lord or commute for 8d. yearly. (fn. 13) Heriots were to be paid on holdings of ½ yardland or more although heriots had apparently been owed from fardels at an earlier date. (fn. 14)
The rights of the tenants were challenged by Henry Jerningham (d. 1619) who claimed rights of wardship. The customs of the manor were agreed upon in 1586, decreed in Chancery in 1613, and confirmed by Act of Parliament in 1624. The nearest relative of a minor was given the right of wardship on payment of an entry fine of three years' rent and the tenants asserted their rights to inclose Wickridge hill, (fn. 15) recently assarted, (fn. 16) which the lord claimed as waste. The tenants reasserted their rights to herbage and pannage, and heriots were to be commuted at £2 for a ½ yardland and £3 for a yardland; (fn. 17) in 1837 the lord of the manor tried unsuccessfully to reassert his claim to the best beast, in that instance a prized stallion of the late Sir Berkeley William Guise. (fn. 18) The lord, whose rights of common were assessed at the equivalent of two yardlands, received in return for the concessions of 1613 the sum of £1,450 from the tenants, certain rights over the woodland of the parish, and an increase in the entry fine payable on surrender of a property. (fn. 19) The generally favourable nature of copyhold tenure on the manor meant that many estates and mills remained unenfranchised to a late date. (fn. 20)
No early reference to open fields has been found but the number of ploughs in use in the 11th century suggests something more than scattered assarts. (fn. 21) The relaxation of the fines for exchanging land suggests that consolidation of holdings and inclosure were taking place in the late 16th and early 17th centuries (fn. 22) and most of the parish was said to be inclosed c. 1703. (fn. 23) Four open fields were recorded in Sheepscombe tithing: Bunnage field at the eastern boundary covered c. 101 a. in 1820 and remained uninclosed in 1839 although the strips had been consolidated to form larger holdings; (fn. 24) Dell field, recorded in 1548, (fn. 25) occupied the area around Dell Farm north of the demesne at Dudcombe and had been inclosed by 1820; Rownham field, which covered the area north of Sheepscombe village, had been partially inclosed by 1820, when 11 a. remained open, and was inclosed completely before 1839; (fn. 26) and Haw field, which was shared with Cranham parish, (fn. 27) bordered Cranham west of the Painswick stream and contained 27 a. in 1820. In Spoonbed tithing four fields, all of which had been inclosed before 1820, (fn. 28) have been recorded: Thistle field, recorded in 1536, (fn. 29) has not been located; Hawkwell field covered an area on either side of Seven Leaze Lane on Huddiknoll hill; (fn. 30) Hill field lay between the Painswick-Gloucester road and the farm-houses at Holcombe; (fn. 31) and Washwell field lay immediately north of the town. (fn. 32) In Edge tithing two open fields have been recorded, Heygmon field, (fn. 33) which has not been located, and Ifold field near the demesne lands. (fn. 34) In Stroudend tithing two open fields have been recorded, Tillick field, probably also called Broad field, which lay across Wick Street south of Brownshill, and Blackmore field, immediately south of Tillick field. Both Stroudend fields remained open east of Wick Street in 1820 but had been totally inclosed by 1839. (fn. 35)
The valleys probably contained a good acreage of meadow land. In 1496 the herbage belonging to the lord, which was farmed for a yearly rent of 24s. 10d., included a meadow called Woodham, near Paradise, which was worth 20s. yearly. At that time there was also some meadow and pasture at Bangrove (fn. 36) near Bull's Cross. (fn. 37) In 1820 155 a. of meadow, mainly in Sheepscombe tithing, were recorded in the parish. (fn. 38)
In addition to the open fields lying fallow there were several areas of common pasture. The largest area was Painswick hill, on which the lord of the manor had 160 sheep- or 50 cattle-pastures. By 1825 25 a. were inclosed in pursuance of the Chancery decree of 1613 (fn. 39) but the rest, comprising 166 a., remained common in 1972 when part of it was a golf-course. Other areas of common were Scott's Quarr hill (55 a.), south-west of Edge, Juniper hill (25 a.), part of Wickridge hill, which the lord attempted to claim entirely as waste in the early 17th century, land at Sheepscombe, Slad, and Bull's Cross, and a number of isolated parcels elsewhere. (fn. 40)
In 1820 there were 6 estates of more than 250 a., one of which was mainly woodland and two of which covered c. 600 a. each. A further 8 estates of between 100 a. and 200 a. were recorded. There were 5 farms of over 200 a., 8 farms between 100 a. and 200 a., 13 farms between 40 a. and 100 a., and over 40 holdings of between 15 a. and 40 a., some of them attached to mills. (fn. 41) The extent of arable farming decreased between 1854, when the acreage of pasture and arable were equal, (fn. 42) and 1901 when there were 1,892 a. of arable and 3,093 a. of pasture. (fn. 43) The number of farms in the parish declined from the earlier 19th century as many of the smaller holdings were incorporated into larger farms, particularly after the mills ceased work as cloth- or corn-mills. By 1856 there were 32 farmers recorded in the parish and the number remained fairly constant until the Second World War. (fn. 44)
Mills and the Cloth Industry.
