A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 7. Originally published by Oxford University Press for Victoria County History, Oxford, 1981.
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The small rural parish of Barnsley lies 6.5 km. north-east of Cirencester and is irregular in shape, extending from Ready Token at the junction of the Welsh way and Akeman Street on the south-east to the valley of the Winterwell brook below the Foss way on the west. The parish contains 876 ha. (2, 163 a.) (fn. 1) and has been subject to no boundary changes. It lies mainly at 120–40 m., the ground formed by Forest Marble except on the north boundary where the underlying Great Oolite emerges. (fn. 2) Apart from an ancient park and a common pasture called Barnsley Wold in the north-west of the parish, the land was occupied by open fields until inclosure in 1762.
The name of the parish was recorded c. 800 as 'Bearmodeslea' (fn. 3) and in later centuries often took the form Bardesley. The original clearing to which the name was applied was perhaps at the park, the oldest part of which is probably the area in the north including the site of a Roman villa and a related field-system. (fn. 4) The park was certainly in existence by 1197 (fn. 5) and was the site of one of the ancient manor-houses. (fn. 6) In the Middle Ages it covered 100 a. inclosed by stone walls; (fn. 7) it was grazed by deer (fn. 8) and administered by a parker. (fn. 9) A keeper of the park was still employed in the late 15th century (fn. 10) but by 1542 it had been disparked. (fn. 11) The original inclosure evidently survived, however, and was apparently considerably enlarged when Brereton Bourchier built a new manor-house, Barnsley Park, there in the early 18th century; Bourchier was said to have a pleasant grove and a large park c. 1710, (fn. 12) and in 1730 the outlying parts of the park were described as inclosures. In the later 18th century the park covered over 300 a. (fn. 13) A further extension to the south-east took place in 1794 when the Barnsley—Ablington road was diverted. (fn. 14) The 83 a. of woodland recorded in the parish in 1841 (fn. 15) were mainly in the park, which remained well planted in 1975.
Barnsley village grew up south of the park at the cross-roads of two of the most important routes of the county, the Cirencester—Oxford road, turnpiked in 1753, (fn. 16) and the old London—Gloucester road, (fn. 17) often called the Welsh way. The latter was named from the use made of it by Welsh drovers, who were often recorded at Barnsley in the 1770s, pasturing their cattle overnight in the Ten Acres behind Barnsley House. (fn. 18) The Welsh way was probably the Tame's path recorded in the west of the parish in the 17th century, (fn. 19) the name presumably recalling journeyings by that family between Fairford and Rendcomb. (fn. 20) Usually, however, the Welsh way was called Gloucester way (or road) in the west part of the parish and London way (or road) in the east. (fn. 21) The Cirencester—Oxford road took a different route through the village before it was turnpiked. In 1675 it ran on the east rather than the west side of the church, (fn. 22) and Clapton's Lane running east of Barnsley House (fn. 23) may represent its old course into the south end of the village; alternatively, a road that ran over Wayboll hill west of the turnpike until the late 18th century (fn. 24) may have been the original course in that end of the village.
The village street that Barnsley forms on the Cirencester—Oxford road seems thus to be mainly the product of re-routing of the road in 1753, and the regularity of the street is contributed partly by the addition of estate cottages in the 19th century. A few of the houses date from an earlier period, including a cottage on the west side of the street, which has an early plan with a passage entry. The end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th, when Brereton Bourchier was lord of the manor, evidently saw considerable expansion and new building in the village. A new farm-house that Bourchier was building in 1703, described as near the inn, (fn. 25) may be the older wing of Church Farm, north of the church, and a cottage west of the church, with a central chimney and gabled elevation, is dated 1698. Licence to build other cottages at the south end of the village was given in 1694 and 1712, the latter being evidently represented by the small cottage beside the road to Ampney Crucis. (fn. 26) A greater number of the cottages along the street were added or rebuilt in the 19th century by the Musgrave family; one pair is dated 1811, another pair 1817, and a row of three 1851. A pair of cottages at the north end, adjoining the park, was converted into a dower house c. 1932 (fn. 27) and in 1975 was the home of Mr. W. H. Wykeham-Musgrave, the former owner of the estate. In the 20th century the village street was carefully preserved against discordant additions.