Four mills were recorded at Painswick in 1086, (fn. 45) and in 1346 a mill was granted to Flanesford Priory by the lord of the manor. (fn. 46) The cloth industry was apparently established at Painswick by 1440 when a list of purchases, presumably made by the steward of the manor, included some 'Wick yarn', and quantities of red cloth, green cloth, and black fustian. (fn. 47) In 1455 John Morley of Painswick was acting as mainpernor for the farmer of the Shropshire cloth alnage (fn. 48) but the earliest clothmaker found recorded in Painswick was Henry Loveday in 1512. (fn. 49) Seven mills were held from the manor in 1496 (fn. 50) and some were enfranchised during the 16th century (fn. 51) In 1608 5 clothiers, 10 tuckers, and 33 weavers were recorded in the parish, (fn. 52) which was said to be chiefly supported by the cloth industry at the end of the century. (fn. 53) The early clothing families of Webb, Fletcher, Packer, and Loveday were generally succeeded by the Palling, Wight, and Baylis families during the prosperous years of the later 18th century. Of the 25 mills recorded in the parish in 1820 18 were employed in the cloth industry, as were other premises in the parish. Near the town two buildings in Edge Lane were then used in the industry, one by Zachariah Powell; (fn. 54) premises in New Street were later said to have been worked by the Wood family; and in Vicarage Street there was a cloth-mill driven by a horse-wheel in the early 19th century. (fn. 55) Workshops close to Painswick Mill in 1820 had apparently closed by 1839; a near-by dye-house, a dye-works near Peghouse Mill, and a press-shop in Slad village, worked at one time by Nathan Driver of Peghouse Mill, were in use in 1820 and 1839. (fn. 56)
Most of the mills in the parish were small concerns and, despite the irregular supply of water, (fn. 57) only two mills, Sheepscombe Mill and Brookhouse Mill, were said to have steam-power in 1822 (fn. 58) although steam was later introduced to some of the mills near Stroud town. Recession in the industry, poor communications, and competition from the industrialized Stroud and Nailsworth valleys contributed to the rapid decline of cloth-making at Painswick from the 1840s. By c. 1860, when the smallest mills had already closed, four or five continued the connection with the textile industry but others had become cornmills, saw-mills, or pin-mills. (fn. 59) Most of the mills in the parish had ceased to function by the early 20th century when Peghouse Mill was the only one active in the cloth industry, and in 1972 only three of the sites were still in use for industrial purposes.
Outdoor weaving was the general practice although Sheepscombe Mill did contain some looms in 1838. (fn. 60) Weaving was carried on in the larger settlements and also in the small settlements at Paradise and Back Edge. In the town itself most of the weaving community inhabited the lanes on the east side, Vicarage Street, Tibbiwell Street, and Tibbiwell Lane, which descend to the Painswick stream. The numbers of outdoor weavers had decreased by 1838 when 154, of whom 41 were heads of households, were recorded in the parish. (fn. 61) Millwrights were recorded at Painswick from 1608 until the later 19th century. (fn. 62)
Sixteen mills have been recorded adjoining the parish on the Painswick stream; all were in the parish with the exception of Pitchcombe Mill and the lowest, Stratford Mill in Stroud. Tocknell's Mill, the highest, was situated 1¾ mile NNE. of the town. (fn. 63) It took its name from a local family, one of whom was described as a clothier in 1602. (fn. 64) A Walter Tocknell was recorded at Painswick in 1608 (fn. 65) and Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Edward Tocknell, married George Newland (d. 1721). In 1755 Newland's son, also George, (fn. 66) leased the mill to William Clarke of Gloucester, who took a further lease in 1765 when he was described as a millwright of Birmingham. The mill, equipped as a cornmill, was out of repair in 1786 when it was held by William Hayle, Clarke's assignee. (fn. 67) In 1820, owned by William Codrington, it was worked as a corn-mill by William Cox, (fn. 68) and in 1839 by Joseph Cox who also farmed 141 a. (fn. 69) By 1853 it was being worked as a corn-mill by George Taylor, (fn. 70) but was later demolished. The mill-house, called Tocknell's Court, is a small gabled residence built c. 1600 with a south wing added later in the 17th century. There were some slight interior and exterior alterations c. 1716 when the garden walls were built and the house given the appearance of a small country residence. (fn. 71)
Oliver's Mill, also called Cox's Upper Mill, (fn. 72) was next downstream and was probably the mill held from the manor in 1496 by Robert Frethe and by John Oliver in 1566. (fn. 73) The mill, a copyhold of the manor, was owned in 1749 by Nicholas Webb, mercer of Gloucester (d. 1769 or 1770), whose trustees sold it in 1779 to George Birch of London. Birch sold it in 1785 to John Cox of Damsells (d. 1790) who left it in freebench to his widow Elizabeth (d. 1839), with reversion to his eldest son John. (fn. 74) John, who formed a cloth-manufacturing partnership with Weston Hicks, (fn. 75) was working Oliver's Mill in 1820 (fn. 76) and until at least 1841. (fn. 77) In 1873 a farmer occupied the mill (fn. 78) which was a corn-mill in the early 1880s. (fn. 79) The site was marked by brick foundations in 1972.