Near the south end of the village a large new house, originally called the Lower House but later Barnsley House, was built in 1697 by Brereton Bourchier, (fn. 28) who perhaps intended it for his own residence, not yet contemplating the building of Barnsley Park. From 1762 until 1932 it was the rectory. (fn. 29) The original range with mullioned and transomed windows was given dormers c. 1830 and the west side refronted. In the garden is a late-18th-century Gothic summer-house and a Doric temple, the latter moved from Fairford Park in 1962 by the owner of the house, Mr. D. C. W. Verey, an architectural historian. (fn. 30)
Poultmoor Farm by the Bibury road is the only outlying farm-house in the parish. It was built in 1790 by James Musgrave, (fn. 31) and the Gothic front may have been intended as an eye-catcher from Barnsley Park.
Tradition ascribes to a member of the Tame family the building of an inn at Barnsley for his own accommodation when travelling between Fairford and Rendcomb. (fn. 32) The village certainly had an inn by 1657 (fn. 33) and it had a good reputation among travellers in the later 17th and early 18th centuries. (fn. 34) By 1707 the inn was called the Greyhound. (fn. 35) In the 19th century, when the landlord was also a farmer, (fn. 36) it was at Greyhound Farm on the main road near the north end of the village; (fn. 37) but it had apparently moved there only at the turnpiking of the road in 1753, for a house called the old inn in the same part of the village was mentioned in 1789. (fn. 38) In the early years of the 20th century the inn moved from Greyhound Farm to a cottage on the west side of the street, where it remained in 1975. (fn. 39) The Greyhound was the only inn in the village in 1788 and again in the late 19th century, (fn. 40) but in 1844 the Blackamoor's Head and the Queen's Head were recorded at Barnsley and friendly societies met at both; (fn. 41) one may have been the Greyhound under a temporary change of name. A cottage on the east side of the street was being used as a village hall by 1937. (fn. 42)
Twenty-four inhabitants of Barnsley were recorded in 1086. (fn. 43) Twenty-eight were assessed for the subsidy in 1327, (fn. 44) and 59 for the poll tax in 1381. (fn. 45) In 1551 c. 93 communicants were recorded (fn. 46) and in 1563 28 households. (fn. 47) There were said to be 30 families in the parish in 1650, (fn. 48) c. 160 inhabitants about 1710, (fn. 49) and 217 inhabitants c. 1775. (fn. 50) In 1801 the population was 271 and it rose to 318 by 1821, remaining at about that figure until 1861 before falling to 222 by the end of the century. The fall generally continued in the 20th century and there were 150 inhabitants in 1971. (fn. 51)
Manors and Other Estates
Barnsley belonged to the bishopric of Worcester from before 822. Bishop Denebeorht leased 6 'manentes' there to a priest, Balthun, and in 855 the bishop's estate at Barnsley was exempted from certain dues by Burgred, king of the Mercians. (fn. 52) In 1086 Durand held 3 hides and 1 yardland from the bishop as part of Bibury manor, and another estate of 7 yardlands, not subsequently traced, was held by Eudes. (fn. 53)
Durand's estate, later called the manor of BARNSLEY, passed to his nephew Walter of Gloucester who c. 1123 settled it on the marriage of his son Miles. (fn. 54) Miles, created earl of Hereford in 1141, died in 1143 and the manor evidently passed with his other estates in turn to his sons Roger (d. 1155), Walter, Henry, and Mahel (fn. 55) (d. 1165). Mahel's English estates were subsequently divided between his sisters Margaret, wife of Humphrey de Bohun, and Lucy, wife of Herbert FitzHerbert (fn. 56) but the details of the division are obscure and varied from manor to manor. (fn. 57) Margaret de Bohun held the whole or part of Barnsley manor c. 1180 when she alienated land at Barnsley with the assent of her son Humphrey, (fn. 58) and in 1195 Herbert FitzHerbert's portion of Barnsley was mentioned. (fn. 59) In 1209 Margaret's grandson Henry de Bohun, earl of Hereford, held 1 knight's fee at Barnsley under the bishop of Worcester. (fn. 60) Later FitzHerbert's descendants and others held the manor in demesne while the de Bohuns retained an intermediate lordship (fn. 61) and the advowson of the church. After the death of Humphrey de Bohun in 1373 his rights passed to his daughter Mary and her husband Henry of Lancaster, (fn. 62) later Henry IV. The superior overlordship of the bishop of Worcester is not recorded after 1299. (fn. 63)
Herbert FitzHerbert's son Peter (d. 1235) (fn. 64) presumably held the manor or a share of it, and it passed to Peter's son Herbert (d. 1248). (fn. 65) Herbert's brother Reynold held it in 1258 (fn. 66) and evidently until his death in 1286, (fn. 67) although in 1285 the knight's fee held from the earl of Hereford was said to be shared by Reynold's heir and Robert de Plessis. (fn. 68) Reynold's son John held part of the manor in 1292 (fn. 69) and granted it before 1300 to the elder Hugh le Despenser. (fn. 70) The portion of Robert de Plessis, described as a third of the manor but 1/5 knight's fee, was held in right of his wife Ela. On his death c. 1301 it passed to his son John, (fn. 71) whose son Edmund de Plessis held it in 1316. In 1323 Edmund granted it to Hugh le Despenser, (fn. 72) thus uniting the two parts of the manor.
After Despenser's execution and forfeiture the manor was granted to Edmund, earl of Kent, (fn. 73) who was executed in 1330. It was then held briefly by Queen Isabella (fn. 74) but in 1331, subject to dower assigned to Maud, widow of Edmund de Plessis, (fn. 75) it was placed in the custody of Thomas de Bradeston, who held during the minority of the earl of Kent's sons Edmund (d. 1331) and John. (fn. 76) In 1335 Eleanor, widow of Herbert, son of John son of Reynold, also secured dower in the manor. (fn. 77) John, earl of Kent, died seised of the manor in 1352 (fn. 78) and, with the assent of his sister and heir Joan, wife of Thomas Holland, it was settled in dower on his widow Elizabeth. (fn. 79) In 1366 an estate, apparently two-thirds of that which Edmund, earl of Kent, had held, was extended as a possession late of William de Grenville, (fn. 80) but Elizabeth held the manor in 1374 (fn. 81) and at her death in 1411. It then passed to Edmund Mortimer, earl of March, as heir of the earls of Kent, (fn. 82) who died in 1425 (fn. 83) and was succeeded by his nephew Richard, duke of York. (fn. 84) After the duke's attainder in 1459 the manor was granted for life to his wife Cecily. (fn. 85) On Cecily's death in 1495 (fn. 86) it passed under a reversionary grant of 1492 to Elizabeth, the queen consort, (fn. 87) and later it formed part of the jointure of each of Henry VIII's wives. (fn. 88)
On Catherine Parr's death in 1548 Barnsley manor passed to Anthony Bourchier under a reversionary grant made originally to John Dudley, earl of Warwick. (fn. 89) Anthony died in 1551, leaving his son Thomas, a minor, as his heir. (fn. 90) Thomas died in 1579 having settled two-thirds of the manor on his wife Bridget for 16 years. Thomas's son Charles, an infant at his father's death, (fn. 91) sold the manor in 1600 to William Bourchier, (fn. 92) apparently his brother. (fn. 93) From William (d. 1623) the manor passed in direct line of descent to Walter (fn. 94) (d. 1648), William (d. 1693), and Brereton (d. 1714). (fn. 95) Brereton's heir was his daughter Martha, during whose minority his widow Catherine and trustees held the manor. (fn. 96) In 1719 Martha married Henry Perrot of North Leigh (Oxon.), (fn. 97) who was succeeded at his death in 1740 by his daughters Martha (d. 1773) and Cassandra (d. 1778). (fn. 98)
Cassandra Perrot devised the manor to a relation James Musgrave, (fn. 99) who inherited a baronetcy on a cousin's death in 1812. Sir James (d. 1814) was succeeded by his son Sir James (d. 1858) and the second Sir James by his brother, the Revd. Sir William Augustus Musgrave, rector of Chinnor (Oxon.). Sir Augustus (d. 1875) (fn. 100) was succeeded by his sister Georgiana, wife of Aubrey Wenman Wykeham. Aubrey and Georgiana, who expanded their surname to Wykeham-Musgrave, both died in 1879 and the manor passed in direct line to Wenman Aubrey (d. 1915), Herbert Wenman (d. 1931), and Wenman Humfry. In 1935 W. H. Wykeham-Musgrave sold the manor-house, Barnsley Park, and the park (fn. 101) to Lady Violet Henderson (fn. 102) (d. 1956); her son Alexander Gavin Henderson, Lord Faringdon, succeeded but later made the estate over to his nephew, Mr. C. M. Henderson, (fn. 103) the owner in 1975. Another large part of the estate was sold in 1935 to the Revd. J. W. H. Toynbee who put it up for sale in 1937. (fn. 104) It was bought by various members of the Wykeham-Musgrave family, who formed the Barnsley Estate Co. which retained c. 900 a. in 1975. (fn. 105)
In 1327 there were two manor-houses at Barnsley, presumably one for each of the two former portions of the manor. The one standing in the park had evidently belonged to the Fitz Herberts, whose portion of the manor included the park, while the one in the village, called Nether Court, (fn. 106) had presumably belonged to the de Plessis family. Both houses probably fell into decay in the late Middle Ages, but the Bourchiers later lived at Barnsley in a house in the centre of the village, perhaps on the site of Nether Court. William Bourchier was assessed for tax on 16 hearths in 1672, (fn. 107) and the house still stood in a dilapidated state in the late 18th century. (fn. 108) By tradition it stood south of the church not far from Barnsley House. (fn. 109)