Damsell's Mill, below, also called Cox's Lower Mill, (fn. 80) was held from the manor by John Berry in 1548. (fn. 81) In 1732 Elizabeth Townsend, widow, transferred the copyhold to Thomas Small, from whom it passed to William Packer in 1740. In 1745 Packer transferred the copyhold to Edward Palling of Brookhouse who sold it, probably in the same year, to the clothier John Cox (d. c. 1785). Cox's widow Mary surrendered her freebench in favour of her son John, (fn. 82) and Damsell's Mill passed with Oliver's to his widow Elizabeth, with reversion to his second son William. William Cox pursued a military career (fn. 83) and in 1818 Elizabeth and he leased Damsell's Mill to John Cox and Weston Hicks. (fn. 84) The Cox family sold the mill in 1854 to Charles Gardner, mealman, (fn. 85) whose family worked it as a grist-mill until the end of the century. In the early 20th century Damsell's Mill was worked as a corn-mill in conjunction with a farm. (fn. 86) The two-storey mill dates from 1674 (fn. 87) and was enlarged in the 19th century, when dormer windows were added. (fn. 88) In 1972 it was used as a house.
At Highgrove, ½ mile downstream of Damsell's, stood Baylis's Upper Mill, (fn. 89) also called Lodge Mill. (fn. 90) It was worked as a cloth-mill in 1820 by William Baylis (fn. 91) who also worked Loveday's Mill. Baylis died in 1826 and was succeeded by his son William (d. 1837), (fn. 92) whose daughter Ann Baker (fn. 93) was leasing the mill to Philip Foxwell in 1839. (fn. 94) The mill, probably the Baker's Mill occupied by James Freeman, woollen manufacturer, in 1853, (fn. 95) was worked as a cloth-mill by Hogg & Cook in 1856. (fn. 96) It was disused and in ruins by the 1890s (fn. 97) and only a subsidiary building, formerly used as cottages and warehouses, (fn. 98) and a small round wool-drying house remained in 1972.
The Washwell spring, a small tributary of the Painswick stream about 300 yards below Highgrove, drove a small mill in 1820. It was owned and worked as a cloth-mill by Zachariah Powell, (fn. 99) who gave up business in 1837. (fn. 100) The mill was later bought by John Loveday, who demolished it. (fn. 101)
Loveday's Mill or Baylis's Lower Mill, on the Painswick stream by the road to Jack's Green, (fn. 102) was described in 1777 as Mr. Loveday's (fn. 103) and it was apparently the copyhold comprising a fulling-mill, gig-mill, and grist-mills, which was surrendered by Theyer Townsend in favour of William Loveday, the occupant, in 1792. (fn. 104) Loveday was dead by 1820 when the mill was apparently being worked by Thomas Loveday, a maltster. (fn. 105) By 1825 Loveday's Mill had passed to William Baylis who surrendered it in favour of William Baylis, junior, (fn. 106) and the mill was worked in conjunction with Baylis's Upper Mill by Philip Foxwell in 1839. (fn. 107) It had become a corn-mill by 1853 when it was worked by Robert West. (fn. 108) In the later 19th century it was worked with a farm by John Fayers. (fn. 109) It ceased working c. 1914 and became derelict. The 16th-century gabled house was later enlarged by the addition of a two-storey mill on the north-east and an industrial wing, demolished by 1939, was added to the south-west of the old millhouse. The remaining buildings were remodelled and converted for use as a residence in 1939. (fn. 110)
Brookhouse Mill, (fn. 111) formerly Ludlowes, (fn. 112) stands by Greenhouse Lane, and was possibly the copyhold called Phippes Mill which was transferred to William Ludlow by Robert Minsterworth in 1413. (fn. 113) Members of the Palling family of clothiers were living at Brookhouse in the 18th century but it is not certain that they worked the mill (fn. 114) which was owned and worked as a cloth-mill with dye-house attached by Robert Wight in 1820. (fn. 115) Steam-power had been introduced by 1822. (fn. 116) Wight went bankrupt in 1832, (fn. 117) and the mill passed to the Revd. William Knight and was worked by Matthew Wood in 1839 when the dye-house was occupied by John Driver. (fn. 118) William Clark later established an umbrella-stick factory at the mill and the business passed into new ownership in 1842. (fn. 119) By 1853 Brookhouse Mill was being worked as a corn-mill by Paul Savory (fn. 120) but had been converted for use as a hairpin factory by 1879 when it was worked by H. B. Savory. The mill remained a pin-mill worked by the family firm, later called Savory & Sons, (fn. 121) which employed c. 300 people in 1904. (fn. 122) The firm, which had taken over other pin manufacturers in the parish, (fn. 123) continued at the mill in 1972 and employed 25 people. (fn. 124) A water-wheel, although supplemented by a gasengine, remained in use to provide power until 1962. (fn. 125) The mill buildings date from the 17th century but were substantially rebuilt and enlarged during the late 18th and the 19th centuries. The millowner's house, on the opposite side of the road, contains an 18th-century wing to which a threestorey early-19th-century main block was added.
Cap Mill, (fn. 126) worked by Henry Webb in 1688 and Joseph Selwyn in 1698, (fn. 127) is 200 yds. downstream of Brookhouse Mill. In 1739 it remained a copyhold, held by Mary Packer, widow, with reversion to her son John. John also became owner of King's Mill, and his younger brother Daniel Packer, clothier, was working Cap Mill in 1743 (fn. 128) and carried on a fairly extensive trade at Painswick until his death in 1769. (fn. 129) In 1772 John's widow Anne and son Richard leased Cap Mill, a fulling-mill with 2 stocks, a gig, and a dye-house, to the clothier William Knight. (fn. 130) The mill, owned and worked as a cloth-mill by Samuel Wood in the 1820s, (fn. 131) was worked in 1839 by the cloth manufacturer Nathaniel Iles Butler, (fn. 132) who left it in 1841. (fn. 133) In 1853 it was converted for use as a pinmill by the firm of Watkins & Okey, later of King's Mill, (fn. 134) and by 1867 it was used as a saw-mill by Alfred Keene, a wood-turner. (fn. 135) It continued as a saw-mill during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, (fn. 136) and the mill-house, a tall, gabled house of the later 17th century (fn. 137) with a short mill building abutting on to the east, was later converted for residential use. Across the stream to the east is another small industrial building of the early 18th century.