It was probably after his marriage in 1700 to Catherine, a daughter of James Bridges, Lord Chandos, (fn. 110) that Brereton Bourchier built a new house, which became known as Barnsley Park, in the old park. (fn. 111) It was of five bays by seven and had a symmetrical plan with two large central rooms and smaller rooms in the corners. Whether he had completed the house by the time of his death is not known, for it was enlarged to its present shape by Henry Perrot after 1719. (fn. 112) The main west front was extended to nine bays, the central three being brought forward. On the east side a library was added and on the south terminal pavilions, one bay square, which ingeniously recreated the symmetry of the three principal elevations. Inside, the centre of the old house was remodelled to form a hall, extending up through two floors and joined to a communicating passage and gallery by an arcade of two heights, which is pierced through an older wall. That work and that of the three main fronts is in the English baroque style. The redecoration of the interior continued for some time after the exterior was complete; Charles Stanley is said to have been employed on some of the interior plasterwork and may have done that in the hall. It has been suggested that Perrot's building work was much influenced by the contemporary operations of his wife's uncle, the 1st duke of Chandos, at Canons in Great Stanmore (Mdx.) and that some of the craftsmen who worked there were also employed at Barnsley. (fn. 113)
The dining-room at Barnsley Park was remodelled from designs by Anthony Keck about 1790. Between 1806 and 1809 John Nash was employed by James Musgrave to carry out internal refitting, including all the woodwork of the library. He also built the orangery on the east lawn and the lodge at the Bibury gate of the park. (fn. 114)
An estate owned by Robert Moreton in the early 16th century was known as the manor of BARNSLEY, but its origin is obscure. Robert died in 1514 and his son and heir William (fn. 115) died a minor in 1522, leaving his sisters Dorothy and Elizabeth as his heirs. (fn. 116) Elizabeth married Sir George West and later Ralph Rosier (fn. 117) and she and Ralph sold the estate in 1568 to Thomas West. (fn. 118) West sold it in 1569 to George Fettiplace of Coln St. Aldwyns (d. 1577) who was jointly enfeoffed with his wife Cecily who survived him. It passed to their son John (fn. 119) but has not been found recorded after 1605 when it was settled on the marriage of John's son George. (fn. 120) It was evidently absorbed into the chief manor which later included all the land of the parish except for the glebe. (fn. 121)
About 1180 Margaret de Bohun granted ½ hide at Barnsley to Philip the monk and confirmed his grant of the land to Llanthony Priory. She also granted 1 yardland to William of Stoke and confirmed his grant of it to the priory. (fn. 122) Presumably Philip and William were merely her intermediaries in those transactions. Land worth 20s. which she granted to Fulk of St. George to hold for 1/10 knight's fee apparently also passed to Llanthony. (fn. 123) The priory's lands in Barnsley, which were accounted ¼ fee in 1303, (fn. 124) were administered with its manor of South Cerney, (fn. 125) which was still said to include land in Barnsley in 1605. (fn. 126) The bulk of the estate, however, was granted in 1545 to John Pope who sold it the same year to Thomas Webb (fn. 127) (d. 1559). Thomas was succeeded by his son John (fn. 128) (d. 1582), whose son John died a minor in 1586 when Anne, widow of the elder John, and her husband John Hignell were taking the profits. (fn. 129) The estate was evidently absorbed later in the chief manor.