Painswick Mill, formerly called Mason's Mill or Cook's Mill, stands downstream of Cap Mill on Knap Lane. (fn. 138) The mill was apparently worked by the Webb family in the 1630s when the clothier's house was built. (fn. 139) In 1795 the mill was owned by John Gardner and worked by Mr. Perring and William King but it was worked and owned by Richard Mason before 1800. (fn. 140) It subsequently passed to Edward Wood Mason who was working it as a cloth-mill in 1820. (fn. 141) Mason continued to own the mill, which was worked as a cloth-mill by Joseph Wight in the 1830s. (fn. 142) By 1863 it was occupied by Nathaniel Jones & Co., silk-throwsters, (fn. 143) but had been converted for use as a pin-mill by the firm of Trotman Bros. & Cole, later Thomas Cole & Co., by 1870. (fn. 144) In 1904 the firm, called W. H. Cole & Co., employed over 80 people and had introduced steampower to the mill (fn. 145) which was occupied by the firm until shortly after the First World War. (fn. 146) The mill buildings had been demolished by 1972 but the millowner's house, a three-storey gabled house built in 1634, (fn. 147) with 19th-century additions, survived near the site.
Skinner's Mill, earlier called Spring's Borough or Painswick Mill, just above Stepping Stone Lane, (fn. 148) was possibly the mill held from the manor by members of the Taylor family in the 16th and 17th centuries. (fn. 149) In 1698 the Revd. Edward Taylor leased the later Skinner's Mill, described as two water-corn-mills, to Francis Hayward (alias Westropp). The mill subsequently passed to John Taylor of Tewkesbury (d. c. 1742) who devised it to his wife Joyce, and then to his nephews John and Samuel Mills; Samuel later bought out the rights of the others, and in 1749 sold the mill to John Pinfold, clothier of Salmon's Mill, (fn. 150) but no evidence of its use as a cloth-mill has been found. Pinfold devised it to Sarah Webb, (fn. 151) whose husband Samuel Colborne survived her and retained the mill until his death in 1813. The mill, which remained a copyhold, then passed to the Revd. John Colborne (d. 1859). William Skinner took a 21year lease of it in 1787 (fn. 152) and it was worked as a cornmill by successive generations of his family until c. 1880. (fn. 153) By 1885, when G. A. Fawkes occupied it, steam-power had been introduced to the mill, (fn. 154) which continued in use for milling cattle-feed until the 1920s. (fn. 155) The house and mill, which form a single building, are mostly of the later 17th and the 19th centuries but they incorporate a medieval, probably late-14th-century, open hall and screens passage, into which a chimney and first floor were inserted in the later 16th century.
King's Mill, (fn. 156) also known as Lower Mill, (fn. 157) at the confluence of the Painswick stream and the Wash brook was held from the manor by Agnes Mills in 1496. (fn. 158) The mill was held by Robert Poole in 1569 when his son John received a reversionary lease. In 1587 the lord of the manor sold the freehold at a quit-rent to Edward Kynne, who bought out the Pooles' interest. Edward died in 1604 and his widow Margaret and son William sold the mill in 1625 to Richard Packer (fn. 159) (d. 1639), who settled it, described as a corn- or tuck-mill, on the marriage of his son Thomas in 1634. Thomas was working it as a clothmill in 1671 and his son Richard (fn. 160) occupied it in 1677. (fn. 161) Richard Packer (d. 1718 or 1719) devised the mill to his son Daniel (d. 1739), (fn. 162) and it passed to Daniel's nephew John Packer, who was trading as a mealman and clothier at his death in 1768. John was succeeded by his son Richard, a wool-stapler, who died in 1774, having settled the mill on his wife Susannah. (fn. 163) It was equipped as a corn-mill in 1787, though it included wool-lofts. (fn. 164) Soon afterwards it returned to cloth production and was rebuilt in 1818 to house all processes of cloth-making except weaving, (fn. 165) and the clothier John Palling of Sheephouse owned it in 1820. (fn. 166) Palling worked the mill in partnership with his son William in the 1830s and 1840s, and William, sole proprietor of the firm after his father's death c. 1847, (fn. 167) continued to make cloth there in 1853. (fn. 168) Henry Fletcher, a scarlet- and billiardcloth manufacturer recorded in 1856, (fn. 169) was presumably the Mr. Fletcher who was working King's Mill in 1858 when he went bankrupt. (fn. 170) The mill was converted for use as a pin-mill in 1860 by the firm of Watkins & Okey, (fn. 171) which remained there until c. 1908 when they were taken over by Savory & Sons of Brookhouse Mill. (fn. 172) King's Mill continued to be operated as a pin-mill until after the First World War when production ceased and some industrial buildings to the north were demolished. (fn. 173) The small, gabled mill-house dates from the mid 17th century and was extended to the south and east during the 18th century to incorporate industrial buildings. A further range of industrial buildings was added in the earlier 19th century but had been demolished by 1972 when the remaining buildings were used as houses and as show-rooms for an antique furniture business.