A house and land in Barnsley that had belonged to Holy Trinity chantry in Cirencester church were granted to Anthony Bourchier in 1549. (fn. 130)
In 1086 the estates of Durand and Eudes at Barnsley had a total of 5 demesne teams and 12 servi. (fn. 131) The part of the manor held by Reynold son of Peter had 140 a. of demesne arable in 1286 and the part held by Robert de Plessis had 60 a. in 1301; (fn. 132) in 1327 the united manor had 192 a. At the last date 4 a. of meadow were also recorded and the lord had the first crop of a meadow called Dittenham at Cirencester. (fn. 133) The demesne was farmed by 1413. (fn. 134)
In 1086 the tenants at Barnsley were 12 villani with 6 teams. (fn. 135) In 1286 Reynold son of Peter's estate had 2 free tenants, 4 customary yardlanders, 2 halfyardlanders, and 4 cottagers. The yardlander worked 5 days in the week all the year round but the value of his works increased threefold during August and September; he also did 4 bedrepes in the harvest. Two of the cottagers owed only money rents and 4 bedrepes but the other two also owed 1 day's work each week. On the estate of Robert de Plessis in 1301 there were 2 free tenants and 4 customary yardlands shared by 8 tenants. The tenants apparently paid money instead of working (fn. 136) and on the combined estate in 1327 the tenants worked or gave money as the lord wished. The estate in 1327 had 10 free tenants, some nevertheless owing heriots, 4 yardlanders and another 2 yardland tenements that were divided among several tenants, 18 half-yardlanders, and 7 cottagers. (fn. 137) The Llanthony Priory estate at the Dissolution was made up of 3 customary tenements, one comprising 3 houses and 3 yardlands, another 2 houses and 2 yardlands, and a third merely a garden. (fn. 138)
The yardland at Barnsley probably measured 48 a., for in 1670 a ½- yardland estate had 12 a. in each of the two open fields. (fn. 139) At that period and until inclosure the usual form of tenure was by leases for three lives with heriots payable. (fn. 140)
The two large open fields, recorded in the late 12th century as the west and the east field (fn. 141) but later called Upper and Lower field, lay respectively west and east of the village and park. They occupied the greater part of the land of the parish, (fn. 142) though in the north-west corner was a common pasture, called Barnsley Wold, covering 169 a. (fn. 143) The wold was used for pasturing cows, (fn. 144) while the sheep grazed the open fields. A ¼-yardland tenement had common for 1 horse, 2 beasts, and 10 sheep in 1673; the larger holdings had common for up to 112 or even 200 sheep. The larger holdings also had land in a common meadow called Middle Mead, recorded in 1675, and the right to cut furze on ground near Ready Token in the east corner of the parish. (fn. 145)
There was apparently little early inclosure of the open fields, although in the 1690s Brereton Bourchier granted leases which reserved his right to make inclosures. He may have planned then and carried out soon afterwards an extension of the park into the fields. It is certain that he permitted some small inclosures in the fields. (fn. 146) The parish was inclosed privately in 1762 (fn. 147) by the Perrots, who were the sole landowners. (fn. 148) After the inclosure the land was formed into three large farms, leased initially for 14-year terms. The cottages and small holdings continued on 99-year leases determinable on lives with heriots still required. (fn. 149)
After inclosure some of the land was evidently converted to pasture for sheep-farming. Sheepfarming had, however, long had a role in the parish: there was a sheep-house on the manorial demesne in the Middle Ages; (fn. 150) Thomas Rogers (d. 1515) left 180 sheep to his children; (fn. 151) and in 1535 the rector's annual tithes included wool worth £3. (fn. 152) The three big post-inclosure farms had a total of 1,100 sheep and 460 lambs in 1778; the largest farm included the wold which had been turned into a sheep-walk and one of the other farms used part of the park for grazing. The farms were, however, predominantly arable in area: in 1778 the largest, with a total of 890 a., had 529 a. of arable, the next, with 440 a., had 350 a. of arable, and the smallest, with 379 a., had 196 a. of arable. The rotation followed included wheat, barley, and oats, with, as fodder crops for the sheep, sainfoin and clover and presumably also turnips. One of the farms produced some butter and cheese and one had 108 a. of meadow land, but dairying was of little importance; the total herd of cows on the farms was 39. (fn. 153)