Small's Mill, downstream of King's Mill, (fn. 174) descended with the Brownshill estate (fn. 175) and was evidently worked by members of the Palling family during the 18th century. (fn. 176) William Palling was making cloth for the Indian and Levant trade c. 1720. (fn. 177) In 1735 Sarah, William's widow, surrendered her freebench in the mill, which contained 2 fullingmills, a gig-mill, a shear-shop, and a dye-house, in favour of her son Thomas who transferred the mill immediately to his brother William. (fn. 178) Thomas was the copyhold tenant again in 1771 when he settled the mill, from after his death, on the marriage of William Caruthers. (fn. 179) Thomas's brother Edward was then making cloth at the mill, (fn. 180) and in 1788 and 1789 William Caruthers was making uniform and ladies' cloth. (fn. 181) In 1795 the mill was occupied by James Stanley of Rock Mill. (fn. 182) In 1811 Grace Caruthers and her children sold Small's Mill to the Revd. Joseph Jones, (fn. 183) who was perhaps a trustee for Nathaniel Jones who was leasing it to a Mr. Mills in 1820. (fn. 184) In 1825 the clothiers James, Thomas, and Matthew Rice were probably lessees under Jones (fn. 185) and Matthew was operating there in 1833 (fn. 186) when John Papps, clothier, was also recorded at the mill. (fn. 187) The business, known as Thomas Rice & Sons in 1839, (fn. 188) had been replaced by William Clarke & Sons, umbrella-stick manufacturers, by 1853. (fn. 189) The business passed c. 1857 to William Ridler (fn. 190) who expanded it to general saw-milling. (fn. 191) Ridler remained there until the late 1870s when Thomas Hooper, an umbrella-furniture manufacturer, was recorded there. (fn. 192) The mill was disused in 1882 (fn. 193) but was used by a timber-merchant from c. 1885 until 1910. (fn. 194) The mill buildings, dating from the 17th century, were in a dilapidated state in 1972 but still contained a water-wheel.
By the Stroud-Gloucester road, a mile downstream of Small's Mill, stood Rock Mill, (fn. 195) which was a fulling-mill in 1738 when it was occupied by William Packer. (fn. 196) Anthony Bidmead was working it in 1743 (fn. 197) and Job Gardner occupied it at his death in 1768. (fn. 198) In 1776 Zacharias Horlick, senior, and John Horlick were making cloth at the mill, (fn. 199) which was owned and occupied by James Stanley in 1795. (fn. 200) John Adey, clothier, was recorded there in 1797 and Timothy Stanley in 1809. (fn. 201) The mill was put up for sale after the death of James Stanley in 1815 when it contained 3 stocks and a gig-mill. (fn. 202) A Mr. Hicks, possibly Weston Hicks, (fn. 203) owned the mill in 1820 and occupied part of the premises. (fn. 204) Hester Miles & Son later made cloth there but went bankrupt in 1826. (fn. 205) The steam-engine was removed from the mill in 1850 (fn. 206) and during the 1850s it was worked as a pinmill by the Stroudwater Pin Co. (fn. 207) Dye-wood manufacturing was carried on at the mill by John Thomas & Co. in 1863 and by Thomas Gold in 1870. Gold remained at the mill until the 1880s but in 1889 it was again used in the cloth industry by Tabram & Co., flock and shoddy manufacturers, (fn. 208) who worked the mill for only a few years. (fn. 209) By 1894 it was worked by the British Sports Supply Co. (fn. 210) and in 1897 the British Chess Co. was recorded there. (fn. 211) Soon afterwards the mill was converted for use as a corn-mill and was later demolished. A small later-17th-century gabled house, perhaps built by a member of the Gardner family, (fn. 212) was partly refenestrated and enlarged to the east, the original entrance front, by the addition of a small service wing in the early 19th century.
Grove Mill or Hermitage Mill, the next downstream, (fn. 213) belonged to the Grove estate. (fn. 214) In 1820 it was worked as a paper-mill by John Ward, (fn. 215) but after his death in 1826 (fn. 216) it was converted into a gristmill, and the adjoining house into a malt-house, and it was operated by Thomas Creed, mealman, between 1827 (fn. 217) and c. 1840. (fn. 218) In 1842 it was worked by William B. Price, mealman, (fn. 219) and in 1853 by the Luker family. (fn. 220) By 1870 Godsell & Sons, brewers of Salmon's Mill, shared the use of Grove Mill with Henry Holmes, a millwright and engineer. (fn. 221) By 1882 it was again a corn-mill (fn. 222) and remained in use until after the First World War. (fn. 223) The malt-house apparently continued to be used by Godsell & Sons. (fn. 224)
Salmon's Mill (fn. 225) was held from the manor in 1439 by William Bliss. (fn. 226) In 1496 Thomas Bliss surrendered the reversion of the mill in favour of John Sewell, (fn. 227) possibly only a trustee, for in 1523 William Bliss transferred the copyhold to his son Thomas. It was later occupied by John Gardner and then by George Fletcher whose tenure was confirmed by the lord of the manor in 1574. (fn. 228) The mill was evidently worked by Edmund Fletcher, who built the house near by, at the end of the 16th century. (fn. 229) It was probably the fulling-mill owned and worked by Thomas Fletcher (d. 1621) whose second son Henry (fn. 230) was possibly the man of that name recorded at Salmon's Mill in 1681. (fn. 231) By 1749 the mill was being worked by John Pinfold, clothier (fn. 232) (d. 1764 or 1765), who devised it to Samuel Webb. (fn. 233) In 1783 a Mr. Berwick was rated for the mill, (fn. 234) and in 1786 it comprised both fulling- and grist-mills with a dyehouse attached. (fn. 235) It was worked as a corn-mill by William Drew in 1820 (fn. 236) and a malt-house was recorded there in 1822. (fn. 237) By 1839 the mill was owned by N. S. Marling who was leasing it to the firm of Biddell & Bishop. (fn. 238) In 1855 Marling leased it to Thomas Godsell, brewer and maltster (d. 1885), (fn. 239) who worked it as a corn-mill in conjunction with a brewing business in the 1870s (fn. 240) when a brick-yard and kilns were also attached to the premises. (fn. 241) The brewery business, later called Godsell & Sons, expanded rapidly and the site, known as Salmon's Spring, also included a distillery from the early 20th century. (fn. 242) The firm was taken over by the Stroud Brewery Co. in 1928, and in 1934 the mill was demolished and replaced by a brick beer-bottling factory. (fn. 243) Malting ceased in 1967 and the beerbottling plant was closed in 1969, from which date the site was used as a storage depot, employing c. 100 people in 1972, by Whitbread's. (fn. 244) Salmon's Spring House, a substantial gabled house of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, (fn. 245) has been remodelled internally on several occasions and stands in the midst of industrial buildings of the late 19th and 20th centuries.
The brook running to the Painswick stream through Sheepscombe, where clothiers were recorded from the 18th century, (fn. 246) formerly drove at least two mills. (fn. 247) Flock Mill, (fn. 248) formerly called Ebworth Mill (fn. 249) and Back Mill, (fn. 250) was recorded in 1777 (fn. 251) and formed part of the Ebworth estate in 1797. (fn. 252) The mill has not been found recorded as a cloth-mill although its name, used throughout the 19th century, is suggestive. In 1820 the mill was worked by William Morgan (fn. 253) and in 1839, by which time it was separated from the Ebworth estate, it was worked by Richard Sollars as a corn-mill. (fn. 254) By 1856 Sollars had apparently ceased working the mill and was farming from it. (fn. 255) The mill was standing in 1901 (fn. 256) but was demolished soon afterwards. (fn. 257) In 1972 the mill-pond remained and had a modern farm-house to the west.
Wight's Mill, or Sheepscombe Mill, (fn. 258) was situated at Brooklands. The mill was recorded in 1777 (fn. 259) and in 1820 was owned and worked as a cloth-mill by John Wight. (fn. 260) Steam-power had been introduced by 1822 (fn. 261) and in 1838 the mill contained 8 handlooms. (fn. 262) John and Edward Wight owned and worked it in 1839 (fn. 263) when the firm of John Palling & Son of King's Mill was also recorded there. (fn. 264) The Wights apparently gave up the business in 1840 although they remained owners of the mill for some years afterwards. (fn. 265) It was demolished c. 1871. (fn. 266) A Gothicstyle residence was built close to the site for the clothier in the early 19th century.
The Wash brook and a tributary leading from the grounds of Painswick House drove five mills in the early 19th century. Upper Dorey's Mill, also called Dorey's Mill, (fn. 267) was possibly in existence in 1777. (fn. 268) In 1820 the mill was owned and worked as a cloth-mill by Thomas Wood. (fn. 269) The mill-pond is said to have burst soon after 1830 and never been repaired (fn. 270) but the mill on the site, called New Mill, was owned and apparently used by N. S. Marling in 1839. (fn. 271) In 1853 the mill was occupied by John Pearce but the nearby weaving shops were said to be vacant. (fn. 272) In 1863 a firm of cabinet-makers and fancy umbrella- and parasol-stick manufacturers, King & Co., occupied the mill (fn. 273) which has not been recorded in use since that date. Weavers' cottages adjoining the mill were said to be in an unhealthy condition in 1849 (fn. 274) but by 1972 had been restored to make three dwellings.
Lower Dorey's Mill, on the north side of Edge Lane, (fn. 275) may have been worked in conjunction with Upper Dorey's Mill in 1820, (fn. 276) but the building was apparently used mainly as a dwelling by 1839 when Samuel Wood owned the site. (fn. 277)
A stream which rose in the grounds of Painswick House and entered the Wash brook by Edge Lane drove Little's Mill. (fn. 278) The mill was built by John Little before 1820 and worked by him as a clothmill. (fn. 279) He was still apparently using it in 1839 (fn. 280) but he leased it to Henry Gyde before 1845 when it was put up for sale. (fn. 281) It is not recorded later and only the site of the pond was visible in the bed of the stream in 1972.
A mill on the Wash brook, south of Edge Lane, (fn. 282) descended with Washbrook Mill, the next below, and was being worked with it by Edward Baylis in 1820. (fn. 283) In 1839, however, Elizabeth Gainey was leasing it to Nathaniel Iles Butler. (fn. 284) It may have been the building called the Little Mill that was leased with Washbrook Mill in 1881. (fn. 285) It was a working corn-mill in 1882 but had gone out of use by the end of the century (fn. 286) and was used as a dwelling in 1972.