The pattern of farming apparently continued unchanged into the 19th century. There were evidently large flocks in the late 1830s when at least two shepherds were employed in the parish (fn. 154) and in 1841 the proportion of arable to grassland, 1,212 a. to 769 a., was much the same as in the late 18th century. There had been, however, some reorganization in the farms. In 1841 c. 1,035 a. were farmed from the Greyhound inn in the village, c. 115 a. from Church Farm, and c. 460 a. from Poultmoor Farm on the Bibury road. (fn. 155) Those three farms remained the main ones in the parish in the later 19th century and earlier 20th (fn. 156) but there were also a number of smaller ones; 11 agricultural holdings were returned in 1926, all but three of them under 150 a. The later 19th century saw the usual decline in cereal crops; by 1896 permanent grass, returned at 1,042 a., predominated over arable, returned at 869 a., and in 1926 295 a. of the grassland was described as rough grazing. (fn. 157) The number of cattle on the farms, kept mainly for beef, was increased during that period, 369 being returned in 1926 compared with 187 in 1866, but sheep were reduced from 1,034 in 1866 to 581 in 1926. (fn. 158) By the mid 1970s, however, arable land once more predominated in the parish and cereal cultivation and the raising of beef cattle were the main elements in local farming. The Barnsley estate was then farmed as a single unit from Church Farm, and there was another smaller farm and one small holding worked on a part-time basis. (fn. 159)
In relation to its size Barnsley was well supplied with tradesmen; the passing trade brought by the two main roads was probably of some importance. In 1608 the inhabitants included three carpenters, a smith, and a tailor, (fn. 160) and the first two trades were regularly represented in the village in succeeding centuries. Shoemakers were also recorded regularly from the 1770s. (fn. 161) The village had a blacksmith until the 1890s and a carpenter and a shoemaker until the early years of the 20th century. (fn. 162) A glazier was recorded in the parish in 1712, (fn. 163) bakers in 1699 (fn. 164) and 1775, a butcher in 1738, (fn. 165) and a wheelwright in 1856. (fn. 166) The landlord of the Greyhound had a malthouse adjoining the inn in 1775. (fn. 167) There was a shopkeeper in the village in 1879 and two in 1906. (fn. 168) In 1831 10 families were supported by trade and 47 by agriculture. (fn. 169)
By the early 18th century large freestone quarries were being worked at Quarry hill by the Bibury road on the east side of the parish, (fn. 170) and in the 1770s they were said to produce stone almost equal in quality to Bath stone. (fn. 171) A mason Richard Norris, not the first of his family to follow that trade at Barnsley, took a lease of one of the quarries in 1725. (fn. 172) One was being worked for stone tiles in 1757 (fn. 173) and slaters have been regularly recorded; two were living in the parish in 1717 (fn. 174) and the Poole family followed the trade at Barnsley between the 1830s and the First World War. (fn. 175) In addition to those at Quarry hill there was Hollington quarry in Upper field, which was recorded from 1635 (fn. 176) and leased to a Barnsley mason in 1777. (fn. 177)
No records are known to survive for the Barnsley manor court, which brought in a small sum to the lord of the manor in 1327 (fn. 178) and was still being held in the mid 18th century. (fn. 179) Frankpledge jurisdiction over Barnsley was said to be exercised by the court of the lord of Bibury in 1299 and 1750, (fn. 180) but there is no record in the surviving rolls of Barnsley's attendance at the Bibury court.
There were usually two churchwardens for Barnsley parish but between 1785 and 1844 there was only one. The churchwardens' accounts survive from 1609 (fn. 181) and the accounts of the two overseers from 1710 until 1781. (fn. 182) Two surveyors of the highways were elected in 1673. (fn. 183) The usual methods of poor-relief were applied; in 1759 one pauper was provided with a spinning-wheel. In the 1730s there were only c. 3 people receiving permanent relief and the numbers were still only c. 6 in the 1760s. (fn. 184) Annual expenditure on the poor was about £100 in the 1780s and it rose to £177 by 1803, when 21 people were on permanent relief. (fn. 185) There was no excessive increase in the burden in the following years, (fn. 186) perhaps partly because of the concern of the rector Charles Coxwell for matters of poor-relief. (fn. 187) During his incumbency Coxwell made two cottages belonging to the rectory available as poorhouses, taking no rent for them until after 1804. (fn. 188) In 1836 Barnsley was included in the Cirencester union (fn. 189) and later formed part of the Cirencester rural district. (fn. 190) In 1974 it was included in Cotswold district.