Washbrook Mill, (fn. 287) called Merrett's or Gyde's Mill in the early 19th century, (fn. 288) was built in 1691 by Walter Hawkins. (fn. 289) In 1724 it was a grist-mill owned by Hawkins, then a brewer of Bristol, and he was succeeded before 1733 by his son Francis. In 1775 it belonged to William Lane of Gloucester (d. c. 1789), who devised it, subject to his wife Amy's lifeinterest, to Jane Bromwich. Jane sold the reversion in 1797, when John Gyde was tenant of the property, to Nicholas Barnes and he sold it two years later to a clothier, John Baylis, who converted it to a clothmill. Baylis (d. 1818) was succeeded by his son Edward, who worked it until his bankruptcy in or before 1823. It was acquired by the mortgagee, Elizabeth Gainey. (fn. 290) The lessee in 1838 was H. Gardner (fn. 291) and in 1839 the mill was being worked by Henry Padbury. (fn. 292) In the later 19th century it was worked as a corn-mill, but had gone out of use by 1901. (fn. 293) The building, which dates from the late 17th century but has many later additions and alterations, contains an 18th-century decorated stone entrance.
Five of the mills on the Slad brook were usually considered to be in Painswick parish. Lower Steanbridge Mill, below the bridge, (fn. 294) was presumably worked by Richard Webb in 1608 when he owned the water-course from the bridge to his mill. (fn. 295) The mill was probably occupied by the clothiers Henry Townsend of Steanbridge (d. 1714) and William Townsend (d. 1754). (fn. 296) It was owned with Steanbridge House by the Revd. Robert Lawrence Townsend in 1820 when it was worked, apparently as a cloth-mill, by Benjamin Wood. (fn. 297) Robert died in 1830 and his son, also Robert Lawrence (fn. 298) leased the mill in 1836 to N. S. Marling, who sub-let it, described as a fulling-mill with 3 stocks and 2 waterwheels, to Horatio Collier in 1854. (fn. 299) It has not been found recorded as a working mill later.
By 1824 a mill had been built below Slad village where a stream from Elcombe joined the Slad brook. (fn. 300) The mill was owned by R. L. Townsend in 1839 and occupied by N. S. Marling. (fn. 301) It is said to have been used later as a silk-mill and ruined c. 1914 when the pond broke. (fn. 302)
Hazel Mill, (fn. 303) situated below Vatch Mill (in Stroud parish), contained 1 gig-mill, 2 new stocks, and 4 cloth-racks when put up for sale in 1763. (fn. 304) The mill subsequently passed to Nathaniel Winchcombe, whose son Nathaniel surrendered the copyhold in favour of Thomas Baylis in 1798. Baylis immediately transferred it to William Reeves, from whom it passed to Thomas Hughes in 1800. The following year Hughes transferred the copyhold to John Knowles (d. by 1816) whose widow and heirs surrendered it in favour of Robert Hughes in 1816. Robert sold it to John Mills in 1819 (fn. 305) and it was leased to the clothier George Wyatt from 1820. (fn. 306) By 1839 N. S. Marling occupied the mill (fn. 307) which was converted for use as a logwood-dye-mill before 1870 when it was worked by Alfred Haycraft, whose family occupied the mill until the end of the century. (fn. 308) In 1901 the mill was apparently an out-building for the early-18th-century house, called the Gables, (fn. 309) later Hazel Mill House.
Wade's Mill, downstream of Hazel Mill, (fn. 310) was worked as a corn-mill between 1820 and 1839 by Thomas Holmes, a farmer. (fn. 311) The mill was worked as a corn-mill during the later 19th century (fn. 312) but had closed down by 1901. (fn. 313)
Peghouse Mill, (fn. 314) later called Woodlands Mill, (fn. 315) was 400 yds. downstream of Wade's Mill. It was owned in 1608 by Samuel Hopson (fn. 316) who conveyed it in 1630 to Giles Davis, mercer of Stroud (fn. 317) (d. 1639). Giles's infant son, Thomas, inherited the mill, decribed as a fulling- and grain-mill. (fn. 318) In 1678 John Gardner was recorded at the mill (fn. 319) but it was still owned by Thomas Davis in 1713 when he conveyed it to his son Thomas. The younger Thomas conveyed it in 1721 to William Aldridge of Stroud, clothier, from whose heirs it was acquired in 1730 by John Cripps. In 1739 Cripps sold out to his mortgagee Daniel Fowler (fn. 320) of Minchinhampton, mercer (d. 1740), who left it in trust for his son Joseph (d. 1764) who devised it to his brother Richard and sisters Mary and Elizabeth. (fn. 321) Benjamin Pitt was making cloth at Peghouse Mill in 1767 and for a time had a dyeing business there in partnership with John Parish. (fn. 322) Mary Fowler (d. 1793 or 1794) survived her brother and sister and devised the mill to her nephew Thomas Whitehead. Thomas contracted to sell the mill to Thomas Hodges, clothier, and the sale was completed in 1798 by Richard Whitehead, Thomas's brother and devisee. (fn. 323) Hodges apparently leased the mill, or part of it, to Robert Gordon, who was declared bankrupt in 1804. (fn. 324) In 1814 Hodges sold the mill to Nathan Driver the younger, who was declared bankrupt in 1827, the mill passing in the following year to his chief creditors, some London bankers, who leased it to N. S. Marling for 10 years from 1831. (fn. 325) Marling worked the mill, which had been partially rebuilt in 1823 and was powered by steam and water, in conjunction with Vatch and Upper Vatch Mills in Stroud, using Peghouse solely for fulling. (fn. 326) In 1846 the mill was sold to Eli James, a rope-maker, who sold it to Richard Barton, silkthrowster, in 1857. Barton mortgaged the mill to James who later regained possession and sold it in 1864 to George Rowland and William Davis; they sold the following year to John Libby of New Mill, Stroud. (fn. 327) In 1885 the mill was being worked by Northcott, Cartwright, & Co., woollen manufacturers, (fn. 328) who were succeeded there in 1902 by Humphreys & Co., (fn. 329) who continued to produce cloth at the mill until c. 1925. (fn. 330) Part of the mill was used as a ropeyard in the mid 19th century, worked by the firm of James and Brookes. (fn. 331) The mill buildings were mostly demolished soon after the mill closed but some early-20th-century brick buildings remained in 1972. The site was occupied from 1958 by Danarm Ltd., manufacturers of chain saws and components, who employed c. 65 people in 1972. (fn. 332)
Other Industry and Trade.