CHURCH. The church at Barnsley had been built by 1151. It originated as a chapel to Bibury (fn. 191) and, although it eventually won full parochial status, it remained within the jurisdication of Bibury peculiar. (fn. 192) It already had its own priest, endowed with some share of the profits of the chapel, by the mid 12th century but the claim by the lady of the manor, Margaret de Bohun, to present the priest was later disputed by Oseney Abbey, appropriators of Bibury church. By an agreement made before 1191 her right to present was upheld and in return she granted to Oseney 2 a. of her demesne land and a moiety of the tithes of 2 yardlands; Oseney's right to take all the tithes of sheaves from the tenants of Barnsley was also confirmed. The priest serving the church was styled a rector by 1191 but the church, which in some respects remained dependent on Bibury, (fn. 193) continued to be referred to as a chapel on occasion until the end of the 14th century. (fn. 194) In particular, burial rights were retained by the mother church and Oseney's right to take mortuaries was upheld in 1251. (fn. 195) A licence to perform burials at Barnsley was being sought in 1538 (fn. 196) and had been secured by 1574. (fn. 197) The living, which remained a rectory, was united with Bibury with Winson in 1932. (fn. 198)
The advowson was retained by the de Bohuns. After Humphrey de Bohun's death in 1373 (fn. 199) alternate turns were assigned to his daughters Mary, wife of Henry of Lancaster, later Henry IV, and Eleanor, wife of Thomas of Woodstock, earl of Buckingham, (fn. 200) later duke of Gloucester. Eleanor's right passed to her daughter Anne, wife of Edmund Stafford, earl of Stafford, (fn. 201) but the Staffords apparently gave up their right to the Crown before 1439. (fn. 202) By 1574 the advowson belonged to the lord of the manor Thomas Bourchier and it subsequently descended with the manor, although John Bourchier presented in 1676 and Robert Payne in 1696. (fn. 203) In 1975 the patrons of the united benefice with right to alternate presentations were the bishop and Mr. W. H. Wykeham-Musgrave. (fn. 204)
Before inclosure the rectory included c. 50 a. of arable in the open fields and beast-, sheep-, and horse-pastures in the fields and the wold. (fn. 205) The rector also held a small close of pasture subject to the obligation of providing a bull and boar for the parish. At the inclosure in 1762 the glebe was exchanged with the Perrots for other land, amounting to 36 a., (fn. 206) and by 1841 the glebe had been reduced to 16 a. (fn. 207) The portion of the tithes retained by Oseney Abbey in the 12th century was received by the abbey as a rent of 46s. 8d. in 1510, (fn. 208) but no later record of it has been found. Later the rector owned all the tithes of the parish and no land was tithe-free. In 1706 most of the tithes were still paid in kind but there was a modus for milk and lambs. (fn. 209) By 1767 the occupiers of land were making cash payments, totalling £120, for their tithes and in 1778 the rector secured a new valuation at £190. In 1789 he leased the tithes at the same sum to James Musgrave (fn. 210) who owned all the tithable land. In 1841 the tithes were commuted for a corn rent-charge of £320. (fn. 211) The living was worth £7 in 1291, (fn. 212) £10 in 1397, (fn. 213) and £13 15s. 4d. in 1535. (fn. 214) The value had risen to £90 by 1650, (fn. 215) £120 by 1750, (fn. 216) and £200 by 1789. (fn. 217) In 1856 it was valued at £288. (fn. 218)
The rectory house, mentioned in 1635, (fn. 219) is thought to have been at the Tithe House adjoining a lane called Parsonage Lane on the west side of the village street. (fn. 220) It was exchanged with the Perrots in 1762 for the Lower House, later Barnsley House, at the south end of the village. (fn. 221) Barnsley House remained the rectory until 1932, from which time the incumbent of the united benefice lived at Bibury. (fn. 222)
John Walden, rector of Barnsley, had leave of absence for study in 1305, (fn. 223) as did Thomas of Bisley in 1315 (fn. 224) and Peter Malet in 1343. (fn. 225) Malet was a native of France and his revenues from the church were claimed by the Crown. (fn. 226) Richard Morris, rector 1574–1600, (fn. 227) was described as a good Latinist and divine in 1576 (fn. 228) but as no preacher in 1593. (fn. 229) John Leigh, rector from 1635 until his death in 1654, (fn. 230) was described as a constant preacher. (fn. 231) His successor Thomas Careless subscribed in 1662 and held the rectory with Cirencester vicarage at his death in 1675. (fn. 232) William Walker, rector 1744–61, was also rector of Tackley (Oxon.); Christopher Golding, 1761–4, (fn. 233) was warden of Winchester College; (fn. 234) and Peter Senhouse, 1764–7, also held the living of Upper Heyford (Oxon.). Charles Coxwell, rector 1767–1829, (fn. 235) lived at his house in Ablington during his long incumbency (fn. 236) but played an active role in parish affairs. (fn. 237) He was also rector of Coberley 1778–82, perpetual curate of Marston Maisey (Wilts.) 1782–1817, vicar of Badgeworth with Shurdington 1789–1806, and vicar of Bibury 1806–9. His curate at Barnsley between 1814 and 1817 was William Augustus Musgrave, (fn. 238) later lord of the manor, and another member of the Musgrave family, Richard Adolphus, succeeded Coxwell as rector. (fn. 239)