The quarries in the parish have contributed greatly to its economic prosperity. Tradition maintains that the stone used in building Llanthony Priory at Gloucester came from a quarry at Painswick. (fn. 333) The priory was leasing quarries from the manor in the late 15th century (fn. 334) when the church at Painswick was being rebuilt. (fn. 335) The quarries held by the priory were unused in 1540. (fn. 336) A number of the quarries were being worked by the Capener family in the 16th century (fn. 337) and in 1608 5 masons and a tiler were recorded at Painswick. (fn. 338) The reputation of Painswick stone and the high quality of the stonework in the town itself, notably the churchyard monuments and internal domestic features such as fire-places, owe much to the Bryan family of masons, Joseph (d. 1730) and his sons John (d. 1787) and Joseph (d. 1780). (fn. 339) The building firm of Thomas Spring & Son operated in the locality from 1823 until c. 1874 and worked on a number of the chapels and country houses of the neighbourhood, (fn. 340) but the most important building fim has been Burdock & Sons, founded c. 1840, (fn. 341) which still existed in 1972. The firm worked Catsbrain Quarry, the large quarry on Painswick hill recorded from the 15th century, until 1950 when the quarry was bought by the South-Western Stone Co., which employed 26 men there in 1959. Stone from the quarry was used in important buildings in London and elsewhere, (fn. 342) but the quarry was later used for the production of reconstituted stone and closed in 1968. In 1972 the buildings were used as stores for a building firm. (fn. 343) The large quarry at the Edge was closed c. 1950. (fn. 344) The parish contains a great number of small disused quarries.
The industrial use of the mills after the decline of the cloth industry included saw-milling, pin-making, and brewing. (fn. 345) Pin-making had been introduced to the parish in 1796 as a means of employment at the workhouse (fn. 346) and brewing was a long established household industry in the town, many of the inns having malt-houses attached. Apart from the Salmon's Spring brewery mentioned above, there was a small brewery at Uplands in the late 19th century (fn. 347) and another by Rock Mill c. 1900. (fn. 348) The only other industry of any scale has been the tourist industry; the attractive aspect of the town and surrounding countryside has made Painswick a popular place for day visitors since the Second World War. During the summer months the Guild of Gloucestershire Craftsmen hold an annual exhibition in the town, which has two small commercial art galleries, some antique shops, and a small bookshop.
The parish and outlying settlements have been well supplied with craftsmen. In 1608 there were 5 tailors, 5 shoemakers, 5 smiths, 4 carpenters, 3 glovers, 2 turners, a joiner, a butcher, a saddler, a hatter, a sawyer, a collier, a cooper, and a tinker in the parish. (fn. 349) A baker was recorded at Sheepscombe in the later 19th century and blacksmiths, carpenters, and wheelwrights were recorded there until 1939. (fn. 350) At Slad a shoemaker was recorded in the late 19th and a painter in the early 20th century. A carpenter was recorded at Edge from the late 19th century (fn. 351) and in 1940 there were 2 blacksmiths, 2 wheelwrights, and a saddler working in the parish. (fn. 352)
Markets and Fairs.
A weekly market, on Thursdays, and an annual three-day fair, held on 14-16 August, were granted to the lord of the manor in 1253. (fn. 353) By a grant of 1321 the market was transferred to Tuesday and the fair to 7-8 September. (fn. 354) The market was said to have declined because plague in the town in the early 17th century forced its removal to Wick Street as a result of which much trade was subsequently lost to the expanding market at Stroud. (fn. 355) By 1737 the lord's right in the market was reckoned to be worth only £7 yearly and had declined in value to £2 yearly in 1758. (fn. 356) It was said to be poorly attended c. 1775 (fn. 357) but apparently continued, principally as a corn-market, until the 1870s. (fn. 358) The September fair had been joined by a fair held on Whit Tuesday by the early 18th century, (fn. 359) both fairs later catering for sheep and cattle (fn. 360). Perhaps because of the flourishing state of the cloth industry a great market for sheep was also being held c. 1775 on the Tuesday before All Saints (old style) (fn. 361) and that and another special sheep-market, held on 1-3 April, were recorded in 1794. (fn. 362) The fairs and the autumn sheep-market apparently continued to be held until the 1870s but had been abandoned by 1879. (fn. 363) A market-hall at the south end of Friday Street was still in use in 1739 when it was repaired by the churchwardens. (fn. 364)