The church of ST. MARY (fn. 240) comprises chancel with north vestry and south organ chamber, nave with north aisle and porch, and west tower. (fn. 241) The Norman church apparently comprised chancel and nave and from that church survive the corbel table, now partly concealed, the chancel arch responds, the north doorway, and the bases of a south doorway. (fn. 242) The head of the chancel arch was replaced in the 13th century, and in the 14th the chancel was given two new windows. In the course of the 15th and early 16th centuries the aisle, porch, and tower were added, the chancel roof was renewed, and the south side of the nave was apparently refenestrated. (fn. 243) The aisle was the property of the lords of the manor. (fn. 244) The top stage of the tower was added in the early 17th century. During the 18th century box pews and a west gallery were introduced, the nave and chancel were ceiled, and the east window and those of the aisle and nave were replaced by round-headed lights. (fn. 245) The interior was described as modernized and neat in 1803. (fn. 246)
A thorough restoration was begun in 1843 and supervised successively by J. M. Derrick and J. P. Harrison. The chancel was given a new east window and its other windows were restored, the nave and aisle were refenestrated, the nave was reroofed, the tower arch was rebuilt, a vestry was added on the north of the chancel, and the church was repewed and refitted. Two old windows from Daglingworth church, a Norman light in the chancel (later moved to the organ chamber) and a 13th-century window in the south wall of the nave, were introduced at the restoration. (fn. 247) In 1877 a south organ chamber, incorporating some reset Norman detail, was built at the cost of the rector D. G. Compton; the organ is an 18th-century instrument by Samuel Green, rebuilt and enlarged. (fn. 248)
The font was replaced c. 1840 by a Norman one, originally from Bradwell (Oxon.), but in 1845 that was returned to Bradwell and a close copy of it made for Barnsley. (fn. 249) An Elizabethan or Jacobean oak communion table was introduced at the restoration. (fn. 250) There are few monuments, but in the north aisle, moved from the chancel, (fn. 251) is a wall tablet to Elizabeth (d. 1691), the first wife of Brereton Bourchier. The plate in 1623 comprised a silver chalice and a pewter flagon; (fn. 252) the chalice was replaced in 1795, (fn. 253) and a new set of plate, by Keith, was given in 1854. (fn. 254) The church has three bells: (i) recast by Edward Neale of Burford in 1677; (ii) recast by Neale in 1660 and again recast in 1828; (iii) recast in 1865. (fn. 255) The registers survive from 1574. (fn. 256)
Only two nonconformists were recorded at Barnsley in 1676, (fn. 257) apparently Quakers attached to the Cirencester meeting. (fn. 258) A house in Barnsley was registered for use by Quakers in 1740. (fn. 259) In 1786 an unidentified dissenting group was using James Shurmur's house. (fn. 260) There is no later record of any meeting, (fn. 261) although an itinerant preacher visited the village more than once in the 1820s. (fn. 262)
From the beginning of his incumbency in 1767 the rector Charles Coxwell paid women to teach poor children to read. (fn. 263) The two schools with a total of 38 children recorded in the parish in 1818 (fn. 264) may have both been supported by him, for in the early 1820s he was employing two teachers, although they were then teaching a total of only c. 15 children. (fn. 265) In 1824 Coxwell also started a Sunday school. (fn. 266) The schools were continued by his successors. In 1833 there were two day-schools with a total of 27 children, supported by the rector, a small subscription, and payments from a few of the parents; the Sunday school then had an attendance of 44. (fn. 267) Sir James Musgrave is said to have built a schoolroom c. 1842 (fn. 268) but, if so, it was still not secured to that purpose in 1847, and at the latter date the two day-schools were described as dame schools and were presumably still taught by local, untrained teachers. (fn. 269) In 1867 there was a mixed parish school, still supported largely by the rector, G. E. Howman, who also lent his support to a dame school which served the role of infant school to the main one; c. 40 children attended the schools. A night-school was also held in an attempt to continue the education of the young, many of whom gave up full-time schooling at the age of 7 or 8. (fn. 270)
In 1873 a new building for the parish school was provided, apparently at the cost of Sir W. A. Musgrave, and in 1874, known as the Barnsley C. of E. School, it had an average attendance of 35 and was supported by a small government grant, pence, and voluntary contributions. (fn. 271) In 1904 the average attendance was 59, (fn. 272) and attendance fell steadily in the following years to 14 in 1936. (fn. 273) In 1964, when the number on the roll was 12, the school was closed and the children transferred to Ampney Crucis. (fn. 274)
Charities for the Poor
Twenty pounds given for the relief of the poor of the parish was out at interest in 1706 (fn. 275) but is not recorded later. William Wise (d. 1774) left £125 for the poor of Barnsley who did not receive parish relief. The sum was used in 1779 to buy stock which produced an annual income of £6 in the 1820s. Sir James Musgrave (d. 1814) gave as much stock as would produce an annual income of £10 for the poor. (fn. 276) In the 1870s part of the income of the two charities was distributed in clothes or coal. (fn. 277) In 1975 the two charities each produced £6–7 a year and were distributed in firewood. (fn. 278)